Engineering Design Guide - Asahi America

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www.asahi-america.com
Engineering
Design Guide
Single Wall Piping • Double Wall Piping • Gas & Air Handling Systems
• Materials • System Design • Installation
www.asahi-america.com
ENGINEERING
DESIGN
GUIDE
ASAHI/AMERICA, INC.
Malden, Massachusetts
Disclaimer
Asahi/America, Inc. provides this guide to assist engineers in the design of
systems, installers in the installation and owners in the operation. This guide
is designed to provide the best possible recommendations known at the
time of printing. Each and every type of piping system is different and no one
recommendation can cover all conditions. This guide is made available to
assist in the design and installation, but in no way should be construed as a
written recommendation on any system. Each system should be individually
designed and installed based on the responsibility and decisions of the
purchaser. This guide is not a substitute for contacting Asahi/America for
specific recommendations on a system. In addition, Asahi/America is not
responsible for items not appearing in the guide or recommendations that
may have changed after the printing of this guide. It is recommended in each
case to consult Asahi/America for specific recommendations on each system.
Copyright © 2013 Asahi/America, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
ABOUT THE COMPANY
Asahi/America, Inc. a wholly-owned subsidiary of Asahi Organic Chemical,
pioneered the market for thermoplastic valves and piping in the United States
and Latin America, during a time when there was no viable alternative to
metal for piping systems. Asahi/America began by promoting valves from a
company known as Asahi Organic Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (AOC) and piping
through AGRU GmbH in Austria. Through distributor and end user education
and acceptance, the use of thermoplastics has grown. Asahi/America now
manufactures and distributes thermoplastic products including valves, actuators,
single and double wall piping systems and specialty components throughout the
US and Latin America.
Asahi/America is a diversified ISO9001:2008 certified manufacturer and
supplier of corrosion resistant fluid flow products. Headquartered in Malden,
Massachusetts, where we operate a 100,000 square foot manufacturing and
warehouse facility, Asahi/America supports all of our products with a
comprehensive selection of in-depth technical documents and product
catalogs. To access any of Asahi/America’s technical documentation, testing
information, or product catalogs, visit the company’s web site at
www.asahi-america.com or contact Customer Service at 1-800-343-3618.
What makes Asahi/America special is our ability to provide solutions for
corrosive or high purity fluid handling systems individualized to meet virtually
any customer’s need. The Asahi/America technical staff is able to provide
superior knowledge of products, applications and installations. Asahi/America is
poised to support your next project with the assistance of our large distribution
network.
Asahi/America is proud to present this Engineering Design Guide to you. This
publication represents over 40 years of experience, talent, and engineering
expertise. It is intended to aid in the process of engineering, specification, and
design of industrial plastic piping systems using the family of Asahi plastic piping
systems. We encourage you to use it often and call upon our staff of piping and
valve engineers if there is something we have neglected to cover. This is your
guide to quality plastic system design.
Introduction
Materials
Plastics in Fluid Handling
Thermoplastics at a Glance
General Properties
Specific Properties
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Basic Calculations SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio
Operating Pressure
Dangerous Media Operating Pressure
Permissible Wall Thickness
External Pressure Calculations
System Calculations Pressure Curve Graphs
Creep Curves
Vacuum Pressure Charts
Abrasion Resistance
General Chemical Resistance
Leach Out Behavior
Surface Roughness
Production and Packaging
Storage and Transportation
General Installation
Practices
Bending
Socket
Butt/IR
Electrofusion
Hot Air
Mechanical Connections
Special System
Considerations
High Purity
Industrial
Double Contained
Ventilation
Compressed Air
Purad®, PolyPure®, PP-Pure®
Proline®, Chem Proline®, Ultra Proline®
Duo-Pro®, Chem Prolok™, Fluid-Lok®
PuradVent®, ProVent®
Air-Pro®
Design &
Pressure Testing
Single Contained
Double Contained
Introduction
Materials
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Basic Calculations
System Calculations
General Installation Practices
Special System Considerations
Design & Pressure Testing
AAppendix A - System Tables
BAppendix B - General Engineering Tables
CAppendix C - Conversion Tables
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Section A
INTRODUCTION
Contents
Plastics in Fluid Handling . . . . . . . . . A-2
Thermoplastics at a Glance . . . . . . . A-3
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
A-1
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
PLASTICS IN FLUID HANDLING
Plastic piping systems are offered in a wide assortment
of materials and sizes. Each material has unique and
specific mechanical properties. These diverse properties
allow plastic to become the preferred system for many
applications that range from the transport of aggressive
chemicals to the distribution of ultra pure water.
Because each material has its own unique properties,
understanding them becomes vital to the successful
design, installation, and operation of a system.
Asahi/America is proud to present this design guide to
assist design engineers and system installers with the
proper engineering, layout, and installation of plastic
systems. Asahi/America is a pioneer in the manufacture
and distribution of plastic systems in the United States.
Since the 1970’s, we have dedicated ourselves to
assisting our customers in achieving the maximum
benefits plastic systems offer. Designing a system made
of thermoplastic materials differs considerably from that
of metallic materials. No one understands this as well as
Asahi/America’s sales and technical staff. Our trained
staff is available to assist with all aspects of plastic
piping systems. The information contained herein is
designed to minimize the efforts of engineers, designers,
contractors, and research professionals in sizing and
selecting all aspects of fluid systems.
The Plastic Benefit
For pipe, fittings, and valves, thermoplastic materials
offer superior corrosion resistance, lighter weight, simple
installation, and a more cost-effective alternative.
Corrosion Resistance
Plastics are non-conductive and are therefore immune
to galvanic or electrolytic erosion. Because plastics are
corrosion resistant, pipe can be buried in acidic, alkaline,
wet or dry soils without requiring a protective coating. In
addition, cathodic protection devices are not required.
Chemical Compatibility
Impervious to many chemicals, thermoplastics are
gaining an ever-increasing acceptance and preference
in a large variety of applications. Additionally, the variety
of materials available allow a wide range of chemical
solutions to be handled successfully with plastic piping.
Thermal Conductance
All plastic piping materials have low thermal
conductance properties. This feature maintains more
uniform temperatures when transporting fluids in plastic
A
INTRODUCTION PLASTICS IN FLUID HANDLING
than in metal piping. Low thermal conductivity of the
plastic piping wall may eliminate or greatly reduce the
need for pipe insulation to control sweating.
Low Friction Loss
Because the interior surface of plastic piping is generally
very smooth, less power may be required to transmit
fluids compared to other piping systems. Furthermore,
the excellent corrosion resistance of plastics means that
the low friction loss characteristic will not change over
time.
Long-term Performance
Due to the relative chemical inertness and the minimal
effects of internal and external corrosion, there is very
little change in plastic piping’s physical characteristics
over the decades. Examinations of pipe samples
taken from some systems have shown no measurable
degradation after 25 years of use. In most cases,
Asahi/America pipe systems are designed for 50 years
of service.
Light Weight
Many plastic piping systems are about one-sixth the
weight of steel piping. This lends to lower costs in many
ways: lower freight charges, less manpower, simpler
hoisting and rigging equipment, etc. This characteristic
has allowed unique, cost-effective installation
procedures in several applications.
Variety of Joining Methods
Plastic piping can be joined by numerous methods.
Each material has several different joining methods. The
following list incorporates some of the most common:
• Solvent cementing
• Socket fusion
• Butt fusion
• Non-contact IR fusion
• Threaded joints
• Flanges
• O-rings
• Rolled grooves
• Mechanical compression joints
The various joining methods allow plastic piping to be
easily adapted to most field conditions.
A-2
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Nontoxic
Plastic piping systems have been approved for potable
water applications, and certain systems are recognized
by the FDA as appropriate material to be in contact
with food stuff. As evidence, all plastic potable waterpiping materials and products are tested and listed for
compliance to ANSI/NSF Standard 61. All ASTM and
AWWA standards for plastic pressure piping that could
be used for potable water contain a provision whereby
the regulatory authority or user can require product
that has been tested and found to be in conformance
with ANSI/NSF Standard 61–Drinking Water System
Components–Health Effects. When plastic pipe or
fittings are ANSI/NSF Standard 14 listed, and have the
NSF-pw (potable water) mark, they also meet the ANSI/
NSF Standard 61 requirements. The NSF-pw mark
certifies to installers, users, and regulators that the
product meets the requirements of ANSI/NSF Standard
14 for performance and the ANSI/NSF Standard 61 for
health effects.
Biological Resistance
To date, there are no documented reports of any fungi,
bacteria, or termite attacks on any plastic piping system.
In fact, because of its inertness, plastic piping is the
preferred material in deionized and other high purity
water applications.
Abrasion Resistance
Plastic piping materials provide excellent service in
handling slurries such as fly ash, bottom ash, and other
abrasive solutions. The material toughness and the
smooth inner-bore of plastic piping make it ideal for
applications where abrasion resistance is needed.
Low Maintenance
A properly designed and installed plastic piping system
requires very little maintenance because there is no
rust, pitting, or scaling to contend with. The interior
and exterior piping surfaces are not subject to galvanic
corrosion or electrolysis. In buried applications, the
plastic piping is not generally affected by chemically
aggressive soil.
THERMOPLASTICS AT A GLANCE
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride). Asahi/America uses an
unplasticized PVC polymer in all of its PVC valves. PVC
has excellent chemical resistance, strength, and rigidity.
It resists attack from most acids and strong alkalies,
as well as gasoline, kerosene, aliphatic alcohols and
A
INTRODUCTIONTHERMOPLASTICS AT A GLANCE
hydrocarbons, and salt solutions. Aromatic, chlorinated
organic compounds and lacquer solvents do affect PVC
chemical properties. Its low cost and overall property
balance make PVC material best suited to the widest
number of corrosive applications. Its temperature limit is
140°F (60°C).
CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride). The properties
and advantages of CPVC are very similar to those of
PVC; however, its working temperature range is higher
(195°F/90°C) than that of PVC. It should be specified
that in instances where hot corrosive liquids are being
handled, an extra margin of safety is required.
PE (Polyethylene). PE is produced from the
polymerization of ethylene. High-density PE (HDPE),
on the other hand, usually has a specific gravity of
0.941 to 0.959 g/cc. Polyethylene can be used in low
temperatures (32°F or colder) without risk of brittle
failure. Thus, a major application for certain PE piping
formulations is for low temperature heat transfer
applications such as radiant floor heating, snow melting,
ice rinks, geothermal ground source heat pump piping,
and compressed air distribution. These properties also
make PE ideal for many single and double wall water
reclaim systems.
PP (Polypropylene). A member of the polyolefin family,
PP is one of the lightest plastics. It has excellent
chemical resistance to many acids, alkalies, and organic
solvents. PP is one of the best materials to use for
systems exposed to varying pH levels; many plastics
do not handle both acids and bases as well. It is not
recommended for use with hydrocarbons and aromatics.
Its upper temperature limit is 195°F (90°C).
PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride). This high molecular
weight fluorocarbon has superior abrasion resistance,
dielectric properties, and mechanical strength. These
characteristics are maintained over a temperature range
of 32°F (0°C) to 250°F (121°C), with a limited usage
range extended to 302°F (178°C). In piping systems,
PVDF is best suited for systems that operate from 0°F
(-17.8°C) to 250°F (121°C). PVDF is highly resistant
to wet or dry chlorine, bromine and other halogens,
most strong acids, aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols,
and chlorinated solvents. Because of its extremely
low amounts of extractables, PVDF is widely used to
transport ultra pure water in the semiconductor and
pharmaceutical industries.
A-3ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
E-CTFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene). E-CTFE
fluoropolymer is commonly known by its trade
name Halar®1. E-CTFE is essentially a 1:1
alternating copolymer of ethylene and CTFE
(chlorotrifluoroethylene). It contains about 80 percent
CTFE, one of the most chemically resistant building
blocks that can be used to make a polymer. However,
CTFE homopolymers are difficult to fabricate, extrude,
or mold. By the copolymerization with ethylene, E-CTFE
displays much of the chemical resistance of CTFE when
processed. It provides excellent chemical resistance
handling applications that almost all other materials
do not. In particular, E-CTFE demonstrates effective
handling of fuming acids and chlorinated bases. It is
likely the best material for handling high concentrations
of sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, E-CTFE has good
electrical properties and a broad-use temperature
range from cryogenic to 300°F (150°C). E-CTFE is a
strong material with excellent impact strength over its
broad-use temperature range. E-CTFE also maintains
useful properties when exposed to cobalt 60 radiation
at dosages of 200 megarands. It is one of the best
fluoropolymers for abrasion resistance.
PFA (Perfluoroalkoxy). PFA is impervious to almost
all known chemicals. PFA is a melt processible
fluoropolymer which allows conventional injection
molding and extrusion production methods to be
utilized. PFA has excellent chemical resistance at high
temperatures, even up to 350°F (175°C). Asahi/America
uses high purity resins which lend to preferred use in
ultra critical applications.
Further Considerations When evaluating the suitability
of plastics for your application, you should know and
understand which resin is being used and its effects.
The effects of stabilizers and copolymerization differ
by material. Furthermore, a desired material effect for
one application may be undesirable for another. PVC
is a prime example of this. In order to be produced,
pure PVC requires the addition of stabilizers. These
stabilizers allow PVC to be molded, extruded, and
strengthened. For simple plumbing, some chemical
distribution, and other applications, this is acceptable
and desired. However, these same stabilizers make
PVC unusable for higher quality, ultra pure water
applications because they contribute to the water’s
contamination through leaching extractables.
A
INTRODUCTION THERMOPLASTICS AT A GLANCE
All plastic piping systems begin with the production of
resin. Some resin, such as Solef® PVDF, is pure having
been produced without any additives. Others, such as
PVC, must have stabilizers added to make them suitable
for pipe and fitting production.
High Purity PVDF Resin
Not all PVDF resin is the same. As a polymer, resin can
differ by the length of the polymer and its molecular
weight. While maintaining similar chemical compatibility,
resins of different molecular weight have different
mechanical properties, welding characteristics, and
melt flow indexes (MFI). Manufacturers intentionally use
resin with slightly different polymer structures for their
pipe, fittings, and valves. The reason for this is simple;
when extruding pipe, it is desirable to use a polymer
with a lower MFI, which easily maintains its form as it
exits the extruder. Conversely, fitting resin is required
to freely flow through the mold and evenly fill the entire
internal cavity. Therefore, a high MFI is desired. If a
manufacturer uses resins with large differences between
the MFI in its fittings and pipe, the overall integrity of
the system becomes reduced. Pipe and fittings do not
weld together properly, and the mechanical properties
may be extremely different. Therefore, the science of
polymer pipe system manufacturing is to develop the
skill and expertise to manufacture with resins of the
closest MFI without sacrificing product quality. Purad®
achieves this through the use of high purity 1000
Series Solef® resins by Solvay. Purad® exclusively
offers its system of resin with the closest MFI and is
produced by the same manufacturer. Furthermore,
manufacturing and packaging of high purity PVDF resin
is an important factor in the overall quality of PVDF
components. The purity of its components essentially
begins with the resin. Solvay understands this important
fact and carefully manufactures and packages Solef®
1000 Series resin with the strictest attention to high
purity concerns. Asahi/America and AGRU’s Purad®
Systems are designed for a variety of applications from
ultrapure water to aggressive chemical distribution.
Purad® PVDF offers a broad range of chemical
resistance and temperature operation.
A-4
1. Halar is a registered trademark of Ausimont Corporation.
2. Halar® E-CTFE Fluororpolymer Chemical Resistance Data; Ausimont USA, Inc.,
Technical Data Brochure.
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
General Properties ���������������������������� B-2
Specific Properties �������������������������� B-11
Section B
MATERIALS
Contents
B-1ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
GENERAL PROPERTIES
Overview of Materials
Polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), PVDF, and
Halar® are superior materials in terms of resistance
to environmental corrosive agents. All materials are
resistant to a wide variety of organic and inorganic
chemicals of high concentrations and temperatures.
PP and PE are members of the polyolefin plastics
family, have excellent chemical inertness, resistance
to moisture flow, and complete resistance to attack by
ambient moisture. They are not affected by detergents
and most inorganic chemicals or organic solvents
below 180°F (82°C) and 140°F (60°C), respectively.
However, both PP and PE are affected by halogens,
fuming nitric and sulfuric acids, and other highly
oxidizing environments. Aromatic and chlorinated
hydrocarbons tend to cause swelling and softening at
elevated temperatures, as well. Polypropylene has a
high temperature resistance, making it more suitable
for a wider range of chemical process applications. PP
is generally suitable up to a maximum temperature of
180°F (82°C). High density polyethylene is rated to a
maximum operating temperature of 140°F (60°C). HDPE
(class and resin dependent) is a ductile material, making
it preferable for lower temperature application.
PVDF and Halar® are members of the inert
fluoropolymer family. PVDF is made from polyvinylidene
fluoride and has even greater chemical inertness and
B
MATERIALS GENERAL PROPERTIES
resistance to moisture flow than PP and PE. PVDF
resists many corrosives, including inorganic substances
such as mineral acids with very low pHs up to operating
temperatures of 280°F (138°C). It shows excellent
resistance to halogens, strong oxidants, and ultra
pure water solutions. It is affected by strong baseous
solutions, members of the amine family, and is not
recommended for highly polar solvents such as ketones
or esters. Halar® (E-CTFE) is resistant to the widest
selection of chemical media. It is perfectly suitable for
strong acids and bases, halogens, and ultra pure water.
It does have a reduction in resistance to certain ketones.
Halar® has the highest temperature rating of 300°F
(138°C) for continuous operation.
Asahi/America has a very detailed corrosion resistance
database available for these specific products, which
includes over 600 corrosive solutions at a variety of
concentrations and operating temperatures. At all
times, refer to the specific chemical resistance guide
for each product. Asahi/America. databases all of its
chemical projects. Chemical verifications conducted
by resin manufacturers are also kept on file for
reference. When using aggressive chemicals or multiple
chemical mixtures, consult Asahi/America for a written
recommendation on the specific application. To receive
a documented recommendation, submit the chemical
concentration, temperature, and operating pressure to
the Asahi/America Engineering Department. A formal
response is typically generated in one week or less.
B-2
InertExcellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Unacceptable
Slight Attack
Mild Attack
Attacked
Softened/
Swollen
Severe Attack/
Deterioated
Strong
Acids
Halogens Strong
Oxidants
Aromatic
Solvents
Strong
Bases
Chlorinated
Solvents
Esters &
Ketones
Aliphtic
Solvents
Weak Bases
& Salts
PROLINE
(Polypropylene)
PVDF Polyvinyl
Chloride (PVC)
ULTRA PROLINE
(Halar®, E-CTFE)
Polyester
(Glass Fiber Reinforced)
Figure B-1� General comparison of chemical performance of various plastic piping materials
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
General Nature of Corrosion and Plastics
Chemical resistance varies greatly between any two
particular families of plastics. Within a given family,
there are also differences between any two particular
plastics. To compound the matter further, chemical
resistance will vary slightly between different grades of
a particular plastic or between resins made by different
manufacturers. A specific plastic will vary slightly with
respect to molecular weight, distribution, degree of
crystallinity, amount of internal plasticization that may
be present (copolymerization), and other properties.
Therefore, it is not suggested that general chemical
resistance tables be used for determining the chemical
resistance of a given manufacturer’s resin. In addition,
it is strongly recommended to avoid extrapolating a
plastic under the notion that it is chemically similar to
another in its family. It is recommended that a specific
manufacturer’s chemical resistance table be consulted
for the particular product, such as the Asahi/America
tables for Asahi/America products.
The manner in which a type of chemical might affect a
plastic also varies because differing chemicals produce
differing reaction mechanisms when interacting with a
plastic material. Depending on the reaction mechanism,
an effected plastic may become brittle, softened,
charred, crazed, delaminated, discolored, dissolved,
blistered, or swelled. The reaction mechanisms
that produce these types of effects can be grouped
into major categories: chemical reaction, solvation,
absorption, plasticization, and environmental stress
cracking. Combinations of these reaction mechanisms
do occur, and when they do, the detection is more
complex. Chemical reaction is a very general heading
and can be broken down into many distinct categories.
Some of these include: oxidation (where chemical bonds
are attacked), hydrolysis (not possible for PP, PE, PVDF,
and E-CTFE), dehydration (mostly caused by heat),
alkylation, halogenation, radiation, and others. Certain
reactions are predictable due to the resin’s chemical
structure. However, attack usually occurs in a complex
manner with respect to polymers, which suggests that
testing be performed under actual conditions in order to
make a decision on performance.
Criteria for Material Selection
There are several conditions that bear particular
importance on the individual chemical attack
mechanisms, and therefore have a great effect on the
selection process. The conditions of direct importance
B
MATERIALSGENERAL PROPERTIES
include: temperature, type of corrosive reagent to be
handled, the particular reagent’s concentration, and the
system’s operating pressure.
The Effect of Temperature
Temperature has a significant effect on all of the attack
mechanisms. The attack will almost always be directly
related to temperature; increased temperature results
in an increased attack on the plastic material. Not
only does a temperature increase result in a lowering
of the activation energy required for a reaction to
proceed, but it also causes a polymer to expand. This
results in an increase in permeability, penetrability, and
solubility characteristics of the polymer, which aid in a
combination of the different mechanisms.
One important point should be noted regarding
temperature. As a plastic increases through its
temperature profile, there may be a certain transition
temperature where the basic stress crack mechanism
may be altered appreciably. The significance of this fact
is that trying to extrapolate from known performance at
a low temperature to a high temperature may lead to
erroneous results. A particular danger exists if a data
point is presented at ambient temperature only and an
attempt is made to make a prediction near the polymer’s
design temperature limit.
The Effect of Concentration
There are many families and types of reagents, each
with different properties concerning solubility, reaction
between other chemical groups, etc. Each will present
a slightly different concern because of different attack
mechanisms that they can trigger, except a given
polymer type. The reagent’s concentration will also pose
a concern and can result in differing reaction rates at
differing concentration levels. This is true for a variety of
complex reasons. Of particular concern is the mineral
acids group. This group can show substantially different
effects at various levels on the concentration profile.
Again, importance must be given to the concentration
effect because temperature causes great concern. A
level of concentration can be obtained when suddenly
a transition is achieved and the stress cracking
mechanism can show substantial change. Extrapolating
results caused by known concentrations is a very
dangerous practice and is strongly discouraged. The
more data points available, the better the prediction.
However, testing is always recommended if performance
is not known.
B-3ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Manufacturing Effect
The way a product is manufactured can induce
molded-in stresses that produce changes in chemical
resistance, particularly environmental stress cracking.
Manufacturing can also produce surface irregularities
that vary by manufacturer. In general, a smoother
surface will show better results. Built-in stress due
to poor extrusion methods will decrease a system’s
overall chemical resistance. Temperature, pressure, and
chemical attack all add to a system’s stress level. If the
amount of stress exceeds the allowable hoop stress,
environmental stress cracking will occur. It is, therefore,
necessary to carefully review all the parameters of an
application.
Chemical Attack Mechanisms
Chemical Reaction Mechanism
Chemical attack by chemical reaction can proceed along
the paths of any of the types of reactions described
earlier, depending on the given chemical and plastic.
If the active sites attacked are along at the ends of the
polymer chain, a chain reaction may be initiated leading
to a complete “unzipping” of the polymer structure. If
the sites are distributed, then the polymer will become
scissioned or separated at the distribution sites. This will
lead to a chemical breakdown of the polymer. Detecting
a chemical reaction occurrence through testing depends
on the rates that these reactions can occur. The typical
properties include molecular weight, dimensions, and
overall appearance, as well as short-term properties,
such as tensile strength, elongation, flexural properties,
and others.
A rapid reaction can easily be detected through a
change in molecular weight, color, appearance, etc. A
slower reaction is better detected by the changes in the
previously mentioned short-term mechanical properties.
Quantifying these results is challenging to the designer.
When a plastic’s properties change it is no longer
suitable for a given application. Pay close attention to
the tensile creep rupture tests because this data is the
most important aspect in analyzing design strength of a
plastic piping system.
Solvation Mechanism
Solvation effect on a thermoplastic usually manifests
itself by swelling of the plastic, as well as weight and
dimensional changes. Simple tests similar to those
described for chemical attack can easily detect these
B
MATERIALS GENERAL PROPERTIES
changes. Asahi/America materials are very stable
because of their high molecular weights and stable
molecular structures, and therefore are not subject to
solvation by many known common solvents.
