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Ricardo UK Ltd
Delivering Value Through Innovation & Technology www.ricardo.com
Large Engine Update
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Ricardo Information Services – Large Engine Update – April to June 2013
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RICARDO INFORMATION SERVICES
LARGE ENGINE UPDATE
APRIL-JUNE 2013
An update
dedicated to
Marine, Rail and Stationary
Large Engines
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CONTENTS
NEW ENGINES ______________________________________________________________ 4
COMPONENTS ______________________________________________________________ 8
BEARINGS ______________________________________________________________________ 8
TURBOCHARGERS ______________________________________________________________ 9
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS_________________________________________________________ 14
CYLINDER SYSTEMS ____________________________________________________________ 15
Cylinder liners ____________________________________________________________ 15
ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ________________________________________________ 16
EXHAUST SYSTEMS ____________________________________________________________ 17
AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEMS ____________________________________________________ 18
EGR _____________________________________________________________________ 18
Particulate filters __________________________________________________________ 18
SCR _____________________________________________________________________ 19
Scrubbers ________________________________________________________________ 21
EXHAUST EMISSIONS REDUCTION ________________________________________________ 23
Marine applications ________________________________________________________ 23
Rail applications ___________________________________________________________ 27
Exhaust emissions reduction by in-engine methods _____________________________ 28
Exhaust emissions reduction by combined in-engine and aftertreatment methods ___ 28
FUEL SYSTEMS ________________________________________________________________ 29
Diesel ____________________________________________________________________ 29
THERMAL SYSTEMS ____________________________________________________________ 32
Waste heat recovery _______________________________________________________ 32
APPLICATIONS _________________________________________________________________ 33
Locomotive _______________________________________________________________ 33
Marine ___________________________________________________________________ 33
DESIGN _______________________________________________________________________ 41
Materials _________________________________________________________________ 41
DEVELOPMENT ________________________________________________________________ 42
CAE issues _______________________________________________________________ 42
DIAGNOSTICS AND CONDITION MONITORING ______________________________________ 44
NVH __________________________________________________________________________ 45
SERVICE, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE ____________________________________________ 46
GAS ENGINES ______________________________________________________________ 47
STATIONARY, OFF-HIGHWAY, MARINE, LOCOMOTIVE AND TOTAL ENERGY SYSTEMS ___ 47
Engines and Systems ______________________________________________________ 47
ENGINE AND FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS ________________________________________ 52
RESEARCH AND COMPUTER SIMULATION _________________________________________ 53
Fuel/air mixing and combustion ______________________________________________ 53
CONTROL AND ELECTRONICS ________________________________________________ 57
CONTROL APPLICATIONS AND OBJECTS __________________________________________ 57
Large engines _____________________________________________________________ 57
Marine engines ____________________________________________________________ 57
Engine functions and behavior_______________________________________________ 58
Air fuel ratios ________________________________________________________ 58
Combustion _________________________________________________________ 58
Fuel injection ________________________________________________________ 59
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - APPLICATIONS _______________________________________ 60
Power generation __________________________________________________________ 60
ENGINE ELECTRICS ____________________________________________________________ 61
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Ignition systems ___________________________________________________________ 61
FUELS AND LUBRICANTS ____________________________________________________ 62
FUELS BY APPLICATION _________________________________________________________ 62
Marine engine applications __________________________________________________ 62
FUEL PROPERTIES _____________________________________________________________ 64
Sulphur content ___________________________________________________________ 64
FUEL BEHAVIOUR IN ENGINES ___________________________________________________ 65
Knock ___________________________________________________________________ 65
EFFECTS OF FUEL TYPES ON ENGINES ___________________________________________ 66
Combustion ______________________________________________________________ 66
Engine components ________________________________________________________ 67
Exhaust emissions _________________________________________________________ 68
FEATURES OF LUBRICANTS _____________________________________________________ 69
Base oils _________________________________________________________________ 69
TRIBOLOGY OF ENGINE COMPONENTS ___________________________________________ 70
Cylinder components ______________________________________________________ 70
Pistons and piston rings ____________________________________________________ 70
APPLICATIONS OF LUBRICANTS TO SPECIFIC ENGINE TYPES ________________________ 71
Gas engines ______________________________________________________________ 71
Marine engines ____________________________________________________________ 72
ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAINS ________________________________________________ 76
HYBRID ELECTRIC POWERTRAINS ________________________________________________ 76
Marine applications ________________________________________________________ 76
UNCONVENTIONAL INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES _______________ 79
Opposed piston engines ____________________________________________________ 79
ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAINS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS _________________________ 80
Marine ___________________________________________________________________ 80
FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 REDUCTION ________________________________________ 82
APPLICATIONS _________________________________________________________________ 82
Marine ___________________________________________________________________ 82
Rail ______________________________________________________________________ 84
COMMON ISSUES ______________________________________________________________ 85
Thermal management ______________________________________________________ 85
Waste heat and energy recovery _____________________________________________ 85
CONFERENCE LIST _________________________________________________________ 87
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NEW ENGINES
Contained in this issue:
MAN Diesel 320mm Bore Engine
Niigata 165mm Diesel Engine
Waukesha Modified 275GL Gas Engine
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Manufacturer: MAN DIESEL
320mm Bore Engine MAN Diesel have introduced a new version of their 320mm bore
engine - the 32/44K. Designed for genset applications, the new
engine has a conventional fuel injection system, as opposed to the
previous version which used common rail.
The turbocharger matching and valve timing at part load is optimised
for low fuel consumption. The engine and generator are mounted on a
common base frame and can be installed in the same space envelope
as the 32/40 unit.
The engine features variable valve timing and variable injection timing,
which are driven by two separate camshafts. The firing pressure has
been increased to 230 bar, and resulting components such as the
crank drive and pistons have been strengthened to cope with the
increased pressure.
A completely new TCR turbocharger is used, which operates at a
pressure of 4.8 bar, and allows the engine to operate using Miller
timing.
Compared with the 32/40 engine, around 70% of the components are
carried over
Configuration: In-line 6-10, DI diesel, turbo-intercooled
Specification - 32/44K A.2
Valves: 4 valves/cylinder
Bore x Stroke: 320mm x 440mm
Displacement: 35-litre/cylinder
Power: 3180-5300kW @ 720/750rev/min
Weight: 71-97t
References
[1] Doc.143942. Diesel Facts, 2013, No.1, pp10-11.
[2] Electronic Document 6440. L32/44K Brochure, November 2012, 2pp.
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Manufacturer: NIIGATA
165mm Diesel Engine The 17AHX diesel engine has been introduced by Niigata, for marine,
genset and general industrial applications. Available in 5-9 cylinder
configurations, the engine has a power output of up to 125kW/cylinder,
and fills in the power ratings below the 28AHX engine (see January
2010 issue).
The cylinder head, rocker arm unit, cylinder liner, piston, and
connecting rod are integrated into a single unit, in order to make
assembly and servicing easier. The connecting rod itself is a threepiece design, allowing piston removal without having to dismantle the
crankpin bearing.
The crankshaft is made from forged steel and the camshaft is made in
segments, allowing installation and removal as a series of individual
modules. Auxiliary systems such as the lubricating oil and cooling
water systems are integrated into a combined unit at the front of the
engine. Both constant pressure, and pulse exhaust systems are
available, depending on the application – gensets will use constant
pressure, and marine applications pulse turbochargers.
The engine meets the IMO Tier II NOx emissions limits.
Configuration: In-line 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, DI diesel,
Specification - 17AHX
turbo-intercooled
Valves: 4 valves/cylinder
Displacement: 5.7-litre/cylinder
Bore x Stroke: 165mm x 265mm
Power: 500kW-1125kW @900-1200rev/min
References
[1] vCD 133. Development of Niigata medium speed diesel engine 17AHX, J Sato
et al, 2013 CIMAC Congress, Shanghai.
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Manufacturer: WAUKESHA
Modified 275GL Gas Engine The 275GL gas engine was introduced in 2009 (see July 2009 issue).
A revised version has been developed with lower NOx emissions, but
also with an 8% increase in power. Both 12- and 16-cylinder versions
are available, with the new designation of 275GL+.
Main changes to the engine were as follows The design of the pre-chamber was amended to a smaller volume,
together with changes to the connections to the spark plug, which is
now mounted lower with this type of pre-chamber.
NOx emissions are further controlled with the provision of a NOx
sensor, in place of a conventional oxygen sensor. This is used by the
engine control system to monitor and control emissions.
As a result of these changes, it is possible to bring the NOx level
below the 0.5g/bhp-hr level.
Configuration: V12, V16, gas, turbo-intercooled
Specification - 275GL+
Valves: 4 valves/cylinder, OHV
Displacement: 17.8-litre/cylinder
Bore x Stroke: 275mm x 300mm
Power: 3625kW @ 1000rev/min (V12)
Power: 4835kW @ 1000 (V16)
Compression Ratio: 9.1:1
Weight: 22689kg (V12)
Weight: 29835kg (V16)
References
[1] vCD 125. Development of GE’s Waukesha 275GL+ engine series - G W Sorge8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, March 2013.
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COMPONENTS
BEARINGS
NOVEL TRENDS IN JOURNAL SLIDE BEARING TECHNOLOGY - ACTIVE USE OF TRIBOCHEMICAL
EFFECTS
Miba Bearing Group, Infineum and Montanuniversitaet Leoben
Future trends in engine design go towards higher firing pressures, which further increase the tribomechanical loading of journal bearing systems to an extent that requires fundamentally new approaches. One
of the most important goals in latest research activities is the active use of tribochemical effects of lubricants
in journal bearing systems. Positive chemical effects of extreme pressure and anti-wear additives, such as
ZDDP, have been already well researched in the field of gear and valve train systems over the last decades.
For the first time, it was shown that tribofilms can also form in journal bearing systems, which influence the
tribological behaviour significantly. In case of Al-based bearing material, which is rather inert to tribochemical
reactions, tribofilms forming on the mating steel counterpart increase the load bearing capacity and also the
wear resistance. This fact is due to the lubricity the softer tribofilms impose on the harder steel counterpart.
The response of Al-based materials towards film formation is effectively improved by adding selected
intermetallic hard phases. The research activities further elucidate a synergistic effect between the design of
the bearing materials and the employed lubricant formulation. The results obtained so far clearly highlight the
need for a combined interdisciplinary development of all components of journal bearing systems. These are
the materials of bearing and shaft as well as the employed lubricants.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_078.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 78, 8pp.)
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TURBOCHARGERS
TECHNIQUES TO CUT EMISSIONS AND SAVE FUEL
Traditionally, the performance of an internal combustion engine has been increased by adding turbocharging
which compresses the air so that more oxygen flows into the combustion chamber. In this way, more fuel is
burned and the power output of the engine increases accordingly. Today, however, turbocharging is being
adapted to cope with the need to both cut fuel consumption and emissions, and two techniques are proving
highly valuable in this.
The turbocharger cut-out system is designed to lower the fuel oil consumption and improve the main engine
performance during part-load operation. According to MAN Diesel & Turbo, turbocharger cut-out can be
achieved in two different ways, either by installing swing gate valves on its turbocharger (TC) air outlet and
TC exhaust gas inlet or by installing blinding plates on the TC air outlet, TC exhaust gas inlet and outlet.
Wartsila and ABB Turbocharging have operated a joint development programme for the application of two
stage turbocharging on large diesel engines, while gas engine specialist GE has produced the world's first
gas engine featuring a two-stage turbocharging system jointly developed with ABB since 2008.
Covers - flexibility in slow steaming, two-stage turbocharging, miller cycle, MAN two-stage turbocharging
systems, TXC series of turbochargers from MAN Diesel & Turbo, ABB Turbocharging A200-L single-stage
turbochargers.
See Doc.144046 (MER, Mar 2013, pp28-31.)
TWO-STAGE TURBOCHARGING LARGE ENGINES
ABB Turbo Systems
Content:
Drivers for 2-stage turbocharging systems
Thermodynamics of the turbocharged engine
Impact on products and applications
Downsizing large gas engines
Conclusions.
Covers - requirements of large engine development, layout of 2-stage systems, main interface of
turbocharging systems, high overall pressure ratio, turbocharging efficiency gain by intercooling, map width
using 2-stage systems, ability to apply strong Miller cycle, ideal cycle thermal efficiency comparison, strong
downsizing trend for gas engines.
See Book 10593 OC:A4B: pp65-76 (Engine Downsizing 2: How Low Can We Go? Seminar, IMechE, Apr
2013.)
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TURBOCHARGERS FOR HIGH HORSEPOWER DIESEL-ELECTRIC
LOCOMOTIVES
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Railways have a fleet of high-horsepower diesel-electric locomotives rated at 2310 kW. These high
horsepower diesel-electric locomotives have evolved from original design of 1940 kW locomotives. Adoption
of new design turbochargers was essential for this upgrading efforts and a series of new design
turbochargers were evaluated on the engine test-bed before their use on the diesel locomotives. The
objective was to increase engine power output, improve fuel efficiency and limit thermal loading. Test-bed
evaluation of different turbochargers was carried out for comparing five different turbochargers. Each
turbocharger had different size nozzle ring, diffuser, turbine blade assembly, impeller and inducer. The
compressor maps of turbochargers were used to plot the engine load lines and to calculate surge margins.
The tests involved measuring critical parameters for various combinations of engine speed and load for every
turbocharger. Some of these measured parameters were air inlet temperature to the compressor, peak firing
pressures, inlet temperature to the turbine, cylinder head temperature, brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC), engine boost and air manifold temperature. This paper discusses the methods adopted for carrying
out these evaluations and the results obtained thereof along with the decision criteria for making final
selection of turbocharger for locomotives.
See SAE 2013-01-0930 (2013, 11pp.)
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DEVELOPING TURBOCHARGERS FOR IMO TIER II AND IMO TIER III
Kompressorenbau Bannewitz
IMO Tier II and IMO Tier III regulations are currently the main drivers in the development of medium and
large sized diesel engines in marine applications, while in the area of gas engines market demand calls for
improved efficiency, combustion stability and increased power density. Both of these factors dictate parallel
development of turbocharging system providing a higher boost pressure and optimised efficiencies.
Covers - two-stage turbocharging, turbochargers for low NOx, performance, rotor-dynamics and shaft motion
measurement, containment, two-stage turbocharging for IMO Tier III.
See Doc.144296 (MTZ Worldwide, Industrial Supplement, 2013, No. 1, pp40-47.)
TURBOCHARGERS FOR IMO TIER II AND III
Stricter exhaust emission requirements (IMO Tier II/llI) and related NOx emission reductions can be met in
the majority of applications by internal engine measures. Among other solutions, engines need a higher
charge pressure, which has to be generated by a higher pressure ratio of the turbocharging system. Higher
efficiencies, enhanced performance, high reliability, ease of maintenance and good response behaviour are
the main demands on turbocharging systems.
With its seventh generation of turbochargers, KBB (Kompressoren-bau Bannewitz GmbH) provides singlestage and high-pressure turbocharging systems. The turbochargers of the ST27 series are suitable for
engines with an output range from 300 to 4800 kW and have been developed for operation with pressure
ratios of up to 5.5:1 to satisfy the demands on IMO II engines.
Among the different approaches to ensure compliance with IMO Tier III exhaust gas regulations, highpressure turbocharging with overall pressure ratios of 6 to 10 is the biggest challenge for turbocharger
development. These pressure ratios can only be achieved with two compressor stages. Apart from two
turbochargers, this type of turbocharger system also contains an intermediate cooler and advisably a bypass
control for the high-pressure and low-pressure turbine. Should high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HP
EGR) be added, the system becomes very complex and the match between the turbocharging system and
engine clearly more sophisticated than in the past. KBB is rising to this challenge and has invested more in
1D simulation.
See Doc.144368 (Schiff & Hafen, 2013/14, pp70-71.)
ENERGY EFFICIENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS FOR LARGE ENGINES
Bosch Rexroth
In this presentation, we will show in about 30 minutes the latest product developments for Energy efficient
Hydraulic Systems on Large Diesel Engines from Rexroth. The first System will be a Turbocharger Hydraulic
System, which can save up to 3-4% of Fuel. This is a hydraulic System that can be added to a standard
turbocharger and give an additional force on the crankshaft by a large hydraulic motor. The second System
will be the Sytronix pump solutions with variable speed pumps for Energy efficient hydraulic pumps which can
save up to 70% of hydraulic Energy. And the last system that we will present is the latest design of Digital
Hydraulics. This Digital Hydraulics can replace proportional functions of hydraulic systems by small digital
valves.
Covers – Turbo Hydraulic System (THS).
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_004.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 4, 6pp.)
SOLUTIONS FOR BETTER ENGINE PERFORMANCE AT LOW LOAD BY MITSUBISHI
TURBOCHARGERS
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Due to recent increases in fuel prices, many ship owners are seeking reductions in operating costs, with
particular emphasis on lowering fuel consumption. Furthermore, for the sake of environmental preservation,
international societies have been moving to tighten regulations on marine emissions of greenhouse gases
and NOx, with Tier II NOx regulations for ships having been implemented in 2011 and Tier III regulations
coming into force in 2016. Also, a CO2 emissions index (energy efficiency design index, or EEDI) will be
applied to vessels built from 2013 onward, and CO2 emissions regulations based on this index will be
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become mandatory. Given that turbochargers used for diesel engines have a substantial influence on the
combustion of fuel, they can play a major role in addressing the above-mentioned issues. Of particular note in
this context is the fact that low load operation has come to be utilized in recent years in order to reduce fuel
consumption by ships. The author of the present report, being associated with a turbocharger manufacturer,
is of the opinion that the application of several new turbocharger technologies will be contributed to improved
performance by ships under low load operating conditions, in the form of turbochargers specifically intended
for these requirements. This paper introduces technological efforts aimed at improved turbocharger
performance under low load conditions, incorporated into the newest MET-MB series of high efficiency
turbochargers by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). Also presented, MHI has developed a new type of
variable nozzle structure. The proprietary MHI approach, known as the Variable Turbine Inlet (VTI), has been
introduced not only for newly manufactured turbochargers, but also as a retrofit option for turbochargers in
current service. MET-VTI turbocharger is aimed at reduced fuel consumption at low load for marine diesel
engines. In order to actively increase the amount of air in the low load operation, this MET-VTI was increased
turbine output by means of reducing the geometry turbine area, thus enabling higher turbocharger rpm. In
addition, in the wake of the world’s first practical application in 2011 of a turbocharger equipped with a high
speed generator (hybrid turbocharger), discussion is presented on the current state of efforts related to new
hybrid turbochargers equipped with motor on the rotor shaft, enabling motoring assist aimed at meeting low
load operation requirements.
Covers – Electric power assisted turbochargers.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_015.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 15, 7pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-PRESSURE RATIO AND HIGH-EFFICIENCY TYPE TURBOCHARGER
IHI
In recent years, various approaches to environmental problems are carried out. As for marine diesel engine,
IMO (International Maritime Organization) has phased in emission regulations mainly against NOx reduction
in exhaust gas. To comply with this emission regulation, all marine diesel engine manufacturers are
advancing the development of next-generation marine engines. Some typical technologies effective for
reducing NOx in exhaust gas are miller cycle engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), SCR (Selective
Catalytic Reduction), gas fuel engine, and application of water emulsion fuel, etc. Among these technologies,
miller cycle engine has already been put to practical use in many marine diesel engine manufacturers,
because of the great advantage in development cost due to smaller change necessary in structural design
compared to the conventional. Additionally, Miller cycle engine is known to be effective in combination with
other NOx reducing technologies and is expected to be applied continuously. Higher supercharging is
necessary to realize miller cycle engine. Therefore, higher pressure ratio is coming to be required for marine
turbochargers ever more in recent years. In addition, there are constant requirements for marine
turbochargers such as higher efficiency, wider operation range and higher performance at low speed. To
meet these demands, IHI has developed a radial type high-pressure ratio turbocharger, named High pressure
ratio AT14 (New AT14). The New AT14 has achieved higher pressure ratio compared to the conventional by
improving some design methods such as the increase of circumferential speed of compressor wheel and
optimization of compressor blades and recirculation devices aerodynamic geometry by using CFD and so on.
These technical efforts lead to the improvement of pressure ratio from 3.8 up to 5.0 at the engine operation
point. New AT14 turbocharger has already been adopted as a standard model by some engine builders, and
is expected to show its high performance in the global market. In this paper the development of AT23
turbocharger will be shown with some of the obtained test results. AT23 turbocharger is the turbocharger IHI
has developed lately for smaller marine diesel engines than engines which applies AT14 turbochargers.
Aerodynamic parts such as compressor and turbine were redesigned and shafting was also redesigned to
reduce mechanical loss. AT23 turbocharger has achieved higher pressure ratio and efficiency compared to
IHI’s conventional turbochargers. On the other hand, turbochargers are required not only high pressure ratio
and efficiency but also safety, durability, longer mechanical life and easier maintenance. AT23 turbocharger
has improved some of the structures, to respond to these requirements.
Gives cross section.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_069.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 69, 11pp.)
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STUDY ON THE VARIABLE GEOMETRY EXHAUST MANIFOLD TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM AND
OTHER TURBOCHARGING SYSTEMS OF 8170 MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
Shanghai Jiaotong University and SAIC Motor
In order to achieve the optimum performance of the high load operation and the low load operation of an 8cylinder marine diesel engine, this paper studied a newly designed variable geometry exhaust manifold
(VGEM) turbocharging system by simulation and experiment. The VGEM turbocharging system can switch
the charging system between two charging modes by a controllable valve according to the engine load. The
one-dimensional simulations of VGEM turbocharging system was developed for a marine eight-cylinder
diesel engine using GT-POWER. The effects of the charging mode on engine performance were analyzed
and the switch point was found according to the BSFC. The result showed that the switching point should be
set at 70% load which could make the engine get optimum performance both at high and low load operation.
The comparison of four-pulse, PC, MPC, and MIXPC turbocharging systems was studied respectively for this
diesel engine. The simulation results indicated that the BSFC of the VGEM turbocharging system is always
less than that of the four pulse, MPC, MIXPC turbocharging systems at all four loads of 25% 50% 75% 100%.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_077.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 77, 10pp.)
VTG TURBOCHARGING - A VALUABLE CONCEPT FOR TRACTION APPLICATION
ABB Turbo Systems
This paper describes how ABB turbocharging products and related concepts support railway engine builders
and operators in ongoing and future engine development as well as in upgrading existing platforms. After a
brief review of ABB dedicated rail turbocharger platform, TPR, the focus will be on newly developed VTG
technology and its related control unit. Tangible results to improve fuel efficiency and to enhance operating
flexibility will be evaluated with alternative solutions. The paper presents a proposal to cope with stricter
emission legislation with minimum fuel efficiency compromises. A concept is described by which the VTG
turbocharging module is deployed to realize external cooled exhaust gas recirculation in combination with a
high speed electrical blower. ABB VTG turbocharging module, when applied on the TPR platform, enables
significant fuel economy on existing and upcoming engine platforms, while increasing the operating range of
traction applications. It is a base for promising concepts targeting stringent emission legislation with positive
effects on traction economics. The paper presents a proposal to cope with stricter emission legislation with
minimum fuel efficiency compromises. A concept is described by which the VTG turbocharging module is
deployed to realize external cooled exhaust gas recirculation in combination with a high speed electrical
blower. ABB VTG turbocharging module, when applied on the TPR platform, enables significant fuel
economy on existing and upcoming engine platforms, while increasing the operating range of traction
applications. It is a base for promising concepts targeting stringent emission legislation with positive effects
on traction economics.
Coves - TPR61.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_116.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 116, 12pp.)
SECOND GENERATION OF TWO-STAGE TURBOCHARGING POWER2 SYSTEMS FOR MEDIUM
SPEED GAS AND DIESEL ENGINES
ABB Turbocharging
The most important technology drivers in the development of modern four-stroke medium-speed engines are
high total engine efficiencies, low operating costs and high power density while complying with ever more
stringent emission legislation. In addition, optimization of initial costs has been considered during
development to allow for short payback time and thus for a competitive advantage in the area of power
generation where reciprocating engines compete with gas turbines. Improvement in all areas mentioned
above can be achieved with the application of the latest turbocharging technologies. ABB Turbocharging is
currently developing the second generation two-stage turbocharging system for medium-speed gas and
diesel engines. The work comprises a complete portfolio with four sizes covering the entire power range of
large medium-speed engines. All components of this new system will be fully optimized for combined use in
the two-stage system. Completely new designs are being developed for the thermodynamic components. The
focus is on high efficiencies for fuel savings, system compactness and flexible operation. Axial turbines will
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be applied for both low and high pressure stage. The turbine stage designs take into account the diverging
needs between high and low pressure sides. These result from different temperature levels and flow area
requirements. And, as contamination build-up is not comparable, this results in different turbine cleaning
concepts. Compressor stage designs are specifically optimized for two-stage requirements. Consequently
dedicated designs, highly efficient and compact turbochargers are being realized. Low and high pressure
turbochargers will be based on the new concept of an extended cartridge which will facilitate service down
times even shorter than those on existing single stage applications. The second generation system is the
result of a step change development process motivated by field experience gathered from first generation
serial systems. Studies presented at the CIMAC conference in 2007 revealed that two-stage turbocharging
systems would soon become a commercially attractive alternative to state-of-the-art single stage
turbochargers. Three years later, the first two-stage turbocharger designs for medium and high-speed gas
and diesel engines were presented. The first serial engine applications were introduced to the market with
claimed benefits proven. With the development of the second generation Power2 turbocharging system, ABB
Turbocharging provides an optimized technology enabling full exploitation of the advantages of two-stage
turbocharging for large medium-speed engines.
Gives cutaway view of A100-M single stage turbocharger; cross sectional cutaways of Power2 800-M low
pressure turbocharger and Power2 800-M high-pressure turbocharger.
Covers – fuel consumption and NOx emissions.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_134.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 134, 12pp.)
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COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
THE COMBUSTION SYSTEM OF THE MAN 20V35/44G GAS ENGINE
MAN Diesel & Turbo
The new gas engine 20V35/44G by MAN Diesel & Turbo SE has a power output of 10.6 MW. The high
effective efficiency level of 48.4% as well as numerous technical innovations allow an environment-friendly,
economical and reliable engine operation. Key to achieve this is the combustion system, which has been
optimised during advanced engineering by means of modern simulation tools and extensive single-cylinder
tests.
Covers - thermodynamic design, gas-scavenged pre-chamber combustion system, gas admission,
compression ratio, top land height, genset application.
See Doc.144108 (MTZ Worldwide, Apr 2013, pp24-30.)
ABNORMAL COMBUSTION CAUSED BY LUBRICATING OIL IN HIGH BMEP GAS ENGINES
Kyushu University
In recent years, abnormal combustion with high peak firing pressure has been experienced on gas engines
with high brake mean effective pressures. The abnormality is detected not as pre-ignition but as knocking.
Research, including visualisation tests on a single-cylinder engine, has confirmed the phenomenon to be preignition caused by the auto-ignition of in-cylinder lubricant, causing cyclical variations of peak firing pressure
on premix combustion gas engines.
See Doc.144297 (MTZ Worldwide, Industrial Supplement, 2013, No. 1, pp34-39.)
THE POTENTIAL OF EXTREMELY HIGH CYLINDER PRESSURES IN DIESEL ENGINES, PART 2
Technische Universitat Munchen
The "Zylinderspitzendrucke" Peak Cylinder Pressures research project, initiated by the German research
body Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen eV (FVV), was conducted by the Marine
Engineering Section of Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) and the Munich University of Technology
(TUM) to investigate the impact of extreme cylinder pressures on the combustion process and thermal and
mechanical stresses on a medium-speed diesel engine. The first part of the findings described the
thermodynamic aspects by the TUHH. This second part covers aspects of engine mechanics, thermal
loading and finite element analysis (FEA) carried out by the TUM.
Covers - project objectives mechanics work package, design and layout of combustion chamber cooling,
engine parts with strain and temperature sensors, temperature results from engine testing, strain gauge
measurement results, coupled thermo-mechanical FEA simulation matched to the engine test results,
effective life and safety factors of the engine parts.
See Doc.144294 (MTZ Worldwide, Industrial Supplement, 2013, No. 1, pp54-60.)
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CYLINDER SYSTEMS
Cylinder liners
LARGE ENGINE CYLINDER HONING AS A CONTRIBUTION TO EMISSIONS REDUCTION
Nagel Maschinen- und Wekseugfabrik
As well as new combustion processes and aftertreatment, increasingly rigorous environmental protection
regulations are also promoting advances in engine manufacturing techniques. These measures include
optimised surfaces made possible using the most modern honing technologies, such as those already in
widespread use in the manufacture of automotive engines. The transfer of these honing technologies to large
high and medium-speed engines is best achieved using new machining concepts.
Covers - form honing and helical slide honing, advanced honing benefits on large engines, VLM18 machine
for large cylinder liners, low cylinder wear, piston sealing.
See Doc.144295 (MTZ Worldwide, Industrial Supplement, 2013, No. 1, pp48-53.)
CHALLENGES FOR CYLINDER LINER DEVELOPMENT
MAN Diesel Turbo, Toa Koki Co and Mitsui
The two stroke crosshead low speed diesel engine has been a preferred prime mover in the merchant marine
for mostly a century. Although its basic working principle has not been changed, the demand for still higher
power, produced at the lowest possible fuel consumption, from a machine occupying a minimum of space,
has constantly increased the demands to its cylinder liner. This relates to both the thermal and mechanical
loading, and the tribological behaviour under ever changing conditions. This paper gives a view on the
development in loading on the cylinder liner as one of the main engine components as it has developed over
time. Special attention is given to the recent development as a result of the high focus on specific fuel oil
consumption, and the thereby introduced changes in the combustion conditions. New application of advanced
analysis method for acid attack on the running surface of the cylinder liner is demonstrating how the new
operating conditions will affect the behaviour of the cylinder conditions, and in consequence the cylinder liner.
Countermeasures in way of design and operational measures will be presented and service examples will
illustrate the validity of the conclusions and countermeasures. As for the increased mechanical loading of the
cylinder liners, two main new designs will be demonstrated: 1) One new design relates to the mechanical
design of the cylinder liner, and how this design is able to withstand the increased pressure from the diesel
process. The cylinder liner consists of a so called ’strong back’ consisting of a steel bandage shrink fitted to
the upper part of the cylinder liner. The increased strength of the steel in comparison with the cast iron
material thus results in a higher load capability. Service experience of several years of operation is presented
for reliability confirmation. 2) The other design feature allowing the increased pressure is based on
development of a new material application: the so called CGI or Compacted Graphite Iron. This application
has been developed in tight co operation with the Japanese cylinder liner manufacturer Toa Koki. The paper
describes the production technique applied to achieve a high a stable yield. The merit in terms of mechanical
properties of the CGI is shown. Tribological test data will be presented, and finally service experience will be
shown for a number of different engines. In summary it will be illustrated how modern diesel engine process
and application affects the cylinder liner, and how these effects are overcome.
Covers – strength considerations, casting simulation.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_033.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 33, 12pp.)
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ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
SOFTWARE, A STRATEGIC DESIGN ELEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GAS ENGINES
Hoerbiger Control Systems
Engine management systems are becoming strategically important for the behaviour of the engine as
emission regulations, performance demands and efficiency requirements are continuously becoming more
demanding.
The production volumes of individual large stationary gas engines are relatively low compared to other engine
applications like for example automotive engines. This leads to issues for the manufacturer as well as the
operator of gas engines. How to provide an engine management system for an engine that fulfils the required
functionality and at the same time protects the knowhow of the engine manufacturer or the operator?
Some engine manufactures, let us call them Type-1, invests heavily in building up their own internal expertise
in construction, design, testing and manufacturing of engine management systems. This is an effort that can
easily require a crew of 25 to 50 dedicated full time engineers. Other engine manufacturers, let us call them
Type-3, takes the other extreme, they specify their top level goals in terms of emissions and efficiency and let
a supplier of standardised engine management system fulfil the requirements.
Both strategies have disadvantages. The Type-1 organisations invest in technologies that are not strategically
important in order to retain control of their strategic knowledge. The Type-3 organisations run the risk of
losing control of the strategically important parts of their product.
Hoerbiger has identified this deficiency and designed the DriveCOM Engine Management System concept to
address this issue and enable a potential Type-2 customer to control his own destiny.
The DriveCOM system is based on three pillars, modularity, reliability and flexibility.
- The modularity pillar means that a DriveCOM system is tailored to the specific number of I/O required for a
specific engine by selecting from a library of hardware modules. This is similar to the concept of a PLCsystem
- The reliability pillar means that a DriveCOM system is designed to withstand the harsh requirements for onengine mounted electronic systems. This is similar to the requirements of automotive systems
- The flexibility pillar means that the software structure is based on an open foundation. The required
functionality can be selected from a library of pre-validated software modules. For the strategically important
functions it is also possible to design your own control algorithms using the Matlab language for technical
computing and Simulink, for simulation and Model-Based Design.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp318-329 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
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EXHAUST SYSTEMS
EXHAUST SYSTEM INTEGRATION CONTINUES
The US Environmental Protection Agency's RICE NESHAP initiative has accelerated the integration of the
emissions system and the silencer for on-site power applications. As emissions standards continue to tighten,
it is likely that we will see continued exhaust system integration. A "single cube" exhaust system makes it
easier for engine manufacturers, dealers and packagers to meet the regulatory requirements for any air shed
in North America and beyond.
To be effective, the single cube approach needs to accommodate any required combination of emissions
control and silencing while ensuring that engine backpressure specifications are met. The single cube
approach allows the system designer to meet the liabilities associated with engine exhaust requirements by
dealing with a single supplier. For diesel engines, in addition to the silencer, all or some of the following
emissions devices may be required: a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) to reduce unburned hydrocarbons and
carbon monoxide (CO), a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to reduce particulate matter (PM), and a selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx).
For natural gas engines used in on-site power, the situation may differ somewhat. Many natural gas engines
operate in prime power mode and are often used as part of a combined heat and power (CHP) system. Many
of these engines require a combination of oxidation catalyst (similar to a DOC) to reduce CO and an SCR to
reduce NOx. CHP applications typically also have heat recovery devices in the exhaust. These devices
reduce the available backpressure, leaving less available backpressure for the emissions and silencing
system.
See Doc.144187 (Diesel & Gas Turbine Worldwide, Apr 2013, pp36-39.)
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AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEMS
AFTERTREATMENT IN A PRE-TURBOCHARGER POSITION: SIZE AND FUEL CONSUMPTION
ADVANTAGE FOR TIER 4
Emitec and FEV
As the 2014 implementation of EPA Tier 4 fast approaches in the USA, manufacturers of large bore diesel
engines face a dilemma. The stringent limits set by Tier 4 legislation require large, heavy and expensive
emissions control systems but severe constraints on installation space, weight and cost exist for these
systems. A viable solution is to place catalysts and filters upstream of the turbocharger.
Covers - addressing EPA Tier 4 legislation on large bore engines, components of the aftertreatment system,
diesel oxidation catalyst, particulate matter, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), simulation results, Emitec
PM-Metalit partial-flow filter.
See Doc.144293 (MTZ Worldwide, Industrial Supplement, 2013, No. 1, pp62-70.)
EGR
COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT EGR SYSTEMS COMBINED WITH MILLER CYCLE
CONCEPT FOR A MEDIUM SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
Politecnico di Torino, Powertech Engineering and Wartsila
In this work different EGR systems, combined with extreme Miller cycles, were analyzed by means of a onedimensional CFD simulation code for a Wartsila 6-cylinder, 4-strokes, medium-speed marine diesel engine,
to evaluate their potential in order to reach the IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions target. Extreme Miller cycles, with
Early Intake Valve Closures (up to 100 crank angle degrees before BDC), combined with two stage
turbocharging were firstly evaluated and the best solution in order to reduce NOx emissions without
excessive penalties in terms of fuel consumption was found to be the adoption of a 90 CA deg EIVC, coupled
with a symmetric overlap of 30 CA deg, which allowed a 35% NOx abatement with BSFC values comparable
with the reference solution. Afterwards, four different external EGR architectures were evaluated for the
assessment of their NOx emissions abatement potentialities. Although all the tested external EGR systems
were capable to reduce NOx emissions down to approximately 20% of the reference engine when using the
highest EGR rate (20%), the use of an EGR turbocharger (i.e. of an additional small turbocharger used to
pump the EGR flow between the exhaust and the intake manifold), allowed maintaining components thermal
loads under control, with still acceptable fuel consumption penalties (about 4%). In conclusion, the
achievement of IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions levels was proved to be feasible, although further experimental
investigation will be needed to confirm the numerical simulation results.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_074.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 74, 14pp.)
Particulate filters
VERIFICATION TESTING OF THE L-CCRT(TM) PARTICULATE CONTROL SYSTEM ON A NREC 3GS21B
GEN SET LOCOMOTIVE
Southwest Research Institute and Johnson Matthey
On 28 May 2010, the City of Los Angeles Harbor Department and the Port of Long Beach jointly submitted a
proposal to CARB for AB118 AQIP Advanced Technology Demonstration grant funding to demonstrate a
Tier-4 locomotive DPF retrofit system on a 2100 HP genset switcher locomotive. The project partners
included Johnson Matthey, the technology provider, and Union Pacific Railroad, which will use the retrofit
system on a switching locomotive operating in the San Pedro Bay Ports. The test locomotive used for this
project was UPY2755, an NREC model 3GS21B originally manufactured in July 2007. This locomotive uses
three diesel-engine driven generator sets (Gen Set 1, 2, and 3) to provide power to the locomotive traction
motors. The locomotive was moved from the Los Angeles operating fleet of Union Pacific Railroad and sent
to SwRI Locomotive Technology Centre (LTC) in San Antonio, Texas for installation and testing of three
Johnson Matthey’s Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) retrofit systems, L-CCRT. The JM L-CCRTTM system
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consists of a flow-through diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in front of a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) coated with
an oxidation catalyst. The system catalytically oxidizes engine derived NO to NO2 and that NO2 continuously
oxidizes soot trapped in a catalyzed wall flow filter.
The L-CCRT assembly reduced the HC emissions by 99 percent and essentially eliminated CO emissions.
The JM system reduced switch cycle weighted fuel consumption by 2% and the NOx emission by 8.5%, as
compared to the baseline results, primarily due to a reduced backpressure over the stock engine muffler. The
PM emissions were reduced by 99 percent to 0.002 g/bhp-hr, 90 percent below the locomotive Tier 4 PM
limits that go into effect for new locomotives in 2015.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_122.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 122, 10pp.)
NEWLY DEVELOPED DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER FOR MARINE DIESEL ENGINE - ELECTROSTATIC
CYCLONE DPF
Furugen and Makino Laboratory Inc, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology and
National Maritime Research Institute, Japan
The authors newly developed an Electro-static Cyclone DPF to reduce PM emission in diesel exhaust. This
DPF consists of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a cyclone precipitator (Cyclone). The ESP is arranged
in the upstream position, and the Cyclone is arranged in the downstream position. A mechanism of the PM
collection in the Electrostatic Cyclone DPF is as follows: The EPS can collect fine particles, and the Cyclone
can collect large agglomerated particles. When the thickness of deposited PM which is collected on the
collecting plate of ESP becomes excessive, the deposited PM falls automatically away from the collecting
plate. And then the fallen deposited PM is easily collected into the dust box of Cyclone. An advantage of the
Electrostatic Cyclone DPF is in a structure without the PM clogging both in the ESP and the Cyclone;
therefore this DPF is maintenance free equipment fundamentally. Experiments: The PM collection test with
the DPF was investigated by using two types of marine diesel engines, i.e. the low speed two-stroke engine
(3UEC33LSII-ECO, 1275 kW, 162 rpm) and the medium-speed four-stroke engine (MU323DGSC, 257 kW,
420 rpm). Two types of fuels, MDO with a sulphur content of 0.07% and HFO with a sulphur content of 2.2%,
were used for the tests. The DPF was installed in the exhaust line of the engines, and PM mass
concentration and PM particle size distribution were measured. PM mass concentration was measured with
the dilution tunnel system, and PM particle size distribution was measured with the Scanning mobility particle
sizer (SMPS). Results: (1) The Electrostatic Cyclone DPF can reduce PM emission by greater than 90%. The
DPF has high collection efficiency not only for soot but also for sulfate and soluble organic fraction (SOF) in
PM. (2) The PM collection efficiency for HFO was higher than that for MDO; therefore it was confirmed that
the DPF is applicable to marine diesel engines operated with HFO. (3) The majority of the PM particle has a
diameter of less than 500 nm, and the PM collection efficiency for particles smaller than 100 nm, which are
especially harmful for health, is greater than 95%. (4) As the Electrostatic cyclone DPF shows high collection
efficiency, an exhaust gas processing system which can reduce PM, SOx and NOx will be realized by
application of the DPF. The proposed exhaust gas processing system consists of the DPF, the scrubber and
the EGR system. The scrubber is arranged in the downstream position of the DPF. The exhaust gas from
which PM and SOx was removed through the DPF and the scrubber is used as EGR gas. As a result, PM,
SOx, and NOx can be reduced by this system. Because only SOx and NOx are included in the exhaust gas
passing through the scrubber, the proposed system has an advantage that the wastewater disposal in the
scrubber is easy. The authors believe that the proposed exhaust gas processing system is appropriate for the
marine diesel engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_137.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 137, 10pp.)
SCR
RIGHT-SIZING SCR
Johnson Matthey has developed a new selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for stationary diesel or
natural gas engines designed to be as much as 30 to 40% less expensive than units currently on the market.
The Concat IC SCR System is also up to 70% smaller and 50% lighter than comparable models with up to
95% NOx reduction, said Michael Baran, SCR product manager for Johnson Matthey Stationary Emissions
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Control.
One big difference between stationary engine SCR systems and those used in trucks is the operating time.
Trucks don't run as continuously as stationary engines, so engineers had to think in terms of operating 24/7
and 8000 or more hours a year.
See Doc.144241 (Diesel Progress North American Edition, Apr 2013, pp62-63.)
AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS: PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE FROM THE
PERSPECTIVE OF A CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
Germanischer Lloyd
Recently the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO) adopted guidelines addressing additional aspects to the NOx Technical Code 2008 with regard to
particular requirements related to marine Diesel Engines fitted with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
systems. Following these guidelines a combined engine and SCR may be tested separately in cases where
the combined system can neither be tested on a test bed due to technical and practical reasons nor an on
board test can be performed fully complying with the test requirements detailed in the NOx Technical code
2008. The certification procedure to be processed in such instances has been referred to as the ’Scheme B
approach’. In particular, starting from 1st January 2016, when the third stage of emission limits for nitrogen
oxides (Tier III) shall apply to new buildings when operating in an Emission Control Area (ECA), the new
guideline and the Scheme B approach will impose a strong challenge for engine and SCR manufacturers,
ship operators and certifiers (Recognised Organisations/classification societies) from a technical and
operational point of view. Germanischer Lloyd (GL), acting as a Recognised Organisation for more than 90
flag states, has a strong interest in a lean and inviolable introduction of the legislation imposed by IMO. Thus,
GL has started to accompany and supervise the design and installation of Marine Diesel Engines fitted with
SCR systems applying the Scheme B approach at an early stage on a number of pilot installations in order.
Moreover, GL’s accredited laboratory for ’Exhaust Emission Measurement and Chemical Analyses’ has long
lasting experience in measuring the exhaust gas emissions from Marine Diesel Engines fitted with SCR
systems on board of vessels which have to follow the Swedish NOx tax regulation and therefore has a deep
insight into the long term in-service experience SCR manufacturers and ship owners have with this kind of
systems. This presentation aims to introduce latest experiences in measuring, survey and certification of
gaseous emissions from Marine Diesel Engines fitted with SCR. The presentation evaluates technical
solutions for exhaust gas aftertreatment systems from the perspective of a classification society with a strong
focus on its technical, operational, organizational and administrative challenges. In particular the applicability
of the new ’Scheme B’ approach provided by IMO concerning the combined certification of engines and SCR
systems tested separately is examined critically on the basis of a number of practical examples.
Covers – wet scrubbers, dry scrubbers, DryEGCS.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_007.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 7, 13pp.)
NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON SPRAY ATOMIZATION CHARACTERISTICS AND MIXING
PERFORMANCES FOR SCR SYSTEM IN A MARINE DIESEL
Harbin Engineering University and Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation
In practical applications, NOx removal efficiency and urea consumption rate of SCR system are strongly
dependent on the spray atomization and mixing process of reducing agent in the exhaust gas. On the basis
of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with chemical reaction kinetics, spray atomization
characteristics and mixing performances for a SCR system in the marine diesel are studied in the paper. It is
found that a uniform mixing of urea solution in the exhaust flow cannot be achieved by the limitation of large
scales and high flow rates of marine diesel exhaust systems. However, the mixing performances can be
enhanced obviously by the installation of multi-layer mixer in the exhaust upstream of the catalyst. It is also
proved that the calculated value of DeNOx rate of the marine diesel at full load is very close to the measured
rate-91% at 5.3 gallons per hour of urea solution consumption rate, and working performances of the SCR
system can be predicted well by the model built in the paper.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_007.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 17, 6pp.)
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DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE SCR SYSTEM FOR LARGE TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINES COMPLYING
WITH IMO NOX TIER III
Hitachi Zosen
Engine designers and engine builders are striving to establish reliable and economical measures to have
their engines meet the IMO NOx regulation Tier III, which is coming into force in 2016, requiring a drastic
level of NOx reduction from ships and needing in fact a different technology from those for previous Tiers I or
II. In order to ensure to provide ships with main engines complying with contemporary regulations even
in/after the year 2016, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, who is not only an engine builder but also a catalyst
manufacturer as well as an SCR manufacturer well-known in land applications, have developed a marine
SCR system for large two-stroke diesel engines in collaboration with MAN Diesel & Turbo, an engine
designer leading the market. The concepts of the system are (1) urea-SCR, (2) SCR located upstream
turbine and (3) SCR operated on ordinary HFO. This paper presents mechanism and features of the system
and test results from the testbed and the sea trial. Main themes are how such an SCR system works on a
large two-stroke diesel engine run on HFO, of which exhaust gas generally is low temperature and contains a
considerable amount of sulphur oxides, and how such an engine is controlled even in low load and/or
transient conditions.
During the sea trial, transient responses were tested in various cases, e.g. accelerations, decelerations,
manoeuvrings and ahead/astern, and confirmed them as expected beforehand. Similar to the testbed results,
80% of NOx reduction ratio was achieved, and IMO’s E3-cycle value of NOx emission was confirmed to be
less than 3.4 g/kWh, which is the limit for low speed engines, also in the sea trial.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_029.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 29, 16pp.)
Scrubbers
LNG AND MGO VS SCRUBBERS
Germanischer Lloyd
Covers – further challenges for scrubbers aboard a ship, freshwater scrubber (closed loop), dry scrubber
(absorber), driver for LNG + MGO vs Scrubber.
See vCD 124 Session 3 Panel Debate Kock.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK;
7-8 March 2013, Session 3: Emissions Efficiency/Emissions & the Impact on the Global Environment, 5pp.)
SCRUBBER SALES SET TO SOAR AS DEADLINE NEARS
Scrubber sales set to soar as deadline nears are frequently described as immature technology yet, as the
2015 deadline for 0.1% sulphur content in ECAs draws near, scrubber manufacturers are reporting a surge of
interest in their products. There is still a lot of hesitancy by operators to translate the interest into actual
orders, probably because many are still clinging to the possibility that the deadline might be extended.
For some, taking the plunge would be easier if installation times could be cut from the four to eight weeks that
have been reported as being likely to something more in line with the 10-14 days for a regular drydocking.
The capital cost of scrubbers is currently high at between US$500000 to US$5 million, depending upon
maker and vessel size, but that would conceivably reduce if volume sales could be guaranteed.
Payback time for a scrubber depends upon three variables: the capital and installation cost of the system,
annual fuel consumption in ECAs and the price differential between distillate fuel and the normal fuel used on
the vessel. According to a recent Wartsila presentation, a ship with a 10 MW main engine and three 500 kW
auxiliaries could expect a payback time of just one year based on an annual fuel consumption of 11500
tonnes and a price differential of US$250.
Covers - wet and dry scrubbers, SOx reduction.
See Doc.144340 (Marine Propulsion, Apr/May 2013, pp148-150.)
INVESTIGATION ON MARINE EXHAUST GAS DESULFURIZATION BY SEAWATER SCRUBBING
Harbin Engineering University
In order to demonstrate the feasibility of seawater marine exhaust Gas desulphurization, it is necessary to
investigate the process of seawater scrubbing. Based on the seawater desulphurization principle and the
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content of SO2 in marine exhaust gas, an original seawater desulphurization device was designed and
associated parameters were determined. The design data has been proved by the experiment, the influence
of the seawater physical and chemical properties to the SO2 absorption efficiency have also been test.
Emphasized on discussing the key influence parameters such as packing height, liquid/gas ratio and exhaust
gas velocity on desulphurization percentage. It is found that a 80% SO2 absorption efficiency, require a
minimum liquid/gas ratio is 6L/m³. The data are essential to judge the cost of the seawater in marine exhaust
Gas desulphurization process. The results obtained provided basis for arriving at an optimum seawater
scrubbing design, and pointing out the direction to further research on marine exhaust gas seawater
desulphurization.
Covers – influence of PH in seawater, influence of seawater temperature.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_041.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 41, 6pp.)
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EXHAUST EMISSIONS REDUCTION
Marine applications
EFFECTIVELY FULFILLING NEW IMO EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS REGULATION
Germanischer Lloyd
Contents:
Latest changes in air pollution legislation: NOx, SOx, CO2
CO2 emissions and Energy Efficiency certification
NOx and SOx emissions and certification of exhaust gas aftertreatment technology:
Legislative requirements
Class rules.
Covers – CO2 emissions of international shipping, The International Energy Efficiency Certificate (IEEC),
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), Energy Efficiency Index – Concept, Technology to
Reduce NOx and SOx, NOx Reduction: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), SOx Reduction: Wet Scrubbers
open and closed loop, SOx Reduction: Dry Scrubber on MV Timbus, Certification of Engines with SCR Resolution MEPC.198(62) “SCR Guidelines”, Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems: Technical Safety.
See vCD 124 Session 3 Fabian Kock.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 3: Emissions Efficiency/Emissions & the Impact on the Global Environment, 68pp.)
EFFECTIVE COMPLIANCE SOLUTIONS FOR NEWBUILDS IN 2015-2016
Wartsila
On 1 January 2015 the sulphur directive comes into force in Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA). This
regulation will impact both existing ships and new ships operating in these waters.
From 1 January 2016 there is another important regulation coming into force. This will limit the allowable
emissions of nitrogen oxides to only a fraction of the current level. This regulation is valid in special Nitrogen
Emission Control Areas (NECA). It will impact only new ships, meaning ships where the keel is laid from 1
January 2016 and onwards. Currently these SECA and NECA areas are exactly the same and are found in
Northern Europe and along the coastlines of North America.
Covers - solutions for SOx reduction, low sulphur fuel, exhaust gas scrubbers, wet scrubbing, natural gas as
fuel, LNG, solutions for NOx reduction for IMO and Tier III, SCR catalysts, exhaust gas recirculation.
See vCD 124 Session 6 Juha Kytola Paper.pdf and Juha Kytola Presentation.pdf (The Annual Marine
Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 6: Advances in Engine & Drivetrain
Technology for Next Generation Ships, 4pp (Paper) & 20pp (Presentation).)
FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR MEETING THE ONCOMING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
Wartsila
Covers – Solutions for SOx reduction 2015> (low sulphur fuel, exhaust scrubber, gas engines), solutions for
NOx reduction for IMO Tier III (diesel engines + SCR catalyst, gas engines).
See vCD 124 Session 7 Juha Kytola.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 7: The Engine Forum, 12pp.)
ARE YOU READY FOR 2015 AND BEYOND?
Panama’s Technical Adviser to IMO
Key points:
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
Revised MARPOL Annex VI – Tier III compliance
Revised MARPOL Annex VI – Sulphur limitation compliance.
Covers - CO2 reduction, Tier III NOx, MARPOL Annex VI – SOx.
See vCD 137 Opening-Session-First-Keynote-Address.pdf (35th Motorship Propulsion and Emissions
Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 18pp.)
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JAPAN'S VIEW ON MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT THE IMO
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan
Contents:
Japan's basic position vis-a-vis IMO issues.
CO2 emissions regulations - reduction of GHG emissions, EEDI, SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan), “Maritime Environmental Initiative”, Waste Heat Recovery System, Green Ship Series:
G209BC, MALS-14000CS.
NOx, SOx and PM Regulations - IMO MARPOL Annex VI, ECAs, SCR, EGR, R&D for LNG-fuelled ship.
See vCD 137 Opening-Session-Second-Keynote-Address.pdf (35th Motorship Propulsion and Emissions
Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 24pp.)
FIRST OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCES WITH A COMBINED DRY DESULPHURIZATION PLANT AND SCR
UNIT DOWNSTREAM OF A HFO FUELED MARINE ENGINE
Couple Systems
In December 2011 Couple System has successfully managed the commissioning of a Dry Scrubber
(DryEGCS) in combination with a SCR catalyst. The application consists of an engine test bed on which
marine diesel engines up to an output of 24 MW are running. The exhaust gases of the HFO fuelled engine
are fed into the dry scrubber named DryEGCS where the exhaust gas is cleaned off of SOx in a magnitude of
more than 99%. Particles are removed in excess of 90%. The temperature of the exhaust gas is maintained
and represents the optimum temperature for the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the SCR catalyst. The SCR
process requires the injection if ammonia which in this case is done in the form of an aqueous ammonia
solution. The installed SCR system is one of the largest systems operated downstream of a marine diesel
engine. The combined DeSOx and DeNOx system meets all present and future IMO regulations including a
potential PM regulation. The entire system is monitored by a continuous monitoring system according to
scheme B. The paper includes a full technical description as well as operational data.
Covers – DeSOx by chemisorption using calcium Hydroxide.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_005.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 5, 18pp, 31 refs.)
SAMPLING AND DILUTION METHOD EVALUATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF SOLID PARTICLE
NUMBER DISTRIBUTIONS FROM MARINE DIESEL ENGINES AND FUELS
Marintek
The rising concern for PM emissions from maritime transport together with the adverse health effects
associated with PM emissions have lead to several studies reporting PM emissions from marine diesel
engines running on marine heavy fuel oils. One metric among other that is being presented is the particle size
distribution (PSD). Measurement of PSDs is associated with challenges related to controlling formation of
nucleation mode particles by the use of dilution systems. These challenges are even greater when measuring
on MDEs running on HFO due to the high sulphur content normally found in HFO. Sulphur is associated with
enhanced formation of nucleation mode particles and the high sulphur concentration in HFO requires an
adapted dilution system to enable control over the nucleation process. In this study the authors is
investigating the effect of dilution parameters on the formation of nucleation mode particles as well as
adopting the dilution system for measurement of only solid PSDs. Measurement of solid PSDs gives higher
repeatability as solid particles are regarded not to be affected by the dilution setting. During our experiments
large variations in PSDs were observed when the effect of dilution parameters was investigated. Both
changes to the particle size and in the particle concentration were found. Adapting the dilution system for
measurement of only solid particles was successful. The system was able to measure only solid particles with
very good repeatability for almost the entire size range measured. Compared to measurements on low
sulphur fuels higher dilution ratios and significantly higher dilution air temperatures are needed. In this study
dilution air temperature of 400°C was applied while results indicate that 300°C would be sufficient with as
long as the primary dilution ratio is above 5. The high effect of dilution parameters on the PSDs highlights a
need for defining and stating the dilution parameters when presenting PSD results to enable comparison and
interpretation of the results.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_039.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 39, 9pp.)
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COMBINATION OF POST-INJECTION AND COOLED EGR AT A MEDIUM-SPEED DIESEL ENGINE TO
COMPLY WITH IMO TIER III EMISSION LIMITS
FVTR, Universitaet Rostock and Caterpillar
With introduction of IMO Tier III in 2016 the marine diesel engine technology faces a radical change. The
IMO Tier III requires nitric oxide (NOx) reductions of 75% compared to the current level (IMO Tier II). In
connection with the stringent NOx reductions massive sulphur oxide (SOx) reductions will be introduced
stepwise till 2015. In light of this, the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to fulfil the IMO Tier III NOx
limits at medium-speed marine diesel engines is systematically analyzed. The targets are defined by a NOx
emissions level of 2 g/kWh, invisible smoke and minimum fuel consumption penalty. The analyses are
carried out at a six-cylinder medium-speed test engine with 1000 kW output at 1000 rpm. The research
engine is equipped with a cooled EGR system, a common-rail injection system and a programmable engine
control unit. The CR injectors are solenoid-operated and allow multiple injections. Systematic variations of
EGR rate, injection pressure and injection timing were carried out and the results regarding combustion
process, NOx and soot emissions as well as fuel consumption are presented. The results show, that
significant EGR rates are necessary, to obtain NOx-reduction rates as required for IMO Tier III compliance.
These high EGR rates result in unwanted and unacceptable soot emission levels even at increased injection
pressures. To reduce these soot emissions, post-injection strategies were analyzed at the medium-speed
test engine. Post-injection proved to be an efficient soot reduction measure in on-road diesel engine. The
effect of different post-injections on the soot emissions is shown. Based on the results the soot emission
reduction potential of post-injections at marine medium-speed diesel engines is outlined and the
requirements for a successful implementation of post-injection strategies are discussed. The application of
post-injections requires detailed information on the dynamic behaviour of the common-rail system and
especially on the CR-injectors applied. Due to this, the dynamics of the CR injectors in case of post-injections
were established at an injection rate analyzer and the findings are discussed. The functionality of the CR
injectors at the test engine is monitored by measurements of the current feed signal and the injection
pressure at the injector inlet. Finally, the preconditions for a successful application of EGR at medium-speed
marine diesel engines are summarized. The use of EGR not only challenges the injection (rail pressure, postinjections), charging and the cooling system (EGR, charge air) but also the engine control system.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_076.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 76, 9pp.)
RESEARCH ON UPGRADE OF EXISTING MEDIUM SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FOR IMO TIER II
Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute
Large amount of existing marine diesel engines in China need to be upgraded to satisfy IMO Tier II,
especially for medium-speed engines. To find a proper way for IMO Tier II has been a critical issue for
Chinese engine manufacturers. This paper introduced update design of a medium-speed marine diesel
engine which cylinder bore around 200mm. Since it was developed decades ago, its emission was IMO Tier I
level. SMDERI fully depends on internal technology, improved fuel injection system, combustion system and
turbocharger, to upgrade this existing engine to IMO Tier II. Experimental results proved upgraded engine
NOx emission satisfy IMO Tier II, while no negative effect on reliability, fuel consumption and manufacture
cost. This update prolonged product life time of this existing engine, and proven solution could also be
applied on similar diesel engine retrofit.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_124.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 124, 8pp.)
DEMONSTRATION OF EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR IMO NOX TIER III
Niigata Power Systems
In order to meet stringent emission standards for marine engines, we at Niigata continue the development of
low emission technology for long period. Three emission control technologies exhaust aftertreatment,
alternative fuels and combustion improvement were developed to meet upcoming IMO NOx regulation Tier
III, and these countermeasures can be selected due to required output, applications and ship design. First
measure is exhaust aftertreatment by using the selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Niigata has started to
provide the marine SCR system from middle of the 1990s, and have enough experience about performance
design and operation. The key issue for marine SCR system is the installation size and control technology
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which handles suitable amount of reducing agent for each engine loads. On board tests were carried out to
verify that performance of our newly-developed SCR system fulfils a required specification for Tier III. The
required injection amount of reducing agent is determined by using several ordinary sensors on engine. In
addition, the effect of atmospheric conditions on NOx emission is also considered. Therefore the developed
SCR system is useful not only for domestic vessel but also ocean vessel. The test system was operated to
maintain 80% NOx reduction rate from Tier I condition through the on board test and it was successfully
controlled without ammonia slip. Second measure is usage of alternative fuels. To date, the gas engine was
employed for land-based power generation and cogeneration, several types of gas engine dual fuel, spark
ignition and micro pilot engine are reliable, respectively. Due to lower adiabatic flame temperature with leanburn combustion, the NOx emission is extremely low and the emission level is tenth of diesel engines.
Consequently, gas engine has a potential to comply with Tier III by itself. Third measure low NOx technology
is the improvement of combustion for diesel engine. The Miller cycle is essential combustion technology to
decrease NOx emission due to lower in-cylinder gas temperature and to improve cycle efficiency. This
technology was employed on diesel engines to meet Tier II, however, the magnitude of the effect is enhanced
to achieve remarkable NOx emission reduction in this study. Since the extremely high boost pressure is
required when stronger Miller cycle is applied, the 2-stage turbocharging system was employed. The obtained
NOx reduction from Tier I condition was reached up to 50% due to double improvement effect regarding the
turbocharger efficiency and the cycle efficiency. The EGR which is well known as low NOx emission
technology is a good match the 2-stage turbocharging, then further NOx reduction is promising. In other
words, the improvement of fuel consumption is possible by synergy effect of 2-stage turbocharging, stronger
Miller cycle and EGR. In this paper, the characteristics of each emission control technologies are described
respectively. Main part of this paper is SCR and Combustion improvement. Gas engine is also described,
however, the detail technical report shall be described in another paper for this congress.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_127.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 127, 11pp.)
EMISSION MONITORING - DEVELOPMENT OF PREDICTIVE EMISSION MONITORING
Wartsila
Emission monitoring plays a key role in the trend towards lower emissions. Regulators want to ensure that
the set emission limits are followed and need a means of monitoring the performance of the installations.
Emission control technology, such as SCR, use emission measurements in order to tune the process to the
correct operating point. In addition, record keeping and reporting of emissions, e.g. in annual reports is a
means of providing visibility and importance to emissions. Exhaust gas from diesel engines has proven
challenging for emission monitoring systems. Even systems developed for use in harsh conditions, such as in
coal fired power plants, often do not perform adequately when measuring from diesel engines operating on
heavy fuel oil. Cold-dry systems where the exhaust is cooled down to remove moisture and acidic
components typically require frequent attention in long term continuous operation. In-situ systems as well as
hot-wet extractive systems require less maintenance, but are typically more costly. This article will discuss
experience from emission monitoring equipment installed after diesel engines. Predictive emission monitoring
is an alternative to traditional analyzer based emission monitoring which can provide both cost efficient and
robust monitoring. Instead of directly monitoring the emissions in the exhaust gas from the process, PEMS
monitors process parameters and can based on the state of the process provide estimates of the emissions.
There are both first principle models and empirical models for calculating emissions from a combustion
process. First principle models are well aimed at understanding the underlying physics in the process and for
understanding how process changes will influence the emissions. Empirical models utilize recorded process
data to generate a model of the emission performance of the process. Wartsila has performed field tests of
an empirical PEMS as a replacement for analyzer based solutions on a Wartsila 38 engine. Evaluation of
paired emission and process data together with the field test results for NOx modelling are encouraging and
highlight PEMS as a powerful tool for emission monitoring. Being cost efficient, PEMS also opens up the
possibility for emission monitoring in applications where analyzer based systems are not feasible.
Covers – Industrial Emissions Directive (IED).
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_147.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 147, 12pp.)
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Rail applications
CLEAN EUROPEAN RAIL-DIESEL (CLEANER-D) - TOWARDS GREENER AND CLEANER RAIL DIESEL
VEHICLES
UNIFE, NewRail, Deutsche Bahn Environment Centre, IZT (Institute for Futures Studies and
Technology Assessment) and Siemens
Rail is considered to be the most environmentally-friendly mode of transport. Rail exhaust emissions from rail
diesel traction in Europe (EU27 and EFTA) are very low. Rail diesel traction accounts for less than 2.5%
nitrogen-oxide and 4.5% particulate matters (EEA 20081) out of the total emissions from the European
transport sector. Nevertheless, continuous improvement must be ensured by the sector. This is to be
underlined as the European railways committed to reduce their total exhaust emissions of NOx and PM by
40% by 2030. To tackle the challenge of reducing rail diesel emissions, the railway industry launched
CleanER-D – a research project partly funded by the European Union.
The main goals of the project are to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of railway rolling stock powered
with diesel engines compliant with the requirements of stage IIIB of the NRMM Directive. This objective is
dealt with in the operational part of CleanER-D where two mainline locomotives have been selected to give
the opportunity to test new engine concepts on existing vehicles.
See Electronic Document 6476 (European Railway Review, 2013, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp65-67.)
RAIL TRACTION: RUNNING GREEN ON THE RAILS
US Environmental Protection Agency's Tier 4 emissions standards for locomotives go into effect in 2015, The
Tier 4 standards apply to diesel locomotives of all types, including those in line-haul, switch and passenger
rail service, and will require manufacturers of locomotive diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions by
70% and NOx emissions by 76% compared to the Tier 2 locomotive engines that were introduced in 2005.
There will also be significant reduction requirements in HC, CO and other air toxic emissions.