Plasticization
Plasticization typically occurs as an imperfect solvent
and is selectively absorbed into the surface of the
product. It incorporates itself into the molecular structure
of the molecule through secondary bonding. This
typically lowers the mechanical properties and the glasstransition temperature. The plastic might also tend to
get heavier or larger, but this should only be used as an
indication of the effect. It is more important to measure
the mechanical properties and the glass-transition
temperature.
Environmental Stress Cracking Mechanism
When a plastic is subjected to stresses, it may
experience catastrophic failure due to the initiation and
propagation of cracks and crazes. This process is known
as environmental stress cracking and is inherently
difficult to predict. It is assumed that the surface of the
plastic is weakened by the reagent’s chemical action.
As this localized weakening takes place, it cracks,
creating greater surface area while also acting as a
stress concentrator. The effect is, therefore, multiplied,
and further failure occurs until the inevitable catastrophic
failure results.
A crack may appear through selective absorption of
the reagent into the polymer chain, selective solvation
of polymer by the reagent from localized areas, or
complexing along the polymer chain at localized sites.
No matter which selective mechanism, the result is
always a weakening of the localized area that results
in an initial failure, followed by crack propagation.
The result of the crack propagation is described
above – greater surface area and stress concentration
with subsequent catastrophic failure. To test for
environmental stress cracking, both exposure and
stress must occur at the same time in order to reveal
the mechanism. Because this is the most important
mechanism in piping performance, the following three
tests are used to detect this phenomenon:
• Creep rupture test
• Cantilever beam test
• Stress-relaxation test
B-4
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Testing for Environmental Stress Cracking
Creep Rupture Test
To test for environmental stress cracking, the basic test
for tensile creep (ASTM D-2990) is modified to produce
the desired results. To conduct tests under ambient
temperatures, a set up similar to Figure B-2 can be
used. To conduct measurements of creep strain and
rupture at a variety of temperatures, a test set-up similar
to Figure B-3 might be adapted. In this set-up, the
encasing stainless steel outer pipe could be immersed
into a constant temperature bath.
The advantage of this test is that stress crack resistance
is measured as a direct variable in terms of the plastic’s
reduction in design strength (stress). In addition, the
expected service life could be determined by these
results.
Cantilever Beam Test
The cantilever test is simpler than the creep rupture
test. It is valid primarily when short exposure times
are required and when the material does not show
significant creep. It is an excellent test for large numbers
of test specimens. A suggested test set-up is shown in
Figure B-4.
B
MATERIALSGENERAL PROPERTIES
B-5
0.5"
.5" .5" 3.5"
5"
0.25"
Vise
Blotting Paper
Blotting Paper
Clip
Weight
Specimen
Top View
Specimen
Specimen
Stress Cracking Agent
Front View
Weight
Specimen
Threaded Tap
Weight
Adjustment Nut
Spirit Level
Stainless Steel Base Plate
Stainless Steel Pipe
Liquid Environment
Lever Arm
Threaded Shaft
Indicator
Figure B-2� Detail of creep rupture test (ambient
temperatures)
Figure B-3� Detail of creep rupture test (elevated
temperatures)
Figure B-4� Detail of cantilever beam test
for environmental stress cracking (room
temperature)
In the test, the reagent is applied to blotted paper,
and the beam is bent by the clip attached to the end.
Initially, trial and error is used to determine a weight
that will cause cracking near the bar’s mid-point. Stress
and strain will vary in a cantilevered beam from zero
at the free end to the maximum at the clamped end.
Cracks will, therefore, appear from the free end until
the combination of stress cracking reagent and stress
reach the critical stress and strain point. The following
formulae can be used to determine critical stress and
strain:
SC =
6FL
(B-1)
bt2
Where: SC = critical stress (psi)
F = weight (lb)
L = critical distance (measured from
free end (in)
b = width of the bar (in)
t = thickness of the bar (in)
Ԑ =
SC (B-2)
E
Where: ԐC = critical strain (in/in)
E = short-term flexural modulus (psi)
ASAHI/AMERICA
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Stress-Relaxation Test
A third alternative is to test a specimen under stress by
subjecting it to a fixed deflection. This test eliminates the
need for weights and takes up little space. A suggested
set-up is shown in Figure B-5.
The test is limited to more flexible plastics and situations
with shorter stress cracking due to stress-relaxation.
To calculate critical strain where stress cracking first
appears, use the following equation:
PE General
General properties of PE (Polyethylene)
As PE molding materials are continually developed, the
efficiency of PE pipes and fittings have been improved
considerably. This fact is due to the introduction of new
international standards (ISO 9080, EN1555, EN12201),
which lead to higher permissible operating pressures.
Polyethylene (PE) for pressure pipe applications is
no longer classified by its density (for example PELD,
PE-MD, PE-HD); it is now divided into MRS strength
classes.
Compared to other thermoplastics, PE shows an
excellent diffusion resistance and has, therefore, been
used to safely transport gases for many years. The new
classification is based on the minimum required strength
B
MATERIALS GENERAL PROPERTIES
(MRS), which is applied to design long-term loaded PE
pipes that operate at a temperature of + 68° F (20°C)
for at least 50 years. Therefore, the first-generation
pipes are named PE32, PE40, and PE63; the secondgeneration pipes are labeled PE80; the third generation
is named PE100. The figures stand for the MRS values
in bar. Expressed in megapascal, the design stresses
for PE80 and PE100 pipes will consequently be 8.0 and
10.0 MPa.
Other essential advantages of this material are the
UV-stability (if it is black) and the flexibility of the molding
material (flexible piping system).
Chemical structure of PE
Physiologically non-toxic
Polyethylene’s composition complies with relevant food
stuff regulations (according to FDA CFR21, ÖNORM
B 5014, Part 1, BGA, KTW guidelines). PE pipes and
fittings are verified and registered for potable water
suitability according to DVGW guideline W270 and NSF
61-G.
Radiation strain
Pipes made of polyethylene may be applied across
the range of high-energy radiation. Pipes made from
PE are suitable for radioactive sewage water drainage
from laboratories and as cooling water piping systems
for the nuclear energy industry. Radioactive sewage
waters usually contain beta and gamma rays. PE piping
systems do not become radioactive, even after many
years of use. Also, in a higher radioactivity environment,
PE pipes are not damaged if they are not exposed
during their complete operation time to a larger, regularly
spread radiation dose of < 104 Gray.
Polyethylene type PE100
These materials are also described as third generation
(PE-3) polyethylene types and MRS 10 materials. A
modified polymerization process and amended mol
mass distribution shows this development. Therefore,
PE100 types have a higher density, stiffness, and
hardness. Also, the creep pressure and resistance
against rapid crack propagation are increased.
B-6
X
X
A
B
Blotting Paper Strip
Wet with Test Reagent
Specimen
Specimen Clamp
Test Block
Ellipse
Figure B-5� Detail of stress-relaxation test
nH CC
HH
H
ԐC = [ bt2a2 (1-x2) (
1
a2 b a4 ) ] (B-3)
Where: ԐC = critical strain (in/in)
a = semi-major axis of ellipse (in)
b = semi-minor axis of ellipse (in)
x = distance along major axis (in)
t = thickness (in)
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Consequently, this material is suitable for the production
of pressure pipes with larger diameters. In comparison
to usual PE pressure pipes with less wall thicknesses, it
achieves the corresponding pressure rating.
Modified polyethylene PE-el (Polyethylene,
electro-conductible)
Due to electro-conductibility, PE-el is often used to
transport easily combustible media or to convey dust. An
earthed connection can be performed.
Advantages of PE:
• UV-resistance (black PE)
• Flexibility
• Low specific weight of approximately 0.95g/cm3
• Favorable transportation (e.g., coils)
• Very good chemical resistance
• Weathering resistance
• Radiation resistance
• Good weldability
• Very good abrasion resistance
• No deposits and no overgrowth possible due to
less frictional resistance
• Less pressure
• Losses in comparison with metals, etc.
• Freeze resistance
• Rodent resistance
• Microbic corrosion resistance
PP General
Proline® (industrial grey), PP-Pure® (high purity PP grey)
and PolyPure® (high purity PP natural) piping systems
are made out of specially selected polypropylene
material PPR (polypropylene random-copolymer). These
are thermoplastic materials that distinguish themselves
by a low specific weight and excellent processibility,
weldability, and formability. These materials contain
additives (e.g., stabilizers) but no plasticizers.
General properties of PP
According to DIN 8078, three different types of
polypropylene are recognized:
• Type 1: PPH
(homopolymere)
• Type 2: PPB
(block-copolymere)
• Type 3: PPR
(random-polymere)
B
MATERIALSGENERAL PROPERTIES
Copolymerization with ethylene creates special
properties, which results in improved processability
(e.g. lower danger of shrinkage cavitation at the
injection molding process) and higher product impact
strength compared to PPH polypropylene homopolymer.
Therefore, PP-Pure® and PolyPure® are especially
suitable in the chemical and semiconductor industry for
UPW-systems where chemical resistance is imperative.
AGRU pipes, sheets, and round bars have been
made of nucleated PPH (Beta (β)-PP) since the mid1970s. Fittings have also been produced out of PPR
(polypropylene random-copolymer) since the end of the
1970s. Both types have been stabilized against high
temperatures and are the best suited materials for the
production of pressure piping systems. In comparison
to other thermoplastics such as PE and PVC, PP shows
a thermal stability up to 212°F (100°C) (short-time up to
250°F (120°C) for pressureless systems).
PP also shows good impact strength in comparison to
PVC. The impact strength depends on temperature; it
increases with rising temperatures and decreases with
falling temperatures.
Chemical structure of Polypropylene
nH CC
HH
CH3
Physiological non-toxicity
Polypropylene’s composition complies with the relevant
food stuff regulations (according to ÖNORM B 5014 part
1. FDA. BGA. KTW guidelines).
Advantages of Polypropylene:
• Low specific weight of 0.91 g/cm³
(PVC 1.40 g/cm³)
• High creep resistance
• Excellent chemical resistance
• High resistance to aging due to thermal
stabilizing
• Good weldability
• Excellent abrasion resistance
• Smooth inside surface
B-7ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
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• No deposits and no overgrowth
• Less frictional resistance
• Non-conductive
• Good insulating characteristics
• Energy-rich radiation
Radiation strain
At an absorbed dose of < 104 Gray, polypropylene piping
systems can be applied without decreasing essential
resistance. At energy rays above 104 Gray, temporary
resistance may increase due to the molecular structure
cross-linking. But at durable radiation strain, it ruptures
the molecular chains and damages the material to a
serious resistance decrease.
UV radiation
Polypro piping systems are not UV-stable, so they must
be adequately protected. A protection layer or insulation
is possible to protect against direct solar radiation. For
pigmented systems, it is possible to compensate the
surface damage by increasing wall thickness, as the
damage only occurs on the surface (according to the
DVS 2210-1). The wall thickness addition cannot be less
than 2 mm with a 10 year maximum expected operating
period. Because polypropylene is not normally equipped
with light-stable color pigments, it may change colors
(fade) due to weathering.
As an alternative, a high temperature resistant, black PP
material can be used. The black PP material is stabilized
against UV radiation for 10 years. The conditions
for application should be clarified with the technical
engineering department.
Discoloration of PolyPure®
At higher temperatures, a discoloration of the material
appears, but this has no influence on the product’s
performance with regard to its mechanical, thermal,
purity, or electrical properties.
PPR and copper
Direct contact with copper, especially at higher
temperatures, deteriorates the physical properties of
PPR. Due to the accelerated thermal oxidation, heat
aging is faster.
General properties of modified PP
Flame retardant (PP-s) and electro-conductive (PP-el)
have been developed because of an increase in new
specific requirements for the construction of piping
B
MATERIALS GENERAL PROPERTIES
systems for the chemical industry and apparatus
engineering. For example, static charging caused by
the flow of fluids or dust can arise during the operation
of thermoplastic piping systems. Electro-conductible
polypropylene types have been developed in order to
enable an earth connection. These modified properties
are achieved with the supplement of additives, but this
results in alterations to the mechanical, thermal, and
chemical properties in comparison to the standard type.
Therefore, it is necessary to clarify all projects with our
technical engineering department.
Physiological properties
Modified PP types (flame retardant and electroconductible PP) correspond in composition because
of the supplement of additives and not because of the
relevant food stuff regulations. Therefore, they may not
be used for potable water pipes and in contact with food
stuff.
PVDF General
General properties of PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride)
PVDF is an extremely pure polymer and contains no
UV stabilizers, thermostabilizers, softeners, lubricants,
or flame retardant additives. It is particularly suitable for
ultra pure water constructions and for the transport of
clear chemical liquids in the semiconductor industry.
Due to its chemical inertness, reaction against most
media is nearly impossible. Pipes and components
made out of suitable standard types fulfill the high
demands of the semiconductor industry; for example,
they are in the position to maintain the specific
resistance of deionized ultra pure water over 18 MΩcm.
PVDF offers an ideal compromise with its properties,
in connection with very easy processing and an
advantageous price-performance ratio.
PVDF is distinguished by its high mechanical strength
and very good chemical resistance, even for applications
in the presence of critical chemical media in the high
temperature range.
B-8
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Chemical structure of PVDF
PVDF is obtained by the polymerization of vinylidene
fluoride, and it corresponds to the following chemical
structure:
The two main processes to produce PVDF are:
• The emulsion polymerization process
PVDF type I according ASTM D 3222
• The suspension polymerization process
PVDF type II according ASTM D 3222
PVDF material that is produced through the suspension
polymerization process offers fewer structural defects,
resulting in higher crystallinity as well as better
mechanical properties and long-term behavior. Purad®
uses only suspension PVDF in order to provide the best
possible product quality.
Fire resistance
PVDF UHP is a halogen-containing polymer, which
offers excellent fire protection without flame retardant
additives. During the combustion of PVDF UHP, only
a slight amount of smoke development arises. With an
oxygen index of about 44 percent, PVDF UHP received
the highest flammability classification V0, according to
UL-94.
Physiological properties
PVDF-UHP is physiologically harmless, non-toxic, and
conforms to FDA regulations as outlined in Title 21.
Chapter 1. Part 177-2510 (contact with food).
Advantages of PVDF:
• Wide application temperature range
(-4°F to 248°F)
• High heat deflection temperature
• Very good chemical resistance, even at high
temperatures
• Good resistance against UV and ƴ-radiation
• Pure material without additives
• Very good surface quality
• High aging resistance and good thermal stability
B
MATERIALSGENERAL PROPERTIES
• Excellent abrasion resistance
• Very good anti-friction properties
• Good mechanical properties
• Excellent insulation characteristics
• Flame retardant
• Physiologically non-toxic
• Good and simple processability
• Energy-rich radiation
The effects of gamma (g) rays on PVDF UHP are
significantly lower than in many other halogen polymers
(e.g., PFA, PTFE, PVC). PVDF is resistant to highly
energetic radiation. This fact makes PVDF suitable for
use in the nuclear industry. The cross-linking of the
polymer begins with 100 kilogray.
UV radiation
Suspension grade PVDF contains a high percentage of
fluorine. The bond between the highly electronegative
fluoride and carbon atom is extremely strong, with a
dissociation energy of 460 kj/mol. Therefore, PVDF UHP
is resistant to ambient UV radiation (>232 nm).
Solubility
The PVDF-homopolymere swells in high polar solvents,
such as acetone and ethylacetat, and is soluble
in polar solvents, such as dimethylformamide and
dimethylacetamide.
Fluoropolymers
General properties of E-CTFE
(Ethylenechlorotrifluorethylene)
E-CTFE (known as Halar®) has a unique combination of
properties as a result of its chemical structure, which is a
copolymere with a changing constitution of ethylene and
chlorotrifluorethylene.
E-CTFE provides excellent chemical resistance and
high mechanical strength, even at high temperatures.
These characteristics enable the use of E-CTFE as
a cost-effective solution for many applications with
ultra pure media.
Furthermore, E-CTFE has an inherent resistance to
many aggressive chemicals, even corrosive acids,
alkalis, and solvents, and it is also resistant in contact
with chlorine. It can withstand pH values from 0 to 14.
There are only a few chemicals that affect E-CTFE, such
as hot amines, sodium, and potassium.
B-9
nFH
CC
FH
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Chemical structure of E-CTFE
Physiological properties
E-CTFE is suitable for the safe application of products in
continuous contact with food stuff, according to the FDA
& “BGA Deutschland”. For avoiding every influence of
smell and taste, it is recommended to use water to clean
the food that has direct contact with E-CTFE parts.
Advantages of E-CTFE:
• Wide temperature application range (thermal
resistance from -105°F to 340°F (-105°C to 171°C)
• Good resistance to UV and γ-radiation, therefore,
favorable aging resistance
• Flame retardant (UL 94-V0 material) - oxygen index
52 percent
• Extremely good chemical resistance to most
technical acids, alkalis, and solvents as well as in
contact with chlorine
• Excellent insulating properties in connection with
very good electrical values
• Physiologically non-toxic
• Exceptional surface smoothness
• Excellent impact strength
• Excellent tensile strength
• Highest creep modulus
• Extremely low permeability
• Excellent abrasion resistance
• Energy-rich radiation
E-CTFE has an extraordinary inherent resistance to
gamma (g) rays. Therefore, E-CTFE is not influenced by
the radiation of Cobalt-60 up to 2 MGy.
Fire resistance
E-CTFE has the best flammability resistance (UL 94-V0)
and a very low smoke generation of LOI >52 percent.
B
MATERIALS GENERAL PROPERTIES
Surface quality
E-CTFE is distinguished from all other fluoropolymers by
its exceptional surface smoothness, which precludes the
shedding of particles and avoids particle trapping. The
surface of E-CTFE exhibits a low incidence of microbial
bio-fouling, making it ideal for use in UPW applications.
UV radiation
E-CTFE shows only a slight change of the properties
or appearance weathering in the sunlight. Reaped
weathering tests showed a remarkable stability of the
polymers, particularly the elongation at break, which is a
good indicator for the polymer decomposition. Even after
1,000 hours in a “Weather-Ometer” with xenon light, the
important properties are hardly influenced.
Thermal properties
E-CTFE has a remarkable resistance against
decomposition through heat, intensive radiation, and
weathering. It is resistant against temperatures up to
303°F (150°C) for an extensive length of time, and it is
one of the best plastics with a good resistance against
radiation.
Radiation resistance
E-CTFE shows an excellent resistance against different
radiations. It even has good values after irradiation with
200 megarad Cobalt-60.
Mechanical properties
E-CTFE is a solid, highly impact-resistant plastic that
hardly changes its properties over a wide range of
temperatures. In addition to the good impact strength,
E-CTFE has a good breaking strain and good abrasion
behavior. It is also important to emphasize the good
behavior at low temperatures, especially the high impact
strength.
Reproduction of microorganisms on E-CTFE
The surface of an E-CTFE product is unfavorable to the
proliferation of microorganisms. This conclusion is the
result of an examination that was executed within the
framework of a test of the HP-suitability of E-CTFE. Due
to these properties, E-CTFE is applied in the food and
drug industry and for ultra pure water ranges.
B-10
nFF
CCCC
FClH H
H H
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MATERIALS SPECIFIC PROPERTIES
SPECIFIC PROPERTIES
Specific material properties PE
B-11
Table B-6. Specific Properties of PE
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
ASAHI/AMERICA
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MATERIALSSPECIFIC PROPERTIES
Specific material properties PP
B-12
Property Standard Unit PP-H PP-R PP-B PP-s PP-s-el
Density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm3 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.93 1.13
Melt flow index ISO 1133
MFR 190/5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8
MFR 190/2, 16 0.6
MFR 230/5 1.25 1.25 1.3 2
MFI range ISO 1872/1873 M003
Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 30 25 26 30 30
Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 10 12 10 10
Elongation at break ISO 527 % >300 >300 >50 >50 43
Impact strength unnotched at +23°C ISO 179 kJ/m2 no break no break no break no break
Impact strength unnotched at -30°C 80 28
Impact strength notched at +23°C 8 22 40.00 9.0 9.5
Impact strength notched at 0°C ISO 179 kJ/m2 2.8 4 8 2.8 −
Impact strength notched at -30°C 2.2 2.5 3.20 2.2 2.3
Ball indentation hardness acc. Rockwell ISO 2039-1 MPa 60 45 50 72
Flexural strength (3.5% flexural stress) ISO 178 MPa 28 20 20 37
Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 1300 900 1100 1300
Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C 91 65 68 85 133
Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 96 70 75 85 47
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K-1 x 10-4 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Thermal conductivity at 20°C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0.22 0.24 0.2 0.2
UL94 94-HB 94-HB 94-HB V-2 V-0
Flammability EN 13501 − E(d2)
DIN 4102 B2 B2 B2 B1*
Specific volume resistance VDE 0303 OHM cm >1016 >1016 >1015 >1015 ≤108
Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >1013 >1013 >1015 >1015 ≤106
Relative dielectric constant at 1 MHz DIN 53483 - 2.3 2.3
Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 75 70 30 bis 40 30 bis 45
Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90-128 − Yes Yes Yes Yes No
FDA − − Yes Yes No No No
UV stabilized − − No No No No Yes
Color − − Ral 7032 grey
RAL 7032
grey
RAL 7032
grey
RAL 7037
dark grey
black
*Fire classification B1 only valid for wall thickness of 2-10mm
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
g/10min
M
ec ha ni ca l Pr op er tie
s Th er m al P
ro pe rti
es El ec tr ic al Pr op er tie
s Table B-7. Specific Properties of PP
*Fir classification B1 only valid f r wall thickness of 2-10mm
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
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Specific material properties PVDF
MATERIALS SPECIFIC PROPERTIES
B-13
Property Standard Unit PVDF PVDF flex
Specific density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm 3 1.78 1.78
Melt flow index ISO 1133
MFR 275/2.16
MFR 230/5 6 6
MFI range ISO 1872/1873
Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 50 20-35
Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 9 10−12
Elongation at break ISO 527 % 80 200-600
Impact strength unnotched at +23°C ISO 179 kJ/m 2 124 −
Impact strength unnotched at -30°C −
Impact strength notched at +23°C 11 17
Impact strength notched at 0°C ISO 179 kJ/m 2 −
Impact strength notched at -30°C −
Ball indentation hardness acc. Rockwell ISO 2039-1 MPa 80 −
Flexural strength ISO 178 MPa 80 −
Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 2000 1000-1100
Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C 140 150
Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 145 −
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K-1 x 10 -4 1.2 1.4-1.6
Thermal conductivity at 20°C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0.2 0.2
UL94 V-0 V-0
Flammability EN 13501 − B
FM4910 Yes
Specific volume resistance VDE 0303 OHM cm >10 13 ≥1014
Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >10 12 ≥1014
Relative dielectric constant at 1 MHz DIN 53483 − 7.25 7
Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 22 20
Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90-128 − Yes compliant
FDA − − Yes
UV stabilized − − Yes
Color − − natural natural
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
g/10min
M
ec ha ni ca l Pr op er tie
s Th er m al P
ro pe rti
es El ec tr ic al Pr op er tie
s Table B-8. Specific Properties of PVDF
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
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MATERIALSSPECIFIC PROPERTIES
Specific material properties E-CTFE
B-14
Property Standard Unit ECTFE
Specific density at 23°C ISO 1183 g/cm 3 1.68
Melt flow index ISO 1133
MFR 275/2.16 1
MFR 230/5
MFI range ISO 1872/1873
Tensile stress at yield ISO 527 MPa 30
Elongation at yield ISO 527 % 5
Elongation at break ISO 527 % 250
Impact strength unnotched at +23°C ISO 179 kJ/m 2 no break
Impact strength unnotched at -30°C
Impact strength notched at +23°C no break
Impact strength notched at 0°C ISO 179 kJ/m2
Impact strength notched at -30°C
Ball indentation hardness acc. Rockwell ISO 2039-1 MPa 90
Flexural strength ISO 178 MPa 47
Modulus of elasticity ISO 527 MPa 1690
Vicat-Softening point VST/B/50 ISO 306 °C
Heat deflection temperature HDT/B ISO 75 °C 90
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion DIN 53752 K-1 x 10 -4 0.8
Thermal conductivity at 20°C DIN 52612 W/(mxK) 0.15
UL94 V-0
Flammability EN 13501 − −
FM4910 −
Specific volume resistance VDE 0303 OHM cm >10 16
Specific surface resistance VDE 0303 OHM >10 14
Relative dielectric constant at 1 MHz DIN 53483 − 2.6
Dielectric strength VDE 0303 kV/mm 30 bis 35
Physiologically non-toxic EEC 90-128 − Yes
FDA − −
in preparation
UV stabilized − − Yes
Color − − natural
g/10min
M
ec ha ni ca l Pr op er tie
s Th er m al P
ro pe rti
es El ec tr ic al Pr op er tie
s Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
Table B-9. Specific Properties of E-CFTE
Note: The mentioned values are recommended values for the particular material.