At its J R Davis Yard in Roseville, California, USA, Union Pacific Railroad (UP) has unveiled a prototype
locomotive, the UP 9900, as the latest step in the company's ongoing effort to design, build and test
technologies that reduce emissions and meet these more stringent requirements. The experimental Union
Pacific 9900 is the signature unit in a series of 25 locomotives that Union Pacific is analyzing as part of a
broad test of various emissions-reduction techniques including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), diesel
oxidation catalysts (DOC) and diesel particulate filters (DPF). These tests will require already available
ultralow sulphur diesel fuel.
Union Pacific engineers worked closely with locomotive manufacturer Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) in the
development of the Union Pacific 9900, especially the engine. Existing UP engines are already at their
maximum allowable width of 3.1m and maximum height of 4.9m. To provide the space needed to install the
EGR, DOC and DPF aftertreatment technologies the standard freight locomotive engine size in the Union
Pacific 9900 had to be reduced - SD60s repowered with an EMD V12 710ECO engine.
See Doc.144185 (Diesel & GasTurbine Worldwide, Apr 2013, pp6-7.)
US EPA TIER 3 EXHAUST EMISSIONS CERTIFICATION OF THE BOMBARDIER ALP-45DP
LOCOMOTIVE
Southwest Research Institute and Bombardier Transportation
The Bombardier ALP-45DP is a single-cab, dual-mode (electric and diesel-electric) locomotive manufactured
by Bombardier Transportation for the North American market. It is rated at 4.0 MW continuous power in
catenary-electric mode and 3.0 MW in diesel-electric mode. In diesel-electric mode, power is provided by two
1.5 MW Caterpillar 3512C HD diesel engines. This paper describes the challenges and solutions in obtaining
US EPA Tier 3 locomotive certification for this new locomotive. There are several unique aspects of the
Bombardier ALP-45DP locomotive that required dialogue with EPA for the exhaust emissions certification
process. These included an infinitely variable throttle in contrast to the North American convention of ’throttle
notches,’ where discrete engine speed and load are predefined by the locomotive manufacturer, and hence
selection of the exhaust emissions test modes is straightforward. Bombardier performed extensive analysis
of the launch customer route (New Jersey Transit) to develop expected locomotive power requirements, and
subsequently used this information to help define specific emissions test modes and associated duty-cycle
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weighting factors to be used for EPA emissions certification testing. The two 1.5 MW Caterpillar 3512C HD
engines in the Bombardier ALP-45DP locomotive are each equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC).
This was relatively new for the North American locomotive market, and considerable effort was required to
detail the DOC degreening requirements, and to provide sufficient technical basis for the deterioration factor
(DF) required by EPA as part of the certification process. Exhaust emissions test results from US EPA
certification testing are included in the paper, including regulated emissions of HC, CO, NOx, and PM, as well
results for new EPA requirements for reporting greenhouse gas emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4).
Methane measurement and reporting is a new requirement by EPA for new locomotives starting in 2012, and
these procedures are detailed in the paper.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_002.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 2, 5pp.)
Exhaust emissions reduction by in-engine methods
PCCI COMBUSTION AS NOX REDUCTION MEASURE FOR MARINE ENGINES BY SPRAY
DISTRIBUTION CONTROL AND LCO FUEL
Kyushu University
A novel injection strategy is proposed to realize PCCI combustion for marine diesels of large-bore and yet
longer-stroke dimensions. This strategy utilizes a set of sprays from closely aligned holes having injection
directions intersecting one another so as to cause mutual interaction and merger of the sprays by overlapping
injection periods and applying different injection rates. It is feasible to improve the mixture stratification in a
combustion chamber. Moreover, LCO (Light Cycle Oil) and its water-emulsification are newly introduced to
realize the ignition control of PCCI combustion in this study. The potential of the strategy for PCCI
combustion was successfully examined through observation of the spray merging process and combustion
process in a rapid compression-expansion machine.
See vCD 122 Session Posters Tajima.pdf (Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection
Engines (Thiesel) 2012, CMT Motores Termicos, Sep 2012, 3pp.)
Exhaust emissions reduction by combined in-engine and aftertreatment methods
NOX REDUCTION BY COMBINATION OF CHARGE AIR MOISTURIZER AND EXHAUST GAS
RECIRCULATION ON MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL ENGINES
Hyundai Heavy Industries
NOx emission from diesel engines is a principal toxic ingredient of environmental pollutants. Thus NOx from
diesel engines has been limited by the global and local regulations which have been becoming more stringent
in connection with the recent environmental problems. IMO (International Maritime Organization) Tier III
regulation which requires to reduce NOx by 75% from the current Tier II regulation (20% reduction from Tier I
regulation) will be effective in 2016. Several methods such as combustion optimization, EGR (Exhaust Gas
Recirculation), water addition and high pressure turbocharger, etc, have been developed to reduce NOx.
Each method is not enough to abate NOx to comply with the IMO Tier III regulation, but combination of the
NOx reduction methods is able to satisfy the regulation. Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has developed
charge air moisturizer (ChAM) which humidifies charge air with water vapour and has also tested EGR
system for NOx reduction. HHI has enhanced NOx reduction efficiency by combination of the EGR and the
ChAM systems on a medium-speed diesel engine, and has confirmed that NOx emission was kept under the
IMO Tier III regulation. The combination of the EGR and the ChAM system can be a candidate as the main
NOx reduction technology to comply with the IMO Tier III regulation.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_133.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 133, 7pp.)
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FUEL SYSTEMS
GETTING THE MIX RIGHT
According to fuel injection system manufacturer L’Orange, not only is a precise start to the injection vital, fast
closing at the end of the injection process is equally important. Proper static and dynamic design of the
injection hydraulics prevents so-called needle shock and thereby even very minor post-injection of fuel, to
ensure smokeless engine operation.
Optimum atomisation during injection is particularly important and today very fine spray-hole intake
geometries ensure a small droplet size distribution with a high spray impingement. This ensures optimum
combustion with good volumetric efficiency and low fuel consumption and, in addition, the even droplet size
distribution in the engine combustion chamber prevents localised low excess air ratios, thus reducing the
level of air pollutants. L’Orange has also developed multifunctional valve systems based on this product
family which allow its customers to supply several types of fuel to the combustion chambers of their engines
in parallel, under optimised conditions for each. These valve systems are based on multi-needle nozzles and
offer maximum flexibility for engine operation. As exhaust legislation has progressed there has been an
increasing need for in- dependently adjustable injection rates with individually adjustable opening and closing
flanks and a freely controllable injection duration, independent of pressure levels.
Wartsila four-stroke engines are available with three alternative fuel injection systems depending on
configuration: a conventional fuel injection system, with either single or twin plunger injection pumps, and
common-rail fuel injection. High injection pressures giving low smoke emissions characterise all three
systems - the common-rail technology in particular, enables operation at any load without visible smoke.
Covers – common rail, DUAP, Woodward’s Mechanical Fuel Injection (MFI) systems, pump-pipe-injector
systems (Unit Pump Systems), Woodward’s high-pressure electronically controlled unit fuel injection
systems, refurbishment service for fuel injection systems.
See Doc.144214 (MER, Feb 2013, pp29-31.)
Diesel
NEW LOW COST COMMON RAIL SYSTEM WITH ZERO STATIC LEAKAGE
Lafei
Fuel economy is more and more important for diesel engines. Emission levels become more and more
stringent. To fulfil stringent emission levels, a common rail system is mandatory. Fuel economy yields for a
zero static leakage common rail system. Additional to these two requirements, manufacturing costs should be
as low as possible. According to these requirements a common rail system, mainly consisting fuel injector
and high pressure pump, was designed, built and tested. Because of costs, the injector uses a solenoid
actuator. As usual, the solenoid is about 20mm in diameter. For smaller engines the slim body of the injector
does not allow to place the solenoid near the injection nozzle. To avoid static leakage, the injector has a
central fuel bore only. This means the injector needle is completely surrounded by pressurized fuel. The
needle is very long to reach the on the top placed solenoid. This length can cause friction problems due to
misalignment caused by manufacturing imperfections. To enhance the acceptance of manufacturing
imperfections, a flexible needle was invented. This invention keeps manufacturing costs low and minimizes
injector to injector deviations. To keep costs regarding high pressure fuel pump as low as possible, the pump
is fuel lubricated. Fuel lubrication additionally minimizes the overall costs of the whole engine. The pump has
a very simple crank drive with a so-called race ring. This race ring is sitting on the eccentric part of the
crankshaft. The plunger feet are rolling directly on this race ring. Except for the plunger spring, there is no
need for an additional part transforming revolutions into strokes. The pump owns two plungers. This is the
minimum number of plunger to make sure the pump is capable of delivering fuel all the time. The pump is
designed for high speed, e.g. 4000 rpm. If the engine builder uses this potential, the pump can be designed
smaller and with less weight, which also improves fuel economy of the whole engine. High speed pumps also
cause smaller pressure fluctuations, a further advantage. The tests and measurements of the components
showed good injection behaviour for the injector and a high efficiency regarding high pressure fuel pump.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_008.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 8, 9pp.)
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NEW PLATFORM BASED COMMON RAIL INJECTOR FOR MTU SERIES 1163
L'Orange and MTU
The successful series 1163, the engine of MTU with the highest power density for marine applications, has to
be modified to gain the upcoming emission standards. Up to now the engine has been equipped with an
established Pump Line Nozzle Injection system. Since the emissions are essentially influenced by the
injection system some modifications are required. The system needs a more flexible and faster switching with
higher injection pressure and also the capability of multiple injections to reduce noise, NOx-emissions and
soot. The injector, the heart of the new Common Rail injection system, has been developed by L’Orange in
close cooperation with MTU. To reduce development costs and time but achieve highest performance and
durability the injector is based on the third generation of L’Orange’s injection systems for high-speed engines.
Since 2011 injectors containing such principles are part of the trend setting fourth generation of the MTU
series 4000. The main feature of the injector is the integrated accumulator with the control valve close to the
nozzle, known from previous L’Orange injector generations. With an optimized injector design the maximum
injection pressure and the capability of multiple injection can be significantly improved. Due to a new control
valve design the injector becomes more robust and thereby the injection quantity more stable over the whole
lifetime. In a first step the injector will run with 1800 bar, e.g. for the IMO Tier II requirement. The injected
quantity is split in a pilot and a main injection to reduce NOx-emissions, fuel consumption and the load of the
engine parts. Possibly in a second step the engine fulfills further upcoming emission legislations. Therefore
the injector is already designed for a maximum injection pressure of 2500 bar. Additionally as a new feature
the detection of the beginning and end of the injection will be integrated. This leads to an almost drift free
injector and the possibility to realize minimal injection quantities with highest accuracy This injector will be
another milestone in the long history of L’Orange trend setting innovations. The engine with the new injection
system will go in series production in August 2013.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_101.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 101, 7pp.)
L’ORANGE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS IN CHINA & ASIA - PAST EXPERIENCE, TODAY’S EXPERTISE
AND EXAMPLES FOR TOMORROW’S EXCELLENCE
L'Orange and Jinan Diesel Engine Company
In the past years, L’Orange did detailed research, extensive testing and has successfully introduced fuel
injection components for Diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil, Water, Orimulsion, Duel Fuel and Gas applications.
Activities have been the advancement, sophistication and new development of:
- Mechanical pump-line-nozzle systems
- Electronically controlled Common Rail systems
- Micro-pilot Common Rail systems (separate slim injector)
- Micro-pilot Common Rail and main injection technology combined as twin needle injector
- Gas injector suitable for pressurised gas and micro-pilot diesel.
This paper will give a review of the technology, feedback from the field and names essential refinements for
product reliability and fulfillment of customer requirements with regards to lowest possible fuel consumption,
smoke invincibility, compliance with emission legislation and reduction of total costs of ownership. Moreover,
the review and actual examples pay special tribute to L’Oranges knowledge in fuel injection systems for Asian
and Chinese markets. In addition to the significant further development of traditional mechanical fuel injection
systems, which experience a continuing qualification for future tasks and a renaissance for large-bore
engines, this paper describes in detail the development of two custom-made Common Rail fuel injection
systems. L’Orange and Chinese engine manufacturer Jinan Diesel Engine Co Ltd (JDEC) have joined forces
for two ambitious engine projects both powered by L’Orange Common Rail systems. JDEW 175 CR runs with
distillate Diesel fuel and JDEC 260 CR is equipped with a Heavy Fuel Oil Common Rail system.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_121.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 121, 9pp.)
FUEL INJECTION CONCEPT FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN DIESEL ENGINES
Yanmar
Recent progress of fuel injection system like a common rail system makes higher fuel injection pressure
possible. With such a state-of-the-art higher injection pressure technology, diesel engine has been improved
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in all aspects of performance such as higher power density, lower fuel consumption, cleaner exhaust
emissions, etc. Injection pressure of latest FIE systems for the heavy-duty or passenger car reach around
3000 bar, but the most of such high injection pressure FIE systems are still under development. Their spray
characteristics are investigated by using constant volume vessel, although conditions are different from
today’s engines pressure and temperature. Soot and NOx emission from the engine equipped with such a
higher injection pressure FIE is still under investigation. Also, the optimal nozzle dimensions in accordance
with higher injection pressure is still under investigation. In order to estimate emission performances, CFD
coupled with many kinds of sub-models about spray combustion is applied as one of the available method.
However, a lot of constants in the simulation code have to be calibrated by use of spray measurement data.
On the other hand, in this study, soot and NOx emission data from higher injection pressure is estimated by
using engine equipped with practical fuel injection system. And optimized number of holes and hole-diameter
for higher injection pressure is estimated. Increase in injection pressure causes the increase in spray
penetration and the promotion of atomization. As for the atomization, higher the injection pressure, less the
improvement in atomization. Thus, in this study, spray penetration is focused on as a main parameter.
In order to verify the concept of converted injection pressure, two different engines are applied in this study.
At first, a natural aspirated engine with maximum 1600 bar common rail injection system is applied for
building soot and NOx estimation models. In this engine test, wide range of emission data is obtained under
the various conditions of excess air ratio and pressure difference between injection and in-cylinder gas. The
result shows good relationship between converted injection pressure and measured soot. Using this
relationship, soot estimation model is built and proposed. In terms of NOx, it has a good relationship with
injection duration. Then, in this study NOx estimation model is also built based on injection duration.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_143.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 143, 9pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIUM SPEED EUP ELECTRONICALLY-CONTROLLED DIESEL ENGINES
Yanmar Woodward
In order to meet environmental regulations and to satisfy customer needs, Yanmar has developed the EUP
(Electronic controlled Unit Pump) system for medium-speed four-stroke diesel engines. EUP system consists
of jerk type fuel injection pump, solenoid valve, ECU and sensors. In this system, fuel injection pressure is
depending on cam speed. However, solenoid valve can control fuel injection timing and fuel injection quantity
depending on engine operating condition. Then, this system can improve fuel consumption, NOx emission
(improvement of trade-off relation), smoke generation and ship handling. As to improving fuel consumption,
combustion was improved and fuel injection timing map was optimized. Smoke generated at the engine start
and acceleration has been reduced to less than 50% in comparison with conventional engine by controlling
injection timing and fuel limiter. ECU has the function to improve ship handling like clutch engaging and crash
astern manoeuvre. At a moment of engaging the clutch, high load is put on the engine and engine speed
goes down. Increasing engine speed just before engaging the clutch and controlling fuel injection quantity
reduce the drop of engine speed. As result of this, ship handling during docking and undocking is improved.
For the marine propulsion engine, high reliability is required especially for the ship with one shaft and one
engine. In this case EUP system has 2 ECU and 2 important sensors. When main ECU or important sensors
fail, system is switched immediately from the main to the backup. Basic structure of fuel injection pump is
same as conventional mechanical engine and conventional fuel injection nozzle is available to use, therefore
EUP system is easy to retrofit. First delivery of this system to the market was in October 2009 as a propulsion
engine. As of November 2012, this engine has been operated more than 4000 hours. As the next step,
Yanmar is developing EUP for the marine auxiliary engines which heavy fuel is used for. Auxiliary engine is
main product of Yanmar and it is used in worldwide marine transportation.
In 2013, CO2 regulation by IMO will go into effect and EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) is applied to
indicate the energy efficiency of the ship, which is calculated in design stage. From the point of view of the
ship builder, the technology like solar power, wind power, air lubrication system and re-designing the shape of
the ship are considered. On the other hand, the engine manufacturers improve EEDI by developing gas
engine, heat recovering system and improving fuel consumption. Of these, fuel consumption is a biggest
concern. Therefore, they make great effort to improve it. In latest test result of Yanmar, 2-3% of fuel
consumption was reduced at the partial load of auxiliary engine. Yanmar believes EUP system is one of the
solutions to improve EEDI.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_148.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 148, 8pp.)
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THERMAL SYSTEMS
SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF VLCC ENGINE, COMPARING SERVICE
MONITORED DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODEL PREDICTIONS
National Technical University of Athens and Maran Tankers Management Inc
The general practice in ship engine performance monitoring is to record important engine parameters. Some
shipping companies include cylinder pressures and shaft torque recordings. Periodically, data is collected in a
service report form and forwarded to headquarters for further processing and evaluation. Whilst most marine
diesel engines are fitted with some type of condition monitoring, the thermodynamic performance evaluation
systems used in the aerospace and process industries, have not been widely used in performance
assessment of marine diesel ship propulsion and auxiliary engines. One reason is the complexity of the
diesel engine process requiring sophisticated thermodynamic models. This paper presents the procedure
applied for shipboard engine performance evaluation, using a thermodynamic model to generate reference
data. The model, which requires some detailed geometric information for each specific engine, was initially
calibrated using the shop tests data and validated for accuracy using the sea trials data and early service
data of the specific engine. Then, the recordings from monthly in-service performance reports were
compared to simulation predictions for the same operating conditions. Any important differences between
obtained (measured) and expected (simulation) values may point out to component or process problems.
Thus, in cases where the deviations in the various engine operating parameters exceeded a limit of 3%, the
cause was investigated. In some possible operating conditions of a ship dictated by market conditions, no
prior operating data was available. Also presented in the paper are results of simulations using the validated
model of the specific engine at very low loads, to predict engine performance, prior to actual operation.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_032.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 32, 10pp.)
Waste heat recovery
THE EXERGY ANALYSIS OF MARINE DIESEL ENGINE WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
Harbin Engineering University
As international oil price rise rapidly, the proportion of the fuel cost share of the transport cost has become
increasingly high, At the same time, in order to reduce CO2 emissions, the meeting of MEPC formulated and
adopted the resolution on EEDI, and saving energy and reducing emission has become a marine industry
benchmark. Diesel is the main power of the ship, its thermal efficiency is the highest in all thermodynamic
engines, but still more than 50% of the energy is not being used. First of all this paper analyze and discuss
the energy distribution of the main engine of the ship. The result shows that making full use of the waste heat
of the main diesel engine scientifically and effectively, not only reduce the fuel consumption and the shipping
cost, but also reduce the value of the ship EEDI effectively, and improve the international competitiveness of
the Chinese shipbuilding industry. To be able to design and transform the green ship, thermodynamic
analyzing of the ship power plant and mastering the energy utilization of each part is necessary. In this paper,
the energy system of the ship power plant was analyzed with the heat balance which is based on the first law
of thermodynamics and the exergy balance which is based on the second law of thermodynamics, and the
analysis of the exergy balance is important, and has built the calculation model of the thermodynamic system
of the ship power plant. The result shows that the irreversible exergy loss of the cylinder is the largest in the
main engine; The exergy loss of the waste heat boiler is the largest in the waste heat power generation
system; When the diesel power is enough large to produce large waste heat, the waste heat recovery system
can meet ship’s auxiliary heat and electricity demand. According to the results of each part of the energy loss,
analyze the causes and put forward improvement measures. Finally, the economy of the waste heat recovery
system was analyzed, the result show that the economic viability of the waste heat recovery system is strong.
According to the model calculation of the thermodynamic system of the ship power plant, this thesis obtain
the law of utilization of energy, and find the priority and direction as to transforming the ship power plant,
provide the theoretical basis for development highly efficient ship waste heat recovery system.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_047.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 47, 8pp.)
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APPLICATIONS
Locomotive
QSK95 – READY FOR MORE
Cummins
Describes the Cummins QSK95 diesel engine for locomotive, marine, mining, offshore drilling and power
generation applications.
Covers – Modular Common Rail System (MCRS), Electronic Control Modules (ECMs), MCRS Injectors,
CENTINEL Oil Management, NanoNet Fuel Filtration, Electric Fuel Transfer Pump, Quad-Turbochargers,
Ductile Iron Block, Two-Stage Aftercooling, Leak-Free Seals, Direct-To-Block Mounting, Cylinder Head,
ELIMINATOR Oil Filtration Option, Forged-Steel Piston, Strong Bottom End.
See Electronic Document 6377
Marine
AIMING FOR A HIGHER PLANE
Scania
Scania has introduced a new 16-litre marine diesel for the higher output commercial marine markets. The
new V8 engine has outputs to 1000 hp and torques to 2460 lb-ft and is targeted towards patrol craft and other
commercial vessel applications.
The company's newer engines have been designed for higher strength and durability, Scania said, with
slightly increased swept volumes and boosted performance levels. Many components are shared across the
range, a factor that facilitated parts supply, since it significantly reduces the number of unique parts used for
each engine. The modular architecture and common work methods also help simplify training in Scania's
service network.
The design of the new diesel includes each cylinder having its own head, which, together with wet cylinder
liners, is intended to make it easy for overhauls in confined spaces. Additionally, the camshaft is located high
in the block and the timing gears are rear-mounted. For these reasons, most repairs and servicing can be
handled by one technician, Scania said.
See Doc.144100 (Diesel Progress North American Edition, Mar 2013, p30.)
HIMSEN ENGINE H32/40(V)
Hyundai Heavy Industries
Hyundai's HiMSEN 32/40 Family have simple and smart design suitable for marine applications with high
reliability and performance. The key features are:
- Heavy Fuel Engine with same fuel of main engine (Uni-Fuel concept). Hence the diesel fuel and heavy fuel
oil of the viscosity up to 700 cSt at 50°C is acceptable.
- Economical and Ecological Engine with low fuel consumption, NOx emission, and Smoke, etc, which is
based on the following specific designs;
- Optimized supercharging with Miller Cycle
- High fuel injection pressure
- Reliable and Practical Engine with simple, smart and robust structure.
- Number of engine components are minimized with Pipe-Free design
- Most of the components are directly accessible for easier maintenance
- 'Individual Part' maintenance concept is provided
- Feed system is fully modularized with direct accessibility.
Covers - rated power for genset, dimension and weight, specific fuel oil consumption, specific lubricating oil
consumption, H32/40P.
See Doc.142776 (Ulsan, Korea; Hyundai Heavy Industries, Apr 2012, Brochure, A02-113-01, 16pp.)
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WORLD’S LARGEST MARINE 2-STROKE DIESEL TEST ENGINE, THE 4UE-X3 - DEVELOPMENT IN
COMPLIANCE WITH THE NEXT VERSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND GAS ENGINE
TECHNOLOGY
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has brought to completion the 4UE-X3, one of the world's largest test
engines that has four cylinders with a bore diameter of 60 cm, based on the latest UE diesel engine. Using
this test engine to assure verification of the performance and reliability of the latest technologies and to
enable technological development in response to environmental regulations that will be restricted further in
the future and current market trends heading toward the diversification of fuel (toward gaseous fuel in
particular), MHI will be able to promptly offer products that meet the needs of customers. Recently a test of
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), one of the technologies for compliance with environmental regulations,
was performed and favourable data was obtained. This document describes a general outline of the test
engine and also presents the trends of technological development.
Covers - MHI’s NC33 two-stroke diesel test engine, Trend of marine emission regulations by IMO,
Technologies in response to environmental regulations, NOx reduction technologies, EGR test results,
Development of UEC-LSGi (dual fuel engine), Comparison of DF combustion types.
See Electronic Document 6437 (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, Mar 2013, pp55-62.)
NEW WAYS TO REDUCE GASEOUS EMISSIONS – WHAT CLASSIFICATION CAN DO TO HELP
DNV
Presentation Outline:
Growing complexity
Cost Effective Operations
Energy Drivers – Low Sulphur
Technical Innovation
Optimisation for true operation
Conclusion.
Covers – complex Ship systems Modelling and Simulation (COSSMOS), marine scrubbers, crude-oil
discharge system, fuel flexibility and efficiency options, alternative fuel options for vessels – LNG, LPG,
methanol/ethanol, DME, synthetic fuels (Fischer-Tropsch), biodiesel, biogas, hydrogen, nuclear fuel, well-topropeller CO2 Emissions, hybrid ships, FellowSHIP.
See vCD 124 Session 3 Martin Crawford-Brunt.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London,
UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 3: Emissions Efficiency/Emissions & the Impact on the Global Environment,
68pp.)
PANEL DEBATE: MGO, SCRUBBERS OR LNG
DNV
Findings – Shipping 2020
- More than 1 in 10 new buildings in the next 8 years will be delivered with gas fuelled engines
- Scrubbers are a significant option after 2012 with potentially 15-20000 installations
- In 2020, the demand for marine distillates could be as high as 200-250 million tonnes annually.
Covers – number of LNG fuelled vessels, SOx Scubbing, NOx abatement, Selective Catalytic Reactor, LNG
is supreme for SOx, NOx and PM removal.
See vCD 124 Session 3 Martin Crawford-Brunt Panel.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference,
London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 3: Emissions Efficiency/Emissions & the Impact on the Global
Environment, 12pp.)
ENHANCING PROPULSION PERFORMANCE TURBOCHARGING & VVT
ABB
Topics:
- Latest achievements in turbocharging two-stroke propulsion engines
- Power2 and VCM
- Principles and capabilities
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- Potential for four-stroke propulsion engines.
Covers – High Pressure Tuning (HPT), VCM-Cam-supported electro-hydraulic valvetrain.
See vCD 124 Session 6 Christoph Rofka.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 6: Advances in Engine & Drivetrain Technology For Next Generation Ships, 20pp.)
MATCHING ENGINES TO VESSEL OPERATION
Caterpillar Marine Power Systems
Tailored engine room solutions utilizing medium speed and high speed engines in the same engine room
minimizing your operating cost while maximising uptime
- Medium-speed engines are highly durable and have a low maintenance cost when running under heavy
load
- High speed engines superior in low load operation, further improvement available with variable speed
generator set technology
- Operating with an optimum engine mix reduces overall maintenance cost.
Covers – Mixed Speed Hybrid – Transit Low Speed, Mixed Speed DP Calm Weather - Mixed Speed Hybrid –
DP Rough weather, Remote Monitoring and Advance Condition Monitoring, Telematics.
See vCD 124 Session 7 Robert Hallengren.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK;
7-8 March 2013, Session 7: The Engine Forum, 9pp.)
THE HIGH-SPEED ADVANTAGE
Cummins
Trend towards more efficient high speed engines will accelerate win need for lower emissions.
Key drivers for large engines (2500-400 hp)
- Availability of sufficient and reliable power
- Total cost of operation (fuel, maintenance costs and schedule, overhaul)
- Emissions legislation
- EPA Tier 4 and IMO Tier III will force the use of aftertreatment
- Reliability and durability – maximum uptime with low maintenance costs and extended service intervals
- Longevity (25+ years operation)
- Fuel flexibility – MGO to USLD
- Sulphur contents will be driven by emissions regulations
- Environmental compliance – Green Passport, low environmental impact, sustainability
- Packaging.
Future trends:
- More stringent emissions standards will create a more favourable environment for high speed diesels
- Aftertreatment system efficiency and sizing
- Engines will require distillate fuels to be certified
- Upfront capital cost and return on investment on vessels more scrutinized – this will favour high speed
vessel designs
Graph shows - number of high-speed and medium-speed engines 1970-2018.
See vCD 124 Session 7 Michael Aufdermauer.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London,
UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 7: The Engine Forum, 9pp.)
THE EMD SERIES 710 TWO CYCLE MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL ENGINE - A TECHNICAL OVERVIEW
EMD Power Products
Gives specifications of the EMD Series 710 marine diesel engine.
Covers – Uniflow scavenging, clutched turbocharger design, fabricated crankcase/oil pan assembly, Series
710 Natural Gas capability forthcoming technologies.
See vCD 124 Session 7 Richard Kulaga.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 7: The Engine Forum, 12pp.)
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TIER III AND EFFICIENCY - WHAT IS BEING DONE FOR THE LOW SPEED ENGINES?
MAN Diesel & Turbo
Covers – IMO MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI, Emission Control Areas, MAN 2-stroke engines, S80ME-C EGR
solution EGR unit integrated on engine, EGR system layout with two turbochargers, Tier III SCR system.
See vCD 124 Session 7 Morten Vejlgaard-Laursen.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference,
London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 7: The Engine Forum, 16pp.)
HIMSEN ENGINE HI-TOUCH MARINE & STATIONARY ENGINE H17/21V
Hyundai Heavy Industries
Korea’s first high-speed engine, H17/21V is a different design concept to the existing HiMSEN engine, with
1800 rpm (1500 rpm), a high output of 160 kW (140 kW) per cylinder, and a compact structure. The weight
ratio per kilowatt of the H17/21V engine will average about one third less than the current 4-stroke diesel
engine. It can be used for marine propulsion, high speed vessels, emergency generator sets and diesel
power plants. It is a state-of-the-art diesel engine available up to a maximum output of 3200 kW and also
satisfies IMO Tier II regulations for emissions, and the lower SFOC. The new H17/21V was developed based
on the advanced HiMSEN engine concept and Hi-Touch technology. It also features:
- Structure strength minimizing heat load, noise and vibration
- Operating system based on dynamic analysis for high precision
- Highly efficient turbocharging for the best performance
- Advanced Miller timing
- Crown shape and selection of nozzle specification for excellent combustion performance
- Efficient lubrication and cooling system.
Covers - engine output, dimensions and weights, technical data.
See Electronic Document 6468 (Ulsan, Korea; Hyundai Heavy Industries, May 2012, Brochure, A02-11401, 4pp.)
LONG-LEGGED G-SERIES STEPS DEEPER INTO MARKET
Strong interest in the merits of its new G-type low speed engine design is reported by MAN Diesel & Turbo,
some 70 orders having been logged by last November, just one year after the official market launch of the
ultra-long-stroke series. Headed by the 800mm-bore G80ME-C9 model, the MAN B&W G-type programme
subsequently embraced smaller bore G70ME-C9, G60ME-C9, G50ME-B9, G45ME-B9 and G40ME-B9
versions extending the efficiency benefits from tankers, bulk carriers and container ships to smaller cargo
tonnage. The industry’s highest-ever stroke-bore ratio (4.65:1) facilitates the use of larger diameter propellers
for enhanced propulsive efficiency.
The first IMO Tier Ill-compliant engine exploiting an integrated EGR system was presented last October to
yards and owners at Korean licensee Hyundai Heavy Industries' production facilities. A low fuel penalty
(equivalent to 1-3 g/kWh) from the six-cylinder S80ME-C9 model was "better than our most optimistic
expectations," reported Soren Jensen, MA's vice president and head of R&D for low speed marine business.
As a promising spin-off benefit, he noted, the engine can also run in a fuel-optimised Tier II mode that
underwrites an approximate 4 g/kWh fuel consumption reduction at part load.
This favourable result was secured through a combination of sequential turbocharging, turbocharger cutout
and low EGR rates.
Gives - Cross-section of the MAN G50ME.
See Doc.144249 (Marine Propulsion, Feb/Mar 2013, p30.)
SLOW STEAMING - A LOOK BACK AT FIVE YEARS’ EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE AP MOLLER - MAERSK
GROUP
Maersk Maritime Technology
Covers - Post-Panmax container vessels, Flexible Slow Speed Steaming, APMM unified low load policy,
implementation of Slow Steaming on Chartered Fleet Concerns – Experience – Counteractions, turbocharger
efficiency, propeller efficiency, hull and propeller fouling, loss of lubrication in plummer and stern tube
bearings, piston ring sticking, cleaning of scavenging air space, cold and warm corrosion, cold corrosion of
economisers, exhaust valve failures, spindle stem and guide bush wear, scavenging NR flap valve damage,
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vibrations level, loss of fresh water production, cylinder oil consumption.
See vCD 137 Session-One-Presentation-One.pdf (35th Motorship Propulsion and Emissions Conference,
Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 32pp (Presentation).)
G-TYPE STRETCHES MAN’S LEGS IN KEY MARKETS
MAN B&W
An ultra-long stroke G-type design introduced in 2010 was described by MAN Diesel & Turbo as the most
significant development in its MAN B&W low speed engine portfolio since the launch of the electronicallycontrolled ME series in 2001. Based on the principles of the large bore Mark 9 series introduced in 2006, the
new 'Green' engine features an even longer stroke to reduce engine speed and promote higher propulsive
efficiency.