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Applications
The table below gives a survey of the different application possibilities of our molding materials.
MATERIALS SPECIFIC PROPERTIES
*
* Air-Pro System Only
B-15
Table B-6� Application Recommendations
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SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio . . . . C-2
Operating Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Dangerous Media Operating Pressure C-3
Permissible Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . C-4
External Pressure Calculations . . . . . C-5
Section C
BASIC CALCULATIONS
Contents
C-1ASAHI/AMERICA
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SDR - STANDARD DIMENSION RATIO
SDR =
da (C-1)
s Where: SDR = Diameter - wall thickness relation
da = outside diameter [mm]
s = wall thickness
S - series
OPERATING PRESSURE
PB =
20 • σv (C-3)
(SDR - 1) • Cmin
Where: PB = Component operating pressure
[bar]
σv = Reference strengh [N/mm
2]
(see the pressure curve for each
material in Section D)
SDR = Standard Dimension Ratio
Cmin = Minimum safety factor
(see table c-1)
C
BASIC CALCULATIONSSDR
C-2
da s 10 to 40°C 40 to 60°C over 60°C
PE80
PE100
PPH 1.6 1.4 1.25
PPR
PVDF
E-CTFE
Material Temperature
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.6
2.0
S =
SDR - 1
(C-2)
2
Where: SDR = Diameter - wall thickness relation
Example:
da = 110 mm
s = 10 mm
SDR =
da =
110
= 11 (C-1 Example)s 10
Example:
SDR = 11
S =
SDR - 1
=
11 - 1
= 5 (C-2 Example)2 2
Example:
PE100, 20°C, 50 years, water (σv = 10)
SDR = 11
Cmin = 1.25
PB =
20 • σv =
20 • 10
= 16
(C-3
(SDR - 1) • Cmin (11 - 1) • 1.25 Example)
The following calculations are shown using
metric units for simplicity. Asahi/America
engineering staff is happy to assist with any
questions you may have.
Unit conversion: 1 bar = 14.5psi
25.4 mm = 1 inch
Table C-1 . Safety Factor
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DANGEROUS MEDIA OPERATING
PRESSURE
Operating pressure for dangerous media
In order to calculate the respective permissible highest
operating pressure for conveying dangerous fluids,
the operating pressure value can be looked up for
the corresponding parameter in the relevant table for
permissible system operating pressures (valid for water).
Then, this operating pressure has to be reduced by the
relevant reducing coefficients. The total safety coefficient
is 2.0 at a minimum. Higher safety coefficients are
applied for impact-sensitive modified materials (at HDPE
2.4, PP-s and PP-R-s-el 3.0).
Example:
Pa =
PB
(C-7)
fAP • fCR • AZ
Where: Pa = Operating pressure of the relevant
application [bar]
PB = Component operating pressure, valid
for water [bar] (Formula C-3)
fAP = Application factor
is an additional reducing factor which
results in a total safety coefficient of
2.0 at a minimum by multiplication
with the C-factors according to DIN.
(Table C-2)
fCR = Chemical resistance factor according
to DVS
AZ = Reducing factor for the specific
tenacity (Table C-3)
C
BASIC CALCULATIONS DANGEROUS MEDIA
C-3
Material
Application
factor
fAP
C - factor
(acc. ISO 12162)
Total safety factor
by 20°C
(fAP x C)
PE80 1.6 1.3 2.0
PE100 1.6 1.3 2.0
PE-el 1.9 1.3 2.4
PPH 1.3 1.6 2.0
PPR 1.6 1.3 2.0
PPR-el 2.4 1.3 3.0
PPR-s-el 2.4 1.3 3.0
PVDF 1.3 1.6 2.0
E-CTFE 1.0 2.0 2.0
Application factors fAP for water-dangerous media:
-10°C +20°C
PE80 1.2 1.0
PE100 1.2 1.0
PE-el 1.6 1.4
PPH 1.8 1.3
PPR 1.5 1.1
PP-s * 1.7
PPR-s-el * 1.7
PVDF 1.6 1.4
Reducing FactorMaterial
*Not applicable
PE100, 20°C, 50 years, water (d.h. σv = 10)
SDR = 11
Cmin = 1.25
Chemicals: H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), Concentration 53%
fCR = 2.0 (acc. DVS 2205, part 1)
PB =
20 • σv =
20 • 10
= 16 (C-8)
(SDR - 1) • Cmin (11 - 1) • 1.25
Pa =
PB
=
16
= 5
fAP • fCR • AZ 1.6 • 2.0 • 1
Reducing factor AZ for the specific tenacity by low
temperatures
Table C-2 . Application Factors
Table C-3 . Reducing Factor
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PERMISSIBLE WALL THICKNESS
Calculation of the permissible wall
thickness smin
In general, strength calculations of thermoplastic piping
systems are based on long-term values. The strength
values, depending on temperature, are given in the
pressure curves (see Section D). After calculation of the
theoretical wall thickness, the construction wall thickness
has to be determined under consideration of the nominal
pressure and SDR class. Additional wall thickness
sometimes has to be considered (e.g., application of PP
piping systems outdoor without UV protection for the
transport of abrasive media).
smin =
p • da
(C-9)
20 • σzul + p
When: σzul = σv
Cmin
Where: smin = Minimum wall thickness [mm]
p = Operating pressure [bar]
da = Pipe outside diameter [mm]
σzul = Maximum permitted stress
(see pressure curves sec D. [N/mm2]
σv = Reference stress [N/mm
2]
Cmin = Minimum safety factor (See Table C-1)
C
BASIC CALCULATIONSWALL THICKNESS
Example:
PE100, 20°C, 50 years, water (d.h. σv = 10)
Operating pressure 16bar
Outside diameter da = 110 mm
C-4
If necessary, the reference stress (σv) and the operating
pressure (p) can also be calculated from this formula.
σzul =
p • (da - smin) =
16 • (110 - 10)
= 8 (C-12)
20 • smin 20 • 10
σzul =
p • (da - smin) (C-11)
20 • smin
And
p =
20 • σzul • smin
da - smin
σzul =
σv =
10
= 8 (C-10)
Cmin 1.25
smin =
p • da
=
16 • 110
= 10
20 • σzul + p 20 • 8 • 16
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EXTERNAL PRESSURE
CALCULATIONS
C
BASIC CALCULATIONS EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Example:
PPR pipe SDR33
40°C, 25 years
EC = 220N/mm2 (creep modulus curve - page x)
Outside diameter da = 110 mm
Wall thickness = 3.4 mm
Additional safety factor 2.0 (minimum security factor for
stability calculation)
C-5
Pk =
10 • EC
• ( s )
3
(C-13)
4 • (1 - μ2) rm
Where: Pk = Critical buckling pressure [bar]
EC = Creep modulus [N/mm2] for t = 25a
μ = Transversal contraction factor (for thermoplastics,
generally 0.38)
s = Wall thickness [mm]
rm = Medium pipe radius [mm]
In certain cases, piping systems are exposed to
external pressure:
-Installation in water or buried below groundwater table
-Systems for vacuum e.g., suction pipes
The buckling tension can then be calculated directly:
Pk = 10 • EC ( s ) 3 = (C-14)4 • (1 - μ2) rm
=
10 • 220
(
3.4
)
3
= 0.17
4 • (1 - 0.42) 53.3
Pk =
0.17
= 0.085
2.0
σk = Pk •
rm = 0.085 •
53.3
= 1.33 (C-16)
s 3.4
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Section D
SYSTEM CHARTS
Contents
Pressure Curve Graphs . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Creep Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12
Vacuum Pressure Charts . . . . . . . . D-17
Abrasion Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . D-22
General Chemical Resistance . . . . D-23
Surface Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-26
Production and Packaging . . . . . . . D-27
Storage and Transportation . . . . . . D-30
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-31
D-1ASAHI/AMERICA
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Pressure curve for pipes out of PE100
(acc . to EN ISO 15494, supplement B)
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
D-2
Table D-2 . Pressure Curve PE100
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Permissible component operating pressures pB for PE100,
depending on temperature and operation period .
In the table below, the data applies to water. They were determined from the
creep curve, taking into account a safety coefficient of C=1.25.
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
D-3
41 33 26 17 11 7.4 6
20 16 12 8 5 3 2
4 5 6.3 10 16 25 32
50 (10) 73 91 115 183 293 457 586
71 90 113 180 287 449 576
70 87 110 175 280 438 561
68 85 109 173 275 431 551
67 84 106 168 271 423 542
68 (20) 61 77 96 154 245 384 492
59 75 94 151 241 377 483
58 72 93 146 235 368 471
58 72 91 145 232 362 464
57 71 88 142 228 355 455
86 (30) 52 65 81 130 209 326 418
51 64 80 128 204 320 410
49 62 78 125 200 313 400
48 61 77 122 196 307 393
104 (40) 43 55 70 112 178 280 358
43 55 68 110 175 275 352
42 54 67 107 171 268 344
42 52 65 104 168 264 338
122 (50) 38 48 61 97 155 242 354
38 46 58 94 151 235 294
33 42 54 86 138 215 275
140 (60) 28 35 43 70 112 175 225
158 (70) 22 28 35 57 90 142 181
1. For calculation of the operating pressure in installed piping systems, we recommend multiplying the
operating pressure contained within the table by a system reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 (this value contains
installation technical influences such as welding joint, flange, or bending loads.)
2. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients for every application.
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operating
period
(years)
Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR
Pipe series S
PN
permissible component operating pressure (psi)
5
5
10
25
50
100
5
10
25
50
100
5
10
25
50
5
10
25
50
5
10
15
2
PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
Table D-3 . Permissible Component Operating Pressure PE100
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Pressure curve for pipes out of PPH
(acc . to EN ISO 15494, supplement C)
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
D-4
1 10 102 103 104 105 106
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
Time to fail [h]
1 10 25 50
Time to fail [years]
20°C (68°F)
40°C (104°F)
60°C (140°F)
70°C (158°F)
80°C (176°F)
95°C (203°F)
100
10°C (50°F)
30°C * (86°F)
50°C (122°F)
90°C (194°F)
Re fe re nc e str
es s σ
V [N
/m m ²]
Table D-4 . Pressure Curve PPH
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Permissible component operating pressures pB for PPH,
depending on temperature and operation period .
In the table below, the data applies to water. They were determined from the
creep curve, taking into account a safety coefficient of C (C=1.6 from 10-under
40°C, C=1.4 from 40-under 60°C, C=1.25 from 60°C).
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
D-5
41 33 26 18 11 7 6
20 16 12 8 5 3 2
2 3 4 6 10 16 20
50 (10) 1 65 81 104 158 262 409 525
5 59 74 96 145 241 376 481
10 58 72 93 139 232 362 464
25 55 68 88 132 220 345 441
50 52 65 84 128 212 332 425
100 51 64 81 123 204 320 409
68 (20) 1 57 70 90 136 226 354 452
5 51 64 83 125 206 322 413
10 49 61 78 119 199 310 397
25 46 58 75 113 188 294 377
50 45 57 72 109 181 283 362
100 43 54 70 104 174 271 348
86 (30) 1 48 59 77 116 193 303 387
5 43 55 70 106 175 274 351
10 42 52 67 101 168 262 336
25 39 49 64 96 159 249 319
50 38 48 61 91 152 238 306
104 (40) 1 46 58 74 113 187 293 376
5 42 52 67 101 168 264 338
10 39 49 64 97 161 252 323
25 38 46 61 91 152 238 304
50 36 45 58 87 145 228 291
122 (50) 1 39 49 67 94 157 246 315
5 35 43 57 84 141 220 281
10 33 42 54 80 133 210 268
25 30 39 49 75 126 197 252
50 29 38 48 72 120 187 241
140 (60) 1 36 45 58 87 146 228 293
5 32 41 51 78 129 203 260
10 30 38 49 74 123 193 246
25 28 35 45 70 115 180 231
50 26 33 42 64 107 168 216
158 (70) 1 29 36 48 71 119 187 239
5 26 32 42 62 104 164 210
10 25 30 39 59 100 155 200
25 20 25 32 49 81 129 164
50 17 22 28 42 70 109 139
176 (80) 1 23 29 38 58 96 151 193
5 20 25 32 48 80 126 161
10 16 20 26 41 68. 106 136
25 13 16 22 32 54 84 109
194 (90) 1 19 23 30 45 75 119 152
5 13 16 22 32 54 86 109
10 12 14 17 28 45 71 91
203 (95) 1 16 20 26 39 67 104 133
5 10 13 17 26 45 70 90
(10)4 9 12 14 22 38 59 75
1. For calculation of the operating pressure in free installed piping systems, we recommend multiplying the
operating pressure contained within the table by a system reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 (this value contains
installation technical influences such as welding joint, flange, or bending loads).
2. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients for every application.
3. Operating pressures do not apply to pipes exposed to UV radiation. Within 10 years of operation, this
influence may be compensated or essentially reduced by corresponding additives (e.g., carbon black) to the
molding material.
4. The values in brackets are valid at proof of longer testing periods than 1 year at the 110°C test.
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operating
period
(years)
Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR
Pipe series S
PN
permissible component operating pressure psi
PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
Table D-5 . Permissible Component Operating Pressure PPH
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Pressure curve for pipes out of PPR
(acc . to EN ISO 15494, supplement C)
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
D-6
1 y
ea r 10
ye ar s 25
ye ar s 50
ye ar s 10 °C (50 °F)
20 °C (68 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
60 °C (140 °F)
70 °C (158 °F)
80 °C (176 °F)
90 °C (194 °F)
95 °C (203 °F)
10
0 y
ea rs 1 10
Time to failure, t [h]
1
10
H
oo p st re ss , σ
[N
/m m ²]
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
20
30
40
50
102 103 104 105 106
Table D-6 . Pressure Curve PPR
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Permissible component operating pressures pB for PPR,
depending on temperature and operation period .
In the table below, the data applies to water. They were determined from the
creep curve, taking into account a safety coefficient of C=1.25. Due to the
different mechanical properties of the specific material PP-s-el, the maximum
operating pressure has to be reduced to 50 percent.
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
D-7
41 33 26 17 17 11 7.4 6
20 16 12 8 8 5 3 2
2 3 4 6 6 10 16 20
50 (10) 1 77 97 122 184 193 306 484 609
5 72 91 115 174 181 290 458 577
10 71 88 112 168 177 280 444 558
25 68 86 107 162 171 271 429 541
50 67 84 104 158 167 264 418 526
100 65 81 103 155 162 257 407 513
68 (20) 1 65 83 104 157 164 261 415 522
5 61 78 97 148 154 245 389 490
10 59 75 94 144 151 238 378 476
25 58 72 93 139 145 232 367 461
50 57 71 90 135 141 225 355 448
100 55 68 88 130 138 217 345 434
86 (30) 1 55 70 88 133 139 222 352 444
5 52 65 83 125 130 209 331 416
10 51 64 80 122 128 202 319 402
25 49 61 77 117 122 194 309 389
50 48 59 75 115 119 190 300 383
104 (40) 1 46 59 74 113 119 187 297 374
5 43 55 70 106 110 175 278 351
10 43 54 68 103 107 171 271 342
25 41 52 65 99 103 164 261 328
50 41 51 64 96 100 159 254 319
133 (50) 1 41 51 64 96 100 159 254 319
5 38 46 59 88 93 148 235 296
10 36 45 57 87 90 144 228 286
25 35 43 55 84 87 139 220 277
50 33 42 54 81 84 135 213 268
140 (60) 1 33 42 54 81 84 135 213 268
5 32 39 49 75 78 125 199 249
10 30 38 48 72 75 120 191 241
25 29 36 46 70 72 116 183 231
50 28 35 45 67 71 112 175 222
158 (70) 1 29 36 45 68 71 113 180 226
5 26 33 42 62 65 104 165 207
10 26 32 41 61 64 101 161 203
25 22 28 35 52 55 88 139 175
50 19 23 29 45 46 74 117 148
176 (80) 1 23 30 38 57 59 94 151 190
5 20 26 33 51 52 83 132 167
10 17 22 28 42 43 70 110 139
25 14 17 22 33 35 55 88 110
203 (95) 1 17 22 26 41 42 67 106 133
5 - 14 17 26. 28 43 70 88
(10)4 - - 14 22 23. 38 58 74
1. For calculation of the operating pressure in free installed piping systems, we recommend multiplying the operating
pressure contained within the table by a system reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 (this value contains installation technical
influences such as welding joint, flange, or bending loads).
2. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients for every application.
3. Operating pressures do not apply to pipes exposed to UV radiation. Within 10 years of operation, this influence may
be compensated or essentially reduced by corresponding additives (e.g., carbon black) to the molding material.
4. The values in brackets are valid at proof of longer testing periods than 1 year at the 110°C.
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operating
period
(years)
Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR
Pipe series S
PN
permissible component operating pressure (psi)
PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
Table D-7 . Permissible Component Operating Pressure PPR
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Pressure curve for pipes out of PVDF
(acc . to EN ISO 10931, supplement A)
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
D-8
10 °C (50 °F)
20 °C (68 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
60 °C (140 °F)
70 °C (158 °F)
80 °C (176 °F)
90 °C (194 °F)
95 °C (203 °F)
100 °C (212 °F)
110 °C (230 °F)
120 °C (248 °F)130 °C
(266 °F)
140 °C
(284 °F)
1 10
Time to failure, t [h]
1
10
H
oo p st re ss , σ
[N
/m m ²]
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
20
30
40
50
102 103 104 105 106
1 y
ea r 10
ye ar s 25
ye ar s 50
ye ar s 10
0 y
ea rs Table D-8 . Pressure Curve PVDF
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Permissible component operating pressures pB for PVDF,
depending on temperature and operation period .
In the table below, the data applies to water. They were determined from the
creep curve, taking into account a safety coefficient of C=1.6.
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
D-9
33 21
16 10
10 16
68 (20) 1 167 261
10 159 251
25 158 248
50 157 246
86 (30) 1 148 232
10 145 229
25 145 228
50 141 222
104 (40) 1 133 210
10 132 207
25 130 204
50 128 202
122 (50) 1 120 190
10 116 183
25 112 177
50 110 173
140 (60) 1 107 168
10 103 161
25 101 159
50 100 157
158 (70) 1 96 149
10 91 144
25 90 142
50 88 141
176 (80) 1 81 129
10 78 122
25 77 120
50 75 119
203 (95) 1 64 100
10 59 93
25 48 77
50 42 65
230 (110) 1 46 72
10 32 51
25 26 42
50 23 36
248 (120) 1 36 58
10 22 35
25 19 29
1. For calculation of the operating pressure in free installed piping systems, we
recommend multiplying the operating pressure contained within the table by a system
reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 (this value contains installation technical influences such as
welding joint, flange, or bending loads).
2. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients
for every application.
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operating
period
(years)
Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR
Pipe series S
PN
Permissible component operating pressure (psi)
PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
Table D-9 . Permissible Component Operating Pressure PVDF
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
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Pressure curve for pipes out of E-CTFE
(acc . to DVS 2205-1, supplement 18)
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
1 y
ea r 10
ye ar s 25
ye ar s 50
ye ar s 10
0 y
ea rs 10 °C (50 °F)
20 °C (68 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
60 °C (140 °F)
70 °C (158 °F)
80 °C (176 °F)
90 °C (194 °F)
95 °C (203 °F)
1 10
Time to failure, t [h]
1
10
H
oo p st re ss , σ
[N
/m m ²]
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
20
30
40
50
102 103 104 105 106
Table D-10 . Pressure Curve E-CTFE
D-10
ASAHI/AMERICA
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Permissible component operating pressures pB for E-CTFE,
depending on temperature and operation period .
In the table below, the data applies to water. They were determined from the
creep curve, taking into account a safety coefficient of C=1.6.
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
D-11
33 21
16 10
50 (10) 1 129 207
5 125 200
10 123 197
25 122 194
50 119 191
68 (20) 1 115 183
5 110 175
10 107 173
25 106 170
50 104 167
86 (30) 1 99 158
5 96 152
10 94 152
25 91 146
50 90 145
104 (40) 1 84 136
5 81 130
10 80 129
25 78 126
50 77 123
122 (50) 1 71 115
5 68 110
10 67 109
25 65 106
50 64 103
140 (60) 1 59 96
5 57 91
10 55 90
25 54 87
158 (70) 1 48 78
5 46 74
10 45 72
25 43 71
176 (80) 1 39 62
5 36 59
10 36 58
25 35 55
194 (90) 1 30 48
5 28 45
10 28 45
15 28 43
203 (95) 1 26 42
5 25 39
10 23 39
1. For calculation of the operating pressure in free installed piping systems, we
recommend multiplying the operating pressure contained within the table by a system
reduction coefficient fs = 0.8 (this value contains installation technical influences such as
welding joint, flange, or bending loads).
2. The operating pressure has to be reduced by the corresponding reducing coefficients for
every application.
Diameter-wall thickness relation SDR
Pipe series S
Permissible component operating pressure (psi)
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operating
period
(years)
PRESSURE CURVE GRAPHS
Table D-11 . Permissible Component Operating Pressure E-CTFE
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Creep modulus curves for PE100
(acc . to DVS 2205, part 1)
Figure D-1 . Creep modulus curve for PE100 at 1 year
Figure D-3 . Creep modulus curve for PE100 at 25
years
Figure D-2 . Creep modulus curve for PE100 at 10
years
0
100
200
300
400
σ = 0.5 N/mm²
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 5 N/mm²
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
Operating temperature, T
20 °C
68 °F
40 °C
104 °F
60 °C
140 °F
80 °C
176 °F
100 °C
212 °F
St ar t o
f a
gi ng 0
100
200
300
400
σ = 0.5 N/mm²
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 5 N/mm²C
re ep m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
Operating temperature, T
20 °C
68 °F
40 °C
104 °F
60 °C
140 °F
80 °C
176 °F
100 °C
212 °F
St ar t o
f a
gi ng 0
100
200
300
400
σ = 0.5 N/mm²
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 5 N/mm²Cr
ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
Operating temperature, T
20 °C
68 °F
40 °C
104 °F
60 °C
140 °F
80 °C
176 °F
100 °C
212 °F
St ar t o
f a
gi ng Reducing the creep modulus
In the above diagrams, the calculated creep modulus
still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 for
stability calculations.
Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and
unroundness must be taken into account separately.
D-12
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS CREEP CURVES
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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Creep modulus curves for PPH
(acc . to DVS 2205, part 1)
Figure D-4 . Creep modulus curve for PPH at 1 year
Figure D-6 . Creep modulus curve for PPH at 25
years
Figure D-5 . Creep modulus curve for PPH at 10
years
Reducing the creep modulus
In the above diagrams, the calculated creep modulus
still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 for
stability calculations.
Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and
unroundness must be taken into account separately.
D-13ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
CREEP CURVES
D
SYSTEM CHARTS
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Creep modulus curves for PPR/PPB
(acc . to DVS 2205, part 1)
Figure D-7 . Creep modulus curve for PPR/PPB at 1
year
Figure D-9 . Creep modulus curve for PPR/PPB at
25 years
Figure D-8 . Creep modulus curve for PPR/PPB at 10
years
Operating temperature, T
0
100
200
300
400
20°C
68°F
40°C
104°F
60 °C
140 °F
80°C
176°F
100°C
212°F
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 3 N/mm²
σ = 5 N/mm²
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
St ar t o
f a
gi ng 0
100
200
300
400
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 3 N/mm²
σ = 5 N/mm²
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
Operating temperature, T
20°C
68°F
40°C
104°F
60°C
140°F
80°C
176°F
100°C
212°F
St ar t o
f a
gi ng 0
100
200
300
400
σ = 2 N/mm²
σ = 3 N/mm²
σ = 4 N/mm²
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
Operating temperature, T
20 °C
68 °F
40 °C
104 °F
60 °C
140 °F
80 °C
176 °F
100 °C
212 °F
St ar t o
f a
ge in g Reducing the creep modulus
In the above diagrams, the calculated creep modulus
still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 for
stability calculations.
Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and
unroundness must be taken into account separately.
D-14
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS CREEP CURVES
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Creep modulus curves for PVDF
(acc . to DVS 2205, part 1)
0 20°C
68°F
40°C
104°F
60°C
140°F
80°C
176°F
100°C
212°F
120°C
248°F
Temperature, T
250
500
750
1000
1 year
10 years
25 years
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[N
/m m ²]
σ = 2-5 N/mm²
Reducing the creep modulus
In the above diagrams, the calculated creep modulus
still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 for
stability calculations.
Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and
unroundness must be taken into account separately.
Figure D-10 . Creep modulus curves for PVDF at 1,
10, and 25 years
D-15ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSCREEP CURVES
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Creep modulus curves for E-CTFE
(acc . to DVS 2205, part 1)
Cr ee p m od ul us , E
C
[M
Pa ]
Operating temperature, T
0 40 °C
104 °F
80 °C
176 °F
120 °C
248 °F
160 °C
320 °F
400
800
1200
1600
2 MPa
2 MPa
1.5 MPa
1.5 MPa
1 MPa
Reducing the creep modulus
In the above diagrams, the calculated creep modulus
still has to be reduced by a safety coefficient of ≥ 2 for
stability calculations.
Influences by chemical attack or by eccentricity and
unroundness must be taken into account separately.
Figure D-11 . Creep modulus curves for E-CTFE
D-16
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
SYSTEM CHARTS CREEP CURVES
D
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VACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
Permissible vacuum pressures for PE100
In the table below, the data applies to water. Data was determined taking
into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 (minimum safety coefficient for stability
calculations).
Table D-12 . Permissible Vacuum Pressure PE100
D-17ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSVACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
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Permissible vacuum pressures for PPH and PPR
In the table below, the data applies to water. Data was determined taking
into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 (minimum safety coefficient for stability
calculations).
PPH PPR PPH PPR PPH PPR PPH PPR
68 (20) 1 1.160 0.870 2.465 1.813 16.095 12.035 74.675 55.100
10 0.870 0.725 1.885 1.595 12.470 10.585 57.275 48.575
25 0.798 0.725 1.740 1.595 11.310 10.150 52.925 47.125
86 (30) 1 1.015 0.725 2.175 1.595 13.920 10.295 64.525 47.850
10 0.798 0.653 1.668 1.450 10.875 9.280 50.750 42.775
25 0.725 0.653 1.595 1.378 10.295 8.845 47.850 41.325
104 (40) 1 0.870 0.653 1.885 1.378 12.035 8.990 55.825 41.325
10 0.725 0.580 1.523 1.305 9.860 8.265 45.675 38.425
25 0.653 0.580 1.450 1.233 9.280 7.975 42.775 36.975
122 (50) 1 0.725 0.580 1.595 1.160 10.585 7.685 49.300 35.525
10 0.653 0.508 1.378 1.088 8.845 7.105 41.325 33.350
25 0.580 0.508 1.305 1.088 8.265 6.960 38.425 31.900
140 (60) 1 0.653 0.508 1.450 1.015 9.280 6.815 42.775 31.175
10 0.580 0.435 1.233 0.943 7.975 6.235 36.975 29.000
25 0.508 0.435 1.160 0.943 7.540 6.090 34.800 28.275
158 (70) 1 0.580 0.435 1.233 0.870 8.265 5.945 38.425 27.550
10 0.508 0.363 1.088 0.798 7.105 5.365 32.625 24.650
25 0.435 0.363 1.015 0.798 6.670 5.220 31.175 23.925
176 (80) 1 0.508 0.363 1.088 0.725 7.250 4.930 33.350 23.200
10 0.435 0.290 0.943 0.653 6.380 4.495 31.900 21.025
203 (95) 1 0.435 0.290 0.943 0.580 5.945 3.915 27.550 18.125
10 0.363 0.218 0.798 0.508 5.075 3.335 23.925 15.225
8.3 5
S-series
Permissible vacuum pressure (psi)
1. These vacuum pressures have been calculated according to the formula on page C-5. These vacuum pressures have to
be decreased by the corresponding reducing factors due to chemical influence or unroundness for any application.
Temperature
°F (C°)
Operation
periods
(years)
SDR-series
41 33 17.6 11
20 16
Table D-13 . Permissible Vacuum Pressure PPH and PPR
D-18
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS VACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
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Permissible vacuum pressures for PVDF
In the table below, the data applies to water. Data was determined taking
into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 (minimum safety coefficient for stability
calculations).
33 21
16 10
68 (20) 1 4.06 17.11
10 3.77 15.66
25 3.63 15.08
86 (30) 1 3.77 15.23
10 3.34 13.78
25 3.34 13.34
104 (40) 1 3.34 13.49
10 3.05 12.33
25 2.90 11.89
122 (50) 1 2.90 11.89
10 2.61 10.15
25 2.47 10.15
140 (60) 1 2.47 9.14
10 2.32 8.70
25 2.18 8.70
158 (70) 1 2.18 8.70
10 1.89 7.69
25 1.74 7.25
176 (80) 1 1.89 7.54
10 1.60 6.53
25 1.45 6.09
194 (90) 1 1.60 6.24
10 1.31 5.37
25 1.16 5.08
212 (100) 1 1.31 5.22
10 1.16 4.64
25 1.02 4.21
230 (110) 1 1.02 4.35
10 0.87 3.77
25 0.87 3.34
248 (120) 1 0.87 3.77
10 0.87 3.48
25 0.73 3.05
S-series
Permissible vacuum pressure (psi)
PVDF
1. These vacuum pressures have been calculated according to the
formula on page C-5. These vacuum pressures have to be decreased by
the corresponding reducing factors due to chemical influence or
unroundness for any application.
Temperature
°F (C°)
Operation
periods
(years)
SDR-series
Table D-14 . Permissible Vacuum Pressure PVDF
D-19ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSVACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
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Permissible vacuum pressures for ventilation pipes
out of PPH and PE
In the table below, the maximum permissible vacuum pressures in Pascal were
determined taking into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 (minimum safety coefficient
for stability calculations).
100,000 Pa = 1bar = 14.5psi
10 years 25 years 10 years 25 years 10 years 25 years 10 years 25 years
140 x 3.0 PPH 4200 3800 3650 3450 3350 3100 3000 2800
160 x 3.0 PPH 2750 2500 2400 2300 2200 2050 1950 1850
180 x 3.0 PPH 1900 1750 1700 1600 1550 1400 1350 1250
200 x 3.0 PPH 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900
225 x 3.5 PPH 1550 1400 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100 1050
250 x 3.5 PPH 1100 1000 1000 900 900 850 800 750
280 x 4.0 PPH 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800
315 x 5.0 PPH 1650 1500 1450 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100
355 x 5.0 PPH 1150 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750
400 x 6.0 PPH 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900
400 x 8.0 PPH 3400 3050 2950 2800 2700 2500 2400 2250
400 x 8.0 PE100 2035 1815 1705 1540 1375 1265 1100 -
450 x 6.0 PPH 950 900 850 800 750 700 700 650
450 x 8.0 PPH 2350 2150 2050 1950 1850 1750 1650 1550
450 x 8.0 PE100 1375 1265 1155 1045 935 880 770 -
500 x 8.0 PPH 1700 1550 1500 1400 1350 1250 1200 1000
500 x 8.0 PE100 990 935 825 770 660 605 550 -
500 x 10.0 PPH 3400 3050 2950 2800 2700 2500 2400 2250
500 x 10.0 PE100 2035 1815 1705 1540 1375 1265 1100 -
560 x 8.0 PPH 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800
560 x 10.0 PPH 2400 2150 2100 1950 1900 1750 1700 1600
560 x 10.0 PE100 1430 1265 1210 1045 990 880 770 -
630 x 10.0 PPH 1650 1500 1450 1350 1300 1250 1150 1100
630 x 10.0 PE100 990 880 825 715 660 605 550 -
710 x 12.0 PPH 2000 1850 1750 1650 1600 1500 1450 1350
710 x 12.0 PE100 1210 1100 990 880 825 715 660 -
800 x 12.0 PPH 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900
900 x 12.0 PE100 825 770 660 605 550 495 440 -
900 x 15.0 PPH 1900 1750 1700 1600 1550 1400 1350 1250
900 x 15.0 PE100 1155 1045 935 880 770 715 605 -
1000 x 15.0 PPH 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900
1000 x 15.0 PE100 825 770 660 605 550 495 440 -
1200 x 18.0 PPH 1400 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 900
1200 x 18.0 PE100 825 770 660 605 550 495 440 -
1400 x 20.0 PPH 1200 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800
1400 x 20.0 PE100 715 660 605 550 495 440 385 -
86° F (30°C) 104° F (40°C) 122° (50°C)
1. These vacuum pressures have been calculated according to the formula on page C-5. These vacuum pressures have to be decreased by the
corresponding reducing factors due to chemical influence or unroundness for any application.
68° F (20°C)
Pipe dimension Material
Permissible vacuum pressures in Pascal (Pa)
for different operation temperatures and periods
Ø x s (mm)inch
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
16
16
16
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
22
22
22
24
24
28
28
32
36
36
36
40
40
48
48
55
55
Table D-15 . Permissible Vacuum Pressure for Ventilation Pipes PPH and PE
D-20
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS VACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
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Permissible vacuum pressures for PVDF-Vent
In the table below, the maximum permissible vacuum pressures were
determined taking into account a safety coefficient of 2.0 (minimum
safety coefficient for stability calculations).
These vacuum pressures have to be reduced by the corresponding reducing
coefficients through chemical influences or unroundness.
Buckling loads can be caused by external pressure (e.g., soil and ground water
pressure or internal vacuum). The values given in the table are stated for the relative
buckling pressure.
63 110 140 160 200 250 315 355 400
2.5 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5
68 (20) 1 9.570 3.045 1.450 1.015 0.435 0.290 0.290 0.145 0.290
10 8.845 2.755 1.305 0.870 0.435 0.290 0.290 0.145 0.290
25 8.555 2.610 1.305 0.870 0.435 0.145 0.290 0.145 0.290
86 (30) 1 8.555 2.755 1.305 0.870 0.435 0.290 0.290 0.145 0.290
10 7.830 2.465 1.160 0.725 0.435 0.145 0.290 0.145 0.290
25 7.540 2.320 1.160 0.725 0.435 0.145 0.290 0.145 0.145
104 (40) 1 7.540 2.320 1.160 0.725 0.435 0.145 0.290 0.145 0.290
10 6.960 2.175 1.015 0.725 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
25 6.670 2.030 1.015 0.725 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
122 (50) 1 6.670 2.030 1.015 0.725 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
10 6.090 1.885 0.870 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
25 5.800 1.740 0.870 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
140 (60) 1 5.800 1.740 0.870 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
10 5.220 1.595 0.725 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
25 4.930 1.595 0.725 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
158 (70) 1 4.930 1.595 0.725 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
10 4.350 1.305 0.580 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
25 4.060 1.305 0.580 0.435 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
176 (80) 1 4.205 1.305 0.580 0.435 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
10 3.770 1.160 0.580 0.435 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
25 3.480 1.015 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0 0.145
194 (90) 1 3.480 1.160 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145
10 3.045 1.015 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0 0.145
25 2.755 0.870 0.435 0.290 0.145 0 0.145 0 0.145
212 (100) 1 2.900 0.870 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.145 0 0.145
10 2.610 0.870 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.072 0.072 0.058 0.072
25 2.320 0.725 0.290 0.290 0.145 0.058 0.072 0.043 0.072
230 (110) 1 2.465 0.725 0.435 0.290 0.145 0.058 0.072 0.058 0.072
10 2.175 0.725 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.058 0.058 0.043 0.058
25 1.885 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.043 0.058 0.043 0.058
248 (120) 1 2.030 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.058 0.058 0.043 0.058
10 1.885 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.043 0.058 0.043 0.058
25 1.740 0.580 0.290 0.145 0.145 0.043 0.058 0.029 0.043
Temperature
°F (°C)
Operation
periods (years)
Permissible vacuum pressure PVDF-Vent (psi)
OD (mm)
S (mm)
1. These vacuum pressures have been calculated according to the formula on page C-5. These vacuum pressures have to
be decreased by the corresponding reducing factors due to chemical influence or unroundness for any application.
Table D-16 . Permissible Vacuum Pressure for PVDF-Vent
D-21ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSVACUUM PRESSURE CHARTS
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ABRASION RESISTANCE
Behavior with Abrasive Fluids
In principle, thermoplastic pipes are better suited for
the conveying of fluid-solid mixtures than, for instance,
concrete pipes or steel pipes. We have already had
positive experiences for different applications.
In the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt developed
method, a 1 m long half-pipe is tilted with a frequency of
0.18 Hz. The local deduction of the wall thickness after
a certain loading time is regarded as a measure of the
abrasion.
The advantage of thermoplastic pipes for the
transportation of solids in open channels can clearly be
seen from the test result.
Medium: silica sand-gravel-water mixture
Silica-gravel 46% volume, grain size up to 30 mm
Figure D-12 . Abrasion behavior according to
Darmstadt method
Load alternations [1000 cycles]
100 200 300 400 5000
0.5 mm
0.02“
1.0 mm
0.04“
1.5 mm
0.06“
2.0 mm
0.08“
Concrete pipe
Concrete pipe, MC-DUR coated
GFR pipe
Stoneware pipe
PVC pipe
PP, PE or PE-Xa pipe
M
ea n ab ra si on , a
m In a more practical test, the medium is pumped through
pipe samples which are built into a piping system. One
reason to check the abrasion behavior of such a system
is to determine the amount of time until the formation
of a hole. As can be seen from the above diagram,
thermoplastic pipes (in this case, PE pipes have been
applied; PP pipes will achieve the same or slightly better
results) have an essential advantage compared to steel
pipes.
For conveying of dry, abrasive-acting fluids,
polypropylene can only be applied conditionally. Only
electroconductible materials should be used (i.e., PE-el,
PPR-s-el, PPR-el) due to a possible static load.
The use of each single application has to be clarified
with our technical engineering department.
D-22
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS ABRASION RESISTANCE
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
GENERAL CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
General Chemical Properties of PE & PP
In comparison to metals, where an attack of chemicals
leads to an irreversible chemical change in the material,
it’s largely physical processes of plastics which reduce
their utility value. Such physical changes include
swelling and solution processes, which can change
the composition of the plastics, thereby affecting their
mechanical properties. Reducing factors have to be
taken into consideration in the design of facilities and
selection of parts in these cases.
PE and PP are resistant against diluted solutions of
salts, acids, and alkalis if these are not strong oxidizing
agents. Good resistance is also given against many
solvents, including alcohols, esters, and ketones.
When contact is made with aliphatic and aromatic
compounds, such as chlorinated hydrocarbon, a strong
swelling will occur, especially at high temperatures;
however, destruction is rare.
The resistance can be strongly reduced by stress
cracking corrosion due to ampholytics such as chromic
acid or concentrated sulfuric acid.
Lyes
Alkalis
Diluted alkali solutions, such as caustic lye, do not react
with PP and PE, even at higher temperatures and with
higher concentrations, and can, therefore, be applied
without problems. This is not the case for PVDF or other
fluoroplastics.
Bleaching lye
As these lyes contain active chlorine, only a conditional
resistance is given at room temperature.
At higher temperatures and concentrations of the active
chlorine, PP and PE are only suitable for pressureless
piping systems and tanks.
Hydrocarbons
PP is only conditionally resistant against hydrocarbons
(benzine, as well as other fuels) already at ambient
temperature (swelling > 3%). PE, however, can be used
for the conveying of this media up to temperatures of
104°F (40°C) and for the storage of these media up to
temperatures of 140°F (60°C). Only at temperatures
> 140°F (60°C) is PE conditionally resistant, as the
swelling is > 3%.
Acids
Sulfuric acid
Concentrations up to approximately 70 percent change
the properties of PP and PE only slightly. Concentrations
higher than 80 percent cause at-room temperature
oxidation. At higher temperatures, this oxidation can
result in carbonization of the surface of the PP semifinished products.
Hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid
Against concentrated hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric
acid, PP and PE are chemically resistant. In PP,
however, there is a diffusion of HCI (at concentrations
> 20%) and of HF (at concentrations > 40%), which
does not damage the material but causes secondary
damages to the surrounding steel constructions. Double
containment piping systems have proven successful for
such applications.
Nitric acid
At higher concentrations, nitric acid has an
oxidizing effect on the materials. Additionally, the
mechanical strength properties are reduced at higher
concentrations.
Phosphoric acid
Against this medium, PP and PE are resistant at higher
concentrations and at raised temperatures.
For more detailed information regarding the chemical
resistance of our products, our application engineering
department will be at your disposal at any time.
Actual lists of chemical properties are available at
www.asahi-america.com
D-23ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSGENERAL CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Chemical Resistance PVDF
PVDF is resistant to a wide range of chemicals.
It has an outstanding resistance to most organic and
inorganic acids, oxidizing media, aliphatic and aromatic
hydrocarbons, alcohols, and halogenated solvents.
PVDF is also resistant to halogens (i.e., chlorine,
bromine, and iodine), but is not resistant to fluorine.
Generally, PVDF is unsuitable for the following media,
because they can lead to decomposition:
• Amine, basic media with an index of pH ≥ 12
• Joints, which can produce free radicals under
certain circumstances
• Smoking sulfuric acid
• High polar solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate,
dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, etc.); here,
PVDF can solve or swell
• Melted alkaline metals or amalgam
Please note that there is a possibility of tension crack
development (stress cracking). This can happen when
PVDF is situated in a milieu with a pH factor ≥ 12, or is
in the presence of free radicals (for example, elemental
chlorine) and it is exposed to mechanical use at the
same time.
Example: sulfuric acid
PVDF is exposed to an attack of concentrated sulfuric
acid. Through free SO3 in the sulfuric acid, tension
crack development (stress cracking) can happen if it is
also exposed to a mechanical use. In high temperatures,
the concentration of free SO3, even in strongly
diluted sulfuric acid solution, can lead to tension crack
development.
To determine the permissible pressure with the presence
of sulfuric acid, and taking into account temperature, we
have analyzed the behavior of PVDF pipes at various
pressures and temperatures in the DECHEMA-bracket
(see graph below).
The following essential parameters should be
considered in every case:
Properties of the finished piece of PVDF
• Chemical structure and physical state of the joint(s)
which come into contact with the PVDF fitting
• Concentration
• Temperature
• Time
• Possible diffusion or solubility
Actual lists of chemical properties are available at
www.asahi-america.com
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Temperature, T [°C]
50
60
70
80
90
100
Co nc en tr at io n, σ
[%
]
Figure D-13 . Maximum permissible H2SO4 concentration for PVDF pipes, depending on temperature (based on
tests with the Dechema Console) .
D-24
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS GENERAL CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Chemical Resistance E-CTFE
E-CTFE has an outstanding chemical resistance and a
remarkable barrier property. It resists attack from most
industrial-used corrodible chemicals, including strong
mineral and oxidized acids, alkaline, metal-etching
products, liquid oxygen, and all organic solvents, except
hot amines (e.g., aniline, dimethylamine).
Undiluted solvents were used in the testing of the
constancy data for solvents in the following table.
A chemical attack depends on the concentration;
therefore, for a lower concentration of the listed media,
a smaller effect than is shown in the table would be
expected.
Like other fluorine plastics, E-CTFE will be attacked
by sodium and potassium. The attack depends on the
induction period and the temperature. E-CTFE and
other fluorine polymers can be in contact with special
halogenated solvents; this effect typically has no
influence on the usability. If the solvent is taken away
and the surface is dried, the mechanical properties
come back to their origin values, which shows that no
chemical attack has taken place.
Actual lists of chemical properties are available at
www.asahi-america.com
Chemical
Temperature
(°C)
Temperature
(F°)
Weight gain
(%)
Influence on tensile
modulus
Influence on
elongation at break
Mineral acid
Sulfuric acid 78% 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
121 249.8 < 0.1 N N
Hydrochloric acid 37% 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
75-105 167-221 0.1 N N
Hydrochloric acid 60% 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
Chlorosulfonic acid 60% 23 73.4 0.1 N N
Oxidizing acid
Nitric acid 70% 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
121 249.8 0.8 A C
Chromic acid 50% 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
111 231.8 0.4 N N
Aqua regia 23 73.4 0.1 N N
75-105 167-221 0.5 N N
Solvents
Aliphates
Hexane 23 73.4 0.1 N N
54 129.2 1.4 A N
Isooctane 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
116 240.8 3.3 A N
Aromates
Benzene 23 73.4 0.6 N N
74 165.2 7.0 C N
Toluene 23 73.4 0.6 N N
110 230 8.5 C N
Alcohols
Methanol 23 73.4 0.1 N N
60 140 0.4 A N
Butanol 23 73.4 < 0.1 N N
118 244.4 2.0 A N
Classical plastic solvents
Dimethyl formamide 73 163.4 2.0 A N
250 482 7.5 C N
Dimethyl sulfoxide 73 163.4 0.1 N N
250 482 3.0 N N
N = No Change
A = Reduction by 25-50%
B = Reduction by 50-75%
C = Reduction by > 75%
Table D-17 . Chemical Resistance E-CTFE
D-25ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSGENERAL CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
SURFACE ROUGHNESS
Surface roughness can have a significant influence upon
the quality of the conveyed media.
The smooth surface of AGRU UHP components is
achieved by applying specially designed and designated
manufacturing equipment and tooling. The use of mirrorfinished tools made of special material for injection
molding and extrusion has a significant influence upon
the surface quality of final products. AGRU constantly
monitors the surface quality during production of UHP
components, whereby the surface roughness (Ra
values) and micropores are measured. These tests,
which are performed on a statistical basis, provide an
excellent indication of the quality of the manufacturing
process.
The surface quality has been significantly improved for
the Purad® material grade.
Figure D-14. Surface specification for Purad® pipes
Figure D-16. Surface specification for PolyPure®
pipes
In addition this consistent control, surface analyses in
accordance with SEMATECH 92010952B-STD and
interferential microscopy are performed by Jenoptik
L.O.S. GmbH Germany.
Table D-18 . Surface roughness values
Pipes Fittings / valves0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
OD 20-225 mm
OD ½“-9“
OD 250 mm
OD 10“
OD 20-225 mm
OD ½“-9“
OD 250 mm
OD 10“
a [
µm
]
Su rf ac e ro ug hn es s, R
Pipes Fittings / valves0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
OD 20-140 mm
OD ½“-5“
OD 160-315 mm
OD 6-12“
OD 20-140 mm
OD ½“-5“
OD 160-315 mm
OD 6-12“
a [
µm
]
Su rf ac e ro ug hn es s, R
Pipes Fittings / valves0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
OD 20-110 mm
OD ½“-4“
OD 20-110 mm
OD ½“-4“
a [
µm
]
Su rf ac e ro ug hn es s, R
Purad® PP-Pure®
OD 63 (2") OD 63 (2")
SDR21 SDR11
Zmax (nm) 818 1134
RMS (nm) 100 103
Ra (nm) 79 79
SA-Index 17 22
Surface Analysis
Figure D-15. Surface specification for PP-Pure® pipes
OD 20-225mm OD 250mm OD 20-225mm OD 250mm
OD 1/2” - 9” OD 10” OD 1/2”- 9” OD 10”
OD 20-110mm OD 20-110mm
OD 1/2” - 4” OD 1/2”- 4”
OD 20-14 m OD 1 -315mm OD 20-140mm OD 160-315mm
OD 1/2” - 5” OD 6” - 12” OD 1/2”- 5” OD 6” - 12”
D-26
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS SURFACE ROUGHNESS
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
PRODUCTION AND PACKAGING
Pipe Production
Purad® (UHP PVDF)
Asahi’s Purad® UHP PVDF piping is produced from
ultrapure virgin PVDF raw material. The dimensionals
range from 20mm to 315mm (1/2” to 12”) are
manufactured in a cleanroom class ISO 5, on dedicated
extrusion equipment. Pressure range: SDR21 and
SDR33. The extrusion lines are specially equipped and
adapted for the production of UHP components in a
cleanroom area.