The new G-type programme was headed by a G80ME-C9 model, an 800mm-bore design with a stroke of
3720mm, whose stroke-bore ratio of 4.65:1 (then the highest for any commercial engine) contrasts with the
4.31:1 ratio of the S80ME-C9 model. A conservative output of 4450 kW cylinder at 68 rpm on a mean
effective pressure of 21 bar promises highly efficient propulsion for a VLCC from a 7-cylinder model.
Official shop tests of the first G-type engine were carried out in January this year by Korean licensee Hyundai
Heavy Industries, the 7-cylinder G80ME-C9.2 model specified to power a 319000 dwt VLCC booked by Almi
Tankers from Daewoo.
Development by MAN Diesel & Turbo at the end of its programme resulted in a new model - the 300mm-bore
S30ME-B9 type – joining established 350mm, 400mm, 460mm, 500mm and 600mm-bore designs in the
MAN B&W ME-B small-bore family. MAN B&W S30ME-89 engines are available in 5-, 6-, 7- and 8-cylinder
versions with maximum outputs ranging from 3200 kW to 5,120 kW at 195 rpm. River and coastal vessels
are among the propulsion candidates.
See Doc.144342 (Marine Propulsion, Apr/May, p26.)
TWO-STROKES STAYING ON TOP
Low-speed two-stroke engine designer/licensors invest heavily to maintain their dominance in a deepsea
propulsion arena formed by bulk carriers, container ships, tankers and other cargo tonnage. Opportunities in
more specialist tonnage sectors are also targeted; for example the new generation of large LNG carriers, for
which designers and operators are specifying twin low-speed engine installations.
The longstanding supremacy of low-speed engines in mainstream cargo ship propulsion reflects the overall
operational economy, comparative simplicity and reliability of single, direct-coupled crosshead engine plants.
Continual development of designs and programmes in response to or in anticipation of changing operational
requirements also sustains market competitiveness.
Evolution decreed that all three remaining low speed crosshead engine programmes - from MAN, Mitsubishi
and Wartsila - exploit a common basic design configuration: a two-stroke cycle with constant pressure
turbocharging and uniflow scavenging via a single hydraulically operated exhaust valve in the cylinder
See Doc.144343 (Marine Propulsion, Apr/May 2013, p25.)
INNOVATIVE DUAL-FUEL DEVELOPMENTS
Heinzmann
Comprehensive solutions for marine propulsion - including engine control, monitoring and safety devices remain the focus of engine manufacturers and system suppliers. The following article by Heinzmann, a
specialist in engine and turbine management solutions, discusses dual-fuel conversion as well as fuel
consumption monitoring and reporting for marine engines.
The engine manufacturer ABC (Anglo Belgian Corporation) and system supplier Heinzmann have developed
a special dual-fuel engine for ships with direct propulsion.
The key challenges for the engine management system are the variable speed/load and the fact that the
torque/power output of the engine is not known. Maintaining a high conversion rate in dynamic operation calls
for sophisticated control concepts. In addition, rapid switching functions back to 100% diesel are used, for
example to prevent misfires due to insufficient pilot injection.
Covers - emissions reduction, NOx emissions, fuel performance system FueIMACS, fuel consumption
monitoring.
See Doc.144367 (Schiff & Hafen, Jun 2013, pp66-67.)
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TEN YEARS AFTER: RESULTS FROM THE MAJOR PROGRAMME HERCULES A-B-C ON MARINE
ENGINE R&D
National Technical University of Athens, Wartsila and MAN Diesel & Turbo
In the year 2004, the Integrated Project HERCULES-A (High Efficiency Engine R&D on Combustion with
Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) was initiated by the major engine makers MAN and Wartsila, which together
hold 90% of the world market. It was the Phase I of the HERCULES R&D programme on large engine
technologies. The HERCULES-A, involved 42 industrial and university partners, with a budget of 33M €,
partly funded by the European Union. The project was broad in the coverage of the various R&D topics and
considered a range of options and technologies in improving efficiency and reducing emissions. HERCULESB was the Phase II of the Programme, from 2008 to 2011, with 32 participant organisations and 26M
€budget, partly funded by European Union. The general targets for emissions and fuel consumption were
retained in HERCULES-B.
However, based on the developed know-how and results of HERCULES-A, it was possible to narrow down
the search area, to focus on potential breakthrough research and to further develop the most promising
techniques for lower specific fuel consumption (and CO2 emissions) and ultra-low gaseous and particulate
emissions. The HERCULES-C project (2012-2015), with 22 participant organizations and 17M €budget, is the
Phase III of the HERCULES programme and adopts a combinatory approach, with an extensive integration of
the multitude of new technologies identified in Phase I and Phase II, for engine thermal processes
optimization, system integration, as well as engine reliability and lifetime. This paper provides an overview of
the complex structure, as well as the main achievements of the HERCULES R&D programme in the past 10
years.
Covers – new combustion concepts, fuel injection models and experiments, near zero emission engine
technologies, new materials and tribology, adaptive engine control and lifetime reliability.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_018.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 18, 8pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF NIIGATA MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL ENGINE 17AHX
Niigata Power Systems
Recently, the four-stroke engines are developed mainly with the environmental preservation as well as taking
economy, durability and maintainability, etc. Niigata has developed high power density new four-stroke
medium speed diesel engine ’The 17AHX’ ’The 17AHX’ has 165mm bore and 265mm stroke, engine speed
900 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1200 rpm. The 17AHX covered with 500 kW to 1125 kW output ranges of marine
auxiliary engines, marine propulsion and electric propulsion engines that run on MDO and heavy fuel oil.
Niigata achieved shorten development period around one year by using front loading such as performance
simulation , CFD, FEA were carried out early development stage. Niigata improved durability and reliability by
the advanced analysis technology such as performance simulation, FEA, and CFD. In order to improve
environmental concerned, Niigata considered optimizing compression ratio, valve timing, piston bowl shape,
turbocharger matching and fuel injection system by using performance simulation. Niigata carried out
simulation analysis for the optimum fuel injection system at the beginning of development stage. The fuel
injection system performances such as the stable injection, improved performance during idle and full loads
were confirmed by the component tests. The combustion chamber is most critical components for life time.
Niigata has designed carefully the combustion chamber to achieve longer life time. Especially, FEA and CFD
were applied to produce a highly rigid construction and effective cooling on the combustion chamber. The
moving parts were optimized and reduced weight through FEA. It was tested the engine with two exhaust
systems such as constant pressure and pulse. The valve timing is inference of engine performance. Niigata
tested the engine with cam timing variants and turbocharger matching optimization. Niigata investigates main
components of prototype engine stress distribution and temperature profiles. The prototype engine verify the
durability of the new engine, endurance tests have been performed. This paper describes the design features
of the main components of ’the 17AHX’, simulation results and engine test results.
Covers – cylinder head, piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, camshaft, high efficiency, low emissions,
turbocharger.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_055.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 55, 7pp.)
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STATE-OF-THE-ART MAN B&W TWO-STROKE SUPER-LONG-STROKE ENGINES
MAN Diesel & Turbo
Since the economical crisis was recognised worldwide in the autumn of 2008, owners have been looking into
cost savings, such as slow steaming and optimised low-load operation with turbocharger cut-out, exhaust gas
bypass, etc. This has led to research into optimised propulsion efficiency, available propeller sizes and
possibilities regarding stroke size for crankshafts. The result is now known as the G engine series, including
the G/40/45/50ME-B9.3, G60/70/80ME-C9.2, S30ME-B9.3 and S90ME-C9.2. With the G engine series, a
new generation of superlong-stroke engines has been introduced to the market and, in many cases, a new
design of the aft ship is needed to fully utilise the low revolutions of these engines. However, the interest in
the new engines is very high, and firm orders have already now been received for 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12-cylinder
S90ME-C9.2 engines, 6 and 7-cylinder G80ME-C9.2 engines as well as 6G70ME-C9.2, 5 and 6-cylinder
G60ME-C9.2 engines and 6G50ME-B9.3. One of the present goals in the marine industry is to reduce CO2
emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for ship propulsion to the widest
possible extent at any load. This goes hand in hand with the focus on fuel cost savings, including the newly
introduced variable exhaust valve timing for ME-B9 engines. This new system will improve the part load fuel
consumption for the ME-B engines, and they will be designated ME-B9.3. Furthermore, the newly introduced
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) will also have an impact on future ship development and engine
design. One possible solution to improve the EEDI for a ship is to optimise the aft body and hull lines of the
ship, including bulbous bow and operation in ballast condition – making it possible to install propellers with a
larger diameter and, thereby, obtaining higher propeller efficiency at a reduced propeller speed. As the twostroke main engine is directly coupled to the propeller, the introduction of the super-long-stroke G engine
series with an even lower-than-usual shaft speed will meet this target. This paper will deal with the overall
design platform for these engines, which is mainly based on the service experience as well as production
experience with the 80ME-C9 and 35-50ME-B9 engines. Furthermore, dedicated design requirements in
order to be able to operate with, for instance, the biggest stroke-bore ratio ever of 5 for the G40/45 and G50ME-B9.3 engines will also be described. Similar to the situation with the S80ME-C9 and 35/40ME-B9, the
new G engine series are only offered as electronically controlled versions so as to obtain the lowest possible
fuel oil consumption at all loads as well as optimising NOx emissions. However, if needed, the G engines can
be delivered as MC-C engines on request. LEL/SUK - 27/06/2012.
Gives engine data for the following engines – S30ME-B9.3, L35MC6, S42MC7, G40ME-B9.3, S46ME-B8.2,
G45ME-B9.3, S50ME-C8.2, S50ME-B9.3, G50ME-B9.3, S60ME-C8.2, G60ME-C9.2, S70ME-C8.2, G70ME-
C9.2, S80ME-C8.2, S80ME-C9.2, G80ME-C9.2, S90ME-C8.2, S90ME-C9.2, K98ME7.1, K98ME-C7.1.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_071.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 71, 11pp.)
THE CRISTAL ENGINE: ABC’S NEW MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL ENGINE, DEVELOPED TO COMPLY
WITH IMO III
Anglo Belgian Corporation and Ghent University
With the increasing focus on emissions and fuel consumption, ABC has taken the next challenge to design
and build a completely new engine range with a power output of 650 kW/cylinder at 750 rpm which is
developed to meet the IMO III emission level with engine internal measures. This engine is designed with
state of the art components and a unique charging system which has to make it possible to reach the IMO III
limits. Furthermore, the engine is developed to work inside and outside the ECA zone’s, as well on MDO,
HFO and Dual Fuel. The base design of the engine is foreseen to work at different speeds on nominal torque
so that the engine has its main applications in as well power generation as marine propulsion. This will make
it a multifunctional engine which will set the standard in its category. This paper will describe this new
developed engine characteristics and will highlight the new technology that is used to reach the targeted IMO
III limit, engine internally. It will include a discussion on the different issues as there are, mechanical design,
thermodynamics, emissions, fuel consumption, etc. We will also describe the current status of the
development and show the available test results.
Covers – CRISTAL engine (Clean Reliable Innovative Sustainable Two-Stage Alternative Line),
thermodynamical and combustion design, Miller Timing and VVT system, two-stage charging system,
integrated EGR, common rail, crankcase, control, cylinder head.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_83.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 83, 12pp.)
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SERIES 1163-04
MTU Friedrichshafen
To ensure compliance with the IMO II emission regulations, a new version of the engine series 1163 will be
introduced into the market: the build sample 04. The modernized version retains the key characteristics of the
engine, i.e. power-to-weight ratio, wide performance map, re- liability, engine dimensions and compliance
with military requirements. The running gear as well as the turbocharging concept remain unchanged. New
features for this engine series are a common rail injection system, state-of-the-art engine electronics as well
as the use of the Miller cycle with optimized turbocharging. One of the major changes reducing emissions is
the common rail injection system with eight high-pressure pumps on the 20-cylinder engine. It replaces the
previous unit pump system. The significant increase in injection pressure from 1300 to 1800 bar resulted in a
cleaner combustion with a lower emission of particulate matter. By means of pilot injection, the stress on the
running gear can be kept at a low level despite the increased combustion requirements. To control the
common rail injection system, new engine electronics were required. For the build sample 04 of the engine
series 1163, the ADEC system used on MTU Series 4000 engines was developed further. All military
requirements regarding EMC (electro-magnetic compatibility) are being complied with. Given the use of new
technologies, the efficiency of the sequential turbocharging system was increased significantly. The Miller
cycle results in an increase in charge-air pressure. The new build sample was developed in a SE process
using the latest methods of design, calculation and testing. For the 12-cylinder, 16-cylinder and 20-cylinder
engines of the build sample 04, the following characteristics/improvements were achieved compared to build
sample 03: Emissions: Compliance with IMO II (NOx) and reduction of PM Charge-air pressure (abs):
Increase from 4.6 to 5.7 bar Total ETC efficiency: Increase by 8% Fuel consumption: Reduction by 10% in
performance map This paper describes the key development steps.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_112.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 112, 12pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DIESEL ENGINES 6DE-18 AND 6DE-23
Daihatsu Diesel
Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing Co has developed the promising environmentally friendly engines, 6DE-18
and 6DE-23, which are kind to the Earth and can cope with increasingly tough environmental issues.
With regards to the environment, the DE Engines, while reducing NOx emissions, consume less fuel
compared to our existing models and are of course compliant with IMO NOx Tier II regulation which has been
entered into force since January 2011. In addition, to comply with the Ship Recycling Convention which will go
into effect in a few years, while reducing the designated hazardous materials used in engines, we are, at the
same time, leading the way in management by recording those materials’ classification, location and quantity.
By enhancing the durability and reliability, the amount of working hours for maintenance will be reduced, it
means less running cost. Then we improved combustion to keep the Lub.Oil at an appropriate condition for
long term, and improved filtration to reduce combustion residue which causes Lub.Oil deterioration. From the
perspective of improvements in assurance and safety, we implemented a full protection of high temperature
areas and splash prevention of fuel oil and Lub.Oil. For labour savings during outfitting construction and
installation, we concentrated the pipe connection points to the front part of the engine. Furthermore, by
reducing the piping and unitizing the attached equipment, we simplified the maintenance work. Both the 6DE18 and 6DE-23 satisfy either ’generator’ or ’main engine’ specifications. With regard to generator
specifications, the 6DE-18 offers a wider generator output range, making it suitable for a variety of vessel
types. With respect to their ’main engine’ specifications, both engines offer a 540 to 1500 kW output range,
making them suitable for work vessels and ferries, etc. This paper describes the design features of principal
components, the report of on board operation and the compliance with future emission regulations.
Covers – engine block, crankshaft, connecting rod, cylinder head, fuel injection pump, reliability, service
report.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_135.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 135, 8pp.)
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DESIGN
Materials
FUTURE HFO/GI EXHAUST VALVE SPINDLE
MAN Diesel & Turbo
State of the art for exhaust valve spindles for large two-stroke heavy fuel diesel engines is currently either a
fully forged Nimonic 80A version or a cost effective version based on an austenitic valve steel weld coated by
a specially hardened Inconel 718 seat hardfacing and Inconel 625 disc coating. These three alloys, originally
developed more than 50 years ago for the gas turbine and process industry, show comparable corrosion
resistance at usual heat load. The general trend in engine design is steadily pushing combustion chamber
component temperatures towards higher levels and the hot corrosion resistance of these alloys is currently
being tested to the limit. Furthermore operation on LNG will introduce new challenges. Indeed, it would
appear that there is much room for improvement as no focused alloy development has been performed
aimed at the special conditions found on the thermally and mechanically stressed parts of the exhaust valve
spindle. In the present work new coating alloys, meeting the requirements for the future valve spindle, have
been developed by combining literature study, service experience, experimental data and numerical
thermodynamic calculations. This paper describes the considerations and results of this alloy development as
well as the details of a required new production technique for manufacturing a compound product by the Hot
Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technology which has been developed applying advanced Finite Element Method
(FEM) modelling.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_003.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 3, 10pp.)
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DEVELOPMENT
ADVANCED OPTICAL DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FOR TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
MAN Diesel & Turbo and Technical University of Denmark
Development and application of advanced engineering tools - for description, prediction and optimization of
the 2-stroke Diesel engine process - is essential for development of the marine engines of the future. Here,
recent developments of optical and laser based imaging tools will be presented. Such tools can lead to both
increased understanding and predictive capabilities of for example the scavenging process, fuel spray
structure, flame ignition, and thermal loads. For optical studies access to the combustion chamber has been
achieved using sapphire windows, mounted in starting air and fuel injector ports on both standard fuel oil and
gas cylinder covers, or inserted in the 24 optical ports of a dedicated optical cover. A few examples,
highlighting the new capabilities thus offered, will be presented. High-speed imaging offered detailed views of
the dynamics of fuel jet ignition. Pulsed laser illumination was used for visualization of fuel jets, from which
information on fuel jet penetration, jet velocity, and spray angles could be gathered. For this purpose a highpower laser and a custom designed imaging system was mounted directly onto the optical cover. The fuel jet
data is qualitatively compared to results from KIVA simulations, in order to tune spray parameters in the
numerical model. The same laser system was also used for measurements of in-cylinder flow velocities, in
order to characterize swirl and scavenging. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used for those velocity
measurements. Finally, infrared imaging was employed for two purposes, firstly for capturing the evolution of
piston temperature distributions during single engine cycles and secondly for visualization of scavenging of
hot product gases.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_53.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 53, 14pp.)
CAE issues
A SEMI-EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING APPROACH FOR A LARGE TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL
ENGINE SIMULATION
Wuhan University of Technology
In this paper, a semi-experimental modelling approach for the simulation of a large marine engine is
presented. The engine, which is of the two-stroke marine Diesel type, is modelled by means of a cycle mean
value model. According to that, two non-linear first order differential equations, which are derived by applying
the angular momentum conservation in engine crankshaft and turbocharger shaft, are used for the
calculation of engine crankshaft and turbocharger shaft rotational speeds. The other engine operating
parameters are calculated after the solution of a non-linear algebraic system of three equations
corresponding to the mass and energy balances in the engine components. Several times in the modelling
stage, it is required to use, a model for the pressure drop in the air cooler, a model for the air cooler
effectiveness, a model for the mass of injected fuel per cylinder and per cycle, and a model for the pressure
increase in the exhaust piping system of the turbocharger. The problem with the already existing models is
that they are involving, air cooler characteristics, engine characteristics, and exhaust piping system
characteristics which are not always available. So in order to solve this problem, the data recorded in the
engine testing data sheet of the engine to be simulated, and relative, to the pressure difference in the air
cooler, to the temperatures of the air exiting the compressor and the air entering the engine, to the specific
fuel oil consumption, and to the pressure of the exhaust gas at the outlet of the turbocharger, is exploited.
This data is taken and the Curve Fitting Tool-box included in MATLAB is used to fit the following four curves:
the curve of the variation of the pressure drop in the air cooler as a function of the fuel rack position, the
curve of the variation of the air cooler effectiveness as a function of the fuel rack position, the curve of the
variation of the mass of injected fuel per cylinder and per cycle as a function of the fuel rack position, and the
curve of the variation of the pressure increase in the exhaust piping system of the turbocharger as a function
of the fuel rack position. The four new models, obtained this way, are composed of quadratic and cubic
polynomials and are used in this modelling approach. The mathematical equations of the marine engine
model are implemented and solved using the computational environment MATLAB Simulink. Then, the
simulation, under various operating conditions of the large marine engine of which engine testing data sheet
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has been used in the modelling phase, is performed and the derived results are presented together with the
experimental results available from test bench trials of the same engine. At the end, the utility of the semiexperimental modelling approach is discussed.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_105.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 105, 12pp.)
SIMULATION STUDY ON THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION FOR 4190 SERIES MARINE
DIESEL ENGINE BASED ON AVL BOOST SOFTWARE
Jimei University
The middle speed 4-stroke diesel engines has the advantages of small capacity, light in weight, capable to
combustion poor fuel oil. In recent years, they have been used more comprehensive than before. The
simulation model of 4190ZLC 4-stroke marine diesel engine is established by using AVL BOOST software
and the laboratory platform experiment is completed under rated operating conditions. The accuracy of the
model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The compression ratio, the starting
angle of combustion and the valve timing on diesel engine performance are discussed by BOOST model
established, and in order to carry out the optimization calculation of the diesel engine, the output power of the
diesel engine as a target, cylinder peak pressure as a constraint condition, and fuel consumption rate as the
optimization object. The results show that the optimized diesel engine performance improved to some extent.
On the basis of the numerical calculation for 4190ZLC medium-speed turbocharged diesel engine, these
results will provide some theoretical support to improve operational performance for heavy-duty 4-stroke
marine diesel engine.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_123.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 123, 6pp.)
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE OPERATION RULES BETWEEN TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM AND 4-
STROKE MEDIUM-SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
Jimei University
4190 series diesel engine, which is a type of 4-stroke medium-speed turbocharged marine diesel engine, is
widely used in ocean-going ships. The simulation model of 4190ZLC 4-stroke diesel engine is established by
using AVL_BOOST software, the propulsion characteristics and load characteristics of working conditions are
calculated using this model, and the laboratory platform experiment is completed under rated operating
conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The
matching operation rules between 4190ZLC-2 medium-speed marine diesel engine and existing turbocharger
is discussed by BOOST model established, the matching characteristics are obtained. The results show that
4190ZLC-2 diesel engine and compressor operating performance is very good to meet the matching
requirements of the turbocharger. These results will decrease the dependence degree for a marine engineer,
then make it possible to scientific manage modern automatic engine room and improve the reliability of
marine trust power plant.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_125.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 125, 6pp.)
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DIAGNOSTICS AND CONDITION MONITORING
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A MONITORING AND FAULT DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR
MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
Wuhan University of Technology
As a prime mover, marine diesel engines are designed to enable safe and reliable operation of ships,
maximise availability of operation. Thus, the application of monitoring and diagnosis technology for marine
diesel engines is able to improve the economy of ship operation and environmental protection. This paper
presents the development and application of a marine engine monitoring and fault diagnosis system by using
LabVIEW software, which integrates real time parameters obtained by monitoring and measurement via
computer network and off line engine parameters and database. The real time parameters include engine
shaft instantaneous angular speed and engine operational parameters. Those measured off-line include
engine indicating diagram. The developed system is able to measure and monitor multiple engines’ operation
at the same time, performing fault diagnosis. The installation of the system on a case ship and subsequent
sea trials have proved the functionality and reliability of the system.
Covers – fault of misfire in a cylinder, diagnosis of fuel injection system leaking, diagnosis of poor fuel
atomisation and combustion.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_020.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 20, 10pp.)
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NVH
LOW VIBRATION DESIGN OF LARGE DIESEL AND GAS ENGINES BY PREDICTIVE SIMULATION
MAN Diesel & Turbo
The following paper illustrates, that MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT) has the required know-how and modern
technologies, in order to develop low-vibration medium and high speed four-stroke engines. The development
of low-vibration engines bases on a holistic, predictive and decision-based simulation process aiming for the
right-first-time approach instead of costly trial-and-error.
In the area of four-stroke engines MDT has a wide spectrum for marine and power applications offering pure
diesel, gas as well as dual fuel (DF) engines. It includes in-line and V-type engines ranging from small bore
size 21/31 (bore/stroke in cm) to large bore size 58/64 with maximum power of 22 MW.
At MDT low vibration engines are developed by a design attendant simulation process. It allows defining and
implementing the required design attributes long before the first casting of engine parts respectively engine
test with high accuracy. Especially dealing with large bore engines, which developing and manufacturing time
can usually take one to three years, a failure can afterwards only be corrected by very expensive measures.
Therefore a reliable, holistic and predictive simulation process is very essential.
The successful development process by predictive computational simulations is demonstrated by the recently
developed medium speed four-stroke 20V 35/44G engine. It is a single-staged turbocharged Otto gas V-type
engine for stationary use in power plants. It has a cylinder bore diameter of 350mm and a piston stroke of
440mm. The engine reaches a total shaft power of 10.6 MW at a mechanical efficiency of 49.2%. Due to the
resilient mounting design and the flexible coupling it is decoupled from the alternator respectively
environment in terms of low frequency structural vibrations.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_103.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 103, 8pp.)
ACOUSTIC SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION OF MEDIUM SPEED IC-ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, KTH and Wartsila
Due to the tightening demands concerning the environmental noise, knowledge of the sound generation of
internal combustion engines (IC-engines) is of great importance. The exhaust noise of an IC-engine travels
from the source via transmission path, exhaust system, to the outside environment. When designing the
elements used in IC-engine exhaust systems, e.g. silencers or catalytic converters to reduce the exhaust
emissions, including noise, the acoustic source characteristics of the IC-engine must be known. The studied
audio frequency range can be divided into the low frequency plane wave range and high frequency non-plane
wave range. The low frequency plane wave range acoustic source characteristics of an IC-engine can be
determined accurately by using for example process simulation software and acoustic multi-load methods. If
the diameter of the studied duct is small as in automotive systems, the low frequency plane wave range
source characterization might be enough. When studying noise from a medium speed power plant or marine
IC-engine, the duct diameters are large and therefore the acoustic source characteristics in the high
frequency non-plane wave range are also important. The goal of this study is to estimate how the acoustic
source data of a medium speed IC-engine exhaust system can be determined in the low frequency plane
wave range and also in the high frequency non-plane wave range using engineering practices and acoustic
power based methods. In this study the source characteristics are determined based on simulations and
measurements, then the low- and high frequency source characteristics are combined in a way that allows
them to be used in multi-port simulations.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_110.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 110, 8pp.)
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SERVICE, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE
SERVICE EXPERIENCE OF MAN B&W TWO STROKE DIESEL ENGINES - AN UPDATE
MAN Diesel & Turbo
After introduction of the Tier II versions of the MAN B&W M-range of 2-stroke diesel engines around 85% off
all new orders are specified as electronically controlled ME/ME-C/ME-B types. This trend is covering all
engine sizes, however the trend is most dominating for large bore engines (80, 90, 98) where nearly 100% of
all orders are specified in electronic controlled versions. It is therefore of extreme importance that the ME
engines has reached a matured development status and this paper confirms that this is indeed the case.
Today the ME engine concept is widely accepted among major ship owners and the benefits of electronic
control is seen more and more as the concept is enhanced with features as auto-tuning, integrated control of
exhaust bypass, variable turbine area turbochargers, turbocharger cut-out and in the near future (Tier III era)
integrated control of exhaust gas recirculation, water in fuel emulsion and SCR. An update of service related
issues on the electro-hydraulic control will be given. The continued change in economics for shipping
following the world-wide financial crisis after autumn 2008 has called for continued focus on extreme low
continuous load operation of several types of vessels. This focus started for large container vessels operated
down to 10% load continuously. However now it also become relevant for other ship types like tankers and
bulkers. An up-date on service experience will be given also including service experience with ’high-pscav
tuning’ as retrofit. Lower design speed for newly ordered ships has called for new engine types in various
types of vessels applying larger diameter more efficient propellers. For large container vessels around 800014000 TEU’s the S90ME-C engine in Mark 8 and Mark 9 versions have become new industry standard. An
update on service experience with this new application of the well proven S90 engine, formerly predominantly
specified for VLCC propulsion, will be given. The trend of applying lower propeller revolutions on various ship
types has also called for introduction of the ultra-long stroke G-type engine series. Early service experience
for these engines will be given. Common for both the ME/ME-C and the MC/MC-C engine series is the well
documented possibility to do Condition Based Overhaul (CBO) with average Time Between Overhauls
(TBOs) of 32000 hours and above. For tanker this opens up the possibility to do only major overhauls at
dockings with 5 years interval. Many ship-owners do now have the experience of CBO. Development of a
new piston ring package for small bore engines (50 bore and downward) has made it possible also to enjoy
extended time between piston overhauls on these engine types. The so-called POP (Port On Plane) top
piston ring will be introduced.
Covers – cylinder liner cold corrosion, cylinder condition update - small bore engines, PMI Autotuning.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_006.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 6, 14pp.)
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GAS ENGINES
STATIONARY, OFF-HIGHWAY, MARINE, LOCOMOTIVE AND TOTAL ENERGY SYSTEMS
Engines and Systems
BREAKTHROUGH FOR THE MAN B&W GAS-FUELLED ME-GI ENGINE
MAN Diesel & Turbo
Recently MAN Diesel & Turbo have received significant orders for the gas-fuelled ME-GI engine, which has
been specified for two gas-fuelled container vessels ordered by the company TOTE. This first order is for an
8L70ME-C8-GI engine sized for a 3100 teu container ship. It is the first of its kind, and it is an interesting fact
that this is the first fully commercial vessel operating on natural gas that is built without any subsidies. The
vessels will be built by NASSCO shipyard, and the first vessel is scheduled for delivery in 2015.
Furthermore, MAN Diesel & Turbo have received an order for 2 + 3 LNG carriers to Teekay. Also powered by
ME-GI engines, these LNG carriers are going to be built by DSME, and first delivery will be in 2016. The
target for Teekay has been to reduce both the fuel oil consumption and the maintenance costs. The two ships
are rather different. The LNG carriers already carry LNG on-board, so the challenge for type of ship is to
design an efficient gas supply system, and taking the handling of boil-off gas (BOG) into consideration. The
gas supply system should be able to handle the boil-off gas from the cargo tank and deliver it to the main
engine as well as to the dual fuel gensets. If the pressure in the tanks becomes too high, the gas supply
system must also be able to direct the BOG to the GCU, in order to protect the tank.
The gas-fuelled container vessels, on the other hand, do not carry LNG on-board, so LNG tanks must be
installed, with a gas supply system delivering LNG to the ME-GI engine as well as to the dual fuel gensets.
Here, the challenge is to make a container ship design with sufficient space for the LNG tanks without losing
any space for containers.
Both orders are expected to change the market conditions significantly, as they will set a new standard for
ship efficiency and low emissions. It is therefore expected that many other owners will follow this new trend
and take up the competition.
This paper describes the technology behind the gas-fuelled ME-GI engine, and the requirements to the gas
supply system.
Covers – ME-GI injection system, safety features, high-pressure double-wall piping, emissions control.
See vCD 124 Session 3 Rene Laursen.pdf (Paper) and Jan.Vinder.pdf (Presentation) (The Annual
Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 3: Emissions Efficiency/Emissions &
the Impact on the Global Environment, 26pp, (Paper), 24pp (Presentation).)
HOW TO ENSURE LNG IS A COMMERCIALLY VIABLE FUEL FOR VESSELS
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering
Covers - IMO Regulations & Rules on Air Emissions, LNG Fuelled Propulsion (LFP) Systems, LNG Fuelled
Propulsion (LFP) Ships, LNG Bunkering for Large Vessels, DSME’s Green Top Technology, NOx, SOx
recent rules and regulations, CO2 recent regulations, ME-GI Engine and FGS System (HiVAR), DSME
ACTIB Tank.
See vCD 124 Session 5 Odin Kwon.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 5: LNG & Alternative Propulsion Technology, 40pp.)
OVERVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY
Rolls-Royce Marine
Covers – environmental regulations, marine fuel transition, alternative propulsors – fixed propulsors and
Azimuthing propulsors, Integrated Rudder and Propulsion System – PROMAS,
Wing Thrustor Propulsion Concept, Wind Power, Flettner Rotors, Diesel Electric Machinery, HSG Hybrid
Machinery, Hybrid Shaft Generators, LNG, GGS Fuelled Ships, ENVIRONSHIP Concept.
Conclusions:
Fuel cost drives the need for more efficient ships
A holistic approach needed when selecting machinery
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Optimised for real operating conditions
Design and system integration is key to high efficiency.
See vCD 124 Session 5 Oskar Levander.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 5: LNG & Alternative Propulsion Technology, 43pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF GE’S WAUKESHA 275GL+ ENGINE
GE
In 2009 Dresser-Waukesha introduced the 275GL engine family consisting of a 13048 in³ (214-litre) 12cylinder, and a 17398 in³ (285-litre) 16-cylinder engine. These 1000 RPM engines were primarily developed
for natural gas compression at 3400-4500 bhp (2500 to 3300 kWb). They are also available for other
mechanical drive applications.
Input from voice of customer (VOC) interviews and other segment analysis determined that lower Oxides of
Nitrogen (NOx) output was required for future engine sales in North America. Meeting this requirement with
minimal impact to the engine’s fuel efficiency, tolerance to lower knock resistance fuels, speed turndown
range, and altitude capability was also required.
Combustion work using DOE, and CFD was successful at producing a lean burn combustion chamber
capable of maintaining NOx below 0.5 g/bhp-hr throughout the engine’s operating range. Development of a
NOx control system utilizing NOx feedback assures the engine stays below the NOx limit at all times.
The enhanced version of GE’s 275GL gas engine, named the 275GL+, meets stringent US 0.5 g/bhp-hr NOx
requirements while maintaining fuel efficiency, fuel tolerance, and speed turndown range. Additionally the
power for the 275GL+ was increased 8% to take advantage of lower peak firing pressures that resulted from
the combustion development. The 275GL+ family now provides a 1000 RPM power range of 3625-4835 bhp.
This paper will discuss the testing and results of this development.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp16-22 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
WARTSILA 50SG GAS ENGINE FOR SMART POWER GENERATION
Wartsila
Wartsila 50SG engine was developed in a short period of time based on previous Wartsila gas engines. Its
output of around 19 MW makes it the biggest spark-ignited engine in the world with high efficiency. The
engine control system has a state-of-the-art design, giving the engine very good dynamic properties. The
engine is intended for 200-500 MW power plants and it is capable of a dynamic operation mode which is
called smart power generation. Dynamic operation will be needed more and more as smaller production units
– some of which are not always available for use – are attached to the electrical grid. The Wartsila 50SG
engine has been successfully tested to confirm that it fulfils the dynamic operation requirements stated in the
grid code. The starting and loading properties are optimized and it has been verified that the engine recovers
from the most common electrical side fault situations. The first engine sold has been in commercial use for
more than a year and over 50 engines have been sold in total, so it can already be said that the Wartsila
50SG engine has made its breakthrough.
Covers – cylinder head, pre-combustion chamber (PCC), main technical data of Wartsila 18V50SG engine
and generating set, Wartsila UNIC (unified controls) engine control system.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp24-42 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
THE NEW GAS AND DUAL FUEL ENGINES BY MDT FOR MARITIME AND STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
MAN Diesel & Turbo
In marine as well as in stationary markets gas engines become more and more attractive. This is not only
due to the low fuel cost, but also because of the reduced emissions compared to state of the art diesel
engines. MAN Diesel & Turbo SE offers a brought product portfolio of gas engines, that covers all major
customer applications in a power range of 3,2-18,9 MW with highest efficiencies and lowest emissions. This
includes better green house gas emissions including the methane slip in comparison to the diesel engines.
The paper starts with an overview of today’s gas and dual fuel engine portfolio, which can be used in diverse
applications. Besides pure electricity generation for maritime and stationary application the engines can also
be used to maximize the total plant efficiency in Combined Cycle (CC) as well as in Combined Heat and
Power (CHP) applications. Furthermore the DF engines are available in marine application as mechanical
main propulsion (CPP) and electrical main propulsion (DFDE).
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The applied engineering tools and methods of the gas and dual fuel engine family will be described in
consideration of the different combustion principles and engine sizes. For the base development the use of
0D/3D calculation methods and validation on the single cylinder engines are described. The applied modular
matrix design to reduce variants is explained going into further detail on the combustion specific components
and the base engine. Afterwards the modular matrix design and the combustion principle methodology for
stationary applications are explained, reaching highest total plant efficiencies with minimum efforts.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp56-68 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
THE NEW MTU TYPE L64 OF SERIES 4000 GAS ENGINES
MTU
The demand for decentralized power generation is increasing worldwide. In order to pro- vide customers with
a product with low life-cycle costs, the following key factors are essential: high efficiency, high power density
and a long service life coupled with low service costs. Furthermore, trends towards a more stringent future
emission legislation, especially with respect to unburned hydrocarbons, must be taken into account.
In order that these requirements can be met, MTU is consistently developing its engine series 4000.
Upcoming development will focus on increasing power to 130 kW per cylinder and efficiency up to 45%.
Achievement of these targets is to ensure a top position when it comes to efficiency in this power class. The
planned power range will then extend to 2.6 MW for the 20-cylinder version while maintaining a service life of
64000 operating hours. On top of this, positive downsizing effects can be expected as a result of increased
power per cylinder.
Covers – combustion development, piston bail geometry, prechamber sport geometry, component
development, cylinder head, intercooler, manifolds, ignition.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp70-82 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.) (In
German.)
CONCEPT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE DIRECT IGNITION GAS ENGINES
Jenbacher
The characteristics of future gas engines for decentralised energy supply are high mean effective pressure,
high efficiency and ultra-high air-to-fuel ratios leading to an electrical efficiency near 46% in the 1 to 2 MW
segment at 1500 rpm. This article from GE’s Jenbacher gas engines is a foresight on future development
challenges in the large gas engine sector and presents possible technology blocks for further development of
the Jenbacher Type 4 gas engine to increase power and efficiency.
Covers - two-stage turbocharging, valve timing, direct ignition system, avoiding condensation.
See Doc.144235 (MTZ Worldwide, May 2013, pp18-23.)
DUAL FUEL - LNGPAC WARTSILA LNG FUEL VESSEL SYSTEM: THE VIKING GRACE SUCCESS
STORY
Wartsila Ship Power
Wartsila has delivered and installed the propulsion machinery for the new M/S Viking Grace passenger ferry
for Viking Line by STX Finland at the shipyard in Turku. The vessel is entered in service mid January 2013 to
the great satisfaction of all the Parties.
Viking Grace is operating between Turku and Stockholm in the Baltic Sea. Increased passenger comfort due
to the lowest possible pressure impulses generated by the propellers, the vibration level in the stern hull is
very low. Wartsila has installed a sound-absorbing system to minimize noise generated by the engine, thus
increasing passenger comfort.
Thanks to Wartsila’s dual-fuel technology, the vessel can operate without restrictions in the SECA and NECA
sulphur and nitrogen monitoring areas.
The construction of the machinery, equipment, outfitting and structure has been classified by the Lloyd’s
Register of Shipping. Over the years Wartsila has been the main supplier of diesel engines for Viking Line’s
new vessels.
Wartsila is the only company providing the complete gas propulsion train from the bunker station, LNG
storage tanks, Gas Valve Unit, Wartsila DF-Engines and ship design. The customers have a unique
opportunity to optimize the system according to their complete DF propulsion system needs avoiding any
interface potential issue. Wartsila is also the sole LNG system provider including a type approved control
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system as standard thanks to having the automation production inside the same Wartsila Ship Power
division. The control system can be an integrated part of the vessel IAS that Wartsila is also offering like for
the Offshore Platform vessels recent contracts.
Viking Line requirement for the LNGPac system has imposed quite challenging new features which were
implemented for the first time in an LNG fuel vessel like:
- Fast LNG bunkering during 1 hour at port
- Adaptation to the wireless connection for the LNG bunkering protocol
- Introduction of the necessary features so that it is possible to run the DF engines in gas mode while
simultaneously bunkering LNG
- Utilization of the latent heat in LNG evaporation process for the vessel HVAC system (air conditioning)
which innovation has been patented by Wartsila. It provides to the whole ship system a significant energy
saving by increasing the total efficiency of the ship although it is not counted in the EEDI but brings running
costs savings to the operator.
Wartsila Corporation LNG systems for fuel gas vessels, called generically LNGPac, are on board 8 vessels
actually sailing. 8 other LNGpac systems are on order for delivery in 2013 and 2 are already delivered waiting
for the ship to enter in service.
Wartsila’s Environmentally Sound Solutions for Viking Grace:
- Four Wartsila 8L50DF dual-fuel main engines
- Transverse bow and stern tunnel thrusters
- Two fixed pitch propellers
- Propeller shaft lines including environmentally sound, non-polluting shaft line seal systems
- LNG tanks and fuel supply and handling equipment
- Safety and automation systems.
See vCD 137 Session-Three-Paper-One.pdf and Session-Three-Presentation-One.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 4pp (Paper), 28pp (Presentation).)
LNG POWERED VESSELS - CASE STUDY OF M/S STAVANGERFJORD
Rolls Royce
Fjord Line is building a new innovative and efficient RoPax design to service their Denmark Norway routes.
This brief will focus on the conversion to LNG powered main engines, a decision that was taken well into the
construction phase, and the expected gains in fuel consumption and emission levels compared to operating
with conventional diesel engines. The LNG logistics is also addressed.
Fjordline’s new innovative RoPax Ferries M/S Stavangerfjord will operate their Norway – Denmark line with
no foreseeable interruptions due to LNG supply chain. The tank on the factory has storage capacity of 10% of
annual production giving a buffer of more than a month. Also worth noting, the supply chain is very efficient
with low environmental impact as LNG is sourced directly from the factory without trucking or shipping.
The switch to Rolls-Royce Bergen pure gas engines is expected to reduce fuel consumption with 18%
compared to similar diesel engine. The environmental benefit is 85% reduction of NOx and virtual elimination
of sulphur oxides. The impact on climate change is reduced by 19%.
See vCD 137 Session-Three-Paper-Two.pdf and Session-Three-Presentation-Two.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 6pp (Paper), 17pp (Presentation).)
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LOW CONCENTRATION MINE GAS ENGINE
Shengli Power Machinery Co and China North Engine Research Institute
When volume fraction of mine gas reaches 5% ~ 15%, it will explode in case of fire. For the mine gas with
concentration under 25%, the traditional approach is to extract the wet mine gas and discharge it to the air,
which is a waste of resources, and endangers environmental protection. China has rich gas geological
storage. According to estimation of concerning department, the annual emission of mine gas is about 13.5
billion cubic meters during the process of coal mining, more than 90% of which has a methane concentration
under 25%. In order to effectively utilize the low concentration gas, Shengli Power Machinery Co Ltd
developed 12V190 gas engine, which can use mine gas with methane concentrations in the range of 6% ~
30%. This paper introduces low concentration gas safety conveying technology, engine control system, as
well as research on engine performance improvements. Gas delivery system uses techniques including
water-block fire arrestor technology with automatically controlled water level, corrugated-metal-strip gas
pipeline fire extinguishing technology and water mist fire extinguishing technology. Engine control
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technologies include double-butterfly-gate mixer, low-pressure and large-flow pilot valve pressure control and
TEM electronic management system. Through the use of pre-chamber spark plug and high efficiency
turbocharger, the engine power was increased from 550 kW to 900 kW, further power improvement is
expected through the use of Miller cycle technology. Until now, low concentration gas generator has a
nationwide application, and achieved good economic benefit and environmental benefit.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_062.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 62, 8pp.)
THE NEW MTU TYPE L64 OF SERIES 4000 GAS ENGINES
MTU
The newest version of the MTU Series 4000 Gas Engines, the L64 presents the results of consistent
improvements in this highly modern gas engine family. The focus of the development was the increase in
power of 130 kW/cylinder and the increase in efficiency of 45% at the same time improving emissions. With
its efficiency and power the L64 will be placed in a crucial market position. The foreseeable power range will
be up to 2.6 MW for the 20-cylinder version, while retaining an operating life of 64000 hrs. Furthermore
through the higher cylinder power, a positive downsizing effect is achievable. To achieve the above
mentioned customer benefits there were numerous technical measures necessary and this often in high
detail. Here are just a few key points:
- New combustion process
- New cylinder heads for higher peak pressure
- Reducing the crevices in combustion chamber
- New steel piston design
- New high pressure turbocharging
- New Miller engine timing
- Advanced ignition system for low NOx combustion
- Dethrottling and optimizing all associated flow components.
Extensive testing has been taken to validate these results, in addition several engines have been placed in
the field running thousands of hours. The market launch will be in 2013/14 with all cylinder versions 8, 12, 16
and 20V beginning with 50 Hz followed later by 60 Hz versions.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_067.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 67, 11pp.)
ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIUM SPEED GAS ENGINE TARGETING TO MARINE AND LAND
Niigata Power Systems
Niigata power systems has developed two new gas engines designed as spark ignition method and dual fuel
engine, which are launched as key hardware for power generation and marine propulsion system. The spark
ignition gas engine mainly developed as power generation for 2 to 6 MW, and the dual fuel engine mainly will
be applied for marine propulsion system with power density of 2 to 3 MW. A new developed 6 MW class
spark ignition gas engine has attained approximate 47% of power generation efficiency with low NOx
emission based on the design technique of the lean burn technology, main combustion chamber, and precombustion chamber and combustion control technology. Marine dual fuel engine was designed through
diesel design experience and micro pilot technology for diesel mode operation and gas mode operation
respectively. Niigata developed the propeller direct drive type dual fuel engine which can meet the desired
load operation characteristics coming from the tugboat which works in harbour without generating abnormal
combustion such as a knock, with original combustion technology. Sudden acceleration torque and slowdown
torque are required of a tugboat at the time of navigation of a large-sized ship. Moreover, dual fuel engine can
shift smoothly the mode of operation arbitrarily by the change of oil or gaseous two-sort fuel. For this reason,
in the viewpoint of safety cruise of a ship, the reliable diesel engine takes an advantage as redundancy
system. Niigata Dual fuel engine meets NOx emission level in IMO Tier2 and Tier3 at diesel operation and
gas operation respectively. This performance can accept as ECA discussion and area. This paper describes
about newly developed spark gas engine and marine dual fuel engine.
Covers – spark ignition gas engine 28AGS.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_099.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 99, 10pp.)
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ENGINE AND FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
PORTED FUEL INJECTION FOR MARITIME GAS ENGINES
Hoerbiger
The authors present a novel design of ported fuel injection valves for large bore engines which incorporates
design elements successfully deployed for ported fuel valves for cryogenic hydrogen fuelled internal
combustion engines. By use of special combination of material for the sealing elements to avoid cold welding
which leads to increases leakage a longer life time can be achieved. The new design is prepared for leak
detection systems and incorporates unique solutions with respect to the electrical connections and wiring to
comply with existing regulations. Stable operation of the gas fuelled engine requires high repeatability of valve
operation and low valve to valve variances. A low lift concept derived from Hoerbiger experience in
compressor valve design reduces response time for more accurate gas metering. In conjunction with the
need to operate the fuel valves in a large operating range the valves have to work under elevated differential
pressure exhibiting only insignificant leakage. In applications with two-stage turbocharger and increasing gas
supply pressure the leakage of the PFI valves become even more important. In this paper a method will be
presented how to fulfil this requirement by a non-pressure balanced concept and reduce closing time at the
same way in order to avoid post injections or residual gas in the air manifold. The electromechanical design
of the presented solution copes with these challenges, thus offering the engine designer a new means to
realize efficient and reliable maritime engines complying with tomorrow’s emission regulations.
Covers - flow rate, injection duration, leakage, LNG challenge.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_113.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 113, 12pp.)
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RESEARCH AND COMPUTER SIMULATION
Fuel/air mixing and combustion
HEAT RELEASE RATE SIMULATION WITH NON-NATURAL GASES
Graz University of Technology
This article describes investigations into applying a rate of heat release model developed by the LEC for
natural gas to a wide range of non-natural gases.
First, the non-natural gases available today to fuel large gas engines are described, taking into account the
mixture components CO2, CO, N2, C3H8, and H2. Next, the rate of heat release concept used as the
baseline for open chamber gas engines is explained. One characteristic of this model is that the reaction
zone is described neither as a homogeneous area behind the flame front (entrainment model) nor as the
flame front itself with a zero thickness but rather as a zone of finite thickness whose fuel mass is converted
according to the turbulence-controlled Magnussen model. The unburned fuel in this zone is then converted
behind the flame front in an analogous way.
Finally, the individual submodels dependent on gas quality are redefined using test bed results and reaction
kinetic calculations as well as the Design of Experiments (DoE) method. Ignition delay, laminar flame speed
and dynamic viscosity are considered.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp198-211 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
(In German.)
OPTICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF PRE-CHAMBER JETS AND FLAME PROPAGATION IN A LARGE-SIZED
IC GAS ENGINE USING HIGH-SPEED-CAMERA AND FIBER OPTICS
Institut fur Kolbenmaschinen (KIT), MOT GmbH and MAN Diesel & Turbo
This paper presents the challenges and benefits of applications with optical measurement techniques in
large-bore gas engines. To expand the limits of lean burn combustion processes, optical measurement
techniques can deliver important insights. Experimental investigations were carried out in a multicylinder
research engine with pre-chamber jet ignition. The pre-chamber jet propagation and flame propagation as
well as combustion cycles with irregular combustion were detected using high-speed visualization and optical
fibre measurement techniques.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp224-239 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
(In German.)
ASSESSMENT OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMBUSTION CONCEPTS
FOR THE NEW GENERATION OF LARGE GAS ENGINES
Technische Universitat Graz and GE Jenbacher
New combustion and engine concepts for stationary gas engines must fulfill the highest requirements for
efficiency, performance and flexibility. To achieve the highest engine efficiency and power while
simultaneously meeting future emission regulations, it is essential to use suitable tools in all phases of the
development process. This article describes the use of simulation in the development of highly efficient
combustion concepts for large gas engines.
The main objective is to develop lean burn combustion processes that achieve a mechanical efficiency of
nearly 50%. The primary challenge is to continue to improve the very highly developed series combustion
processes and to change the previous limits systematically, for example the knock and misfire limits, so that
efficiency increases even more.
During the development of the new high-performance gas engine described in the article, the combustion
concept was pre-designed exclusively with simulation based on years of experience with gas engine
combustion processes. Both three-dimensional CFD simulation and zero-dimensional and one-dimensional
engine cycle simulation were used in this purely virtual approach to pre-design. The article assesses the
ability of the simulation models to predict mixture formation, combustion, knock and NOx emissions and thus
the quality of combustion process pre-design by comparing the results from simulation with the results from
single-cylinder research engines and multi-cylinder engines.
Covers - rate of heat release (ROHR) model in open chamber gas engines and pre-chamber engines, NOx
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model, knock model, virtual combustion process development, assessment of the predictive ability of
simulation models.
See vCD 126 10sym_proceedings.pdf pp93-104 (AVL 10th International Symposium on Combustion
Diagnostics, Baden-Baden, May 2012.)
HIGH-PRESSURE NATURAL GAS INJECTION (GI) MARINE ENGINE RESEARCH WITH A RAPID
COMPRESSION EXPANSION MACHINE
Kyushu University
The use of natural gas as fuel for vessels is a highly promising solution to meet the challenges of technical
compliance requested by upcoming CO2, SOx, NOx and soot emission regulations. In gas injection (GI)
engines, gas sprays burn as diffusive combustion without knocking or misfiring. The thermal efficiency is high
because a high compression ratio, equal to diesel engines, can be applied. However, unlike lean burn gas
engines, an additional device, such as an EGR or SCR system, is required to meet IMO Tier III NOx
regulations. In order to analyze and understand the combustion processes of such potential concepts to
reduce emissions, a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM) with relevant dimensions of marine
engines has been developed at Kyushu University. The RCEM is utilized as a research model for GI engines.
An electronically controlled high-pressure gas injection system enables injection pressures of up to 50 MPa.
Diesel pilot sprays in dual fuel mode as well as glow plugs are used for ignition. Air conditions in the cylinder
at the gas injection are about 10 MPa and 550°C, simulating a current GI engine. In a first series of
experiments, a cylinder head with a cubic shaped clearance volume and an observation view of 200mm in
width and 50mm in height is applied to analyze the spray combustion. In the experiments, pure methane, the
main component of natural gas, is used.
At first, the GI combustion is compared to the diesel spray combustion. As a result, rates of heat release for
GI and diesel combustion are comparable, while the emissions decrease by using gas. However, the direct
photos taken with 20000 fps show a different flame behaviour between the two fuels. Such differences in the
flame characteristics are examined in detail applying the ’Laser shadowgraph’ and the ’BDL (Back Diffused
Laser)’ optical techniques. Furthermore, in order to meet IMO Tier III NOx regulations, the oxygen content of
the intake air is reduced as a good approximation for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. As
expected, the brightness of the flame decreases and a NOx reduction of 75% in 17% O2 can be achieved.
For a second series of experiments, a cylinder head with a cylindrical clearance volume is newly developed to
allow different swirl velocities and an observation view over the whole 240mm in diameter window; the side
injection system corresponds to a common two-stroke engine. Injection nozzles with different numbers of
injection holes are tested, applying different injection pressures, and multi flames are visualized. In
conclusion it can be stated that experiments with the RCEM help to determine emission influencing
parameters and optimization potential, to visualize and to analyze phenomena that have not been simulated
yet.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_012.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 12, 11pp.)
UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TRANSFER AND COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR ON END
GAS KNOCK IN HEAVY DUTY LEAN BURN ENGINES
Hiltner Combustion Systems
Two basic engine phenomena whose impact on knock is less well understood are in-cylinder heat transfer
and overall combustion rate, phasing, and stability. In-cylinder heat transfer has a profound impact on charge
temperatures and can lead either to increased or decreased knock tolerance for a given design depending on
a number of factors. Combustion chamber surface temperatures are a function of detail design, engine load,
and engine operating condition and have a direct impact on heat transfer rates during compression and the
early part of combustion. In-cylinder bulk flow and turbulence level induced, for example, by swirl and squish
also impact the heat transfer rate and thus the unburned gas temperature. The influence of these heat
transfer effects on knock tendency is not well documented. Combustion rate and stability affect knock
behaviour as well for a given engine geometry. The faster heat release rates that are desirable from a
thermal efficiency standpoint can either increase or decrease detonation margin as they tend to drive up peak
temperatures while at the same time reducing the time available for end gas chemistry and pushing the
engine operating point to leaner conditions in order to maintain constant NOx emissions levels. Poor
combustion stability which often results from very lean operating conditions can also impact knock margin as
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some very fast burning cycles give end gas conditions far away from the mean operating point typically
analyzed with simulation tools. A combination of test results, simulation data and statistical tools can be
utilized to understand these combustion stability effects. This paper seeks to provide insight into the
relationship between these secondary effects (heat transfer and combustion behaviour) and combustion
system development as regards knock avoidance. Simulation results and engine test data are provided that
highlight the role of heat transfer and heat release on knock tendency. Detailed single cylinder engine
measurements including surface temperatures, heat release rates, and inferred heat transfer rates are
provided to clarify the performance trends. Multiple zone cycle simulation results are used to provide further
clarification of the knock impact of heat transfer and heat release for a given engine geometry. Combustion
system development that includes an understanding of these processes inevitably yields production engines
with superior market potential. The availability of a fundamental framework for these physical processes,
supported by research grade test and simulation results will be a key enabling technology for the next
generation of high performance natural gas engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_036.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 36, 10pp.)
METHOD TO QUANTIFY AND VISUALIZE ABNORMAL COMBUSTION OF A SI ENGINE
MWM
With increased power density on gas engines, an increase in cylinder temperature deviation was observed.
The combustion shows temperature variations from cylinder to cylinder. The differences can be caused by
variations in the air/fuel ratio, in the homogeneity of the mixture, in the charge movement, in the wall
temperatures, in the manufacturing tolerances, and the oil entry on valves and pistons, etc. All parameters
lead to deviations from the optimal centre of combustion and in burning efficiency of the fuel. In particular oil
entry leads to abnormal combustion in single or multiple cylinders caused by self-ignitions. Strong selfignitions can express themselves by generating spontaneous cyclically unsteady combustion chamber
temperatures. Further investigations with pressure sensors identified abnormal combustion with higher peak
pressures sometimes combined with knocking. Nevertheless, these strong self-ignitions do not always
appear but they are probably affected by the amount of oil entry into the cylinder. Self-ignition was found
during normal combustion following a spark ignition, and also when a cylinder was not ignited by a spark at
all. Self-ignition occurs with intensity levels related to the engine power. In extreme cases, they lead to a
derating or shutdown of the engine by the monitoring system. A new procedure was developed to quantify the
self-ignition. The electronic spark ignition was shut off in each cylinder, one by one and the cylinder pressure
was measured by a quartz pressure sensor. Based on the cylinder pressure curves, the heat release per
cycle was calculated by thermodynamic analysis. If the un red cylinder starts with a combustion (depending
on the amount of engine power) after a self-ignition, an accordingly statistically distributed number of visible
combustions arises during the recorded working cycles. These combustion processes are different due to the
amount of burnt fuel. The comparison of approx 5 working cycles of multiple cylinders on the basis of the
single burn functions is not revealing. The comparison of 100 working cycles is impossible. The newly
introduced evaluation method presented here allows the quick detection of the number and the intensity of
the abnormal combustions.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_109.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 109, 10pp.)
NEWLY UPDATED COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR HIMSEN GAS ENGINE, H35/40G
Hyundai Heavy Industries
Natural gas has received much attention as the new energy source due to its cleanness and low price. There
are a lot of interests and researches about gas engines and Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) also developed
H35/40G gas engine successfully in 2010. Further researches including experiments and simulations
proceeded to improve efficiency. For the minimization of the methane slip, the optimization of the gas supply
timing and pressure was conducted and effect of the reduction in crevice volumes was evaluated. Ignition
timing and AFR were varied to investigate the gas engine operating characteristics. The operating condition
for the highest efficiency could be estimated and the maximum efficiency and limiting factors to the higher
efficiency were found with the initial engine specifications. The numerical simulations were carried out to
optimize the main components of the gas engine combustion system - pre-chamber, valve timing, intake port
and piston bowl. The volume of pre-chamber was the dominant factor to control combustion speed.
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Advanced miller timing with the turbocharger matching was investigated and the higher flow coefficient and
proper swirl ratio were mainly regarded in the intake port design. Proper piston bowl shape was searched to
have better combustion phase. New designs of the main components of the gas engine combustion system
were suggested through the simulation and their effects were confirmed by the experiments. Finally, EGR
test was conducted to evaluate the efficiency improvements by reducing NOx and suppressing the knocking.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_142.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 142, 9pp.)
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CONTROL AND ELECTRONICS
CONTROL APPLICATIONS AND OBJECTS
Large engines
A SELF-TUNING ENGINE CONCEPT
Wartsila
A novel ’Self-tuning engine’ control concept has been developed by Wartsila which ensures optimal control of
the engine throughout its lifetime, without the need for manual adjustment of the control parameters. For
large low- and medium-speed internal combustion engines, the process dynamics is subject to significant
variances due to nonlinearities and a wide range of operating conditions. To ensure the control quality at all
times, the behaviour of the closed-loop controllers need consequently to be continuously matched with
respect to the state of the process, subject to control. Failure to do so typically results in increased fuel
consumption and emissions, and excitation of oscillations in dynamically linked processes, which otherwise
would be stable.
Wartsila has developed a self-tuning control concept, which automatically adjusts the behaviour of closedloop controllers of the engine so that optimal control performance is achieved at all times. Diagnostic features
have been, in addition, included in order to detect faults within the closed-loop circuit in order to detect
malfunctions despite the adaptivity of the control loop. In this paper, the self-tuning engine control concept is
presented with examples from full-scale engine tests, proving the robustness and performance of the control
strategy and the performance of the self-tuning engine.
Covers – adaptive controller.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_052.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 52, 6pp.)
Marine engines
MODULAR AUTOMATION PLATFORM FOR EFFICIENT INTEGRATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND
FLEXIBLE ADAPTION OF CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
MAN Diesel &Turbo
Nowadays, and even more in the future, electronics and software belong to the main fields of product
innovation. Therefore it is necessary to concentrate continuously on how to ensure an efficient and flexible
integration of new technologies, as well as to focus on the integration of market demands into the engine
control system. Based on a modularized portfolio of components, SaCoSone provides automation solutions
for 4-stroke engines that can be adapted to individual technical requirements. One of the key factors to
restrain complex control-, monitoring- and governing functions is a decentralised and function oriented
system architecture in combination with distributed intelligence and local signal acquisition. Managing future
challenges, such as emission reduction or the development of adaptive engine control methods in particular
can be seen as examples for the necessity of flexible integration of technological innovation in automation
systems. But even in times of rapid technological and systemic changes, SaCoSone still guarantees an
identical interface for control signals and data communication in order to reduce efforts during system
integration on the customer’s side. Efficiency and flexibility are major requirements for the whole product
lifecycle and are reflected by the SaCoSone spare part philosophy. This philosophy provides long-term
availability and world-wide storage to ensure very short response times. In combination with our OnlineService Support via a remote network access, customers all over the world that are equipped with a
SaCoSone automation system can easily be assisted to analyse operational conditions and system
messages of their engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_104.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 104, 5pp.)
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Engine functions and behavior
Air fuel ratios
OPTIMAL UTILIZATION OF AIR- AND FUEL-PATH FLEXIBILITY IN MEDIUM-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES
TO ACHIEVE SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE AND FUEL EFFICIENCY
MAN Diesel & Turbo
This paper seeks to demonstrate the benefits offered by variable air-path control in combination with a fully
flexible common rail fuel injection system. System interactions and optimization are analyzed and performed
with design of experiment (DoE), response surface modelling and constraint merit functions. Abovementioned method is applied to design custom tailored medium speed engine maps for constant speed
generator, controllable pitch as well as fixed pitch propeller operation. Engine performance data are obtained
via engine dynamometer experiments augmented with analytical simulations. With constant speed generator
operation, it is shown that through optimizing the engine calibration in accordance to the typical load profile
thereof, specific fuel oil consumption is reduced by several grams without related engine-hardware changes.
The potential of applying engine-control maps specifically tailored to the mode of operation, e.g. fast
steaming, slow steaming or manoeuvring operation is assessed and the potential quantified. This so-called
multi-mapping approach allows for improved performance and reduced emissions over the entire operating
regime of the engine. In addition to steady state operation, benefits in transient response are demonstrated
by means of optimized air- and fuel-path control. Particularly load rejection and smoke emissions are
substantially improved over conventional, mechanically rigid systems. Lastly the effect of Tier III exhaust gas
treatment solutions - selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and/or scrubbers
to capture sulphur oxide (SOx) - on engine performance is investigated. It is shown that Tier III exhaust gas
treatment systems may adversely affect engine performance through increased exhaust gas backpressure.
By means of optimally adjusting the engine control strategy to the new boundary conditions, it is
demonstrated that engine performance and efficiency are restored to Tier II levels.
Covers – 32/44CR B-2 engine development.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_091.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 91, 11pp.)
Combustion
DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBUSTION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM-SPEED GAS ENGINES BASED
ON CYLINDER PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
MAN Diesel & Turbo
The increase of efficiency without exceeding relevant emission limits is in the focus during the optimization of
an engine. According to this publication the improvement of the engine is achieved by the optimization of the
engine control. For this all cylinders are equipped with pressure sensors enabling the measurement and
calculation of relevant combustion metrics such as firing pressure, mean effective pressure, centre of
combustion, etc. Up to two combustion metrics can be controlled by the ignition timing and the amount of gas
that can be adjusted individually for each cylinder. Additionally the application of pressure sensors increases
engine safety by means of On-Board-Diagnostic. This combustion control is an effective measure to adapt
the engine to changes of gas composition and ambient conditions without penalty in efficiency. This
publication shows the obtainable efficiency improvement and the process to identify the ideal combustion
control.
Covers – Adaptive Combustion Control (ACC), fuel saving potentials via ACC, air-fuel-ratio control.
See vCD 125 Conference_Proceedings.pdf pp168-178 (8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Mar 2013.)
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Fuel injection
THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HARDWARE IN-THE-LOOP SIMULATION
COMPREHENSIVE TEST BENCH OF HIGH PRESSURE COMMON RAIL ELECTRONIC CONTROL
SYSTEM FOR LARGE LOW-SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
Wuhan University of Technology
This paper presents the design and implementation of the hardware in-the-loop (HIL) simulation test bench
of high pressure common rail (HPCR) electronic control system for large low-speed marine diesel engines.
As a first step, the vital components of HPCR system in the bench are the same as that of the RT-Flex
marine diesel engine, such as the Wartsila Electronic Control System (WECS), the fuel high pressure
common rail, the servo oil common rail, the fuel injection control unit and the exhaust valves control unit,
etc. And some auxiliary parts are simplified and modified, including the crank angle signal unit, the exhaust
valve actuator, the fuel and servo oil supply unit, etc. Secondly, a real-time simulation model of the marine
diesel engine is described and implemented based on the principles of Mean Value Engine Model, which
provides the essential boundary conditions for WECS. The electrical emulation of the model mainly
consists of the crank angle, the exhaust valve stroke, and the scavenging pressure thanks to the NI
environment. Additionally, an experiment management system for the test bench is developed with the
functionalities of signal acquisition, parameters monitoring, data extraction and alarming, etc. Finally, a
closed-loop control system composed of the real-time simulation model, WECS and the mechanism of
HPCR system, is achieved. And the testing results of the HIL simulation platform, calibrated with
experimental data on steady operating conditions, indicate that the test bench performs the characteristics
and functions of the HPCR electronic control system. The bench provides the experimental environment for
researching on HPCR electronic control system for large low-speed marine diesel engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_088.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May
2013, Shanghai, Paper No. 88, 7pp.)