PolyPure® (PPn) and PP-Pure® (PPp)
Asahi’s PP-Pure® and PolyPure® pipes are made
out of virgin PP-R raw material on specifically
designated production lines. The manufacturing for the
dimensionals range 20mm to 315mm (1/2” to 12”) in
SDR11 is performed under cleanroom environment,
whereby a laminar flow box class ISO 6 is integrated in
the production line.
Ultra Proline® (E-CTFE)
Asahi’s Ultra Proline® E-CTFE pipes are produced from
virgin E-CTFE raw material. The pipes are available in
two pressure classes. The pressure pipes SDR21 from
20mm to 110mm (1/2” to 4”) and the ventilation pipes
are available in the dimensions 110mm and 160mm (4“
and 6”).
Fitting and Valve Production
Fitting and valve production techniques and facilities
are dependent on the materials to be molded.
Purad® and Ultra Proline® fittings and valves are
produced on dedicated molding machines using virgin
material in a cleanroom class ISO 5 environment.
The material-specific molds are utilized to provide the
required surface quality.
PP-Pure® and PolyPure® fittings and valves are
manufactured out of PP-R raw material in a clean
environment on designated molding equipment.
Machining of injection molded components is necessary
to remove sprues and finish the sealing surfaces on
items such as unions or stub ends.
After machining, all Purad® fittings and valves are
cleaned. The cleaning process is performed in a
cleanroom class ISO 5 environment. The process is fully
automated.
In the cleaning facility, the fittings and valves are
rinsed for a minimum of 60 minutes with UPW (quality:
TOC <10 ppb, conductivity >18 MOhm at an elevated
temperature > 158°F (70°C) ). After drying with hot
clean-air and a 100 percent inspection, the valves are
assembled and all fittings and valves are double packed
under a cleanroom environment class ISO 5.
Figure D-17 . Pipe production
D-27ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSPRODUCTION AND PACKAGING
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Packaging
Packaging of pipes
All Purad® pipes are immediately packaged after
production in a cleanroom environment class ISO
5. Pipes are sealed on both ends with a PE film and
closed with PE caps. The pipe is then sleeved into a PE
bag and heat sealed on both ends. Finally, the packed
pipes are put into rigid PE tubes, which are non-particle
generating and resistant to moisture and impacts of
transport and shipment.
PP-Pure® pipes are packaged immediately after
production under laminar flow box class ISO 5
environment. The pipe ends are capped, sleeved into
a transparent PE bag, and heat sealed on both ends.
Additionally, the pipes are sleeved in a second PE bag
(double packaging), and the bag is heat sealed again on
both sides.
PolyPure® pipes are packaged immediately after
production under laminar flow box class ISO 5
environment. The pipe ends are capped and sleeved
into a transparent PE bag and heat sealed on both ends.
Ultra Proline® pipes are packaged in a clean
environment immediately after production. The pipe
ends are capped and sleeved in transparent PE bags
and heat sealed on both sides. The dimensions, 110mm
(4”) or bigger, are put into a rigid PE protection tube.
Table D-19 . Packaging units for
PP-Pure® and PolyPure®
Figure D-18 . Pipe packaging
Packaging of fittings/valves
Purad®: After production, machining, 100 percent
inspection, and cleaning/rinsing with UPW water, all
fittings/valves are packed in a class ISO 5 cleanroom
area. Fittings are double packed in PE composite bags.
The first bag is purged with nitrogen. Bags are silicone
free and anti-static. Finally, the packed fittings are put in
cardboard boxes for transport.
PP-Pure®: After production and machining of the
injection gates, the fittings/valves are 100 percent
inspected and cleaned/rinsed with UPW water. In a class
ISO 5 cleanroom area, all fittings and valves are purged
with nitrogen and double bagged in PE composite bags.
Bags are silicon free and anti-static.
PolyPure®: After production and machining of the
injection gates, the fittings/valves are 100 percent
inspected and cleaned/rinsed with UPW water. In a
class ISO 5 cleanroom area, all fittings and valves are
single packed in PE composite bags. Bags are silicon
free and anti-static.
The Purad®, PolyPure® and PP-Pure® valves are
cleaned and assembled in a cleanroom class ISO
5 environment as well. To guarantee a 100 percent
leakproof valve, they will be assembled according to the
internal procedures and torque values and kept in the
cleanroom for a minimum of 24 hours. The valves will
be checked again, the bonnet bolts will be retorqued,
and then they will finally be double packaged and put in
cardboard boxes for transport.
Ultra Proline® E-CTFE fittings and valves are single
packed in PE bags only. Fittings and valves are then put
in cardboard boxes for transport purposes.
(mm) (inch)
20 1/2 5
25 3/4 4
32 1 3
40-315 1-1/4 - 12 1
Dimension Quantity
D-28
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRODUCTION AND PACKAGING
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Marking
All Purad® High Purity components are marked
according to ISO 10931. Furthermore, the quality
classification is noted. Protection tubes for high purity
pipes and cardboard boxes for high purity fittings and
valves are also marked with labels containing the
appropriate information.
High Purity PVDF Resin Production
Purad® is exclusively produced from Solvay Solef 1000
Series high purity resin. Solef 1000 series resins use a
suspension production process according to ASTM D
3222, Type II PVDF UHP resin.
The suspension process, as opposed to emulsion
or Type I PVDF, allows the manufacture of polymers
with fewer structural defects in the molecular chain. In
other words, the Purad® polymers are more crystalline.
Thus, the melting temperature and the mechanical
characteristics are higher than homopolymers with the
same average molecular weights obtained by emulsion
polymerization.
The Purad® raw material is packed in specially chosen
packaging material and shipped to AGRU.
The virgin Purad® raw material is manufactured under
clean conditions on specially designated equipment.
Pelletizing and packaging of the materials are performed
under controlled air quality. The raw material provider is
regularly audited and certified Acc. ISO 9001 as well as
ISO 14001.
The importance of exclusively using Solef PVDF ultra
high purity resin is three-fold:
• It provides a consistently clean, mechanically
superior system
• It provides superior welding/joining capabilities as
nature and molt flow indices of all components are
as close as possible
• Identical color index
Figure D-20 .
Figure D-21 . Fitting packaging
Figure D-22 . Fitting production
D-29ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSPRODUCT AND PACKAGING
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
Transport and Handling
At the transport and handling of pipes and fittings, the
following guidelines have to be observed in order to
avoid damages:
• Transport and support pipes on the full length; that
means do not bend or deform them. Take pipes/
fittings carefully from the transport vehicle. Do not
throw items.
• Protect from damage through nails, rivets, etc. that
may occur on the loading area.
• Impact and bending stresses at temperatures
< 32°F (0°C) have to be avoided.
• Damages to the surface (scratches, marks, etc.),
will occur from the dragging of pipes. This must be
avoided.
Storage
At the storage of pipes and fittings, the following
regulations have to be observed in order to avoid any
quality decrease:
• The storage area has to be even and free from
waste, stones, screws, nails, moisture, and any
other conditions that may damage the pipe/fitting/
valve.
• For the piling of pipes, storage heights of 1m (3 ft)
may not be exceeded. In order to avoid the pipes
rolling away, wooden wedges have to be situated at
the outside pipes. Smaller and lighter pipes should
be stored on top of bigger sizes.
• Pipes have to be stored flat, without bending stress,
and in a wooden frame if possible. Pipes should be
stored inside the protection tube and capped.
• Natural and grey colored products have to be
protected against UV radiation at outdoor storage
areas. In general, Asahi does not recommend
storing Purad® products in outdoor areas.
• Cardboard boxes from fittings and/or valves should
be removed prior to processing only.
• Used pipes should be cleaned and completely
packed under a clean room condition before taking
them to stock for further usage.
• Waste disposal of protection tube, cardboard boxes,
and protection foil must be done in a proper manner
and/or according to national guidelines.
Additionally, the special types of PPR-s-ep and PE-el
suffer the danger of absorption of humidity at a storage
period above 12 months. It is recommended to check
the usability of the material by means of a welding test.
Figure D-28 . Pipe stock
Figure D-29 . Vertical pipe stock for big dimensions
Figure D-30 . Fitting storage area
D-30
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
INSTALLATION
General Installation Guidelines
Due to the lower stiffness and rigidity as well as the
potential length expansions (caused by changes in
temperature) of thermoplastics in comparison with
metallic materials, the requirements for the fixing of
piping elements should be met.
Onlaying of pipes above ground expansion and
contractions of pipes in both radial and axial directions
must not be hindered; this means installation with radial
clearance, position of compensation facilities, and
control of changes in length by reasonable arrangement
of fixed points.
Attachments have to be calculated to avoid pinpoint
stresses, meaning the bearing areas have to be as
wide as possible and adapted to the outside diameter if
possible, the enclosing angle has to be chosen > 90°.
The surface qualities of the attachments should help to
avoid mechanical damage to the pipe surface.
Valves, and, in certain cases, tees, should essentially
be installed on a piping system as fixed points. Valve
constructions with the attachment devices integrated
within the valve body are most advantageous.
Installation by Means of Pipe Clips
Attachments made of either steel or thermoplastics are
available for plastic pipes. Steel clips have to be lined
with tapes made of PE or elastomers, otherwise the
surface of the plastics pipe may be damaged. AGRU
plastics pipe clips as well as pipe holders are suitable for
installation. These may be commonly applied and have
especially been adjusted to the tolerances of the plastics
pipes.
Therefore, they serve as sliding bearing at horizontally
installed piping systems in order to take up vertical
stresses. A further application range of the AGRU pipe
clip is the function as guiding bearing which should
hinder a lateral buckling of the piping system as it can
also absorb transversal stresses.
It is recommended, for smaller pipe diameters
( of the piping system in order to enlarge the support
distances.
Figure D-23 . Pipe support with steel half shell
Pipe sizes OD63-315mm should be supported by
means of pipe clips, which do not fix the pipe in an axial
direction.
Figure D-24 . Pipe clip support
For fixed points (anchors) in the piping system, restraint
fittings should be utilized together with suitable pipe
clips.
The restrained fittings will prevent movement in the axial
direction, but will provide the required flexibility in the
radial direction and provide a stress-free application.
Figure D-25. Anchor and restraint fitting support
Hanger Types
When selecting hangers for a system, it is important to
avoid using a hanger that will place a pinpoint load on
D-31ASAHI/AMERICARev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTSINSTALLATION
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
the pipe when tightened. For example, a U-bolt hanger
is not recommended for thermoplastic piping.
Figure D-26 . Effects of U-bolt on pipe
Hangers that secure the pipe 360° around the pipe are
preferred. Thermoplastic clamps are also recommended
over metal clamps, as they are less likely to scratch
the pipe in the event of movement. If metal clamps
are specified for the project, they should be inspected
for rough edges that could damage the pipe. Ideally, if
a metal clamp is being used, an elastomeric material
should be used in between the pipe and the clamp. This
is a must for PVDF and E-CTFE systems, which are
less tolerant to scratching. The figure below illustrates a
recommended hanger type.
Figure D-27 . Recommended clamp
Pressure point
Pressure point
D-32
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
D
SYSTEM CHARTS PRODUCTION AND PACKAGING
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Section E
GENERAL INSTALLATION
PRACTICES
Contents
Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Butt/IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-5
Electrofusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-14
Hot Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-15
Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-18
Mechanical Connections . . . . . . . . E-20
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-1
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
BENDING
Pipe Bending
Many thermoplastic piping systems can be bent to
reduce the usage of fittings. Pipe bending procedures
are dependent on the intended radius, material, and
size and wall thickness of the pipe. Consult with
Asahi/America for procedural recommendations.
Polypropylene and HDPE can be bent in the field, but
bending PVDF is not recommended.
Figure E-1 . Asahi/America pipe allowable bend
SOCKET
Socket Fusion
In socket welding, the pipe end and socket fittings are
heated to welding temperature by means of a socket
and spigot heater inserts. Socket welding may be
manually performed on pipe diameters up to 2” (63 mm).
Sizes above that require a bench socket tool due to the
required joining forces. In sizes greater than 1”, a bench
style machine may be preferred for ease of operation.
E
BENDING
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-2
Welding Temperature
The recommended welding temperature for PPH, PPR,
PE-HD, and PVDF is between 482°F and 518°F (250°C
and 270°C).
Welding Parameters
Table E-1 below can be used as a reference when
socket welding PP and PE-HD pipes and fittings at
an outside temperature of about 68°F (20°C) with low
air-speed rates.
C
L
OD
Rb Di a 90
Table E-1 . Welding Parameters
Pipe Size
(inches)
A
Heat Soak Time
(sec)
B
Adjusting Time
(sec)
C
Cooling Time
(min)
1/2 5 4 2
3/4 7 4 2
1 8 6 4
1-1/4 12 6 4
1-1/2 18 6 4
2 24 8 6
2-1/2 30 8 6
3 40 8 6
4 50 10 8
GENERAL INSTALLATION
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Welding Process
Hand-Held Socket Fusion
Once the heating element is warmed to the proper
temperature, welding proceeds as follows:
1. Follow the welding parameters provided with
Asahi/America’s socket welding equipment.
2. Follow these steps:
a. Cut the pipe faces at right angles, and remove
burrs using a deburring tool.
b. PE & PP pipe require scraping according to DUS
guidelines using Asahi P.R.E.P. tools to remove
oxidation
c. Clean the pipe and fittings with lint free paper
and cleansing agents (isopropyl alcohol or
similar).
d. Mark the socket depth with a scraper knife or
marker on the pipe to ensure proper insertion
depth of the pipe during welding.
e. Thoroughly clean heater inserts before each
weld.
3. Quickly push pipe and fittings in an axial direction
into heater inserts until the pipe bottoms (or meets
the marking). Avoid twisting while heating. Hold in
place for the heat soak time (column A).
4. After the heat soak time, remove the fitting and pipe
from the heating element and immediately push
them together within the changeover time (column
B), without twisting them, until both welding beads
meet. The changeover time is the maximum period
of time between the removal from the heating
element and the final settings of the components.
5. Components should be held together and allowed
to cool, per the specified cool-down time, prior to
stressing the joint.
Visual Inspection
During the final joining step, it is important that the bead
formed on the pipe meets the bead on the fitting. If the
beads do not meet, a small gap will be present. Welds
that have a gap between the fusion beads should be
cut and rewelded (see Figure E-3). The bead on the
pipe should be uniform around 360° of the pipe. Beads
that vary in size or disappear altogether are a sign of
improper heating and/or joining.
E
GENERAL INSTALLATIONSOCKET
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-3
Figure E-2 . Socket Fusion Welding Process
Figure E-3 . Socket fusion welding samples
Table E-2 . Sample Welding Data (time-sec)
Coupling
Heater
Heater Inserts
Preparation of the Weld
Alignment and Preheat
Joining and Cooling
Pipe
Good Socket Weld Bad Socket Weld
No GapNo Gap Gap
Pipe Size A B C
(inches) Heat Soak Time Change Overtime Cooling Time
1" Pro 150 8 6 240
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Performing of Pressure Test
Before pressure testing, all welding joints have to be
completely cooled down (as a rule, one hour after
the last welding process). The pressure test has to
be performed according to the relevant standard
regulations. The piping system has to be protected
against changes of the ambient temperature (UV
radiation).
Devices for heating element socket welding are used
in workshops as well as at building sites. As singlepurpose machines, they should allow for a maximum
degree of mechanization of the welding process.
Clamping Devices
Marks on work piece surfaces that are caused by special
clamping devices for pipe components must not affect
the mechanical properties of the finished connection.
Guide Elements
Together with clamping devices and a heating element,
the guide elements have to ensure that the joining parts
are guided centrically to the heating element and to
each other. If necessary, an adjusting mechanism can
be provided.
E
GENERAL INSTALLATION SOCKET
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-4
Machine Design and Safety in Use
In addition to meeting the above requirements for
construction and design, the following points should be
considered for the machine design:
• Stable construction
• Universal basic construction (swivelling or retractable
auxiliary tools and clamps)
• Quick clamping device
• Maximum degree of mechanization (reproducible
welding process)
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BUTT/IR
Butt Fusion (for single wall piping systems)
The butt fusion of PP, HDPE, PVDF, and E-CTFE is
accomplished with Asahi/America’s recommended butt
fusion welding equipment. Asahi/America provides
welding equipment to handle all diameter sizes offered
and has an extensive line of equipment available to buy
or rent for every application.
The principle of butt fusion is to heat two surfaces
at the melt temperature, make contact between the
two surfaces, and then allow the two surfaces to fuse
together by application of force. The force causes the
flow of the melted materials to join. Upon cooling, the
two parts are united. Nothing is added or changed
chemically between the two components being joined.
Butt fusion does not require solvents or glue to join
material.
Butt fusion is recognized as the industry standard,
providing high integrity and reliability. It does not
require couplings or added material. The procedure,
recommended by Asahi/America, conforms to ASTM
D-2857 for Joining Practices of Polyolefin Materials and
the recommended practices of the ASME B 31.3 Code.
Welding Process
Once the pipes or fittings have been secured in the
proper welding equipment, as well as aligned and
planed with the facing tool (planer), and the heating
element is warmed to the proper temperature, welding
proceeds as follows:
1. Follow the welding parameters (temperature, time,
and force) provided with Asahi/America’s butt fusion
equipment (see sample welding data in Table E-4).
2. Insert the heating element between secured pipes
or fittings, making sure full contact is made around
surfaces.
3. Apply full welding pressure, as shown in (Column
A), until a maximum 1/64” ridge of melted material
is present around the outside circumference of both
pipes or fittings. This indicates that proper melt flow
has been accomplished and further guarantees two
parallel surfaces.
4. Reduce the pressure to the recommended
melt pressure (Column B), and begin timing for
recommended heat soak time (Column C).
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONBUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-5
5. At the end of the heat soak time, in a quick and
smooth motion, separate the pipe fitting from the
heating element, and then apply weld pressure
(Column E). It is important to gradually increase
pressure to achieve welding pressure. The weld
must be performed within the allowable changeover
time (Column D). Changeover time is the maximum
period of time when either the pipes or fittings can
be separated from the heating element, yet still retain
sufficient heat for fusion. Bring the melted end
together to its welding pressure.
6. The heat soak time may need to be increased
in cold or windy environments. Several practice
welds should be conducted at the installation site
to ensure that welding can be performed, as a
test of conditions. Consult Asahi/America for any
modification of weld parameters.
7. A visual inspection must be performed as well. After
joining, a bead surrounding the whole circumference
will have been created. A good weld will have two
symmetrical beads on both the pipe and fittings that
are almost equally sized and have a smooth surface.
8. Allow components to cool to the touch or until a
fingernail cannot penetrate the bead. This is
recommended in ASTM D-2857, Section 9. The
pipes or fittings may be removed from the welding
equipment at the completion of the specified cooling
time.
9. Do not put components under stress or conduct a
pressure test until complete cooling time (Column F)
has been achieved.
Table E-4 . Sample Welding Data (time-sec, pressure-psi)
Pipe Size A B C
(inches) Initial Melt Pressure Melt Pressure Heat Soak Time
2" Pro 150 23 2 60
Pipe Size D E F
(inches) Change Overtime Welding Pressure Cooling Time
2" Pro 150 5 23 420
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Figure E-4 . Butt fusion welding process
Figure E-5 . Butt fusion welding example
Butt Fusion (for double wall piping
systems)
Installation of Duo-Pro®, Chem Prolok™, Fluid-Lok®, and
Poly-Flo® piping systems involves the use of thermal
butt fusion for both the carrier and containment piping.
Depending on the system design, the size, material,
and layout will determine the required equipment.
Asahi/America offers all of the necessary sizes and
styles of equipment for any installation type.
Systems that are fully restrained and consist of the same
carrier and containment materials can take advantage
of the simultaneous butt fusion method. Simultaneous
fusion allows for the quickest and easiest installation
by conducting the inner and outer weld at once. For
Duo-Pro® designs that consist of dissimilar materials or
require the inner (carrier) piping to be loose for thermal
expansion, use the staggered welding procedure.
E
GENERAL INSTALLATION BUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-6
Staggered welding consists of welding the inner carrier
pipe first and the containment piping second. Finally, if a
leak detection cable system is required, special heating
elements or procedures are provided to accommodate
for pull ropes.
The basic installation techniques for double containment
piping systems follow the principles that apply to
ordinary plastic piping applications.
Simultaneous Butt Fusion Method
The object of simultaneous fusion is to prepare both
the carrier and containment pipe so that both pipes are
fixed to each other and therefore can be welded at the
same time. In some systems, such as Asahi/America’s
Fluid-Lok® and Poly-Flo®, only simultaneous fusion can
be performed due to their design. The net result of the
simultaneous method is a substantial reduction of labor
and equipment requirements.
As previously discussed, simultaneous fusion is only
applicable for welding installations that have the
same carrier and containment material. In addition,
simultaneous fusion is used for systems that are
completely restrained. Prior to using the simultaneous
method, an analysis based on operating conditions
is required in order to determine the suitability
of a restrained design. Contact Asahi/America’s
Engineering Department for assistance.
Equipment
For simultaneous welding, standard butt fusion
equipment used for single wall systems is used. No
special heating elements are required. For Duo-Pro®
and Fluid-Lok® systems, hot air or extrusion welding
equipment is necessary to weld the support discs and
spider clips to the pipes. Hot air welding is not used for
any pressure rated components.
Fittings
Fittings used for simultaneous fusion are either molded
or prefabricated at the factory with the necessary
support discs. Prefabricated fittings greatly reduce the
amount of hot air welding required in the field and,
in turn, reduce labor time. If an installation is pipeintensive, labor costs may be reduced by ordering
prefabricated pipe spools in longer dimensions.
Heater
Start of Heating
Heat Soak Time
Joining and Cooling
PipePipe
Molten End Molten End
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Welding Procedure
The welding theory for double containment is the same
as for single wall pipe. Asahi/America has developed
welding tables for the appropriate heating times and
forces for simultaneous fusion. The following procedure
outlines the necessary steps for simultaneous fusion.
Double Wall Pipe Assembly
Pipes and fittings in a simultaneous double wall system
from Asahi/America are always prefabricated at the
factory and supplied to a job-site ready for butt fusion.
However, when varying lengths are required, in-thefield assembly is necessary. In staggered welding
systems, pipe and fitting assembly is common. The
basic procedure for properly assembling Duo-Pro® and
Fluid-Lok® components is outlined below.
In double containment piping assembly, proficiency in
hand and extrusion welding procedures is necessary.
1. A good weld requires proper preparation of
the material. The pipe should be free of any
impurities, such as dirt, oil, etc. Additionally, some
thermoplastics develop a thin layer of oxidized
molecules on the surface that require scraping or
grounding of the material. Another effect, especially
with HDPE, is the migration of unchained lower
density molecules to the surface caused by internal
pressure of the material. This gives the usually
“waxy” surface appearance of HDPE. Grinding or
scraping is required. Wipe off any dust with a clean
cloth. Do not use solvents or cleaners; they introduce
chemicals with unknown and likely negative effects.
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONBUTT/IR
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Rev. 2013-A E-7
2. Using Table E-5, place the molded or fabricated
support spider clips, with tops aligned, on the carrier
pipe, and then hot gas (PP) or extrusion weld
(HDPE) the clips into place, as shown in Figure F-6.
Use the required amount of clips on the full lengths
of the carrier pipe.
Figure E-6 . Spider clip attached to carrier pipe
3. Insert carrier pipe into containment pipe. Be sure the
two pipes have been stored in the same environment
for equal expansion or contraction to occur before
welding end centralizers into place.
Figure E-7 . Carrier pipe and spider clips inserted
into containment pipe
4. For simultaneous welding, end centralizers, known
as support discs, are hot air or extrusion welded to
the carrier and containment pipes. This prevents any
movement of the carrier pipe during the butt fusion
process. The alignment must match that of the spider
supports for the installation of leak detection cables,
as well as for leak flow. In fitting assemblies, install
end centralizers only. All centralizers are installed
approximately 1” from the ends using a 4mm welding
rod.
Carrier Pro 150 Pro 45 PVDF Halar HDPE 11 HDPE 17 HDPE 32
1" 42 NA 42 44 30 NA NA
2" 54 NA 54 59 42 36 NA
3" 66 NA 66 69 48 42 36
4" 72 42 72 72 54 48 42
6" 84 48 84 NA 66 60 54
8" 90 48 90 NA 78 72 60
10" 102 54 102 NA 84 78 66
12" 114 60 114 NA 96 84 72
14" 120 66 NA NA 102 90 78
16" 126 72 NA NA 108 96 84
18" 138 78 NA NA 114 102 90
20" NA 78 NA NA 120 108 96
NOTE: At 68ºF (See Appendix A for temperature deratings.