THE BOSCH ELECTRONIC DIESEL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM AND HIGH SPEED ENGINES
Robert Bosch
EPA Tier4, IMO Tier3 and EU3b emission limits require complex systems of fuel injection-, air- and
exhaust gas treatment. The Bosch control units for engine management in the commercial vehicle and offhighway are designed to meet the requirements of the legislation on further emissions. It is obvious to use
this available technology for the medium and high speed engine applications. Bosch is a leading
manufacturer in the field of electronic fuel injection control and monitoring systems. Building on the
success of the Bosch automotive Engine Control Units and Sensors, Bosch has derived an engine
controller and a set of sensors for industrial- and maritime applications The commercial vehicle ECU SW
and HW platform includes complex functions for fuel balance control, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust
gas treatment, multi fuel injection control, fuel pressure control, engine position management, engine
speed governors, multi ECU systems and diagnostic functions, etc, which are the basis for the newly
developed Bosch maritime electronic diesel control platform. Modularity and flexibility of the ECU SW and
HW is a key criterion to cover all medium and high-speed engine variants optimum. Multi ECU systems for
engine variants up to 16 cylinders (2 ECUs) are available and up to 24 cylinders (3 ECUs) in preparation.
Common ECU SW with individual functions, e.g. twin air flow and fuel pressure control (left/right engine
bank) for multi ECU systems are configurable in the SW build process. With SW sharing the customer can
realize its own SW functions on the supplied ECU HW and SW platform. Homologation for the most
important ship classification societies for the ECU and a set of common used engine sensors is in
progress. Pre-Compliance Test’s have been performed and the final compliance test is in preparation. In
Cooperation with Bosch Rexroth an interface for the integration of the ECU engine control management
system into the Rexroth ship automation system is developed. Bosch becomes a supplier of remote-,
propulsion-, alarm-, safety- and engine management systems for maritime applications. This technical
paper will describe the Bosch electronic engine management system components for the medium and
high-speed engine applications.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_141.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May
2013, Shanghai, Paper No. 141, 7pp.)
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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - APPLICATIONS
Power generation
DEVELOPMENT OF MITSUBISHI LARGE FRAME GAS TURBINE FOR POWER GENERATION - A NEW
1600 DEGREE C, J CLASS GAS TURBINE
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
MHI recently developed a 1600°C turbine inlet temperature J-series gas turbine (M501J and M701J for 60 Hz
and 50 Hz respectively), utilizing some of the advanced technologies developed in the Japanese National
Project. This new frame is expected to achieve higher combined cycle efficiency and will contribute to reduce
CO2 emissions. The target combined cycle efficiency of the J series gas turbine will be above 61.5% (gross,
ISO standard condition, LHV) and the 1on1 combined cycle output will reach 470 MW for 60 Hz engine and
680 MW for 50 Hz engine. This new engine incorporates: 1) A high pressure ratio compressor based on the
advanced M501H compressor, which was verified during the M501H development in 1999 and 2001. 2)
Steam cooled combustor, which has accumulated extensive experience in the MHI G engine ( > 1356000
actual operating hours). 3) State-of-art turbine designs developed through the 1700°C gas turbine component
technology development program in the Japanese National Project for high temperature components.
This paper discusses the technical features and the updated status of the J series gas turbine, especially the
operating condition of the M501J gas turbine in the MHI demonstration plant, T-Point.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_027.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 27, 9pp.)
UPGRADING EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATORS AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
MPR Associates
Many nuclear power plants around the world have or will receive extensions to their 40-year licenses in order
to operate beyond their original design lives. Important plant safety systems are ageing and in need of
upgrades or replacement to support continued operation for 20 or more years. Emergency diesel generators
(EDGs) in nuclear power plants are critical systems necessary to mitigate the consequences of accidents.
The EDGs in nuclear power plants spend most of their time in standby conditions, ready to start and power
the emergency equipment necessary to safety shut down the plant. These EDGs typically have operated for
fewer than 4000 hours in those 40 years of service and are often considered to be barely ’broken in.’ In some
cases, there is very little margin between the rated capacity of the EDGs and the connected emergency
loads, as the plants have increased their emergency safe shut down loads. The original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs) of many EDGs are out of business, and as a result, there are limited technical
assistance and spare parts support available. All EDGs in nuclear power plants must meet very stringent
quality assurance, design and performance requirements defined by industry and regulatory codes and
standards. This paper addresses the technical and regulatory issues associated with the replacement of the
two existing EDGs at a nuclear power plant in South Korea with a new EDG design that had not previously
been qualified for service in nuclear power plants. It describes the approach used throughout the EDG
replacement project, including: (1) evaluating the feasibility of replacement of the EDGs, (2) developing the
new EDG design requirements, (3) preparing an EDG procurement specification, (4) working with the EDG
vendor to qualify the new EDG (if not already qualified), (5) specifying and performing factory testing of the
assembled EDGs, (6) developing plant modification design package for the EDG replacement, (7) completing
the removal of the old EDGs and installation of the new EDGs and (8) completing the EDG site testing.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_028.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 28, 8pp.)
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ENGINE ELECTRICS
Ignition systems
PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEXT GENERATION IGNITION SYSTEMS FOR GUASCOR GAS
ENGINES
Guascor Power
For modern, high efficiency stationary, lean burn natural gas engines there are different drivers for an
improvement of the ignition system and the according spark plug:
- Higher brake mean effective pressure (bmep) => higher turbulences to maintain short combustion durations
=> higher performance requirements of ignition systems.
- Improvement the combustion stability (COVbmep coefficient of variation of the bmep) or extension of the
engine lean operation limit.
- Reliable ignition of special gases.
- Extension of the spark plug lifetime.
- Robust and reliable starting of the engine.
To reduce combustion duration and subsequent increase engine efficiency, pre-chamber spark plugs (PCSP)
are more and more used in the lean burn gas engine market. To meet the optimum conditions at the
electrode gap and pre-chamber volume itself (e.g. flow velocity, lambda distribution) for ignition and optimal
combination with the conditions in the main combustion chamber, the PCSP has to be designed carefully.
Beside PCSP also standard J-type spark plug (so called open-chamber spark plug ignition (OCSP)) have
been tested together with different ignition systems. J-type spark plugs have normally lower spark plug
lifetimes (less electrode surface) and following the influence of the high ignition energies on the spark plug
lifetimes can be seen after shorter engine test periods (in comparison to PCSP, OCSP can be regapped).
In this paper a selection of different ignition systems with different ignition energies and adapted DC together
with over the years developed PCSP and also OCSP have been investigated on different D-R GUASCOR
engines (in the D-R GUASCOR R&D centre and in the field) and the engine results are presented.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_045.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 45, 10pp.)
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FUELS AND LUBRICANTS
FUELS BY APPLICATION
Marine engine applications
IMPACT OF UPCOMING FUEL SULPHUR LIMITS IN SHIPPING
DNV
SOx emissions to air result from the combustion of fuels containing various levels of sulphur and have
potentially severe ecosystem impacts and negative health effects on exposed populations. These undisputed
impacts have, in some parts of the world, led to strict regulation of SOx emissions from land-based sources.
In recognition of shipping becoming a dominant SOx emission source, potentially exceeding land-based
sources, SOx emissions have been internationally regulated by the IMO.
The regulatory shift towards low sulphur fuel and the related impact on costs and operations will imply
important consequences for the future development of the shipping industry and the uptake of new
technologies.
Reducing SOx emissions can be done by either switching to low sulphur fuels like distilates and Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG) or through exhaust gas cleaning by installation of a SOx scrubber system. As fuel cost is
the largest life cycle cost element for virtually every shipping company today, pricing of the different fuel types
and their relative differences will heavily influence the compliance strategy selected to meet the new
requirements by the ship owners.
The paper describes and compares the two main SOx emission reduction options and the possible selection
strategy adapted by the ship owners in different future scenarios. Results from the more extensive DNV
Shipping 2020 study are summarized with focus on the effects of new sulphur legislation.
Covers - MARPOL Annex VI, Emission Control Areas (ECAs).
See vCD 124 Session 1 Henrik O Madsen Paper.pdf and Henrik O Madsen Presentation.pdf (The
Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 1: Setting the Scene – The
Key Factors Driving Technology, 8pp (Paper) & 12pp (Presentation).)
AVAILABILITY OF MARINE FUELS POST 2015
IBIA
Covers – IMO Annex VI, EU Marine Fuels Directive, penetration of LNG bunkers, penetration of scrubbing
technology.
EU legislation published November 2012 to align with MARPOL Annex VI
- With 0.10% S in ECA after 2014
- Cap of 0.50% S in EU Economic Exclusion Zone waters after 2019 regardless of the MO decision following
the 2018 review
- Passenger vessels on regular schedules outside the ECA’s use 1.50% until 2020 then 0.50% in EEZ
- Sale of marine fuels with >3.5% S only to ships operating scrubbers “in closed mode”
- Permit state aid for installing scrubbers
- Increased severity of reporting/enforcement
- Commission to complete a study by end 2013 on possible further measures including establishment of
additional ECA’s in EU waters – already announced as part of the ongoing Air Policy Review (2013 – Year of
Air).
There will not be sufficient distillates available to implement the Global Cap in 2020
- Refiners are developing capacity to meet the growing distillate demand particularly in Asia but this expected
to come on stream gradually
- To meet the demand for distillate if the Global Cap is enforced in 2020 will require over $50 billion in
investment in residual conversion capacity over the next seven years
- Refiners will not seriously consider these investments until the Global Cap implementation date is declared.
- If this doesn’t occur until 2017 there will be insufficient time to construct the required new capacity.
See vCD 124 Session 5 Robin Meech.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 5: LNG & Alternative Propulsion Technology, 15pp.)
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FUEL AVAILABILITY – NOW AND BEYOND 2020
Lintec Testing Services (Intertek)
In the context of the title of this particular discussion, the term Availability has two distinct aspects to be
addressed.
The first relates to the availability of a good quality product.
Ship Owners and Operators have always expected, and will continue to expect, a good product that will not
cause problems or damage and at a reasonable price.
The second, and probably the most influential is Compliance.
The pressures placed on owners/operators to comply with global and regional requirements is often the key
consideration when looking at a possible bunkering operation.
The push for a greener world has caused an inevitable shift in policy for companies globally, and the shipping
world has not been exempt from this drive for change.
The introduction of Marpol Annex VI on the 19th May 2005 was the first major step in regulating marine
emissions and since then a series of bold changes have taken place on a Global and regional basis.
In following the progression of legislative change it has been noted that significant fluctuations in quality are
witnessed at times around a particular alteration in requirements. This being the case it is, therefore, fair to
assume that fuel quality will continue to fluctuate as further amendments are made but how will these
fluctuations affect the industry as a whole?
Covers - 2015 Compliance – Emission Control Areas, 2018 IMO review, 2020 Compliance – Global
Emissions.
See vCD 137 Session-Five-Paper-One.pdf and Session-Five-Presentation-One.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 8pp (Paper), 20pp (Presentation).)
THE DOUBTFUL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT OF REDUCED MAXIMUM SULFUR LIMIT IN
INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING FUEL
DNV
On January 1st, 2012, the maximum limit for sulphur concentration in marine fuels on the high seas was
lowered from 4.50% to 3.50% by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It was one of a series of
planned steps toward reducing the negative environmental and health impacts of international shipping. This
study investigates the effectiveness of the IMO regulation in reducing global sulphur emissions. We found a
reduction in global average sulphur concentration of only 0.07% points from 2011 to 2012. On the positive
side, we also found that only 2.3% of the bunkerings were non-compliant in 2012, that is, exceeded the new
3.50% sulphur concentration cap. The analysis furthermore suggests that compliance with the new regulation
is achieved by blending high sulphur fuel with lower sulphur fuel, rather than by removing high sulphur fuel
from the market or removing the excess sulphur. The main conclusion is that the regulation has been
effective in reducing the maximum sulphur concentration but has not been very effective in reducing the
average sulphur concentration. Thus, the regulation may have resulted in local environmental benefits but
has not resulted in global benefits with respect to global sulphur emissions from international shipping.
See Doc.144423 (Environmental Science & Technology, 18 Jun 2013, pp6098–6101.)
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FUEL PROPERTIES
Sulphur content
IMPROVED SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS
Reduction of sulphur emissions is becoming an important issue. While much of the developed world has
moved to ultra-low, sulphur diesel for use in automobiles and trucks, high-sulphur fuel is still used in
oceangoing vessels.
Currently, the maximum sulphur content for a ship’s bunker fuel is 3.5%. But Emission Control Areas (ECAs)
have been established in Europe (Baltic and North Seas), and a new ECA was just set up within 200 miles of
the North American continent in August 2012. In the case of the North American regulation, ships will be
required to use fuels that have a maximum sulphur level of 1%. By 2015 the limit will drop to 0.1%.
This trend means there is an opportunity to look for technologies that can more efficiently remove sulphur
from fuel. Prashant Jain, assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Illinois says, “The current
technologies used to remove the organosulphur in the form of hydrogen sulphide from petroleum-based fuels
have been alkylamines. The problem in using them is that such a liquidphase extraction is very cumbersome.
In addition, high-temperature fuel streams (above 400 C) have to be cooled for the alkylamine treatment step,
which comes at an energy cost."
This temperature issue led researchers to start working with metal oxides such as zinc oxide, which have
stability at high temperatures. These oxides are more effective but still are not as efficient because only the
outermost layers adsorb sulphur, leading to limited uptake and thermal disintegration.
Development of a more effective sulphur adsorbent containing nanoparticles appears to be the most logical
way to significantly improve performance because it will maximize surface area. Such a nanostructured
adsorbent has now been developed.
Jain led a research team, in collaboration with Mark Shannon, professor of mechanical science and
engineering at the University of Illinois, which has developed a new sulphur adsorbent containing nanofibres
of zinc and titanium oxide. This material is highly effective at adsorbing hydrogen sulphide due to its
nanostructured morphology.
See Doc.144096 (Tribology & Lubrication Technology, Mar 2013, pp8-9.)
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FUEL BEHAVIOUR IN ENGINES
Knock
RANKING THE KNOCK RESISTANCE OF GASEOUS FUELS BY THEIR PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES
DNV KEMA
In this paper we present a method for characterizing the knock resistance of gaseous fuels based on the
physical and chemical properties of the fuel, and their effects on in-cylinder processes.
Rather than rely on the empirical methods using gas mixtures and ’standard’ engines traditionally employed
for this purpose, we derived a method based on the combustion properties of the fuel mixtures, and have
tested its predictions in our engine. Engine knock is characterized by spontaneous ignition (autoignition) of
the unburned fuel mixture, the so-called end-gas, ahead of the propagating flame in the engine cylinder.
Obviously, engine knock should be avoided since it can physically damage the engine and increase pollutant
emissions. As a result, engine knock imposes limits to the (variation in) fuel gas composition. The core of the
method described in the paper is the computation of the autoignition process during the burn period. The
detailed chemical mechanism used in the simulations has been tested against experimentally determined
autoignition delay times of the alkanes up to pentane (including the isomers of butane and pentane), H2, CO
and CO2, measured in our Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). In addition to the effects on autoignition
itself, fuel composition has other effects on in-cylinder processes that exercise a direct influence on
autoignition, which have also been observed in experiments in our engine. Since autoignition of the end gas
is critically sensitive to the pressure and temperature during the burn period, changes in the heat capacity of
the fuel-air mixture, variations in initial pressure arising from changes in heating value and changes in the
’phasing’ of the combustion process with varying fuel composition can all affect the occurrence of autoignition
during the cycle. We consider and identify the magnitudes of these effects, and their impact on autoignition
and engine knock; these aspects are all incorporated in our method for characterizing knock. The predicted
’ranking’ of different gas compositions determined using the method are seen to agree very well with the
measured ranking using knock-limited spark timing in our engine. The results thus show that the effect of
higher hydrocarbons in engine knock is predominantly caused by the (chemical) autoignition behaviour of the
hydrocarbons themselves, while the impact of hydrogen is seen to arise from substantial changes in the
’phasing’ of the combustion process. These and other observations based on the method will be discussed in
the paper. In addition to being valuable as a physically correct and unambiguous basis for agreeing on fuel
specifications, the possibility of coupling the combustion cycle of a given engine to the determination of
autoignition and the occurrence of knock will provide an excellent tool for engine manufacturers to de ne
knock-free gas engine performance ratings for todays and tomorrows fuel gases. We are currently extending
the method to other types of gas engines and a broader fuel specification.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_139.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 139, 10pp.)
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EFFECTS OF FUEL TYPES ON ENGINES
A METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF FILTER BLOCKING TENDENCY OF RESIDUAL BUNKER FUELS
Viswa Laboratory
Marine Engines are fitted with several filters in the fuel line to keep out substances that may enter the engine
and cause damages. In the last few years, partial to complete blockages of filters have been experienced in
several marine engines. The consequence has been unscheduled stoppages of engines, blackout due to
complete power loss in some cases and drifting in high seas risking the safety and security of the ship. There
are no standards and procedures to assess the filterability of bunker fuels as they pass through the fuel
systems of the engines. Some work was carried out by Shell in this area. However this did not gain industry
acceptance since it called for a very large quantity of bunker fuel sample (3 litres). There is an existing ASTM
method for determining Filter Blocking Tendency. However this covers only distillate fuels, biodiesel fuel and
blends of these fuels and not bunker residual heavy fuels. The current method adopted to identify potential
filter blocking in fuels is to carry out a GCMS/FT-IR analysis and identify and quantify
substances/contaminants that cause this problem. This method takes much longer time and is much more
expensive. This paper describes a Filter Blocking Tendency test which will need only 300 ml of the fuel
sample (which is available in the current bunker fuel sampling procedures). In this setup, 300 ml of fuel is
pumped at a constant rate and pressure and temperature developed are recorded simultaneously. Using
proprietary software, the changes in pressure and temperature of the fuel oil are recorded at set intervals as
they pass through the filter medium. A pressure v/s volume curve is plotted and the Filter Blocking Tendency
Number (FBTN) is generated after each test. By correlating the lab test result with the actual filter blocking
problems experienced by ships, FBTN number has been fine-tuned to provide a clear indication if the fuel is
likely to block the filters on the ships main and auxiliary engines. Various parameters have been adjusted to
reflect the conditions on the ship so that a realistic FBTN can be generated.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_140.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 140, 8pp.)
Combustion
ALTERNATIVE MARINE FUELS AND THE EFFECT ON COMBUSTION AND EMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS
Aalesund University College, Marintek and NTNU
In this study different alternative marine fuels including both biodiesel (fish oil, FO) and synthetic diesel (GTL)
have been tested in a medium speed marine diesel engine and fuel ignition analyzer (FIA) to compare their
ignition, combustion and emission characteristics in contrast to reference low sulphur marine gas oil (MGO)
and heavy fuel oil (HFO). Experiments were performed at various operating conditions under standard 4mode propeller curve marine cycle with engine performance, exhaust emissions together with particulate
matter (PM) size distributions and corresponding total particle number and mass concentrations being
measured and compared at each load point. GTL fuel was found to have the highest cetane number, hence
the shortest ignition delay among the tested fuels and simultaneously provided 1-2% higher shaft efficiency
comparing to reference HFO. In general, MGO, GTL and FO showed a rather similar combustion
performance in terms of both cylinder pressure and rate of heat release, which was distinctively different from
that of high-sulphur heavy fuel oil. Both MGO and GTL showed a very similar behaviour in terms of gaseous
emissions (comparing to that of HFO) with NOx and CO2 concentrations being decreased, HC levels being
increased and CO emissions showing some variation depending on actual load conditions. FO, in its turn,
allows reducing both emitted CO2, CO and HC concentrations, but NOx levels were slightly increased. All the
aforementioned effects are likely associated with the alternative fuels chemical composition and physical
properties, e.g. lower levels of sulphur, ash and aromatics, higher cetane number and oxygen content (for
FO) in fuel. All these factors are believed to be also important in explaining pronounced PM reduction, both in
terms of PM mass and total number concentrations, that was observed from MGO, GTL and FO. The highest
positive effect was found from FO with more than 75% of PM mass reduction (mainly related to reduction in
number of big carbonaceous particles) and is likely associated with its high content of fuel-embedded oxygen.
The registered particle size distributions were fairly bimodal for MGO, GTL and FO with pronounced
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carbonaceous accumulation mode and nucleation mode composed of ash compounds and originating from
high lube oil emissions with the nucleation for semi-volatile compounds is believed to occur via
heterogeneous nucleation process. Particle size distributions were unimodal (actually contained two
overlapping modes) from HFO fuel and showed somewhat lower concentrations of big carbonaceous
particles, which can be explained by high content of metallic ash compounds (in heavy fuel oil) acting as a
catalyst and hence enhancing the process of soot oxidation.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_043.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 43, 12pp.)
COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF PILOT-IGNITED ENGINE FUELED
WITH DIGESTER GAS
Okayama University and Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Company
A gas engine is one of the candidates for local energy system for providing both power and heat. The system
plays an important role from the viewpoint of increasing total thermal efficiency. Another viewpoint is saving
fuels of limited resources. Recently, when solar and/or wind power systems increase in a small and smart
grid, the power supply becomes unstable. Therefore, gas engines may be placed there to compensate to
supply a constant power to consumers. Furthermore, the reduction of carbon dioxide is also very important
issue for preventing the earth from global warming. In particular, biomass is considered to be one of the most
prominent alternative fuels. The biomass contributes to establish sustainable society as renewable energy.
There are a few kinds of utilization of biomass, that is, ethanol, bio-diesel fuel and biogas. This study focuses
on biogas to use in a gas engine. Biogas is practically produced as landfill gas (LFG) or digester gas. Biogas
comprises primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The ratio of methane is about 50 ~ 60%, so
that heat value is about a half of natural gas. Therefore, the combustion strength is not so strong. However,
low exhaust emissions of NOx is expected from the dilution effect of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In this
study, a four-stroke cycle, water-cooled, single-cylinder and dual-fuel test engine is prepared to investigate
the combustion and exhaust emissions.
Main results were obtained as follows: (1) The engine operated stably with lean biogas ignited with a small
amount of gas oil. Under the condition of higher intake pressure, higher thermal efficiency was obtained as
well as higher indicated mean effective pressure. (2) Because the biogas includes carbon dioxide, the
specific heat increases. The compressed temperature with biogas is lower than that of the natural gas.
Therefore, the property of anti-knock of biogas is superior to that in the natural gas.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_145.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 145, 9pp.)
Engine components
ONBOARD FUEL OIL CLEANING, THE EVER NEGLECTED PROCESS HOW TO RESTRAIN
INCREASING CAT-FINE DAMAGES IN TWO-STROKE MARINE ENGINES
MAN Diesel & Turbo, DNV Petroleum Services, NanoNord and Alfa Laval Tumba
Remains of Cat fines in the fuel oil entering the engine account for a considerable part of the wear of the
combustion chamber components in two-stroke engines. The attempt to lower the amount of cat fines in fuel
oil bunkers by the ISO 8217:2010 to maximum 60 ppm has however not lowered the global average content.
On the contrary, increased use of ECA fuel has lead to a significant increase in the number of cat fines
related engine wear situations. Cat fines entering the engine create wear by means of so-called 3-part
abrasion. The sliding surfaces made of cast iron are the most sensitive, as the cat fines has a tendency to
embed into natural porosities of the cast material structure and create wear on the counterpart. Thereby
cylinder liners, piston ring grooves and piston rings become the most affected is seen on the fuel equipment
due to the high hardness of those components. Recent statistic, involving 165 high cylinder and piston ring
wear cases, where replica technique have been used detecting cat fine-particles embedded in the liner
surface, showed cat fines being the reason in 86% of the cases. This investigation has also shown that even
small cat fine particles below 10 micron contribute to the wear. Analysis results of the HFO bunkered in most
of the high wear cases showed that the vessels in question had bunkered fuel oil within the limits of the ISO
8217:2005 specification. Consequently, the cause of the high wear may be found in either too low separation
efficiency onboard, by settling and accumulation of cat fines in the different tanks onboard or a combination
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of both.
Covers - System Check (FSC), Cat fines Size Distribution (CSD) screening.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_051.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 51, 13pp.)
Exhaust emissions
USING THE THE FIA-100/FCA - FUEL COMBUSTION ANALYZER TO EVALUATE THE PARTICLE
NUMBER DISTRIBUTION FROM DIFFERENT MARINE FUEL QUALITIES
Marintek and Fueltech Solutions
With the upcoming reduction in fuel sulphur content there are concerns in the shipping industry for the future
fuel quality and availability. The future fuel quality may also affect the particulate matter (PM) emissions in a
negative way despite the significant reduction in PM mass that will be achieved by reducing the sulphur
concentration in heavy fuel oils (HFO). The remaining PM emissions may increase if the fuel quality
decreases in the future due to the reduced fuel sulphur content. The authors are looking for a method that
allows simple and cheap comparison of different fuel qualities without the need for full scale testing on large
marine engines. The idea is to use the FIA-100/FCA (FIA) or similar device for fuel combustion and
estimating the PM emissions by measuring the particle size distribution (PSD) in the FIA exhaust. This study
is looking into the possibilities and the objectives were to establish whether or not it was possible to see any
effect of fuel quality on the measured PSDs and if the changes in PSDs resembled what is observed in real
engines. This study shows that it is possible to observe the effect of fuel quality in the FIA PSDs although the
behaviour was not exactly the same as observed in a real engine. The agreement for high quality fuels such
as marine gas oil, gas to liquid fuel and fish oil was good while there are improvements to be made for the
HFO measurements. Further improving the method will probably require the flexibility of the Fueltech
combustion research unit (CRU) or similar equipment and improvement to both sampling and measurement
methods.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_044.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 44, 8pp.)
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FEATURES OF LUBRICANTS
Base oils
THE BENEFIT OF USING GROUP II BASE OILS IN MEDIUM SPEED ENGINES
Infineum
Group II base oils are a category of base oils defined by the American Petroleum Institute as having a sulphur
content less than 300 ppm, a saturates content greater than 90% and a viscosity index of between 80 and
120. Group II base oils have been used in automotive lubricants for many years. This was driven by the need
to improve performance of the lubricant to meet the demands of new engine technologies. As a
consequence, the supply of Group II base oil has been increasing and the capacity of Group I base oil is
forecast to decrease. So far, these trends in base oil capacity have left the lubricants for medium speed
marine engines unaffected; such lubricants have historically always used Group I base oils as the diluent for
the additive system. With increasing availability of Group II base oils, there is now a drive to utilise them for
medium-speed marine engine applications. The current economic climate is a strong motivator for the ship
owner/operator to scrutinise their operation and identify where further cost savings can be made. Hence there
is a desire for reduced oil consumption and increased power output. Combine this with increasingly poor
heavy fuel oil quality, to which medium speed engines are sensitive, and it becomes clear that the demands
on the lubricant are increasing. This paper discusses whether the use of Group II base oil can go some way
to meeting those demands, by providing improved oxidation resistance, viscosity control and lower volatility.
An upgrade of these performance features would extend the time before condemning limits for the oil are
reached. The capability of these base oils in comparison to Group I is examined in bench and laboratory
engine testing. The deployment of a Group II based lubricant in the field, and what benefits have been
observed, is discussed.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_090.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 90, 9pp.)
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TRIBOLOGY OF ENGINE COMPONENTS
Cylinder components
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED CYLINDER LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Wuhan University of Technology and Wuhan Sailinde Marine Technology Co
Contraposing defects of the conventional mechanical lubrication system, a new electronically controlled
cylinder lubrication system was developed. Its constitution, working principle, control strategy and features
were described, and the performance experiments were conducted on the test bench and real ship. The main
performance data are as follows: oil injection pressure 2MPa; injection timing precision 0.1ms; injection
duration 20ms. The oil injection concentrates onto the piston rings zone to ensure the cylinder liner
lubrication, and the oil injection frequency is regulated according to engine load, sulphur content in fuel,
cylinder liner run-in condition and so on, thus the cylinder oil consumption rate can be reduced approximately
by 30% compared to the conventional mechanical lubrication system. As a retrofit on vessels in service, the
Lubrication System will have a payback period of less than two years on most types of MC/MC-C engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_042.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 42, 8pp.)
Pistons and piston rings
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW GENERATION LONG LIFE PISTON RING COATING FOR 2 STROKE LARGE
BORE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
IHI Corporation and Diesel United
Large-bore marine diesel engines equipped as main propulsion on ocean voyaging large vessels like
container ships and crude oil tankers are supposed to possess very high reliability. One of the main factors
that affects to the reliability of the main engines is the stable sliding of piston rings and cylinder liners. IHI
Corporation and Diesel United have conducted jointly numerous basic experiments and tests on wear
monitoring between piston rings and cylinder liners, and measurements of oil film thickness between piston
rings and cylinder liners of main engines on vessels in commercial operation. The results obtained so far are
utilized in clarifying the abnormal sliding mechanism between piston rings and cylinder liners that is hereafter
referred as scuffing, and in developing effective cylinder lubrication methods that may be effective in
preventing the scuffing.
The present paper reports the new generation coating for piston rings which will be able to fill a demand of a
market thus developed. The first step taken at the development is to clarify the sliding characteristics and the
sliding mechanism between conventional plasma sprayed Mo coatings and chromium ceramic coatings.
Plasma sprayed Mo coatings have high scuffing resistance with inferior coating life. Chromium ceramic
coating films possess longer coating life than the plasma sprayed Mo coatings with lower scuffing resistance
than the Mo coatings. Numerous basic studies and various measurement results obtained on operating ships
in the present investigation have yielded a concept for new coatings that should have superior scuffing
resistance as the Mo coatings possess, and longer coating life than that of chromium ceramic coatings
possess as targets of the new coatings to be developed. The developed coatings are subjected to laboratory
tests indicating the coatings to possess excellent properties. Namely, the developed coatings possess the
scuffing resistance of about 1.8 times than that of conventional chromium ceramic coatings, and the coating
life as longer as more than 4.3 times than that of the conventional chromium ceramic coatings. Furthermore,
the developed coatings are confirmed to possess the same order of attacking property against the cylinder
liners. Test conducted on operating ships have confirmed the same order of the coating life and superior
sliding property as obtained at the laboratory tests. Thus, the actual applicability of the developed coating for
main engines of operating vessels has been demonstrated.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_149.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 149, 12pp.)
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APPLICATIONS OF LUBRICANTS TO SPECIFIC ENGINE TYPES
Gas engines
EXTENDING OIL LIFE IN NATURAL GAS ENGINES
Infineum
The choice of oil drain interval in engines burning natural gas fuel represents a cost-benefit balance. Longer
oil life lowers the costs for oil purchase, labour, and equipment downtime, the last usually being the most
valuable. More frequent oil changes may extend the overall life of the engine and reduce long-term
maintenance costs, as well as provide a margin of safety and psychological well-being. Somewhere
inbetween is the optimum for a given engine make, model, fuel composition, and service. Oil drain intervals
for large industrial gas engines are often determined by used oil analysis. Typical parameters, such as
viscosity and acid number increase; base number decrease; oxidation and nitration by infrared; and wear
metals content are compared to recommendations from the engine manufacturer, the analysis laboratory, or
experience. However, oil analysis may not give a reliable indication of expected engine life or long-term
engine condition. A series of field tests was conducted to determine the factors affecting oil life and engine
durability. Differences among engine makes, models, and configurations that affect oil life are shown,
including BMEP, oil sump volume, brake specific oil consumption, and air:fuel ratio. Stoichiometric, lean burn,
and ultra-lean burn configurations are shown to give significantly different stress on the oil and therefore,
different oil life. The validity of typical used oil condemning limits was explored by extending oil life beyond the
recommended limits. Generally, oil drain intervals may be extended beyond common guidelines with no
apparent harmful engine effects, although there may be warranty implications. In addition to used oil
properties, wear and cleanliness resulting from the extension of oil drain intervals were examined. As
expected, longer oil drain intervals led to increased deposits, which may or may not affect engine life. Wear
was much less sensitive in these highly hydrodynamic engine designs. Based on these findings, a new
engine oil formulation is demonstrated to double the oil drain interval of the previous ’best in class’ product,
without sacrificing wear, cleanliness, or used oil analysis parameters. The probable limitations of extended oil
drain intervals are discussed and predicted.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_80.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 80, 7pp.)
DEVELOPMENT OF GAS ENGINE OILS FOR CORROSIVE GAS SERVICE
Infineum
The decomposition of organic substances at landfill and biogas sites creates a media consisting of methane,
carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The high calorific value of this gas makes it a useful source of fuel for power
generation. This enables a beneficial recycling of man-made and natural resources while yielding an
attractive economic return for operators. Engines operating in these conditions are typically required to run
continuously at full load and any maintenance downtime can result in significant lost revenues. Due to the
nature of the sites, the fuel gases generally contain a high level of contaminants introduced from the
materials from which it is produced. This can result in elevated levels of sulphur and halogen in landfill gas
and sulphur from biogas sources, which is not seen or experienced at equivalent natural gas sites. During the
combustion process these contaminants lead to the production of corrosive acids which can result in
degradation of yellow metal engine components. Further, at landfill sites the presence of silioxanes in a
number of household products results in their deposition upon various parts of the engine. Both corrosion and
the deposition of materials upon the engine can be avoided with the correct choice of engine oil lubricant.