Table E-5 . Double Containment Internal Support
Spacing (inches)
SPIDER CLIP
CONTAINMENT PIPE
SPIDER CLIP
TACK AND WELD
HOT GAS PP
EXTRUSION HDPE
TACK AND WELD
HOT GAS PP
EXTRUSION HDPE
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Figure E-8 . Support disc attached to carrier and
containment pipes
5. The pipe and fitting with support discs are now ready
for simultaneous butt fusion using the recommended
ASTM D-2857 joining practices.
Butt Fusion Procedure for Double Wall Pipe
Without Leak Detection Cable Systems
Simultaneous fusion as outlined below is ideal for:
• Duo-Pro® systems made of similar carrier and
containment material
• Fluid-Lok® HDPE systems
• Restrained double wall systems only
• All Poly-Flo® systems
Fusing Duo-Pro® and Fluid-Lok® is accomplished with
Asahi/America’s recommended butt fusion welding
equipment. Asahi/America provides welding equipment
to handle all diameters and system configurations.
Equipment is available for rental or purchase.
The principle of butt fusion is to heat two surfaces
at a fusion temperature, make contact between the
two surfaces, and then allow the two surfaces to fuse
together by application of force. After cooling, the
original interfaces are gone and the two parts are united.
Nothing is added or changed chemically between the
two pieces being joined.
Butt fusion is recognized in the industry as a costeffective joining method of very high integrity and
reliability. The procedure, recommended by Asahi/
America, conforms to ASTM D-2857 for Joining
Practices of Polyolefin Materials and the recommended
practices of the ASME B 31.3 Code (Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Piping).
E
GENERAL INSTALLATION BUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-8
The procedure is outlined as follows: Once the pipes
or fittings have been secured in the proper welding
equipment with the tops and annular space aligned,
and the heating element is warmed to the proper
temperature, welding should proceed as follows:
1. Follow the welding parameters provided with
Asahi/America butt fusion equipment (see sample
welding data in Table E-6).
Table E-6 . Sample Welding Data (time-sec, pressure-psi)
2. To ensure that the carrier pipe is planed and flush
with the containment pipe, put four marks on the
end of the carrier pipe at three, six, nine, and twelve
o’clock prior to planing. If the outer pipe is completely
planed and the marks on the carrier have been
removed, planing is complete. With experience,
visual inspection can determine that the planing
process is complete. Remove all shavings, and
recheck alignment. For Poly-Flo®, the pipes should
be installed in the machines so that the ribs do not
align, thereby allowing any fluid to flow to the low
point of the annular space in the event of a leak.
Figure E-9. Plane carrier pipe flush with containment
pipe
3. Insert a heating element between secured pipes
or fittings, making sure full contact is made around
surfaces.
Pipe Size A B C
(inches) Initial Melt Pressure Melt Pressure Heat Soak Time
2" x 4" 49 5 60
Pipe Size D E F
(inches) Change Overtime Welding Pressure Cooling Time
2" x 4" 4 49 420
PLANING UNIT
INSTALL CUTOUT AND CENTER LEG
OF SPIDER CLIP AT TOP SUPPORT DISC CENTRALIZER
ANNULAR SPACE
FOR LEAK DETECTION TACK AND WELD HOT GAS PP, EXTRUSION HDPE
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Figure E-10 . Insert heating element between pipe
ends
4. Apply full welding pressure (as shown in Table E-6,
Column E) until a maximum 1/64” ridge of melted
material is noticed around the outside circumference
of the components. This indicates that proper melt
flow has been accomplished and further guarantees
two parallel surfaces.
Figure E-11 . Apply welding pressure to the heating
element
5. Reduce the pressure to the recommended melt
pressure (Column B), and begin timing for the
recommended heat soak time (Column C).
6. At the end of the heat soak time, in a quick and
smooth motion, separate either the pipes or fittings,
remove the heating element, and then apply weld
pressure (Column E). It is important to gradually
increase pressure to achieve welding pressure in
Column E. The weld must be performed within the
allowable changeover time (Column D). Changeover
time is the maximum period of time when either
the pipes or fittings can be separated from the
heating element, yet still retain sufficient heat for
fusion. Bring the melted ends together to its welding
pressure.
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONBUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-9
Figure E-12 . Bring pipe ends together, and apply
welding pressure
7. The heat soak time should be increased if the
environment is cold or windy or if either the pipes
or fittings are cold. As a test of environmental
conditions, several practice welds should be done
at the installation site to ensure that welding can
be performed. Consult with Asahi/America for
recommendations on cold weather welding.
8. A visual inspection must be performed as well. After
joining, a bead surrounding the whole circumference
will have been created. A good weld will have a
symmetrical bead on both pipes or fittings and a
smooth surface.
Figure E-13 . Visual inspection of welds
9. Allow components to cool to the touch or until
a fingernail cannot penetrate the bead. This is
recommended in ASTM D-2857, Section 9. The
pipes or fittings may be removed from the welding
equipment at this time.
10. Do not put pipe or fittings under any type of stress
or conduct a pressure test until the complete cooling
time (Column F) has been achieved.
HEATER PLATE
CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT SOAK CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT SOAK
WELD PRESSURE WELD PRESSURE
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Butt Fusion Procedure for Double Wall Pipe
With Leak Detection Cable Systems
This method is available for the following systems:
• Duo-Pro® made of similar material on the carrier and
containment
• Fluid-Lok® HDPE system
• Restrained systems only
Asahi/America split-leak detection heating elements
allow both the carrier and containment pipes to be
welded simultaneously, with a pull cable in place. The
mirror design, as shown in Figure E-14, is capable of
splitting apart and wrapping around a wire. The small
hole centered at the bottom of the heater allows a pull
wire to be in place during the fusion process. Once the
pipe is heated, the heating element is split apart and
removed, leaving the wire in place for the final pipe
joining.
Figure E-14 . Split heating elements for leak
detection systems
A short piece of wire is attached to the pull rope on both
ends after planing. The wire runs through the heater
during welding in order to prevent the damaging or
melting of the pull rope (see Figures E-15 to E-18). After
each section is complete, the wire is pulled down to the
next joint to be welded. The installation of the pull rope
is at the six o’clock position. A continuous pull rope, free
from knots and splices, should be pulled through as the
system is assembled.
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GENERAL INSTALLATION BUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-10
Figure E-16 . Pull rope connected by wire through
heating element
Figure E-17 . Pipe ends heated with pull rope
installed
Figure E-18 . Welding complete with pull rope
installed
Follow the standard butt fusion procedure for welding.
Other methods for welding with a solid heating element
are available that will accommodate a leak detection
cable system.
CLOSED OPEN
PLANING UNIT
LEAK DETECTION PULL ROPE
HEATER PLATE
PULL ROPE CONNECTED BY WIRE
SPLIT HEATING MIRROR
CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT SOAK CONSTANT PRESSURE HEAT SOAK
PULL ROPE CONNECTED BY WIRE
SPLIT HEATING MIRROR
SYMMETRICAL BEAD ON
OUTER AND INNER WALLS
WELD PRESSURE WELD PRESSURE
SYMMETRICAL BEAD
Figure E-15 . Planing ends with pull rope installed
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Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Staggered Butt Fusion Method
Using the staggered fusion procedure to assemble
a Duo-Pro® system is more complicated and laborintensive than simultaneous fusion. However, it offers
the ability to install a double containment system
with a flexible inner pipe or with different carrier and
containment materials. Asahi/America provides all of the
necessary equipment for this welding method.
In staggered welding, the carrier pipe is welded first,
followed by the containment pipe. In a staggered
system, there are no end support discs. This allows for
the movement of the carrier components. It is important
to plan which welds will be made and in what order.
Enough flexibility is required to move the inner pipe out
from the outer pipe to perform a carrier weld.
In long, straight runs, the procedure is simple, due to
significant carrier pipe movement. In systems that are
fitting-intensive, the procedure becomes more difficult
because the pipe movement is limited to the amount
of annular space between the carrier and containment
fittings (see Figure E-19).
Welding Procedure
1. Begin by attaching spider clips to the carrier pipe
(follow steps in double wall pipe assemblies).
2. Insert carrier pipe or fittings into the appropriate
containment line. At the start of a system, it may
be easier to weld the carrier first and then slide the
containment pipe over the carrier pipe. However, as
the installation moves along, this will not be possible.
Note: If containment piping has been roughly cut,
make sure to plane it prior to welding the carrier
pipe. Once the carrier is welded, the containment
pipe cannot be planed.
3. In the machine, use the two innermost clamps to
hold the carrier pipe for welding. Use the outer
clamps to hold the containment pipe in place. In
cases where movement is limited, fitting clamps will
be necessary to hold the carrier pipe.
4. Once all of the pieces are locked in place, weld the
carrier pipe using standard butt fusion techniques
see Figures E-19 A and E-19 B).
5. Once the carrier weld is complete, remove the inner
clamps and pull the containment pipe together for
welding (see Figures E-19 C and E-19 D). At this
point, switch all clamps to containment sizing. It may
E
GENERAL INSTALLATIONBUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-11
be preferable to use two machines to eliminate the
constant changing of clamps. Also, in some designs,
two machines may be required to weld the two
different diameter pipes.
6. To weld the containment pipe, a split annular mirror
is required (see Figure E-19 F). The mirror is hinged
to let it wrap around the carrier pipe while welding
the containment pipe.
7. It is important to ensure that the mirror is properly
centered so it does not rest on and melt the carrier
pipe.
8. Once the mirror is in place, the welding procedure is
the same as standard single wall butt fusion.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
A . Cut carrier and containment pipes to length L
B . Pull carrier elbow out of containment elbow and
weld to carrier pipe
C . Weld containment elbow to containment pipe
D . Flex carrier elbow and pipe toward tee and weld
to carrier tee pipe
E . Weld containment pipe to containment tee
F . Annular heating element
Figure E-19 . Staggered butt fusion
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GENERAL INSTALLATION BUTT/IR
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-12
Helpful Hints
• When welding PVDF and Halar®, move swiftly while
removing the mirror and joining the pipes. Delayed
reaction will cause the material to cool and a “cold
weld” to form. PVDF and Halar® cool off more quickly
than polypropylene.
• Always plan welding so the longest and heaviest
section of pipe is positioned on the stationary side of
the welding machine.
• Start at one end, and work to the other end of the
pipe system. Do not start on two different ends and
meet in the middle. Moving the pipe for welding will
be extremely difficult or impossible.
• When planing, long strips indicate that you are flush
all the way around.
• Consult the factory for a proper equipment
recommendation for the system being installed.
• Machines are extremely adaptable and can be
positioned in many ways to accommodate difficult
welds.
Closed Open
L
IR Fusion
Improving upon conventional butt fusion, IR welding
uses a non-contact method. IR welding uses the critical
welding parameters of heat soak time, changeover time,
and joining force as found with butt fusion. However,
by avoiding direct contact with the heating element, IR
fusion produces a cleaner weld with more repeatable
and smaller bead sizes. The end result is a superior
weld for high purity applications.
The graph in Figure E-21 outlines the forces applied
during the non-contact joining process. Notice that the
ramp-up force to full joining pressure is a smooth curve
where force is gradually ascending over time. Even
force build-up is critical to join material without creating a
cold joint.
Welding Process
Material is prepared for IR fusion by creating smooth,
arid, and level surfaces among the ends to be joined.
Butting the material against an internal planer acts as a
centering and leveling device. The planer is then used
to cut a clean and smooth surface. The material should
then be checked for vertical and horizontal alignment.
Welding machines should allow for minor adjustments to
the vertical and horizontal orientation of the material.
Once alignment has been verified, the material is heated
by close proximity to the heating source. Through
radiant heat and proper heat soak time, the material
becomes molten to allow physical bonding between the
two pieces. After the heating source has been removed,
the material should be joined together in a steady
manner, slowly ramping up the force until the desired
joining force has been achieved.
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONBUTT/IR
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Rev. 2013-A E-13
Ramping up and monitoring the force is critical for
repeatable and successful IR welding. This ensures
that the molten material has joined at the right force and
prevents against cold welds, which are caused by the
molten material being overly pushed to the inside and
outside of the weld zone.
Heater
Start of Heating
Heat Soak Time
Joining and Cooling
PipePipe
Molten End Molten End
Figure E-20 . IR fusion welding process
Welding Temperature
Alignment Jointing
Pressure
Pressure
Pressure
Welding Time
Time
Pressure/Temperature
Total Joining Time
Heat Soak Time
Adjusting Time
Joining Time
Cooling Time
Temperature
Figure E-21 . IR fusion timing diagram
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ELECTROFUSION
Electrofusion Welding
Electrofusion is a simplified and safe method of joining
pipe and/or fittings based on melting the outer surface
of the pipe and the inner surface of the electrofusion
coupling by using an integral electric wire. Electrofusion
is a cost-effective method for joining polypropylene and
HDPE pipe. As an alternative to butt fusion, electrofusion
can be used for repairs, double containment assembly,
and difficult connections in tight quarters.
Welding Equipment
The Asahi electrofusion equipment performs the welding
for all of Asahi/America’s electro fittings. The control box
has a computerized command system for fully automatic
control and energy supply monitoring. Each fitting has a
bar code label, which contains the information needed
for correct fusion. The welding time is preprogrammed
at the factory and set by the use of the bar code. Simply
scan the bar code to set up the machine for material to
be joined.
Preparation Before Welding
Cut pipe at right angles, and mark the insert length
(insert length = socket length/2). For successful welding,
it is essential to clean and scrape the surface of the
parts to be joined. In addition, cuts must be straight to
ensure proper insertion into the coupling. Scraping must
be done using a proper hand-operated or mechanical
scraper. Do not use tools such as rasp, emery paper, or
sand paper.
Slide the socket on the prepared end of pipe right to
its center stop until it reaches the marking. Insert the
second pipe end (or fitting) into the socket, and clamp
both pipes into the holding device. The clamping device
protects the components from being pushed out during
fusion.
Figure E-22 . Electrofusion welding setup
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GENERAL INSTALLATION ELECTROFUSION
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Rev. 2013-AE-14
Welding Procedure
Observe the operating instructions for the welding
device, as individual tools may vary. Plug-type socket
connections should be turned upward and then
connected with the cable.
After the welding equipment has been properly
connected, the welding parameters are input by means
of the bar code reader. An audio signal will acknowledge
the data input.
Figure E-23 . Initial heating occurs in coupling
Pressing the start key initiates the welding process. The
time on the display is also programmed into the machine
and allows the correct heating time for various pipe
sizes.
Figure E-24 . Molton material from both coupling and
pipes form weld
Figure E-25 . Completed electrofusion weld
The electric wire heats and melts
the surrounding material.
Clamp
Socket Coupling
Pipe
Surrounded Material
Plug Type Socket Connection
The molten area increases and heat is
transfered to the surface of the pipe,
which in turn begins to melt.
Heated Area
Molten Material
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During the welding process (including the cooling time),
the clamping device should remain in place. The end of
the welding process is indicated by an audio signal.
The welding indicator on the socket performs visual
control.
Before pressure testing, all welded joints must have
completely cooled down based on the welding
parameters provided with the equipment. The pressure
test must be performed according to recommended
procedures.
HOT AIR
Welding Method
Hot air (gas) welding is the process of fusing a bead of
material against a like material. This welding is common
with sheet fabrication and applications not requiring
pressure resistance. Asahi/America uses hot air (gas)
welding to locate support discs for pipe centering in its
Duo-Pro® system.
In hot air (gas) welding, the heat transfer medium is a
heated gas, either nitrogen or clean air. Originally, the
use of nitrogen proved most successful, preventing
material contamination and oxidation. With today’s
material quality and equipment technology, nitrogen is
becoming less common, except with critical materials.
The combination of clean, oil and moisture-free air with
the controlled temperature proves equally successful,
eliminating the continuous expense of the inert gas.
The temperature of the hot air ranges between 572°F
and 662°F (300°C and 350°C) for HDPE and 536°F to
626°F (280°C to 330°C) for PP, when outside welding
conditions are about 68°F (20°C). The temperature
range will vary with changing ambient conditions.
To accomplish high-quality welds, it is important that the
fillers (welding rod) are of the same material and type.
The most common welding fillers are 3mm and 4mm
round. There are also special profiles, such as oval and
triangular rods. The welding tip used must also match
the cross section of the welding rod.
Qualification of Welder and Requirements
on Welding Devices
The plastics welder must have obtained the knowledge
and skill required for the performance of welding
processes. As a rule, this would mean that he is a
qualified plastics worker and welder who continuously
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONHOT AIR
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Rev. 2013-A E-15
practices or displays long-time experience. Hot gas
welding machines have to comply with the requirements,
according to guideline DVS 2208, part 2.
Welding of E-CTFE
The choice of gas is a very important factor in E-CTFE
welding. It is not necessary to use nitrogen in E-CTFE
welding; good quality E-CTFE welds can be obtained
when a clean and dry source of air is used. Welding in
nitrogen is recommended only when the welding facility
lacks a clean and dry source of air.
Safety Precautions for E-CTFE
When welding E-CTFE, melt temperatures of > 572°F
(300°C) release hydrogen chloride and hydrofluorics.
They could be toxic at higher concentrations and
should not be breathed in. The recommended load
limit, according to TWA, is 5ppm for HCI and 3ppm for
HF. If E-CTFE vapors are inhaled, the person should
be brought out into fresh air, and medical aid should
be requested immediately, as there is a danger of
polymer fever. The following safety measures should be
considered:
• Have good ventilation in the workplace (or use
breathing protection)
• Use eye protection
• Use hand protection
Air Supply
For hot gas welding, air is normally supplied by a
compressed air network, compressor, pressure gas
bottle, or ventilator. The air supplied has to be clean and
free of water and oil to avoid decreases in the quality
of the welding seam and the lifetime of the welding
devices. Therefore, adequate oil and water separators
have to be used. The air volume supplied to the device
has to be adjustable and maintained constantly, as it is
a main factor influencing the temperature control of the
device.
Welding Devices (with built-in ventilator)
The devices are comprised of a handle, a builtin ventilator, heating, a nozzle, and an electrical
connecting cable. Due to their construction features,
they can be used at sites where an external air supply
is not available. On account of their dimensions and
weight, they are less suitable for longer lasting welding
processes.
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Requirements for Design
The ventilator has to supply the quantity of air required
for welding various types of plastics to all nozzles (see
DIN 16 960, part 1). The electrical circuit has to ensure
that the heating is only turned on when the ventilator is
operating. The noise level of the ventilator has to comply
with the relevant stipulations.
Safety Requirements
The nozzles used for the particular devices have to be
securely fastened and easily exchangeable, even when
heated. The material must be corrosion-proof and of low
scaling. In order to prevent heat from dissipating, the
surface of the nozzle has to be as smooth as possible,
(e.g. polished). For reducing friction, the inner surface of
the slide rail of the drawing nozzle has to be polished.
The same applies to the sliding surfaces of tacking
nozzles. In order to avoid strong air vortex at the outlet
of the nozzle, the round nozzles have to be straight for
at least 5 x d (d = outlet diameter of the nozzle) in front
of the outlet.
Preparations for Welding
Before starting the welding process, check the heated
air temperature adjusted on the welding machine.
Measurement is performed by means of a control
thermocouple, inserted approximately 5 mm into the
nozzle, and with rod-drawing nozzles in the opening of
the main nozzle. The diameter of the thermocouple must
not exceed 1 mm. Air quantity is measured by means
of a flow control instrument before the air stream enters
into the welding machine.
Processing Guidelines
Install welding tent or equivalent if weather conditions
suggest. A good weld requires proper preparation of
the material. The part should be free of any impurities
such as dirt, oil, etc. Additionally, some thermoplastics
develop a thin layer of oxidized molecules on the
surface that require scraping or grounding of the
material. Another effect, especially with HDPE, is the
migration of unchained lower density molecules to the
surface caused by internal pressure of the material. This
gives the usually “waxy” surface appearance of HDPE.
Grinding or scraping of the surface is required. Wipe
off any dust with a clean cloth. Do not use solvents or
cleaners; they introduce chemicals with unknown and
likely negative effects.
The forms of the welding seams on plastic components
generally correspond with the welding seams on metal
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GENERAL INSTALLATION HOT AIR
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Rev. 2013-AE-16
parts. Parts 3 and 5 of the guideline DVS 2205 are valid
with respect to the choice of welding seam forms on
containers and apparatus. In particular, pay attention
to the general principles for the formation of welding
seams. The most important welding seam forms are:
V-weld, Double V-weld, T-weld, and Double T-weld.
Figure E-26 . Typical welding seam forms
Tack Welding
The initial step in the welding process is the “tack
weld.” The objective is to put the parts into place, align
them, and prevent any slippage of the material during
the structural welding process. Welders should use
their own discretion when applying an intermittent or
continuous tack. Larger structures and thick gauged
materials may require addition clamping.
60-70º
60-70º
4

4

V-WELD
DOUBLE V-WELD
T-WELD
DOUBLE T-WELD
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High-Speed Welding
In this process, a filler material, the welding rod, is
introduced into the seam to give supportive strength.
Standard rod profiles are round or triangular. A triangular
rod is a single supportive weld and does not allow for
the kind of surface penetration achieved with a round
welding rod.
A round welding rod is used where heavy-duty welds are
required. It allows the fabricator to lay several beads of
welding rod on top of each other. This way, a relatively
thin welding rod can be used to produce a strong weld.
By performing a few practice welds, the welder should
develop the speed and force necessary to complete a
successful weld. Heat the welding rod within the roddrawing nozzle, and push it into the welding groove.
The force applied on the rod controls the speed of the
welding. The operator should look for a small bead of
melted rod on both sides. Apply additional welds to fill
the groove.
Figure E-27 . High-speed welding process
Freehand
The oldest method of welding filler rod is freehand.
This process is much slower than high-speed welding,
but it must be used where very small parts are being
welded or where the available space prohibits the use
of high-speed welding tips. The only nozzle used in this
process is a small jet pipe with an opening of 1/8” or
5/32” to concentrate the heat. The welder performs a
waving action of the nozzle at the base material and the
welding rod with an “up and down” and “side to side”
motion to bring the rod and material to melting form.
Hand apply pressure vertically at 90° to begin. After
reaching the correct amount of pressure and heat for the
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONHOT AIR
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rod and base material, a small wave of molten material
forms in front of the welding rod. If bent backward, the
welding rod will stretch and thin out; if bent forward, no
wave will occur in front, resulting in insufficient pressure.
Freehand welding requires a highly skilled operator and
should be avoided if a simpler method can be used.
Figure E-28 . Freehand welding
Structure of Welding Seam
The first layer of the welding seam is welded with filler
rod, diameter 3 mm (except for material thickness
of 2 mm). Afterward, the welding seam may be built
up with welding rods of larger diameters until it is
completely filled. Before welding with the next welding
rod, the welding seam, which has been formed with the
preceding welding rod, has to be adequately scrapped.
Additional Machining of Welding Seam
Usually, welding seams do not need reworking; however,
pay attention to the fact that the thickness of the base
material must be maintained.
General Requirements
• Safe functionality at a temperature application range
between 23 and 140°F (-5 and 60°C)
• Safe storage within a temperature range of 23 and
140°F (-5 and +60°C)
• Adequate corrosion protection against moisture
entering from the outside
• As light as possible
Pressure Shoe Forced Down
on Rod and Base Material
Guide and Preheat of Welding Rod
Welding Rod
Hot Air
Preheat Slot for Base Material
Base Material
Welding Rod
Round Nozzle
Air Heater
Pressure
Hot Air
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• Favorable position of the gravity center
• Functionally formed handle
• No preferred direction in relation to the supply lines
• Nozzle that can be fixed in any position
• Easily accessible functional elements
• Feed hoses and cables can be extended by the
welder with minimal effort and do not kink or twist in
proper operation
• Safe storage of equipment when the welding work is
finished or during interruptions
• Used nozzles are easy to remove and to fix in heated
state
• Indefinitely variable power consumption
• If possible, handle with built-in control system
• Operating elements arranged in a way that prevents
unintentional changes
• Material of handle: break-proof, thermo-resistant,
thermo-insulating, and non-conducting
• Corrosion-proof hot gas supply pipes of low scaling
• Constant welding temperature achieved after a
maximum of 15 minutes
Safety Requirements:
The devices have to be safe with consideration
for all personal injuries. In particular, the following
requirements apply:
• Parts next to hands should not be heated to
temperatures above 104°F (40°C), even after longer
use
• Protection against overheating (e.g., due to lack of
air) of the device has to be present
• Equipment surfaces presenting a burn hazard are to
be kept as small as possible, or isolated and labeled
as required
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GENERAL INSTALLATION EXTRUSION
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Rev. 2013-AE-18
• Sharp edges on equipment and accessories are to
be avoided
EXTRUSION
Extrusion Welding
Extrusion welding is an alternative to multiple pass hand
welding and can be used whenever physically possible
to operate the extruder. Extrusion welding is used for
joining low pressure piping systems, constructing tanks
and containers, joining liners (for buildings, linings for
ground work sites), as well as completing special tasks.