This paper will detail the development of a new engine oil specifically targeted to withstand the conditions
experienced at landfill and biogas sites. The development of bench tests to aid the screening of formulations
will be discussed and compared to existing ’best in field’ commercial products; distinctions between
formulations for natural gas engines and those required for corrosive gas service will be drawn. The results of
continuing field trials with the new formulation will also be presented. Following the completion of a successful
field trial a new, corrosive gas service specific, additive technology will be commercialised.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_093.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 93, 7pp.)
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ENERGY EFFICIENT GAS ENGINE LUBRICATION
ExxonMobil GE Power and Water
This paper will focus on natural gas engine oil product development, leveraging leading edge lubrication
technology to deliver sustainability related benefits such as extended oil life, excellent piston deposit control
and increased engine efficiency while helping reduce emissions and extend oil drain intervals. The
comprehensive bench test program which evaluated oxidation stability, high temperature thermal stability and
frictional characteristics of promising candidates, will be discussed. The paper will also provide highlights of
the extensive engine performance and durability test program which evaluated the energy efficiency, oil life,
piston cleanliness, oil consumption and wear performance in field demonstrations and laboratory endurance
engine testing. The use of low viscosity oil requires proper validation before use in an engine. Simulation was
used to verify that use of lower viscosity oil would still maintain the required oil film thicknesses and not
damage the engine bearings or the power cylinders. The modelling work was followed by a 1000 hour
laboratory endurance test to compare the power cylinder wear rates vs the conventional SAE 40 grade oil.
Once the lab endurance screening was complete, additional laboratory testing focused on documenting the
candidate oils’ impact on oil consumption, engine fuel efficiency, oil filter change interval and oil drain interval.
Based on the lab test results, the range of oil consumption reduction achieved with lower viscosity oils is
between 10 and 20%, and the fuel efficiency improvement is between 1.0 and 1.3%. The lab testing has also
demonstrated the potential to extend the oil drain intervals out to approximately four times the current
interval. The field demonstration has confirmed the fuel efficiency improvement demonstrated in the
laboratory.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_118.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 118, 10pp.)
Marine engines
THE IMPORTANCE OF CYLINDER OIL SELECTION
Castrol Marine
Covers – OEM fuel sulphur feed rate guidelines, reduced feed rate impact with higher BN, scavenge drain
analysis (SDA), iron particles detection range, feed rate reduction programme, a case study for Wartsila 11
RT-flex 96 C, consequences of mismatching fuel sulphur, load and BN.
Conclusions:
Optimising cylinder oil feed rate can deliver significant savings
High BN lubricants can deliver lower feed rates
Effective SDA can provide reassurance whilst adjusting feed rate
Selecting the right lubricant for the predominant operating conditions can reduce lubricant and maintenance
costs.
See vCD 124 Session 4 Paul Harrold.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 4: Lubes Panel Debate, 11pp.)
EVOLUTION OF LUBRICANTS DEVELOPMENT TO DELIVER RELIABILITY IN CURRENT AND
EMERGING ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES
Shell Global Solutions
Conditions in new engines increase oil stress
Understanding oil stress means that you understand how a lubricant behaves and degrades in service.
Shell Alexia S4 is designed to deal effectively with levels of oil stress commonly found in the vast majority of
engines, operating today under full power, flexible and slow steaming and using up to 3.5% sulphur fuel.
See vCD 124 Session 4 Jose Garcia.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 4: Lubes Panel Debate, 6pp.)
MARINE LUBRICANTS 2013 – 2020 THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CHALLENGE
Gulf Oil Marine
Covers – protecting the aquatic environment, effects of fuel switching – heavy fuel oil, 4-stroke crankcase
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lubricants, 2-stroke cylinder oils, gas/dual fuel, marine lubricants – economic factors.
See vCD 124 Session 4 Don Gregory.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 4: Lubes Panel Debate, 8pp.)
FIELD TRIAL FINDINGS ON SLOW STEAMING CYLINDER OIL SELECTION
Castrol
Evolving marine fuels sulphur content legislation and the advent of slow steaming have consequences for
engine maintenance costs and cylinder oil performance, in turn creating a challenge in maintaining safety
margins while optimising operational efficiency. Castrol will present the results of its field evaluations that
demonstrate the way slow steaming increases demands on cylinder lubrication. Based on research and
development carried out in the laboratory and onboard ship, the company will present data showing that in
certain conditions the selection of an 80 BN cylinder oil will prevent cold corrosion if the fuel sulphur level,
engine load and feed rate make the lubricant stresses too severe for lower BN lubricants. At a time when the
industry is likely to see a higher proportion of fuel bunker deliveries at the highest end of allowable sulphur
content range, Castrol will outline why an 80 BN lubricant enables optimised feed rates and provides greater
neutralisation capacity, and hence better corrosion protection across the fuel sulphur range while slow
steaming. Furthermore, as well as offering fuel cost savings, reducing overall speed can mitigate concerns
over ash deposits when operating on low sulphur fuels in Emissions Control Areas.
Cover – lubrication of cross head engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_082.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 82, 9pp.)
SYSTEM OIL FOR 2-STROKE MARINE ENGINES – CURRENT AND FUTURE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS AND CHALLENGES
Infineum (1) Wartsila (2)
System oil has had a slow evolution of performance improvement during the past decades. Rapidly
increasing fuel injection pressure to reduce fuel consumption and to meet exhaust emission requirements
requires increased anti-wear performance to protect gears, camshafts and followers. The introduction of
engines with complex hydraulic systems operated by the system oil necessitates a review of the current
situation. The oil needs to be very clean to operate effectively in these functions as there are many delicate
high precision control components in the hydraulic oil control circuit. The system oil also operates in an
increasingly hot piston cooling and exhaust turbocharger bearing environment necessitating improved
thermal stability and anti-oxidation properties. Some new bearing materials require low system oil water
content and improved anti-corrosion properties. The quantity of system oil per engine output is also being
reduced to save cost and space, thus the oil circulation rate is increasing. This requires that the air release
and foam collapse time properties of the oil need to be improved. Not only the new oil performance for all
these parameters is important, but the retention of these desirable properties for the life of the oil is essential
to ensure good operation. System oils are typically ’fill for life’, thus these properties need to be maintained
for the life of the engine, i.e. 25 to 30 years with only small amounts of top up. One final challenge would be
to meet all these requirements as well as allowing the use of the system oil as a cylinder oil for use with low
sulphur distillate fuel. These new performance requirements need to be addressed to ensure reliable engine
operation now and in the future. To deliver the required performance, the choice of additive chemistries
becomes critical. While the range of additive chemistries is extensive, the impact of new system oil
requirements makes selecting the right molecules a key step in delivering performance to match engine
needs. This is made even more so by the need to consider the impact on the environment and potential
future legislation. In addition, as the automotive industry drives basestock manufacture to increased use of
Group II, III, and IV product, the impact of these if used to produce system oils, must be taken into account.
This paper aims to identify the performance requirements for system oils and show how with careful
formulating, these can be achieved.
Covers – foam collapse and air entrainment, demulsibility, alkalinity, detergents, anti-wear, scuffing
resistance.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_094.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 94, 9pp.)
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RELIABLE LUBRICATION OF LOW SPEED ENGINES OPERATED WITH VARYING FUEL SULPHUR
LEVELS
Chevron
For the past several decades, the marine industry has been a conservative environment with very little
changes in legislation and engine design. By the end of previous century, however, the demands for more
engine power, coupled with increased environmental awareness, have triggered tremendous changes in this
industry segment. Recent and upcoming emission legislation requires the use of low sulphur fuel oil in
environmentally sensitive areas. This triggers the need to have multiple high quality cylinder oil grades
available to tackle the changing fuel market. Thus, the selection of the correct cylinder oil to optimize engine
lubrication is more important than ever. By extensive research on the operation of marine engines, Chevron
has developed tools to operate marine diesel engines reliably, even when dealing with high variations in fuel
quality. Traditionally, drip oil analysis (also called piston underside analysis) has been used to determine the
optimum lubrication parameters to operate a low-speed marine engine. These optimum parameters are
achieved by varying the base number (BN) or alkalinity level of the lubricant, or by adjusting the amount of oil
injected to match the sulphuric acid present in the combustion chamber. The appetite for alkalinity, is an
indication of the corrosion sensitivity of the engine, and can vary substantially between different engine types.
Every engine has a point at which oil feed rate becomes insufficient, and where iron, an indication of ongoing
corrosion and wear, starts to increase. Traditionally, a measured drop in BN was used to determine this point;
however, with marine fuels not containing any sulphur becoming more commonplace, BN is no longer a
suitable tool to determine optimum lubrication. Chevron has accumulated a vast database which contains
more than 15000 samples, taken under a wide variety of engines, fuels and operating conditions. This paper
will report the findings on research performed on marine engine oil performance under a wide range of
residual and distillate fuels.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_120.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 120, 8pp.)
MULTIFUNCTIONAL MARINE CYLINDER LUBRICANTS
JX Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation
The IMO classifies the world’s navigable waters into Global areas and ECAs (emission control areas), with
separate exhaust emission regulations governing each. In Global areas, the sulphur cap is 3.5% and highsulphur fuels are still used. High BN (base number) cylinder oils (70BN) are used in Global areas to prevent
corrosive wear that can be caused by the sulphuric acid generated through combustion of sulphur in the fuel.
In ECAs, low-sulphur fuel (S < 1%) must to be used in order to meet SOx regulations. Engine manufacturers
require the use of low BN cylinder oils (40BN) in ECAs, because high BN cylinder oils are not suitable for 2stroke crosshead engines running on low-sulphur fuel. Because the list of areas designated as ECAs
continues to grow, mid BN cylinder oils (55BN) were developed, which can be used with both low- sulphur
and high-sulphur fuels. Meanwhile, ship owners often operate vessels in slow steaming mode to improve fuel
efficiency, due both to skyrocketing bunker fuel prices and in the interest of cutting CO2 emissions. But slow
steaming increases the amount of unburned materials (ex. soot) and decreases heat capacity in the
combustion chambers. Therefore, the lubrication conditions in slow steaming are more severe and more
corrosive than in normal load operation. Thus, the performance of mid BN cylinder oils may be insufficient to
provide proper lubrication in slow steaming. If high BN cylinder oils could be modified for use with low-sulphur
fuels, these problems would be solved. Therefore the authors studied the incompatibility between low-sulphur
fuels and high BN cylinder oils and found two contributing factors. One is the previously-recognized problem
of increased ash deposits from surplus basic additives on the cylinder top lands, and another is a decline in
oil spreadability, which is linked to the formation of high-molecular weight substances traceable to the
oxidation products of the base oil and surplus basic additives. The decline in oil spreadability can be inhibited
by improving the oil’s oxidation stability. We developed an ash softening technology to prevent the buildup of
piston ash deposits. This technology can convert what would normally be hard ash deposits into meringuelike soft deposits. The technology was developed by optimizing the detergent and dispersant system. The
optimization is based on the selection of the molecular weight and quantity of the dispersant used, and
combining the dispersant with a proper detergent. This technology has not only an ash softening effect but
also acts to accelerate the acid neutralization rate. High BN cylinder oils formulated with this technology are
suitable for 2-stroke crosshead engines running on either high-sulphur fuel or low-sulphur fuel and operating
in slow steaming mode. Thus, these cylinder oils could be called multifunctional marine cylinder lubricants. In
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addition, 40BN cylinder oils utilizing this technology could be used in 2-stroke crosshead engines running on
ultra low-sulphur fuel (S < 0.1%, distillate or LNG, etc).
Covers – JAST (JX Ash Softening Technology).
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_128.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 128, 9pp.)
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ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAINS
HYBRID ELECTRIC POWERTRAINS
Marine applications
INSIGHTFUL VIEW OF HYBRID PROPULSION
Deltamarin
Covers – operation modes of the hybrid system.
Conclusions:
- The overall differences are quite small and gap between the electric and mechanic options has narrowed
- The hybrid solutions have an attractive operations cost when the operation profile has some diversity in it
- Higher first cost can be balanced out by redundancy and flexibility requirements
- Fuel- and machinery configuration selection should not be disconnected from each other.
See vCD 124 Session 5 Esa Jokioinen.pdf (The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8
March 2013, Session 5: LNG & Alternative Propulsion Technology, 15pp.)
BATTERY POWERED SHIPS - ECONOMIC AND GREENER
DNV
Electrification with Li-ion batteries has been a global trend for years across different sectors, driven by
decreasing battery prices and increasing energy density; now it is the maritime sector’s turn.
Increasingly, fuel costs are a large part of ships’ operating expenses and thereby competitiveness. Studies
show that hybrid ships with energy storage in large batteries and optimised power control can achieve
significant reductions in fuel consumption, maintenance, and environmental pollution.
Several projects have investigated the electrification of ships showing that there is considerable potential to
reduce both fuel consumption and emissions of CO2, NOx and particles. Ideal ship types for hybridisation
typically have large variations in power demands and/or low utilisation of the engine for longer periods of time.
Combined with a battery package, the power system onboard may become more responsive and flexible with
increased robustness towards peak loads and fast transient load changes. Furthermore, hybridisation can be
a cost-effective low carbon alternative to cold ironing and to achieve environmentally friendly sailing in
regulated and environmental sensitive areas. Use of LNG, renewables and energy recovery make batteries
even more relevant.
DNV has performed hybridisation analyses of selected ship types showing interesting business cases.
See vCD 137 Session-Four-Paper-One.pdf (35th Motorship Propulsion and Emissions Conference,
Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 6pp.)
ELECTRIC DRIVE SOLUTIONS
Wartsila
The number of vessels with electric propulsion is increasing, and a much larger share of newbuilds today is
equipped with electric propulsion than 10 or 15 years ago.
Reasons behind this trend is mainly that electric propulsion gives benefits with regards to redundancy and
efficiency for several vessel types. The fast development of electrical drives technology and applications also
means that the solutions for a wider range of vessels are becoming available. A competitive price level,
combined with drives becoming robust and reliable components are all factors that has led to electric drives
today is the preferred technology in increasing parts of the marine market.
While the traditional solution of propulsion transformer or active rectifier solutions limited the applications
available, the introduction of innovative electric systems design, various types of hybrid applications,
introduction of DC source components like batteries or fuel cells, island mode applications and DC
distribution are all examples of the fast-developing technology of electric drives.
Recognising this trend, Wartsila has delivered own drives solutions since 2005, and since continuously
developed our products and solutions. Among our contributions to the development of electric drives are
drives specifically designed for the marine market, the low loss concept with its redundancy and efficiency
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benefits and the Fellowship research project done in cooperation with DNV and Eidesvik, where a fuel cell
was integrated in an DC distribution connected to the electrical grid on the offshore vessel Viking Lady.
As a solution provider in the marine industry with a wide portfolio ranging from engines, electrical and
automation systems and propulsors, Wartsila utilize our knowledge on the different components and systems
onboard the vessel to develop electrical drives applications.
In general, the development of new applications has for a large part been done in the low voltage drive
market. But with the introduction of Wartsila’s newly developed medium voltage power drive in 2013, we also
are looking to develop new electrical system and drive applications in the medium voltage range.
The presentation in the Motorship Propulsion Conference will focus on Wartsila’s visions for development of
electric drives applications, with particular focus on the higher power range with medium voltage drives.
See vCD 137 Session-Four-Paper-Two.pdf or Session-Four-Presentation-Two.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 2pp (Paper), 12pp (Presentation).)
DIVERSITY OF DIESEL-ELECTRIC PROPULSION PLANTS – TODAY’S SELECTION CRITERIA FOR A
SUITABLE APPLICATION
Siemens
Besides the known special tasks, today’s ship propulsion plants should also comply with the environmental
and energy saving regulations. Diesel electric and hybrid configurations enable suitable solutions.
The key conditions for the configuration optimization are defined by the operational profile of the vessel. The
variation of load condition requires correspondent propulsion plant configurations to reduce emissions and
fuel consumption.
A flexible modification of the plant configuration is possible because of alternatives in the hybrid
arrangements. Finally the layout condition is nothing other than an operation regime with individual loads and
operation times in deference to a fixed design point.
For a proper selection under this operational regime, a detailed knowledge of the specific advantages and
disadvantages are of utmost importance. Furthermore some electrical requirements have to be considered.
This lecture will display the necessary considerations with some examples of different ship types.
See vCD 137 Session-Four-Paper-Three.pdf and Session-Four-Presentation-Three.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 10pp (Paper), 38pp (Presentation).)
DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID TUGBOAT SYSTEM
Niigata Power Systems
In a ship, it is necessary to design in consideration for greenhouse gas reduction, (smoke, NOx) and fuel
consumption reduction. In general, the propulsion system of tugboat is designed with rated horsepower for
required bollard-pull. However, in general almost harbour tugboats are operated under the low load except
the moment of ship berthing to fulfill the operation pattern. In order of the customer, it is necessary to design
a ship to operate in good conditions of the system performance. Therefore, we have developed hybrid system
for tugboat applying electric motor and battery similar to a Hybrid-Vehicle. The propulsion system power
source of this system consists of diesel engine and electric motor powered by electric current from high
density battery. Installation area becomes smaller in comparison with a lead battery. By adopting the high
density battery that is effective for the ships which installation space is relatively limited to vessels such as
tugboats. This hybrid system could reduce 20% fuel consumption and a green-house gas in comparison with
the conventional system. First hybrid tugboat in Japan will enter in service early 2013. If the new development
called the hybrid propulsion system ship can be established, this system will be in contribution to the shipping
industry. This paper explains the introduction, development summary and effect of the hybrid system.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_138.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 138, 10pp.)
INTEGRATED PROPULSION SYSTEMS: NORWAY FERRY KEEPS GOING AND GOING
The trend towards increased use of electricity and batteries onboard ships is expected to continue.
Norwegian DNV said it has developed new rules, tools and advisory services for battery- powered ships. The
company said that a battery package would be in- stalled this spring on the first hybrid offshore supply ship,
the Viking Lady, which will begin operations soon. The Viking Lady is owned by Eides-vik Offshore and her
home port is in Haugesund, Norway. The Viking Lady features an integrated gas/diesel electric propulsion
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system. Four Wartsila 6R32DF dual-fuel engines driving Alconca 60 Hz generators have been installed; each
of the electric generation sets produces 1950 kW of electricity.
A 330 kW LNG-fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) was supplied by FuelCell Energy Solutions after
acquiring select assets - including fuel cell component inventory and manufacturing equipment - previously
owned by the former MTU Onsite Energy GmbH Fuel Cell Systems, which was merged with MTU
Friedrichshafen GmbH, a subsidiary of Tognum AG.
Corvus Energy of Canada will supply the chosen battery pack and the battery management system. The
battery itself is a lithium-polymer battery with a solid polymer composite electrolyte and densities of 160
Wh/kg.
Narve Mjos, director of Battery Projects, DNV, said that hybrid systems have the potential to reduce a ship's
energy consumption, in addition to a major fuel savings potential when an offshore supply vessel is operating
on dynamic positioning.
See Doc.144186 (Diesel & Gas Turbine Worldwide, Apr 2013, pp18-19.)
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UNCONVENTIONAL INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Opposed piston engines
4-STROKE OPPOSED-PISTON-DIESEL-ENGINE WITH CONTROLLED SHIFT-LINERS FOR OPTIMIZED
SCAVENGING, LOW HEAT LOSSES AND IMPROVED THERMAL EFFICIENCY
Guenter Elsbett Technologie and Jiangsu University
Opposed Piston Engines (OPE’s) are looking back to more than 100 years history and have been produced
as Otto and Diesel engines, offering a promising challenge in specific output and thermal efficiency.
Now some new developments in OPE-technology show their relevance to future powertrain challenges.
Better thermal efficiency is attracting the development engineers, as two pistons share only one combustion
chamber, thus leading to beneficial volume/surface ratio of the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, also in
most today’s opposed-piston-engines the scavenging is controlled by pistons. Whereas the OPE presented is
operated as 4-stroke-engine by arrangement of hydraulically shifted liners undisrupted by scavenging holes
or gaps so that the pistons with their rings are shielded against crossing any in- or outlet-ports. Therefore all
the modern engine-technology to increase mileage, reduce oil consumption, wear and emission can be
implemented in this OPE-Technology presented. So this design combines the advantages of an opposed
piston-principle with the benefits of the classic engine technology for technical and economic progress. A first
prototype has been tested successfully, demonstrating also the mechanical function of shift-liners without
problems and showing very low friction losses for the shift liners. The wall thickness of these liners can be
kept low - like conventional dry liners - as they are supported by the surrounding cylinder, leading to low
oscillating liner masses during shifting. The in and outlet ports are located near the pistons top dead centre
area and are opened and closed by the upper end of the shift liners like valves, which are closed by spring
forces and opened by hydraulic actuation. Different to conventional OPE’s there are no distinct exhaust or
intake pistons and thermal load is nearly equally distributed on both pistons. The hydraulic system shares the
lubrication oil with the engine, avoiding leakage problems and providing a simple oil circuit. The presented
design offers also two different modes of combustion technologies: Injection from the outer combustion
chamber edge towards the chamber centre (from cold to hot), or injection from above the combustion
chamber centre towards the chamber walls (from hot to cold). For the first mode one or more injectors are
positioned around the cylinder, providing the chance for multi-nozzle injection in different time and quantities.
For the second mode the cylinder inner wall must be considered as a virtual cylinder head with all same
geometric dimensions as for a classic combustion chamber, but including injection completely rotated by 90°.
It is providing state-of-the-art conditions like well developed common engines today in production, but
requiring only one injector for 2 pistons. As no piston rings are crossing the in- and outlet ports, the presented
engine is aiming for very big gas flow sections - not interrupted by window lands or port ribs - so far much
bigger than conventional multi-valve could allow for - with the result of better cylinder filling and less dynamic
gas flow losses. As the shift liners are hydraulically actuated a variable valve timing can be easily achieved,
as well as a complete cylinder cut-off in multi-cylinder engines.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_035.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 35, 9pp.)
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ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAINS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
Marine
COULD FUEL CELLS EVER BE A CREDIBLE FUEL ALTERNATIVE?
Sulphur deadlines have been set and are well known: they require a reduction in the sulphur content on board
vessels to a level of 0.5 percent by 2020, SECA areas in Europe already require a level of 0.1 percent sulphur
at the berth and the US will require a 0.1 percent level of sulphur on its coast by 2015
Yet refineries worldwide have already advised they will not have the capacity to achieve this goal.
From the outset LNG is certainly the most discussed of the differing options available at present, already
gaining momentum in Scandinavia and Baltic regions with at least 26 ferries, car carriers and supply boats in
operation fuelled by LNG with another 13 in the process of being designed or built.
LNG is a very attractive solution to the emissions problem. It is cleaner than low sulphur fuel oil, it produces
no SOx, it reduces NOx by up to 90 percent and cuts CO2 by approximately 20 percent. In today's market it
is also cheaper to purchase than heavy fuel oil. But LNG has a lower energy content so, to produce the same
power, 1.6 times the volume of heavy fuel oil is required.
Fuel cell technology, however, provides the industry with an interesting possibility, best described as the
conversion of energy stored in a source into electricity via a chemical reaction with oxygen in the air.
One of the most widespread and developed technologies is the Proton Exchange MembraneFuel Cell
(PEMFC) The operating fuel can vary, but hydrogen is commonly used for this purpose. A high temperature
design of this unit (HTPEM) car can operate on products such as methanol, natural gas or ethanol. HTPEM
units have been fitted and proved in operation in a harbour ferry in Bergen, Norway, producing 12 kW and
PEM unit with two cells, both with 50 kW power outputs, has been filled on the tourist river boat Alsterwasser
in Hamburg.
Another developing technology is that of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells
(SOFC), both of which are high temperature fuel cell designs that can operate on hydrogen, biogas,
methanol, ethanol or natural gas.
Covers - Methanol Auxiliary Power Unit (Methapu) project, Wartsila WFC20 solid oxide fuel cell, FellowSHIP
project.
See Doc.144339 (Marine Propulsion, Apr/May 2013, pp168-170.)
US NAVY GOES ELECTRIC: REPORTING FOR DUTY
In what is being seen as a landmark development for the marine and defense sectors, as well as the wider
sustainable transportation arena, the US Navy (USN) has confirmed it is introducing hybrid electric drive
(HED) systems to its Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) destroyers, with the aim being to increase the overall fuel
efficiency of the fleet.
The installation of HED propulsion systems across the fleet is expected to save at least 5000 barrels of oil per
ship per year, and could reach up to 10000 barrels per ship depending on the speed profile and operational
tempo.
In the ship propulsion world, a hybrid electric drive system means a combined battery and mechanical drive
combination that uses the electric power generator turbines, which are run on petroleum and power the ship’s
combat and crew habitability systems, as well as driving the ship’s propulsion at low speeds. Fuel is still being
used, but at a far lower rate, and crucially for the operator, power is not being wasted.
The Flight IIA Arleigh Burke destroyers are fitted with four GE LM2500 gas turbine engines, which are the
prime movers, providing a total 74.6 MW of power to propel the ships at the top speeds required when on
operations.
The Flight IIAs are fitted with three Rolls-Royce AG9140 generator sets powered by gas turbines that provide
electricity for the combat systems and the crew habitability systems. Two are normally operational at one
time, providing 6 MW of power, with the third acting as an auxiliary. However, less than half of the power
produced by the two generators is used and therefore the HED system will use this extra capacity to drive the
propulsion system, which means the ship can move at lower speeds without turning on the LM2500 engines.
See Doc.144357 (Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International, Apr 2013, pp20-24.)
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MODELLING AND CONTROL OF A FUEL CELL AND MICRO GAS TURBINE HYBRID POWER SYSTEM
FOR SHIP APPLICATION
University of Strathclyde
In order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulation from shipping, engine developers and
researchers have put tremendous effort to develop high efficient and low emission ship power systems. Fuel
cell power systems offer high efficiency and almost zero emission which meet the target of marine power
system development. This paper presents a hybrid ship power system with the combination of a solid oxide
fuel cell (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine (MGT). In a SOFC fuel cell, the chemical energy contained in the
fuel is converted directly into electricity and high temperature exhaust gases where the thermal energy can be
further extracted for electricity generation by the use of micro gas turbines (MGT). The hybrid technology can
achieve an efficiency as high as 80 percent and its emission is very low. However, working as a marine
power provider onboard ship, this technology still has some challenges to tackle due to onboard working
conditions and environment. In addition to the challenges of meeting the requirements and functioning
properly as a ship propulsion system, a great difficulty lies in the control strategy of the hybrid system to
balance power generation from the SOFC’s chemical reaction and the MGT’s rotation. By using
Matlab/Simulink software, both SOFC fuel cell and MGT subsystems, including SOFC electrochemical, fuel
(natural gas) reformer, heat exchanger and turbine system have been modelled. Based on the developed
mathematical models, the control strategy for the hybrid power systems is presented. A control strategy of
key parameters and the power sharing between the two power sources of SOFC and MGT is proposed as
well. The simulation results demonstrate that the control strategy is able to control the SOFC and MGT
subsystems’ operation effectively as well as safely.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_031.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 31, 7pp.)
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FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 REDUCTION
APPLICATIONS
Marine
LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY SAVING PROPULSION DEVICES (ESDS)
Ship Propulsion Solutions
ESDs can play within the overall scheme of improving ship fuel consumption efficiency, which supports a
ship's EEDI and its SEEMP, is addressed. Having an understanding of the custom-engineering required to
design effective ESDs and identifying the needed shipboard performance measurement to validate ESD
installations are summarized in the paper. An overview of the application of Computerized Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) utilized to guide design of ESDs to operate with ship hulls and their propellers is provided. On-going
research to evaluate and validate the latest ESD designs is reviewed. The actions needed by shipbuilders
and ship-owners are outlined for both new-buildings and existing ship retrofits. A table outlining applications
of different ESDs is included for various ship types. Economic tables are provided identifying the expected
cost-beneficial gains for anticipated Energy Saving Rates (ESRs) for the various ESDs. Future application
calls for installation of a combination of ESDs in order to obtain ESR gains that are readily measureable not
only on sea-trials, but also in service. Specific combinations are identified for various ship types. For those
ship-builders and ship owners/operators interested in applying ESDs, the role of Ship Propulsion Solutions,
LLC (SPS) to provide design, testing, manufacture, delivery, and installation oversight is more fully
delineated.
Covers – Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), WakeEqualising-Duct (WED), Propeller Boss Cap Fin (PBCF), Sumitomo Integrated Lammeren Duct (SILD), preswirl vanes (PSV), Simplified Compensative Nozzle (SCN), Sistemar Contracted & Loaded Tip (CLT),
Propeller Cap Turbine (PCT), Energy Saving Rates (ESRs) estimated for various Energy Saving Devices
(ESDs) in different ship types, Economic Tables for Anticipated Cost-Benefit Gains.
See vCD 124 Session 6 Robert Walsh Paper.pdf and Robert Walsh Presentation.pdf (The Annual
Marine Propulsion Conference, London, UK; 7-8 March 2013, Session 6: Advances in Engine & Drivetrain
Technology for Next Generation Ships, 14pp (Paper) & 15pp (Presentation).
SLOW STEAMING & ENERGY OPTIMISATION
PrimeServ Copenhagen
Vessels are originally equipped and optimized for a given operation and maximum speed. The general
development of engines over time with higher power density has mainly resulted in higher operational speeds
for the most common vessel types. Today’s macro-environment in shipping has resulted in lower operational
speeds across most sectors. When the most common operation speed of the vessel is lower than the
optimization speed it might be beneficial to consider a de-rating.
De-rating is optimizing the fuel consumption by closing the gap between operation speed and the speed at
which the engine is optimized. The trade-off for reduced fuel consumption is a reduced maximum speed of
the vessel due to a new lower maximum power output of the engine.
Calculations often show that by reducing the maximum speed of a vessel by 10-15% the fuel saving potential
at the operation speed can be as much as 10-12%.
The fuel savings come from re-matching the engine and propeller layout to the actual operation speed and
utilizing state of the art tuning methods.
An optimized propeller reduces the power demand of the engine as well as a de-rated and low load optimized
engine will have a reduced SFOC (Specific Fuel Oil Consumption).
De-rating means reducing the Specified Maximum Continuous Rating (SMCR) of the engine to match the
power demand given by a high efficiency designed propeller optimized at the optimization speed of the
vessel.
See vCD 137 Session-One-Paper-Two.pdf and Session-One-Presentation-Two.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013 6pp (Paper), 22pp (Presentation).)
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SEEMP - SEA TRIALLED ONBOARD M/V BORE SEA - DELIVERS SAVINGS OF 630000 USD/YEAR
Bore
The RoFlex vessels manifests Bore’s strong environmental values showing the path towards the future of
shipping, and are the first steps into adapting to the change of environmental regulations in 2015.
Covers - fuel consumption normalization.
Key Factors for this result:
Optimize propeller design and make it cavitation free
Make numerical hull model, CFD analysis together with the propeller
Installation of VFD, Variable Frequency Drive
ME with common rail technic could operate on low load < 50%
- Allowing combinator curve closer to engine load curve
- In this case proven savings of 12%.
See vCD 137 Session-One-Presentation-Three.pdf (35th Motorship Propulsion and Emissions
Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013, 19pp (Presentation).)
AS SEEMP REGULATION BECOME MANDATORY IN JANUARY 2013, WHAT IS THE IMPACT FOR
TODAY’S OPERATORS?
NAPA
As the true commercial benefits of becoming more energy efficient, and the need for compliance with new
regulation become clearer to the market, charterers, class societies and supply chain partners are placing a
significant value on sustainable vessels and operations.
Retailers and consumers are driving the need for greater transparency along the supply chain. These
expectations are embodied in shipping in the demands of charterers and the increase in emissions
management regulation.
Eco-efficiency is no longer a box-ticking exercise simply about corporate social responsibility or ‘green
credentials’; reducing fuel consumption and increasing efficiency is now an essential tool in maintaining
profitability and competitive advantage in today’s tough market.
Innovative owners and operators are starting to embrace all kinds of efficiency options, ranging from
measures such as slow steaming, virtual arrival and weather routing, to Maersk’s programme of removing
bulbous bows and other owners investing in newbuild ‘green vessels’.
These are only the voluntary efficiency measures being undertaken.