This welding technique is characterized as follows:
1. The welding process is performed with welding filler
being pressed out of a compound unit
2. The welding filler is homogenous with the material
being joined
3. The joining surfaces have been heated to welding
temperature
4. The joining is performed under pressure
Qualification of Welder and Requirements
of Welding Devices
The plastics welder must have obtained the knowledge
and skill required to perform the welding processes. As
a rule, this would mean that he is a qualified plastics
worker and welder who is continuously practicing or who
displays long-time experience. For extrusion welding,
several kinds of devices may be used. The most
common device is a portable welding device consisting
of a small extruder and a device for generating hot air.
The welding pressure is applied onto the Teflon® nozzle,
directly fastened at the extruder, which corresponds
to the welding seam form. Depending on the type of
device, the maximum capacity of the welding fillers is
about 4.5 kg/h.
Preparation of Welding Seam
The adjusting surfaces and the adjacent areas have
to be prepared adequately before welding (e.g., by
scraping). Parts that have been damaged by influences
of weather conditions or chemicals have to be machined
until an undamaged area appears. This process must be
adhered to, especially when performing repair work.
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Do not use solvents or cleaners; they introduce
chemicals with unknown and likely negative effects,
which cause them to swell. In order to equalize higher
differences in temperature between the different work
pieces, the work pieces have to be stored long enough
at the workplace under the same conditions.
Welding Seams
When choosing welding seam forms for containers and
apparatus, consider the general technical principles for
welding seam formations. Generally speaking, singlelayer seams are welded on extrusion welding. If it is
not possible to make DV welds on welding of thicker
semi-finished products, multi-layer seams can also be
performed. The welding seam should laterally extend by
about 3 mm beyond the prepared welding groove.
Figure E-29 . Welding seam forms for extrusion
welding
Equipment and Procedure
For extrusion welding, a portable welding device
consisting of a small extruder and a device for
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONExtrusion
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Rev. 2013-A E-19
generating hot air are the most common devices.
An extruder uses either pellets or welding rods as a filler
material. Do not use pellets or rods of unknown origin,
uncontrolled composition, or regenerated material for
welding. Make sure the filler is dry and clean before
beginning the welding process. The extrusion welder
includes a melting chamber with an extrusion screw,
driven by an electric motor.
With the pellet extruder, the pellets are gravity fed
from a hopper into the melting chamber. A rod extruder
has a feed mechanism attached to the rear of the
extrusion screw that pulls the welding rod into the
melting chamber. The adjusting surfaces of the parts
to be welded are heated up to the welding temperature
by means of hot air passing out of the PTFE nozzle
on the welding device. The welding filler, continuously
flowing out of the extruder device, is pressed into the
welding groove. The welding pressure is applied onto
the PTFE nozzle, directly fastened at the extruder end,
which corresponds to the welding seam. The discharged
material pushes the welder ahead, determining the
welding speed.
Lap Joint
In order to accomplish sufficient heating and thorough
welding, it is necessary to provide an air gap depending
on wall thickness (width of air gap should be 1mm
minimum).
Figure E-30 . Lap joints
3 mm
Welding Seam Forms for Extrusion Welding
V-Weld without Sealing Run
Double V-Butt Welding
T-Joint with Single Bevel Groove with Fillet Weld
T-Joint with Double Bevel Groove
45 - 60
45 - 60
3 mm
3 mm
3 mm
Lap Joint with Filet Weld
Lap Joint with Lap Weld (for liners with a thickness up to 3.5 mm)
Lap Joint with Extrusion Weld (for liners with a thickness up to 3.5 mm)
>12 >12
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NOTE: If material thickness does not match, use the “s” value from the
thicker material to calculate bead size.
Figure E-31 . Guideline for calculation of extrusion
bead size
Visual Inspection
The primary function of the operator is to ensure that
sufficient pressure is applied while also maintaining
proper speed. Too little pressure will result in the molten
mass not being formed into the final bead, and too
much speed will cause the bead to thin. Both of these
mistakes are easy to spot on the finished product.
Testing
The means for non-destructive testing are limited.
Therefore, visual checking of the weld appearance
becomes important. A good weld on thermoplastic
material will show a slight distortion along the edge of
the welding rod, indicating proper heat and pressure.
Changes of the surface appearance of the base
material right next to the weld indicate proper preheat
temperature. A uniform appearance of this area
indicates constant welding speed.
If the bead shows no distortion, the bead lacked
proper pressure. Combine no distortion with a shiny
appearance, and the bead lacks proper pressure and
too much speed. On the other end of the scale, a
welding temperature that is too high or a welding speed
that is too slow will overheat the base material and/or
welding rod. Overheating PP or PE will result in the bead
looking extremely shiny and small splashes of material
will seem to spray away from the bead.
In pipe seams, the best method for testing is to conduct
a hydrostatic pressure test according to Asahi/America
procedures.
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GENERAL INSTALLATION MECHANICAL CONNECTION
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-20
A
N
S
A = 0.7 x S
N = 1.4 x S
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MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS
Connection Technology
Connection systems have to be designed to avoid
any kind of stresses. Stresses, which may arise from
differences in temperature between installation and
operation conditions, must be kept as low as possible by
taking appropriate measures as described in the section
design and calculation guide.
Depending on the pipe dimension, the following
connection systems are applicable:
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONMECHANICAL CONNECTION
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Rev. 2013-A E-21
Welding Machines
Utilize proven welding techniques for the joining of
components; only approved welding machines should
be used. The application of non-approved welding
techniques can result in reduced joint quality in both
strength and purity. In addition, welding parameters
should be recorded for every performed welding. A printout label with significant welding information is required
to identify and evaluate every welding joint.
The utilized welding machines and appliances must
correspond to the guidelines of the DVS 2208.
In general, the following facts should be considered for
welding high purity thermoplastic piping systems:
• Application of suitable and approved welding
machines
• Application of trained and certified personnel
Welding Personnel
The quality of the welded joints depends on the
qualification of the welder, the suitability of the machines
and appliances, as well as the compliance of the welding
guidelines. The welding joint can be tested and inspected
by destructive and/or visual methods.
The welding work must be supervised. The type and
scope of supervision must be agreed on by the parties. It
is recommended to record the procedure data in welding
protocols or on data carriers.
Within the scope of the quality assurance, it is
recommended to produce and test samples of joints
before beginning and during the welding works.
Every welder has to be trained and must have valid proof
of qualification. The intended application range may be
decisive for the kind of qualification. The welding exam
certificate, according to DVS 2212-1 in the groups I-4
res. I-8, in conjunction with the complementing training
certificate issued by an authorized training institute
or by the particular machine manufacturer, is valid as
qualification proof.
Figure E-32 . Applicable connection systems
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• Consideration of the prescribed welding guidelines
(parameters)
• Performance of the welding process in the cleanroom
area
• Complete control and documentation of the
performed welding operations
The design of a system should consider installation
conditions, such as space and environment conditions.
Based on the above criteria, the choice of welding
technique is crucial for a successful installation. The
installation should be planned to fabricate assemblies
and subassemblies to reduce the amount of welds
conducted in restricted (confined) locations.
Measures Before the Welding Operation
The welding zone must be protected against bad
weather influences (e.g., moisture, wind, UV-radiation,
and temperatures below 41°F (5°C) or higher than
104°F (40°C). If it is ensured by suitable measures
(e.g., preheating, tent, or heating) that a component
temperature sufficient for welding can be kept, as far
as the welder is not hindered in his handling, work may
be carried out at any outside temperature. If necessary,
an additional proof must be provided by carrying out
sample welds under the mentioned conditions.
If the welding products are heated up unevenly under
the influence of sunshine, a temperature compensation
in the area of the welding joint can be reached by
covering.
The pipe ends should be closed during the welding
process.
The joining areas of the parts to be welded must be
clean (free from dirt, oil, shavings, or other residues) and
in a straight-cut, planed surface condition before start
the welding process.
On applying any of these methods, keep the welding
area clear of flexural stresses (e.g., careful storage, use
of pipe supports, etc.).
Welding Joint Evaluation
The control of the welding joint quality on site should
be performed only by certified personnel with proper
knowledge of the welding technique. Different tests,
according to DVS guidelines, may be performed:
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GENERAL INSTALLATION MECHANICAL CONNECTION
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Rev. 2013-AE-22
• Visual test of the welding joint (DVS 2202-1)
• Tensile test for the determination of the short-term
welding factor (DVS 2203, part 1)
• Bending test for the determination of the bending
angle (DVS 2203, part 5)
• Pressure test on the installed pipeline, according to
DVS 2210, part 1, supplement 2 (DIN 4279)
Flange
Flanging and AV Gaskets
When bolting a flange connection, it is required to
tighten the bolts in a specified pattern and to a required
specification. Asahi/America offers a line of low-torque
AV gaskets in sizes 1/2”–12” for single wall pipe
connections. These gaskets offer a unique doubleconvex ring design that gives optimum sealing with
one-third the torque of a common flat gasket seal. The
gaskets are available in the following materials:
• EPDM
• PVDF bonded over EPDM
• Teflon® over EPDM
They are available in both standard and high-purity
grade. PTFE and PVDF bonded gaskets are produced
in a proprietary laminating process for bonding to
EPDM. The use of the rubber backing provides greater
elasticity for lower bonding torques.
Detail of Gasket
When tightening a flange, the torque rating is dependent
on the gasket used. For the AV gasket, see Table E-8 for
the recommended tightness. In addition, follow the star
pattern shown Figure E-33 when tightening. Conduct
two or three passes, tightening the flange uniformly.
Finish by doing a circular pass to check the torque
values. Always use a torque wrench when tightening a
flange. A common mistake when tightening a flange is
to squeeze it as tightly as possible; however, this action
will damage the gasket and eventually lead to reduced
elasticity and leakage. Do not tighten beyond the rating.
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Table E-8 . Recommended Bolt Torque for AV
Gaskets (lbs .)
Figure E-33 . Torque pattern
Butterfly Valves
Most Asahi/America piping systems are produced
to metric dimensions according to ISO standards.
However, Asahi/America butterfly valves are produced
according to iron pipe size dimensions. The outcome
is that in certain sizes, the disk of the butterfly valve
can meet interference with the inside pipe wall
when opening. The interference is typical in SDR11
polypropylene systems in 6” or larger and SDR32.5
polypropylene in 8” or larger. In PVDF systems, the
effect is 8”–12” in SDR33 and 6” or larger in SDR
21 systems. Polypropylene stubs in the interfering
dimensions are always beveled at the factory to avoid
this issue. PVDF stub ends mounted for butterfly valve
installation must be ordered special from Asahi/America.
PVDF stubs are not automatically supplied with a
beveled end for other reasons. Contact Asahi/America
for special part numbers on PVDF beveled stub ends.
Flange Connections of Piping Systems
If pipe joints are connected by means of flanges, the
following guidelines must be adhered to:
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONMECHANICAL CONNECTION
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A E-23
• Aligning of parts
Before applying initial stress on the screw, the
sealing faces have to be on an aligned plane, parallel
to each other, and fit tight to the sealing. Under any
circumstances, the flange connection should not
draw near to the occurring tensile stress.
• Tightening of screws
The length of the screws has to be chosen so that
the screw thread possibly flushes with the nut.
Washers have to be placed at the screw head and
also at the nut. The connecting screws have to be
screwed in with a torque key (for torque values see
www.agru.at).
Generally, it is recommend to brush over the thread,
(e.g., with molybdenum sulfide) so that the thread
runs easily for a longer operation time. For the
selection of sealing material, the chemical and
thermal resistance has to be considered.
Adhesive Joints
Adhesive joints with polyolefines are not applicable. The
achieved strength values range extremely below the
minimum requirements for adhesive joints in practice.
Tri clamp
Tri clamps, otherwise known as sanitary fittings are a
common form of mechanical joining of pipes in high
purity applications. A typical tri clamp connection
consists of two ferrules, a gasket with raised groove, and
one of several types of clamps. The combined flange
and gasket do not impede the flow of fluids though the
pipe. The clamping system can be easily removed when
using a fold-over hinged clamp. Plastic tri clamps are
designed to allow connection to existing stainless steel,
and sanitary systems. Please consult Asahi/America for
additional information about thermoplastics for use in
pharmaceutical.
Thread
In general, threaded connections are not recommended
for high pressure thermoplastic piping systems. If
thermoplastic pipe is threaded, the pressure rating is
derated significantly. In certain instances, an installer
may choose to thread the system. Recommendations
for threading plastic piping have been developed by the
Size (inches) Teon-PVDF EPDM
1/2 174 157
3/4 174 157
1 174 157
11/4 191 165
11/2 217 174
2 217 174
21/2 304 217
3 304 217
4 304 217
6 348 260
8 435 304
10 435 304
12 522 435
1
5
3
7
2
6
4
8
Expressed in Inch-pounds
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Plastic Piping Institute. It should be noted that certain
Asahi/America systems with thinner walls simply cannot
be threaded. In addition, metric pipe systems, even
with thick pipe walls, cannot be threaded because the
outside diameters are not the same as IPS pipe, making
the threads too short in height.
Only pipe that has a wall thickness greater than
Schedule 80 should be threaded. Only pipe dies that are
clean, sharp, and specifically designed for plastic piping
should be used. If a vise is used to restrain the pipe
during the cutting, exercise caution to avoid scratching
or deforming the pipe. Wooden plugs inserted in the
pipe ends can reduce this risk.
Before cutting threads, the pipe must be deburred of all
sharp edges. A die stock with a proper guide that will
start and go on square to the pipe axis should be used.
The use of cutting oil should be kept to a minimum.
Once the threads are cut, they should be seated with
PTFE tape.
In most cases, the use of threading pipe can be avoided
altogether by the use of molded male and female
adapters. These fittings have been designed and
produced to provide a full 150 psi pressure rating at
21°C (70° F). The male and female adapters address
the need to connect to existing pipe systems or
equipment without derating the system. The use of these
fittings welded to the pipe is recommended instead of
attempting to thread pipe.
Asahi/America does not recommend threading or
threaded fittings made of HDPE.
Weatherability/UV
Weather Effects
Polypropylene, HDPE, and PVDF are resistant to nearly
every effect of weather. However, they differ on one
important characteristic: resistance to ultraviolet light
degradation. PVDF is almost completely unaffected by
UV light. HDPE, with its black additive, is resistant to
UV light, as is Poly-Flo® black polypropylene. Standard
polypropylene from Asahi/America is a European
gray polypropylene that is affected as the energy from
ultraviolet radiation initiates a chemical reaction in the
polymer. Natural polypropylene is not UV-resistant.
The reaction between polypropylene (gray) and UV
radiation only takes place at the surface to shallow
depths measured in minute fractions of an inch. The
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GENERAL INSTALLATION MECHANICAL CONNECTION
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-24
molecules at the surface of the plastic are permanently
altered to form a complex formation of various
chemicals, such as polypropylene-type formations. A
noticeable chalky-yellow appearance ensues, which
results in a slight reduction in impact strength. This
effect will only become noticeable upon prolonged
exposure, and it will not continue to progress if the
ultraviolet source is removed. The effect can be
measured after a prolonged period of time as a slight
increase in tensile strength, a slight increase in elastic
modulus, and a minor decrease in impact strength. The
degradation only occurs to a shallow depth, although
in time the chemically altered surface molecules may
slightly flake off. Thin-walled polypropylene pipe fittings
should be protected against ultraviolet light penetration
if placed in an outdoor environment. Some of the
various methods include painting, providing a “shield,”
or taping/wrapping the pipe. In order to paint the piping,
polypropylene must first receive a coating of a suitable
primer to allow the acrylic lacquer to be applied. The
primer can be applied by brush to small diameter pipes
and sprayed onto larger diameter pipes. Then, a suitable
paint can be selected and applied in a similar fashion.
It is advisable to strictly adhere to the manufacturer’s
instructions concerning safe operating practices when
applying the selected paint.
A thin-walled insulation-type shield or rigid vapor jacket
barrier can eliminate the effects of ultraviolet light. A thin
aluminum shield should provide all the protection that is
necessary.
A third method includes covering the piping with tape.
A recommended type of tape is called “TapeCoat” and
is made by TapeCoat, Inc. of Evanston, IL. This tape
should be applied with 50 percent overlap, and when
properly applied, it will completely protect the piping
against ultraviolet attack.
Chlorine and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon
Installations
When PVDF is used to transport chlorine or chlorinated
hydrocarbons, special precautions should be taken if the
possibility of a reaction is suggested by the application.
In certain post-chlorination pipe lines, downstream in a
bleached paper process (chlorine dioxide reactor, for
instance), there exists a small amount of spent reactants
that ordinarily would not proceed to completion.
However, it has been shown that ultraviolet light from
sunlight or fluorescent light fixtures may offer enough
energy to initiate this reaction to completion.
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In the process, free-radical chlorine is released
instantaneously, and there is a tendency for some
substitution of chlorine molecules for hydrogen in the
polymer chain. As this happens, stress cracks may
appear in the pipe wall through a mechanism that is not
yet completely understood, and the system may fail.
Therefore, it is required to protect any PVDF system
from the possibility of ultraviolet light propagation
from reactions involving the generation of free-radical
chlorine. One method of providing this protection is
through the same method of taping described in the
previous section for protecting polypropylene piping from
ultraviolet attack.
Union
Unions of Piping Systems
If pipe joints made out of thermoplastics are connected
by means of unions, the following regulations have to be
adhered to:
• For avoiding impermissible loads at installation,
unions with round sealing rings should be applied
• The union nut should be screwed manually or
by means of a pipe band wrench (common pipe
wrenches should not be used)
• Prevent the application of unions at areas with
bending stresses in the piping systems
Tip: thread seal only with Teflon® do not use hemp
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GENERAL INSTALLATIONMECHANICAL CONNECTION
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Rev. 2013-A E-25
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E
GENERAL INSTALLATION MECHANICAL CONNECTION
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-AE-26
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Section F
SPECIAL SYSTEM
CONSIDERATIONS
Contents
High Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-6
Double Contained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9
Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-10
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-12
F-1ASAHI/AMERICA
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HIGH PURITY
High Purity System Design
A pure water system comprised of PVDF or
polypropylene is similar to most chemical feed systems.
The critical factor in a pure system is to design it in a
continuous moving loop without dead-legs to avoid the
possibility of microorganism growth.
Systems should also be sized to have turbulent flow
as part of the method of inhibiting bacteria growth.
PVDF and PP systems are ideally suited for pure water
as they have extremely smooth inner surfaces that
reduce particle generation and inhibit sites for bacteria
to adhere to and proliferate. In addition, PVDF and PP
systems have low extractables; therefore, the water
being transported is not contaminated.
In designing a thermoplastic high purity water system,
the following items need to be considered:
• Materials of construction
• Operating parameters
• System sizing
• Thermal expansion
• Minimizing dead-legs
• System monitoring
• Hanging
• Welding methods
• Other considerations
Materials of Construction
PVDF is the premier material for high purity water
systems. PVDF has been used in ultrapure water
systems for over 25 years because it is superior
to materials such as stainless steel or PVC. PVDF
combines excellent surface finish with low extractables
to provide the highest quality piping material for the
application. In addition to its purity attributes, PVDF is
also available in a variety of components and welding
methods that are well-suited for UPW applications.
PVDF is a crystalline material that can withstand high
pressures. However, the nature of PVDF requires
special planning and handling during the installation.
These types of requirements are now commonplace
on the market and are accepted as standard operating
methods. PVDF is recommended for the service of the
strictest applications that require low bacteria counts
and virtually undetectable levels of metal ions.
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS HIGH PURITY
F-2
For applications less stringent in water quality level,
polypropylene is an excellent alternative. PP offers
excellent surface smoothness, as well as low extractable
levels as compared to stainless steel. Polypropylene
systems are thermally fused together, eliminating the
use of glues, which will continue to leach into a water
system for extended periods of time. PP is an extremely
weldable material, making fusion joints simple and
reliable. For more information on PP, consult Section B.
The third alternative is E-CTFE. This material, also
known as Halar®, provides superior surface even
compared to PVDF. Its extraction levels are also similar
to those of PVDF. Halar® is a very ductile material,
making its use and welding methods extremely reliable.
E-CTFE is normally only available in certain sizes
and does have some pressure limitations at higher
temperature. Halar® has become the preferred material
for tank lining applications.
Operating Parameters
Because thermoplastic systems have varying ratings
at different temperatures, it is important to design a
system around all of the parameters to which it will be
subjected. As a first pass, verify the following operating
parameters:
• Continuous operating temperature
• Continuous operating pressure
• Media and concentration
By knowing the above parameters, thermoplastic
pipe systems can be selected. Compare the actual
conditions to the allowable ratings of the material being
selected for the job. It is important to predict elevated
temperatures, as thermoplastics have reduced pressure
ratings at higher temperatures. Valves should be verified
separately from a piping system in terms of temperature
and pressure, as certain styles and brands of valves
have lower ratings than the pipe system. Finally, if the
media is not water, a chemical compatibility check
should be conducted with the manufacturer.
After verifying the standard operating conditions, it
is necessary to examine other operations that might
affect the piping. The following is a sample of items to
investigate prior to specifying a material.
• Will there be spikes in temperature or pressure?
• Is there a cleaning operation that the piping will be
exposed to?
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• If yes, what is the cleaning agent? What
temperature will the cleaning be conducted at?
• Will the system be exposed to sunlight or other
sources of UV?
Each of the above questions should be answered, and
the desired material should be checked for suitability
based on the above factors, as well as any others that
might be unique to the system in question.
System Sizing
It is well-known that high purity water systems are
designed to operate in a continuously flowing loop to
prevent stagnant water in the system. Stagnant water
can proliferate the growth of bacteria and bio-film. The
pattern and design of the loop will vary depending on the
facility requirements.
The flow rate in the system is important for determining
the pipe diameter size. In a pure water system, elevating
flow velocities is recommended to reduce the possibility
of bioadhesion to the pipe wall or welded surfaces.
Many specifications will state that the flow should be
set at a minimum of five feet per second, which will
always be a turbulent flow at this velocity. However,
a more sensible approach may be to review the
Reynolds Number of the system to ensure that the flow
is turbulent. Use of the Reynolds Number may reduce
waste caused by the oversizing of pumps to overcome
excessive pressure drops due to unnecessarily high
velocities.
Because many HP systems are now produced
from high-quality Purad® PVDF, high velocities
in a continuously flowing system may not be as
necessary. High velocities are generally accomplished
by undersizing the pipe diameter, which is directly
proportional to increased pressure drops. In fact, high
minimum velocities are detrimental to the ability of a
system to deliver adequate point-of-use pressure during
peak demand conditions. Therefore, using cleaner,
smoother material such as PVDF is desirable for design
and operation.
Sizing Laterals
A pure water system and an ultra pure water system
will be made of main loop branches known as laterals.
It is important in design to not dead-end laterals and
ensure there is always flow movement in the main and
in the lateral. Systems are designed with different loop
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSHIGH PURITY
F-3
configurations to accommodate the needs of production.
However, all laterals must be designed for continuous
flow and should feed unused water back into the return
line.
For supply laterals feeding multiple tools, the lateral
needs to be sized based on an acceptable pressure
drop. A general rule of thumb is two psig per 100 feet.
Consideration of point-of-use water consumption, length,
and frequency of demand must be factored into the
sizing process of the lateral.