A wave of environmental regulations entered into force from January this year. The energy efficiency design
index (EEDI) requires that new vessels meet greater standards for design efficiency, while the mandatory
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan creates a legislatory environment in which owners are required to
consider how they can operate their vessels more efficiently, even if targets have not been set to enforce a
level of improvement.
SEEMP has the potential to bring a significant positive impact to the industry, as it becomes a fundamental
addition to the day-to-day running of vessels for the foreseeable future. If owners and operators embrace this
approach as an all-encompassing plan for managing operational energy efficiencies, it will be of great benefit.
Shipping’s impact on the environment through emissions will be reduced, and owners and operators will reap
financial rewards as a result of greater fuel efficiency, and therefore lower fuel spend.
See vCD 137 Session-One-Paper-Four.pdf and Session-One-Presentation-Four.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013 6pp (Paper), 12pp (Presentation).)
DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF FUEL-EFFICIENT PROPULSION SYSTEMS
MAN Diesel
The ever rising cost of fuel is the driving force behind the design of energy efficient ships and their operation.
The constant struggle for improving the energy efficiency means that every possibility must be explored to
reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
The introduction of the EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index) that is coming into force in 2013 has further
spurred the interest in applying different novel designs like the Kappel propeller.
Traditionally the optimisation of a vessel is subdivided into two phases: hull and propulsion system.
While the former primarily focus on minimising the hull resistance, the latter has its focus on propeller,
rudder, shafting and engine in order to maximise the overall propulsive efficiency.
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MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT) has devised a methodology by using a holistic approach that will ensure the
propulsion system attains the highest possible efficiency, and still maintain a sound mechanical integrity with
respect to strength, vibration and operational performance.
The paper will outline the optimisation philosophy that is used by MDT, starting with the aft ship – propeller,
rudder and shafting - and finally ending up by the selection of an optimum main engine.
The application of advanced Kappel propeller designs and EIDs (Efficiency Improving Devices) will be
demonstrated to show the performance that can be expected by applying them on their own or in
combinations.
The importance of applying the hydrodynamic and mechanical experience and the challenges of combining
the two into an optimum solution will be demonstrated.
See vCD 137 Session-Two-Paper-Three.pdf and Session-Two-Presentation-Three.pdf (35th Motorship
Propulsion and Emissions Conference, Copenhagen, Apr 2013 11pp (Paper), 35pp (Presentation).)
SIMULTANEOUS REDUCTION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AND TOXIC EMISSION OF EXHAUST GASES
OF FISHING FLEET ENGINES
Maritime Academy of Szczecin
The article presents the results of tests of medium and high-speed diesel engines used in fishing boats and
vessels. The reduction of unit fuel consumption and exhausts toxic emission was possible by implementing
preliminary fuel treatment that takes place directly in the fuel injector containing catalytic material. The
catalyst works more effectively when fuel is turbulized in crossing fuel passages made in a part of the injector
needle. Preliminary fuel treatment results in the average reduction of unit fuel consumption of those engines
by 8%, while toxic emission of nitrogen oxides drops by 15%.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_013.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 13, 8pp.)
Rail
LOCOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY IS PUT TO THE TEST
Ricardo
In early 2012 the results of a Ricardo-led research study investigating technologies for improvement in rail
diesel fuel efficiency, carried for the UK Department for Transport, were published. This work, which was
reported in RQ Q1 2012, involved a comprehensive review of technology packages that could be applied
either in retrofit form or to new rolling stock orders, for the various classes of diesel powered rolling stock
operating on the country’s rail system. Applications ranging from passenger multiple units to freight
locomotives were considered.
Following publication of the Department for Transport study, GE Transportation contacted Ricardo
expressing interest in a further collaboration to validate some of the findings of the previous project. The US
locomotive builder had already introduced its new Class 70 locomotive to the UK market and, fitted with its
four-stroke PowerHaul engine, the model not only incorporates many of the features recommended by
Ricardo but also complies with EU Stage IIIa emissions regulations calling for 7.4 g/kW.hr NOx.
To demonstrate the fuel-efficiency credentials of the Class 70 against the Class 66, GE Transportation
commissioned back-to- back tests to be carried out in November 2012 at Wabtec Brush Traction’s facility in
Loughborough, UK. To ensure that the tests were carried out according to a robust methodology and in an
accurate and thoroughly objective manner, GE contracted Ricardo to oversee the work and to validate the
test and analysis approach taken as well as the results generated.
See Electronic Document 6611 pp21-23 (Ricardo Quarterly Review, Q1 2013, Apr 2013.)
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COMMON ISSUES
Thermal management
ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR LARGE-BORE, MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL ENGINES
Technische Universitaet Muenchen and MAN Diesel & Turbo
In an environment of ever rising fuel prices and stricter emission regulations, manufacturers of large-stroke
medium speed diesel engines need to discover new ways to reduce the fuel oil consumption and the overall
costs of their systems. As fuel efficiency has always been the major goal, those engines convert a big
percentage of the chemical energy into mechanical energy. Unused fuel energy leaves the combustion
chamber as waste heat and enthalpy of the exhaust gases. This paper will focus on the engine’s heat transfer
from the combustion chamber into the surrounding parts and the cooling system. For a better understanding
of the cooling systems a research project with MAN Diesel & Turbo SE and the Institute of Internal
Combustion Engines (LVK) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) was initiated. The overall goal is
to analyse and understand the heat transfer from its origin during the combustion via the engine block and
cooling system to the environment.
The paper will show the influence of the topology of the cooling water and lubrication oil systems on heat
exchanger and pump size. At high temperatures energy can be used more efficiently and heat exchanger
surface areas can be reduced. But the temperature level also affects the engine’s heat transfer. So the
influence of the cooling water and lubrication oil temperature on the friction and the heat transfer from the
cylinder to the cooling fluids needs to be taken into account. The effect of different temperature levels will be
shown in a variation of the coolant and lubrication oil temperature. A profound understanding of the
components, their dependencies and interactions is important for a system optimization. With this knowledge
it will be possible to further narrow design margins, the dimension of heat exchangers and to use smaller
pumps. This will improve the overall system’s efficiency.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_087.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 87, 11pp.)
Waste heat and energy recovery
THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR SYSTEMS FOR WASTE HEAT USAGE IN DIESEL ELECTRIC
VEHICLES
IFKM/DMT, Bombardier Transportation and Helbling Technik
It is widely known, that the main part of the life cycle costs of diesel electric locomotives are the consumption
costs for diesel fuel. On top of that the rising awareness of politics and society for environment protection and
rising prices for energy shift that topic into the focus. One possibility to lower the fuel consumption is to
recover a part of the exhaust waste heat of the combustion engine. This can be done by converting the
usable energy of the exhaust gas into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Using a high
power TEG in a diesel electric locomotive is advantageous because of the electrified powertrain, where a
high demand of electrical power has to be fulfilled. The challenge is to develop a system with sufficient
efficiency in order to keep the return of investment period as short as possible for the operators.
At present date some TEG system prototypes have been developed for automotive applications. For example
a combination of a TEG with the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), where cooling of the exhaust is
necessary, proved to be promising. But because of the low temperature gradient in the EGR, the output
power is very limited. In future automotive systems, the TEG could be integrated directly into the exhaust tract
which leads to high temperature gradients and promises a higher power output. The challenge is to develop
an efficient TEG material and a system which withstands the thermal cycles based mechanical stress.
On a diesel electric locomotive a relatively high electric power can be recovered by using a thermal oil circuit
as intermediary heat carrier instead of integrating the TEG directly into the exhaust tract. This offers the
advantage of building a more compact exhaust gas heat exchanger with better heat transfer rate per unit
volume of heat exchanger. The TEG itself then can be placed elsewhere in the engine compartment.
Furthermore it is possible to collect the waste heat of other secondary heat sources like the brake resistor.
Another advantage is the achievement of an almost constant temperature gradient which increases efficiency
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and minimizes mechanical stress caused by the different coefficients of thermal expansion within the TEG
system.
To evaluate the efficiency of the TEG system, its performance was simulated and the reduction in fuel
consumption depending on the operation mode of the locomotive (e.g. passenger or freight transport) was
calculated. For this task a model for the whole system was developed. This led to a multi domain simulation
with the powertrain (electrical and mechanical), the intermediary circuit (fluid and heat) and the TEG itself. A
miniature functional model (demonstrator) for the TEG was designed to evaluate the performance of the
newly developed special TEG modules as soon as these are released, prior to the implementation of a TEG
system in a prototype locomotive.
See vCD 129 Thermoelectrics_goes_Automotive_II.pdf pp235-250 (Thermoelectrics Goes Automotive
Conference, Berlin, Nov 2012, expert verlag, pp225-240.)
DEVELOPMENT OF TURBO HYDRAULIC SYSTEM ON LARGE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE
Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Company
Under the situation that preventive effort to global warming is becoming more active in various fields, the
reduction of CO2 from marine diesel engine is also required. The effective solutions for this challenge are
reduction of fuel consumption by improvement of thermal efficiency, utilization of waste heat energy, and
changeover to low-carbon fuel such as liquefied natural gas. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co Ltd
(MES) has developed Turbo Hydraulic System (THS), which is one of technologies of the utilization of waste
heat energy (WHR). This THS makes it possible to recover the exhaust gas energy in the form of hydraulic
power. In THS, excess energy of exhaust gas is recovered with hydraulic pumps in the form of hydraulic
power, and the recovered power is supplied to a hydraulic motor connected to crankshaft for assist of driving
the engine. Accordingly, the actual fuel consumption is reduced. The performance test of THS on MES test
engine showed that the fuel oil consumption was reduced at maximum 4% without increasing NOx emission
compared with original condition. THS has two type of the system. One type has four pumps, which are
equipped to the turbocharger. Those pumps are connected to the turbocharger rotor shaft through a
reduction gear. This type of THS is suitable for single turbocharger. The other type has pumps, connected to
a power turbine, which is driven by energy of by-passed exhaust gas, instead of the above mentioned directdriven pumps on the turbocharger. This type is more suitable for multiple turbochargers. Generally, hydraulic
equipment is more compact than electric equipment. In addition, main components of THS are integrated on
an engine. Finally, THS is more compact and cheaper than conventional WHR system, utilizing electric
equipment such as frequency converters and electric motors. Furthermore, we are planning to install THS
system for in-service ship. The purposes are to confirm the reduction of fuel oil consumption as the
propulsion system and the reliability and durability of THS system.
See vCD 133 Full_Paper_No_146.pdf (27th CIMAC World Congress on Combustion Engines, May 2013,
Shanghai, Paper No. 146, 7pp.)
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CONFERENCE LIST
4TH GAS FUELLED SHIPS CONFERENCE 2013
Stockholm, Sweden
The Motor Ship
11-12 Sep 2013
The 4th Gas Fuelled Ships Conference, in association with The Motorship, will bring industry professionals
together to network, discuss topical issues, and exchange information and ideas.
The stringent Tier III regulations which apply to ships within Emission Control Areas will be coming in to force
in 2015! These increasingly tough environmental regulations mean that further investment to reduce
emissions in the shipping industry is needed now. However, this focus on green issues and environmental
legislation potentially increases costs. Switching to cleaner fuels could be the solution, and with an abundant
supply of natural gas, LNG is becoming the most promising maritime fuel. LNG is price-competitive with fuel
oils but needs further investment in the gas supply chain to encourage wider use by shipping. A change to
alternative fuels also brings about other areas for development such as ship architecture and the safety
aspects for storage and handling of gas on board ships
Website - http://www.motorship.com/gfsconference/home
18TH SUPERCHARGING CONFERENCE
Dresden, Germany
University of Dresden
12-13 Sep 2013
The reduction of CO2 emission means the biggest challenge for the engine development in the future,
especially since the exhaust gas emissions are being limited simultaneously more and more.
While downsizing dominates the development of passenger car engines, the development of commercial
vehicle engines as well as low and medium speed diesel engines is driven by increasing efficiency
requirements. Compliance with NOx emission limits goes along with a very high pressure ratio and defines
the supercharging concept for this reason.
Therefore, supercharging means a key technology for the development of internal combustion engines.
Techniques to improve the engine, the charging unit and all the rest of important components are necessary.
Optimizing the supercharging of combustion engines requires a detailed knowledge about the behaviour of
the complete system. The operating performance can be predicted very well with simulation models. 3D
computational fluid dynamics is an important tool for optimizing the intake area. Real time models are used to
control the system. The complete system is tested on a highly dynamic engine test stand. Model-based
control is here optimized by bypass structures.
The diversity of engines will reach from car engines up to low speed two-cycle ship engines.
The main emphasis will be put on:
• New supercharging conceptions, supercharged engines
• Components for supercharging
• Methods of numeric simulation
• Supercharged engines versus exhaust emission limits
• Control strategies
• Performance of the complete system (hardware-in-the-loop simulation)
• Sensor technology, actuator technology, diagnostics and testing
• Methods and tools of development for components and powertrain.
Website - http://aufladetechnische-konferenz.de/index.html
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S1787 - MAXIMISING MACHINE EFFICIENCY FOR OFF HIGHWAY
Gaydon, UK
IMechE
17 Sep 2013
Rising fuel cost, limited renewable energy and anticipated future legislation on fuel economy is demanding a
continuous reduction of fuel consumption and improved fuel economy for off highway engine applications.
This international seminar will bring speakers from a number of European companies together to examine
the latest technological advances that can improve whole vehicle efficiency for the power generation, marine,
construction and agricultural sectors.
Presentations will address the following topics:
• Future legislation
• Transmissions and engine optimisation
• Energy recovery, hybridisation and future fuel economy
• Aftertreatment
• Infrastructure and vehicle level emissions testing
• Emissions
• Hydraulics.
Website: http://events.imeche.org/EventView.aspx?EventID=1985
HHP SUMMIT 2013 - NATURAL GAS FOR HIGH HORSEPOWER APPLICATIONS
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Gladstein, Neandross & Associates
17-19 Sep 2013
Natural gas continues to promise 30 to 50 percent fuel cost savings to large equipment operators that have
traditionally used diesel. With new engines and technologies now coming to the market, innovations in
fuelling equipment, and new LNG production plants being announced, HHP Summit 2013 will showcase this
burgeoning industry and the tremendous economic and environmental benefits of this important
transformation.
Attendees will hear success stories from end-users in marine, rail, mining, E&P operations, earthmoving, and
off-pipeline industrial applications that are using natural gas to reduce fuel costs, minimize emissions, and
strengthen our domestic energy agenda.
High horsepower industry experts will share:
• Natural gas case studies from current high horsepower users
• The latest OEM technology and retrofit options
• Fuelling supply and refuelling infrastructure solutions
• Regulatory and policy considerations
• Real world project economics and how to achieve ultra-fast ROI.
Website - http://www.hhpsummit.com/
MANAGEMENT OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM SHIPPING - CRITICAL UPDATES, REGULATORY ADVICE
AND PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE AIR EMISSIONS
London, UK
Lloyd's Maritime Academy
24-25 Sep 2013
Topics:
• Emerging regulation, legislation and goverance
• Strategies for reducing the 0.1% sulphur target
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• Developments in abatement technology
• Choosing a cleaner fuel
• Enhancing ship efficiency: Eco-ships, EEDI and SEEMP
• Reducing emissions in the port
• Slow steaming as a means of reducing CO2.
Website: www.lloydsmaritimeacademy.com/airemissions
22ND AACHEN COLLOQUIUM 2013
Aachen, Germany
VKA
7-9 Oct 2013
Covers:
• New gasoline engine
• Electric vehicles
• Diesel combustion and injection systems
• Automotive strategy concepts
• ADAS-EU activities
• Exhaust aftertreatment for diesel engines
• Biofuels and lubricants
• Commercial vehicles
• Hybrid drives
• Transmission and powertrain
• Vehicle concepts
• CO2 reduction - gasoline engines and driving cycles
• Off-road and large bore engines
• New diesel engines
• Heavy duty engines
• Energy efficiency and thermal management
• Gasoline engine turbocharging.
Website - http://www.aachen-colloquium.com/
IMECHE RAILWAY DIVISION SEMINAR - LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT
London, UK
Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE)
9 Oct 2013
Website - http://events.imeche.org/EventView.aspx?EventID=1794
3RD IMAREST PREVENTION OF MARINE FAILURES CONFERENCE
London, UK
IMarEST
9-10 Oct 2013
Marine failures are costly in both human terms and to the operational bottom line. The conference will explore
all aspects associated with the structural and machinery aspects of ships and offshore installations that
contribute to failure, offering practical solutions for their prevention.
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Website: http://www.nautinst.org/en/events/index.cfm/IMarESTOct2013PMF
GREENPORT CONGRESS 2013
Antwerp, Belgium
Mercator Media
9-11 Oct 2013
Governments and legislators around the world view ports and terminal as critical infrastructure assets. Their
ability to ‘go green’ by reducing their carbon footprint and by being more sensitive to environmental
considerations is vital to future success.
The GreenPort Congress will provide decision makers with a meeting place to both learn about and discuss
the latest in sustainable environmental practice that will enable them to effectively implement these changes.
Website - http://www.greenport.com/congress
ASME INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 2013 FALL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE
Detroit, Michigan, USA
ASME
13-16 Oct 2013
Topics:
• Large Bore Engines
• Fuels
• Advanced Combustion
• Emission Control Systems
• Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids
• Numerical Simulation
• Engine Design, Lubrication, and Applications
Website - http://www.asmeconferences.org/ICEF2013/
9TH IEEE VEHICLE POWER AND PROPULSION CONFERENCE - VPPC 2013
Beijing, China
IEEE
15-18 Oct 2013
Topics:
• Green Car - Electric Propelled System
• HEV, Plug-In HEV, BEV System Design
• Fuel Cell and FCEV/FCHEV System Design
• Electronic Actuator and Electric Machinery for Vehicle Applications
• Power Electronics and Converter for Vehicle Applications
• Motor Drives for Vehicle Applications
• Battery, Energy Storage System and their Management Systems for xEVs
• Renewable Energy and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
• Advanced Powertrain Controls for xEVs
• Charging System including Interface Couplers
• Smart Grid and Electrical Infrastructure for xEVs
• Other Applications
• Intelligent Car
• Intelligent Vehicle for Safety (included V2V)
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• Telematics (included V2I)
• Network and Imbedded System for Vehicle
• Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in xEVs
• Other Applications
• High Efficiency Transportation
• Conventional Vehicle System Design
• Advanced Automotive Power and Propulsion
• Railway, Ship, Air, and Space Vehicles
• Mechanical, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
• Modelling, Simulation, Emissions and Control
• Other Applications.
Website - http://www.vppc.org/
LNG FUEL FORUM - THE FUTURE OF LNG FUEL PRICING, INFRASTRUCTURE AND BUNKER
OPERATIONS
Rotterdam, Sweden
Informa
22-23 Oct 2013
Topics:
• Pricing LNG as a bunker fuel
• LNG as a SECA solution – How does it compare?
• LNG availability and bunkering infrastructure
• LNG on inland waterways
• LNG bunker technology
• Safety, regulation and LNG bunkering standards
• Understanding LNG bunkering options
• Technology and safety for LNG bunkering
• Overcoming LNG storage challenges
• Exploring the future of LNG propulsion
• Optimising and standardising LNG bunker operations
• Assessing future pricing options of LNG as a fuel for ships
• Obtaining LNG as a fuel
• Understanding LNG pricing mechanisms.
Website: www.informamaritimeevents.com/LNG
1ST IMAREST EMISSIONS CONFERENCE - ENSURING THAT SHIPPING IS READY WITH THE RIGHT
TECHNOLOGY
Limassol, Cyprus
IMarEST
22-23 Oct 2013
New Chapter 4 to MARPOL Annex VI “Regulations on energy efficiency for ships” makes mandatory the
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP) for all ships. The EEDI is expected to stimulate continued innovation and technical development of
all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship from its design phase. In addition to existing
regulation, new dates are also looming for NOx and SOx.
Website: http://www.marinescienceandtechnology.com/conferences-and-events/2013/10/1st-imarestemissions-conference-ensuring-that-shipping-is-ready-with-the-right-technology/
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FUTURE MARINE FUELS & LUBES CONFERENCE
Copenhagen, Denmark
Riviera Maritime Media
30-31 Oct 2013
Will you be able to fuel your fleet post 2015? Do you fully understand all the available options from technical,
operational and economic standpoints? What is the true cost of regulatory compliance? How will you have to
adapt your operations and business model?
The Future Marine Fuels & Lubes Conference will unite all relevant interests in Copenhagen in October to
analyse these issues and deliver insightful answers on the way ahead for anyone needing to make decisions
on future marine fuel and lubricant requirements.
Across two days attendees will be thoroughly briefed on supply and demand issues; cost of compliance,
Emission Control Areas (ECAs); and the likely future roles of LNG, methanol, distillates and residual fuel in
combination with abatement technology.
Website: http://www.rivieramm.com/events/future-marine-fuels-and-lubes-conference-2013-60/event-home781
HEAVY-DUTY, ON- AND OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINES 2013, EVOLUTION OR REVOLUTION - QUO VADIS?
- 8TH INTERNATIONAL MTZ CONFERENCE
Ludwigsburg, Germany
MTZ
Ricardo
5-6 Nov 2013
The conference will discuss a wide range of solution concepts in on- and off-highway, marine and stationary
applications in the context of the latest engine developments.
Topics include:
• New Diesel and Gas Engines
• Reducing emissions and fuel consumption
• Mixture Formation and Supercharging
• Engine and System Optimization
Website - http://www.atzlive.de/pdf/cfp_heavyduty_2013_e_10.pdf
XXV POWER-GEN INTERNATIONAL 2013
Orlando, FL, USA
Pennwell Corporation
12-14 Nov 2013
This year's program will consist of 13 tracks including:
• Industry Trends / Competitive Power Generation
• Demand Response & Efficiency
• Environmental Issues
• Emissions Control
• Fossil Technologies
• Gas Turbine Technologies
• On-Site Power
• Plant Performance.
Website: http://www.power-gen.com/index.html
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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Djelfa, Algeria
University of Djelfa
17-18 Nov 2013
Topics:
• Semi conductor Devices:
• Power semiconductors, passive components and packaging technologies
• Hard-switching and soft-switching static power converters
• Switch-mode power supplies
• Modelling and simulation in power electronics
• Novel converter topologies
• Advantage switching Techniques, Concepts for low loss switching
• Power integrated circuits (PIC)
• Power Electronics for Display and LED
• Application of Power Electronics in Power Quality Issues:
• Power Factor correction
• Active Power filters
• Power quality and protection
• Power quality issues, harmonic problems and solutions
• EMI/EMC and Reliability
• Switch-mode power supplies and UPS
• Energy efficiency and demand side control
• Application of Power Electronics in Power Systems:
• Synchronous machines and special generators
• HVDC
• Applications of power electronics in power system and generation/FACTS
• Applications of power electronics in Smart grids and micro-grids
• Power quality and protection (including power factor correction / active filters)
• Energy efficiency and demand side control
• Distributed generation
• Renewable energy systems:
• Wind power (on-shore and off-shore)
• Solar PV (including MPP schemes)
• Tidal, wave, sea, river and hydro power systems
• Energy storage and saving.
• Batteries Modelling & Management System
• Fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors and other storage devices
• Power Electronics & Machine Control:
• Induction, permanent-magnet and reluctance machines
• Special machines
• Motor drives and Motion control system
• Design, modeling and Condition monitoring
• Application of Power Electronics to Transportation:
• Railway Systems, Marine propulsion, Aerospace and related applications
• Starter / generator systems
• Electric/ fuel cell/ hybrid vehicles
• Power electronics in traction and automotive
• Industrial applications:
• Application case studies
• Energy efficiency and Integrated drives
• Applications of power electronics in home appliance
• Applications of power electronics in aerospace
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• Bio-medical power electronics
• Telecommunications power supplies
• Power electronics professional & education development:
• Power engineering related technologies
• Power electronics education.
Website: http://www.ijaee.org/ICPEA.htm
7TH OPTIMISING FUEL MANAGEMENT & OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY SUMMIT
Singapore
ACI
20-21 Nov 2013
ACI’s 7th Optimising Fuel Management & Operational Efficiency will examine the performance enhancing
options available to ship owners and ship managers for efficiency maximisation and increased profitability.
Special focus will be put on how to maximise existing vessel’s profitability, the tools for measuring
performance and specific fuel-efficiency improving equipment. This event will analyse how to increase overall
efficiency and performance by minimising the fleet’s energy demands.
Website: http://www.wplgroup.com/aci/conferences/eu-mbf7.asp
WORLD CONGRESS ON RAILWAY RESEARCH 2013 (WCRR 2013)
Sydney, Australia
Informa
25-28 Nov 2013
The World Congress on Railway Research is the world's foremost international forum for the promotion,
development and exchange of the latest innovations in the global rail industry.
The WCRR 2013 will see the exchange of best practice between researchers, manufacturers and operators
from across the global rail industry.
Website: http://www.wcrr2013.org/rail-conference/front-page
WORLD LNG FUELS 2014
Houston, Texas, USA
Zeus Development Corporation
21-23 Jan 2014
More than ever before, LNG has the opportunity to capture high-horsepower markets as fleets of trucks,
ships, locomotives, power units and stationary applications search for low-cost, clean, secure fuel. Barriers to
market entry appear to be falling one after another as industry participants race to build out the required
liquefaction and logistics infrastructure.
Conference Objectives:
• Review the status of LNG fuel projects in supply, distribution, trucking, marine, rail and industrial
applications
• Meet the current contenders in LNG fuels and downstream distribution
• Identify, meet and assess the capabilities of the firms growing the market and industry, including
suppliers and customers
• Refresh on development efforts to establish LNG production, distribution and fuelling infrastructure
• Assess how the market has developed since last year and examine market drivers for LNG-fuelled
marine transportation
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• Examine the status of efforts to establish new emission control areas (ECAs) within exclusive
economic zones
• Refresh on legislative efforts to advance natural gas as domestic fuel, including rectifying the tax
penalty paid by LNG over diesel and gasoline
• Examine the latest advancements in technology for LNG-fuelled engines, including the status of new
OEM models
• Discuss the prospects and challenges and review regulations impacting demand for LNG-fuelled
railroads
• Examine the latest advancements in such venues as Pakistan, Iran, Argentina, Brazil, India, Italy and
China
• Provide opportunities for managements to cultivate alliance partners and measure competitors.
Website: http://www.worldlngfuels.com/
GREENPORT SOUTH ASIA
Mumbai, India
Mercator Media
26-27 Feb 2014
The GreenPort South Asia Congress examines the challenges and opportunities of developing good
environmental practices and sustainable solutions and applications.
Website - http://www.greenportasia.com/
11TH ANNUAL GREEN SHIP TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE - GST 2013
Oslo, Norway
Informa Maritime Events
Mar 2014
Topics:
• International environmental regulations affecting shipping
• Environmentally sustainable ship design and hydrodynamics
• Fuel management and energy efficiency
• Life cycle management and sustainable shipping
• Developments in reducing carbon emissions
• Ballast water treatment technology
• Wastewater management systems
• Developments in engine and propulsion technology
• Technology for reducing air emissions
• Case studies from shipowners and operators for projects under development, in production or where
lessons have been learnt
• Developments in alternative power sources
• Environmental management systems
• Oily water treatment systems
• Hull biofouling and antifouling technology
• Environmental developments in ports and terminals
• Reducing emissions and saving energy in port
• Crew training and the human factor in environmental responsibility
• Corporate social responsibility and sustainability Programmes
• LNG as a fuel for ships
• Performance monitoring and verification
• Retrofitting for new technology.
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Website:
http://www.informamaritimeevents.com/appdata/downloads/greenshiptechnology/FKT2583_Call_for_Papers.
pdf
ANNUAL MARINE PROPULSION CONFERENCE 2014
London, UK
Riviera Maritime Media
23-24 Apr 2014
The Annual Marine Propulsion Conference really addresses the operational challenges facing ship operators
today. Designed by industry for industry, the innovative event format makes it must attend for anyone whose
business involves marine propulsion.
Website - http://www.rivieramm.com/events/annual-marine-propulsion-conference-2014-65/event-home-840
POWER-GEN INDIA & CENTRAL ASIA
New Delhi, India
Pennwell
5-7 May 2014
POWER-GEN India & Central Asia is the region's premier conference and exhibition for the power industry.
Under the theme, Powering India's Growth, the event brings together decision makers and influencers as well
as technical experts and professionals from leading companies involved in the power generation,
transmission and distribution within India and around the world.
Website - http://www.power-genindia.com/index.html
C1384 - 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TURBOCHARGERS AND TURBOCHARGING
London, UK
IMechE
13-14 May 2014
The current emission legislations and environmental trends for reducing CO2 and fuel consumption are the
major market forces in the land transport industry. The internal combustion engine is the key product and
downsizing, efficiency and economy are the driving forces for development for both spark ignition (SI) and
compression ignition (CI) engines in the passenger car and commercial vehicle applications.
The stringent future market forces and environmental considerations in the passenger car and the
commercial vehicle sector mean more-stringent engine downsizing; novel systems are required to provide
boosting solutions including hybrid, electric-motor and exhaust waste energy recovery systems for high
efficiency, response, reliability, durability and compactness.
For large engines the big challenge is to enhance the high specific power and efficiency, while reducing
emission levels (NOx and SOx) with variable quality fuels. This will require turbocharging systems for very
high boost pressure, efficiency and a high degree of system flexibility.
Covering all current and novel aspects of turbocharging systems design and boosting solutions for engine
downsizing and improvements in efficiency, this conference will help propel the industry forward.
Website: http://events.imeche.org/EventView.aspx?EventID=1895
36TH MOTORSHIP PROPULSION & EMISSIONS CONFERENCE 2014
Hamburg, Germany
Mercator Media
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21-22 May 2014
The annual Motorship Propulsion and Emissions conference is now recognised as the most technically
informative and longest established seminar for the global shipping industry. The Conference brings industry
professionals together to network, discuss topical issues and exchange information and ideas.
Website - http://www.propulsionconference.com/
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Notes
Large Engine Update is a newsletter, published by the Ricardo Information Services Department. It
summarizes the published literature on Marine, Rail and Stationary Large Engines. It is based on input to the
Ricardo POWERLINK database.
Items included in this publication are based on literature received by the Ricardo Library in April to June 2013.
Copies of the source documents may be obtained by quoting the Library reference, which appears in bold.
Items not published in English may be translated by Ricardo’s Translation Service, on request. An additional
charge would be made for these services.
Other services offered by Ricardo Information Services include:
POWERLINK - A database containing abstracts of engine and vehicle articles
EMLEG - A database of Worldwide exhaust emission legislation
New Engine News - A newsletter covering new and modified engines
Components News - A newsletter covering IC engine components
Transmission and Driveline News - A newsletter covering new and modified transmissions
Vehicle Engineering News - A newsletter covering chassis, brakes and other vehicle parts
Alternative Powertrain News - A newsletter covering fuels, hybrid vehicles and other unconventional
powerplants
Control and Electronics News - A newsletter covering control, electrical and electronic engineering
topics
Fuels and Lubricants News - A newsletter covering developments in fuels and lubricants technology
Fuel Economy and CO2 Reduction News - A newsletter covering fuel consumption and CO2
reduction
Forthcoming Conferences - An updating service of interest to all users of our other services.
For further details of these and other Ricardo services, please contact:
Roland Christopher, Information Manager, Ricardo UK Ltd
Tel. +44 (0) 1273 794230, email: Roland.Christopher@ricardo.com.
Ricardo has used reasonable endeavours to ensure that the information supplied in this service is correct.
However, no responsibility or liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions. Entries in this publication
do not imply endorsement of any product or service by Ricardo.
Ricardo plc. © 2013
Ricardo plc
www.ricardo.comDelivering Value Through Innovation & Technology
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12 February, 14 May, 16 July,
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A one day course designed for
anyone looking to familiarise
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found in everyday cars.
Internal Combustion Engines Advanced
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understanding diesel and gasoline
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13-14 March, 16-17 October
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19 March, 9 October
This one day course is ideal for
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The purpose of this one day course
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www.ricardo.com

PDF Document reader online

This website is focused on providing document in readable format, online without need to install any type of software on your computer. If you are using thin client, or are not allowed to install document reader of particular type, this application may come in hand for you. Simply upload your document, and Docureader.top will transform it into readable format in a few seconds. Why choose Docureader.top?

  1. Unlimited sharing - you can upload document of any size. If we are able to convert it into readable format, you have it here - saved for later or immediate reading
  2. Cross-platform - no compromised when reading your document. We support most of modern browers without the need of installing any of external plugins. If your device can oper a browser - then you can read any document on it
  3. Simple uploading - no need to register. Just enter your email, title of document and select the file, we do the rest. Once the document is ready for you, you will receive automatic email from us.

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