Sizing Mains
Main trunk lines are sized using the demand for water
by the tools plus the tool and return lateral minimum
flows. Tool demand can be calculated by taking the
average flow demand and multiplying it by 1.2 to 1.8 to
accommodate for peak demand. This should be based
on the tool manufacturer’s parameters.
The return lines should be sized for minimal pressure
drop when the tool demand is at a minimum, which will
correspond to maximum bypass at the end of a main
pressure control station.
Thermal Expansion
Typically, Purad® and PolyPure® systems are designed
for ambient or cold DI water. In these cases, because
the systems operate continuously and are normally
inside a fairly constant temperature building, the need
to compensate for thermal expansion is not required.
Although, it is an important factor that should be
reviewed on each and every installation design.
Hot DI systems that normally operate at temperatures
of 150°F to 248°F (65°C to 120°C), depending on the
water usage, require a more complex design. PVDF
systems can be used in hot water applications and
applications where the temperature is cyclical. These
systems require analysis of the thermal expansion
effects. In most cases, the use of expansions, offsets,
and proper hanging techniques is all that is required to
ensure a proper design.
Hot DI systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping systems, which, in turn, decreases the support
spacing between pipe hangers. In smaller dimensions,
it is recommended to use continuous support made of
some type of channel or split plastic pipe.
Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. Certain hangers should be used
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as guides to allow the pipe to move back and forth inline, while other hangers should be anchoring locations
used to direct the expansion into the compensating
device. The anchors and hangers should be designed
to withstand the end load generated by the thermal
expansion.
Minimize Dead-Legs
The term dead-leg refers to a stagnant zone of water
in the system. Dead-legs are normally formed in the
branch of a tee that is closed off with a valve. See
Figure F-1.
Figure F-1 . Dead-legs due to poor design
A rule of thumb in designing a system is to keep all
dead-legs to a maximum of six internal pipe diameters
in length. The turbulent flow in the main trunk line will
create a significant amount of movement to keep the
leg moving and prevent bacteria from adhering to the
pipe wall. However, the Purad® system allows designers
to avoid dead-legs altogether with the advent of
T-diaphragm valves and zero dead-leg fittings.
T-valves (see Figure F-2) take the place of a tee,
reducer, and diaphragm valve by combining all three into
one component. T-valves reduce the quantity of welds
in a system as well. By using a T-valve, branch lines can
be shut off at any time without creating a dead leg and
turned back on without an extensive flush procedure.
Figure F-2 . T-valve eliminates dead-leg
Dead legs in a system can be found in more than
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS HIGH PURITY
F-4
just branch lines. Often, the introduction of a gauge,
measurement device, and/or sampling valve can create
a dead leg. Because it is not recommended to tap into
the side of a PVDF pipe for safety reasons, gauges are
installed using tees and caps, as shown in Figure F-3.
Figure F-3 . Dead-leg due to improper
instrument installation
Because these tee configurations are narrow in
diameter, they create a dead-leg in the branch where
microorganism growth can be initiated. The use of
instrumentation fittings eliminates dead legs while acting
as a safe adapter for gauges or sample valves. See
Figure F-4.
Figure F-4. Proper use of instrument fitting to avoid
dead space . Can be used with gauge
guard .
The insertion of a resistivity probe can also be a
possible source for dead legs. Because most probe
manufacturers recommend that fluid flows directly at
the probe, they are often situated in the leg of a tee,
and the tee acts as a 90° elbow. Because most probes
are supplied as a 3/4” NPT fitting or sanitary adapter,
there is the necessity to weld reducers onto the tee leg
to accommodate the sensor, which will create a dead
zone. A simple fitting, the probe adapter conveniently
eliminates the need for reducers and shortens the leg of
the tee. See Figure D-5. Probe adapters are available in
Flow
Dead
Zone
T-Valve
Diaphragm
Flow
Flow
Tee
Reducer
Female Adapter
Dead
Zone
Flow
Instrument Fitting
Gauge or Sample Valve
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all sizes and pressure ratings.
Figure F-5 . Proper adapter setups
High Purity Installation
Installing a high purity system properly requires
preplanning. The installation is more than the welding
of components. It requires the proper environment,
material inventory, welding equipment, tools, and
thorough training.
General rules on installation
• The quality level of the materials should be
maintained from delivery to the finished project.
• No smoking or eating is allowed during working
time.
• There should be incoming control of material and
marking of quality level according to the user’s
standards of marking and labeling.
• Do not touch the inner surface of any kind of pipe
component, not even in gloves.
Welding environment
Asahi/America does not set requirements for proper
welding environments. As the installer, it is necessary to
choose the environment based on the installation type,
timing, or quality goal. In all cases, the environment
for welding should be monitored to ensure that the
temperature is in the range of 41°F to 105°F (5°C to
40°C). The humidity should not exceed 70 percent. If
using IR fusion, wind must be avoided.
All Purad® , PP-Pure® , and PolyPure® components
are manufactured and packaged in a clean room
environment. Great care is taken to ensure that they
arrive on the project site in protective packaging to
maintain their purity. To be consistent, it is ideal to
conduct welds in a clean or clean room environment.
Particles, dust, or dirt in the air will adhere to the pipe
during the welding process. To reduce contamination
in the system, as many welds as possible should be
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSHIGH PURITY
F-5
conducted in a clean environment. A class ISO 5 or ISO
6 room is perfectly suitable. Portable style clean rooms
make for an efficient set-up when conducting all of the
welds on site.
Figure F-6 . Portable cleanroom
Within the clean zone, it is recommended to build spool
pieces. The size and configuration is dependent on the
ability to safely transport it to its final destination. The
ends of the spool pieces should be prepared for final
connection once in the pipe rack. In smaller dimensions,
OD 20mm to OD 63mm (1/2”–2”), the ends should be
fitted with unions or sanitary fittings to reduce welds in
the pipe rack, as they are more difficult.
In sizes larger than OD 63mm (2”), it is recommended
to build spool pieces with flange connections. Doing this
avoids having to conduct difficult fusion welds in tight
locations. Flanged spool pieces also offer the benefit of
being able to make changes later.
If welding in a clean room or clean environment, remove
the outer bag in a staging area, and store the fitting
inside the clean room in the single bag until ready for
use. It is recommended to store the fittings in plastic
bins within the clean room instead of using a cardboard
box within a clean environment. Label bins by size and
fitting style.
PolyPure® fittings should be left in their bag and brought
into the clean zone as is. If for some reason the outside
of the bag is contaminated, it should be wiped down with
IPA prior to entering the clean zone. Valves should be
handled in the same manner.
When ready to transport the pipe into the clean zone,
open the outer cap on the HDPE protection tube of the
PVDF UHP pipes. Place the tube next to the clean zone
entry, and slide the pipe directly from the tube into the
clean room. This will eliminate the need to wipe down
the bag prior to entry. In the clean room, remove the
Flow
Tee Probe
Probe
Adapter
Fitting
Flow
Tee Probe
Sanitary
Adapter
HEPA Filters
Flexible
Door
Flexible
Clear Walls
Wheels for Portability
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single bag if ready for immediate usage. If stored in the
clean environment, it is preferred to leave the pipe in its
original packaging.
Place the double bagged PP-Pure® pipe next to the
clean zone entry. Open the second bag, and slide the
single bagged pipe into the clean room. Remove the
single bag if ready for immediate usage.
PolyPure® pipes can remain in their shipping packaging
until ready for use or transported into the fabrication
clean room.
When ready for welding, remove all packaging and
caps. Remember to save the caps for sealing the ends
of prefabricated spool pieces.
Training
An ultra pure water or chemical system is a critical
utility within a plant’s operation. An unplanned shutdown
can prove to be more costly than the water piping
construction itself. One bad weld can cause hours
of repair and frustration, as well as significant loss
of revenue. For these reasons, it is critical to receive
training at the time of job start-up and to use certified
personnel throughout the course of a project. Tool
operation is only one of several factors in a thorough
training course. Operators, inspectors, and managers
need to understand the physical nature of the material:
how to properly handle it, how to inspect welds, how
to identify potential problems, how to properly maintain
equipment, and finally, how best to tie into a line and test
it.
All of the above topics are discussed during AGRU’s
certified training sessions. For the installation of a
high-purity system, the following training sessions are
available:
• Tool operator training and certification
• Quality control inspection
INDUSTRIAL
Single Wall Chemical Pipe System Design
When properly designing a single wall pipe system for
the transport of chemicals, several factors need to be
reviewed.
A properly designed thermoplastic system will provide
years of reliable service without the headaches of
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS INDUSTRIAL
F-6
corrosion problems.
At the time of design, consider and plan for the following
items:
• Materials of construction
• Thermal expansion
• System sizing
• UV considerations
• Insulation
• Hanging
• Welding methods
Materials of Construction
The first and foremost item in any system design (metal
or thermoplastic) is the media that will be running
through the pipes and parameters of operation. Using
accurate data for the system design will transfer to years
of reliable operation. When considering the system
design, answer the following questions:
• What is/are the chemical(s) to be in contact with the
system?
• What are the chemical concentrations?
• What temperature will the system operate at?
• What pressure will the system operate at?
• What is the flow of the media in the system?
By answering these questions, the proper material
of construction can be selected for the project. To assist
in the material selection, refer to the chemical resistance
tables on our web site. A thermoplastic system’s
ratings for temperature and pressure are based on
water. The addition of certain chemicals will add stress
to the system and may reduce the recommended
operating parameters. For less aggressive chemicals,
the resistance tables on our web site are perfectly
suitable. For more aggressive chemicals or mixtures of
chemicals, the manufacturer of the pipe system should
be consulted.
After verifying the standard operating conditions, it
is necessary to examine other operations that might
affect the piping. The following is a sample of items to
investigate prior to specifying a material.
• Will there be spikes in temperature or pressure?
• Is there a cleaning operation that the piping will be
exposed to?
• If yes, what is the cleaning agent? What temperature
will the cleaning be conducted at?
• Will the system be exposed to sunlight or other
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sources of UV?
Each of the these questions should be answered and
the desired material should be checked for suitability
based on these factors, as well as any others that might
be special to the system in question.
Finally, in addition to verifying the temperature, pressure,
and media with the thermoplastic pipe material, it is also
necessary to verify other components in the system,
such as valves, gaskets, valve seat and seals, etc.
These should be examined in the same manner as the
pipe material.
Thermal Expansion
Based on your operating criteria, thermal expansion
must be considered. For systems maintained at
consistent temperatures, compensation for thermal
effects may not be required. It is, however, important to
review all aspects such as the operating environment.
Is it outdoors where it will be exposed to changing
weather? Is the system spiked with a high temperature
cleaning solution? Will the system run at a significantly
higher temperature than the installation temperature?
The occurrence of any thermal change in a plastic
system will cause the material to expand or contract. As
an example of the effect, polypropylene will grow roughly
one inch for every 100 linear feet and 10 ΔT.
Thermoplastic systems can be used in hot applications
and applications where the temperature is cyclical; it
just requires analysis of the thermal expansion effects.
Section C walks through the steps of calculating thermal
expansion, end loads, and expansion compensating
devices. In most cases, the use of expansions, offsets,
and proper hanging techniques are all that is required to
ensure a proper design.
Hot systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping, which, in turn, decreases the support spacing
between pipe hangers. In smaller dimensions, it is
recommended to use continuous support made of some
type channel or split plastic pipe.
Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. As the design procedures in Section
C indicates, certain hangers should be used as guides
to allow the pipe to move back and forth in-line, while
other hangers should be anchoring locations used to
direct the expansion into the compensating device. The
anchors and hangers should be designed to withstand
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSINDUSTRIAL
F-7
the end load generated by the thermal expansion.
Figure F-7 is an example of an anchor type restraint
fitting that is available from Asahi/America.
Figure F-7. Restraint fitting
For calculation of allowed stresses and design of
expansion compensation devices, refer to Section C,
Engineering Theory and Design Considerations.
System Sizing
In Section C, there is a detailed discussion on fluid
dynamics and determination of flow rates and pressure
drops. When using any thermoplastic with a hazardous
chemical, it is recommended to maintain flow rates
below a velocity of 5 ft/second. High velocities can lead
to water hammer in the event of an air pocket in the
system. Water hammer can generate excessive
pressures that can damage a system. For safety
reasons, high velocities should be avoided.
In addition, high velocities also mean added pressure
drop, which, in turn, increases demand on the pump.
If the flow velocity is not required, it is recommended
to size a system with minimal pressure drop. It is also
recommended to oversize a design to allow for future
expansion or chemical demand. Once a system is in
place, it is difficult to add capacity to it.
UV Considerations
All thermoplastic materials react to the exposure of UV
differently. PVDF and E-CTFE materials are almost
completely UV-resistant over the course of its design
life. However, certain chemicals containing Cl anions
exposed to UV light can create a free-radical Cl, which
will attack the PVDF pipe wall. For more information
on these chemicals, refer to UV Exposure and
Weatherability later in this section.
Polypropylene is not UV stable. In direct exposure to
sunlight it will break down. The effect can be seen in a
PLACE CLAMP HERE
BUTT END
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noticeable color change in the pipe. In a pigmented PP
system, the color change will actually create a protective
shield on the outer layer of the pipe and prevent further
degradation. For PP pipes with a wall thickness greater
than 0.25”, the effect of UV is reduced and can be used
outside. However, it is still recommended to protect
it from UV exposure for added safety. Natural PP will not
self create a UV shield as the pigment PP does;
therefore, UV protection is required all the time on
natural PP systems.
Other materials, such as HDPE, may or may not be UV
stabilized. PE containing carbon black are generally UV
stable and can handle direct exposure. Other HDPE
materials may require protection. Use of protection
should be based on the individual grade of the
polyethylene. Consult the manufacturer for details.
Insulation
Insulation is a good method of protecting a pipe system
from UV exposure, as well as providing required
insulation for the system or media being transported. A
serious difference between plastic and metal is plastic’s
thermal properties. A metal pipe system will quickly
take the temperature of the media being transported.
A system carrying a media at 150° F (65°C) will have
an outer wall temperature close to or at 150° F (65°C).
In contrast, thermoplastics have an inherent insulating
property that maintains heat inside the pipe better than
a metal system. The advantage is that a plastic pipe has
better thermal properties, which translates into improved
operating efficiencies and reduced insulation thickness.
Hanging
See Section C for hanging details and proper placement
distances. Since plastic reacts differently than metal,
varying hanger styles are required. The designer of a
system should specify the exact hanger and location
and not leave this portion up to the installer.
Welding Methods
The system designer should specify the welding method
to be used in any given project. Asahi/America offers
several choices for joining PVDF and PP together. The
choice of a particular method should be based on the
following concerns:
• Installation location
• Size range
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS INDUSTRIAL
F-8
• System complexity
PVDF can be installed using butt fusion, IR fusion,
socket fusion, and beadless HPF fusion. All methods
are proven in chemical systems and each has its own
advantages. Polypropylene is weldable using butt,
IR, or socket fusion. In addition, Asahi/America offers
electrofusion couplings for PP that are ideal for repairs.
(Electrofusion PP couplings may have reduced chemical
resistance. Consult factory.) E-CTFE can be
welded using butt or IR fusion. It is recommended to
assemble Halar® with IR fusion, as special heating
elements are required for welding Halar® with
conventional butt fusion equipment.
Socket fusion is ideal for small, simple, low-cost
systems. In small diameters, 1/2”–1-1/4” socket fusion
can be done quite easily with a hand-held welding plate
and a few inserts. With just a limited amount of practice,
an installer can make safe and reliable joints. For larger
dimensions, up to a maximum of 4”, bench-style socket
fusion equipment is available for keeping joints aligned.
For systems that have larger dimensions above 4”,
butt and IR fusion make a logical choice. Butt fusion is
available in every pipe size made available by Asahi/
America. Welding can take place in a variety of climates
and conditions. In addition, butt fusion offers the widest
variety of welding equipment options. Tools are available
for bench welding, trench welding, and welding in the
rack, making it completely versatile for almost
all applications. Refer to Section F for guidance in tool
selection.
IR fusion is available for welding 1/2” to 10”. IR is an
extension of the butt fusion method. The operation is
the same with the exception that material being joined is
not in contact with the heat source. Rather, the material
is brought in close to the heating element and the heat
radiates off to the components. The advantage of this
method for chemical systems is the elimination
of molten material sticking to the heat source.
IR fusion is better suited for indoor applications. IR
fusion equipment is highly sophisticated, providing the
operator with detailed information on the weld process
and quality. For critical applications with dangerous
media, IR fusion may be best suited due to the quality
assurance built into each piece of equipment.
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DOUBLE CONTAINED
Design of the Double Containment Piping
System
Installation System
In comparison with the installation of a single pipe,
there are possible changes in length in the installation
of the double containment piping system that are due
to thermal expansion or contraction, and they require
special attention. The temperature changes of the inside
and outside pipes can be different or even opposite
based on the distance between the pipes. This can
lead to considerable length expansions between the
pipes. If it cannot be detected, constructive stress will
be developed, which is an additional demand on the
pipe lines. One can distinguish between three different
design systems: fixed, flexible, and impeded.
Fixed System
The inside, outside, and surrounding area of the pipe
are fixed together by dog bones on each directional
change. A length expansion of the inside or outside pipe
is not possible.
Advantages:
• Low expenses
• Little area needed
Disadvantages:
• High Dogbone™ forces (note the fixing demand)
Figure F-8 . Fixed system design
Unimpeded Heat Expansion (flexible system)
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSDOUBLE CONTAINED
F-9
The inside and outside pipes are installed so that a
length expansion from both pipes, and even among
each other, can happen. In terms of the planning, it
needs to be considered that the length expansion of the
inside pipe takes place in the outside pipe.
Advantages:
• Applicable for higher operating temperatures
• Low stress of the double containment piping system
because of free expansion
Disadvantages:
• Higher expenses
• Often need large area because of the compensation
elbow
Figure F-9 . Unimpeded heat expansion design
System with Impeded Heat Expansion
The inside and outside pipes are fixed together by
dog bones. The length expansion of the whole double
containment pipe line will be picked up through sufficient
measures (compensator, straight). This method is only
sensible when the inside and outside pipes are made
out of the same material and few temperature changes
occur between the inside and outside pipes.
Advantages:
• Low expenses
• Usually low fixing expenses
Disadvantages:
• High stress in the double containment piping system
• Often need large area because of the compensation
elbow
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Figure F-10 . Impeded heat expansion design
VENTILATION
Ventilation System Design
Thermoplastic materials have begun to be used for
ventilation applications. A thermoplastic vent system
provides many features that standard sheet metal
cannot in terms of functionality, ease of installation, and
corrosion resistance.
In designing a thermoplastic water system, the following
items need to be considered:
• Materials of construction
• Operating parameters
• Codes
• Layout recommendations
• Thermal expansion
• UV exposure
• Hanging
• Welding methods
Materials of Construction
For the construction of ventilation systems,
Asahi/America provides the ProVent® system.
ProVent® components are available in polypropylene
(ProVent®)) and PVDF (PuradVent®). The system is
designed specifically for the ventilation and transport
of hazardous fumes and potentially corrosive gases.
Both polypropylene and PVDF offer different resistance
to chemical applications that should be verified prior to
purchase.
Operating Parameters
The ProVent® system is available in multiple wall
thicknesses in polypropylene. The selection of a material
pressure rating should be based on the following criteria:
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS VENTILATION
F-10
• Operating temperature
• Media to be transported
• Operating pressure, positive or negative
• Economics
• Required fire codes
• Size to be installed
By evaluating the previous parameters, the proper
system can be chosen. In many applications,
polypropylene will more than exceed the needs of the
system; however, if the media to be transported is at an
elevated temperature, PVDF may be required.
In general, PP systems are available in a larger
selection of sizes and pressure rating options. Refer to
Asahi/America’s ProVent® Dimensional Guide for the
availability of components.
Codes
For designing a ventilation system, the most pertinent
code is probably the fire code or the need for Factory
Mutual (FM) approval. ProVent® systems made of
polypropylene can be installed according to FM
regulations, and the final installed product will meet FM
requirements. The use of PP in systems requiring FM
approval will require the use of an internal sprinkler head
system. In case of a fire, the sprinkler system would
eliminate the possibility of the vent system spreading the
fire.
There are sprinkler systems on the market that are
specifically designed for this application, and they
dramatically reduce the installation labor, as well as
the required sprinkler head inspection process after
installation. Figure F-11 shows details of a typical flexible
sprinkler head and the mounting component offered by
Asahi/America.
Figure F-11. Detail of a flexible sprinkler head and
mounting component
PuradVent® PVDF is a material that is considered selfextinguishing. PVDF has significantly better smoke and
Outside
Diameter
2" Dia Hole
Sprinkler
Connection
Fitting
Flexhead® Exhaust Duct
Sprinkler Attachment
18"
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flame ratings than most other thermoplastic materials.
PVDF material offered by Asahi/America is an FM
approved material, according FM 4910 Standards.
Contact Asahi/America for further information on
installation requirements for PVDF systems. In addition,
Asahi/America has the test results on file for multiple
smoke and flame standards for both polypropylene and
PVDF.
In short, there may be a need or requirement for
internal closed-head sprinklers in a ProVent® system if
combustible materials can accumulate inside the pipe
line.
Layout Recommendations
Ventilation systems are often the most custom designed
of any pipe system in the factory. They are large in
diameter and generally need to be connected to multiple
equipment vents. Asahi/America offers a wide range of
standard components for assembling a system.
However, many systems cannot be accomplished using
standard components. A skilled installer can make
special fabrications in the field to accomplish the layout
requirement of a system. In addition, Asahi/America
can design and prefabricate pipe systems and ship
them ready for installation. Figure F-12 shows details
of a component that could not be made with standard
fittings but can easily be produced in Asahi/America’s
fabrication shop and shipped to the job site ready to be
installed.
Figure F-12 . Asahi/America prefabricated assembly
For more information on fabrication assistance, contact
Asahi/America’s Engineering Department.
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSVENTILATION
F-11
Thermal Expansion
Based on a system’s operating criteria, thermal
expansion must be considered. For systems maintained
at consistent temperatures, compensation for thermal
effects may not be required. However, it is important to
review all aspects of the operating environment. Certain
questions should be considered, such as:
• Is the system outdoors where it will be exposed to
changing weather?
• Is the system spiked with a high-temperature
cleaning solution?
• Will the system run at a significantly higher
temperature than the installation temperature?
The occurrence of any thermal change in a plastic
system will cause the material to expand or contract. As
an example of the effect, polypropylene will grow roughly
one inch for every 100 linear feet at 10° F ∆T.
Ventilation systems will often reach an equilibrium with
the temperature of the ambient environment. Therefore,
if the pipe is hung in a ceiling where the temperature
will vary in the summer and winter, the change in
temperature that most affects the pipe may be due to
the ambient temperature change rather than media
temperature change. This is almost always the case in
systems installed outdoors.
ProVent® systems can be used in hot applications and
in applications where the temperature is cyclical; it just
requires analysis of the thermal expansion effects. In
most cases, the use of expansions, offsets, and proper
hanging techniques is all that is required to ensure a
proper design.
Hot systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping, which, in turn, decreases the support spacing
between pipe hangers. In smaller dimensions, it is
recommended to use continuous support made of some
type of channel or split plastic pipe. Review hanging
requirements that are based on the actual operating
temperatures.
Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. Certain hangers should be used
as guides to allow the pipe to move back and forth inline, while other hangers should be anchoring locations
used to direct the expansion into the compensating
device. The anchors and hangers should be designed
to withstand the end-load generated by the thermal
expansion.
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UV Exposure
As a rule, PVDF material is UV resistant and can be
installed in direct exposure to sunlight without protection.
In certain applications with chlorine content, this may not
be true. Free-radical chlorine can cause a breakdown of
PVDF when exposed to UV light. For these applications,
it is best to protect the pipe by wrapping or insulating it.
Contact Asahi/America for information on chemicals that
can cause this effect.
Polypropylene is not 100 percent UV stable. Over time,
the outer surface of a standard gray polypropylene
pipe will change color and become brittle. The surface
becomes chalky to the touch. Generally, if the surface
is left untouched, the effect of the UV change will stop
and not continue through the pipe. A pipe with a heavy
wall thickness may not require protection, as the change
will only occur on the outermost surface. The effect on
the mechanical strength of the pipe will be minimal.
However, most ventilation systems operate at low
pressures and use thin-walled pipe for cost savings.
Therefore, the ProVent® PP, in most cases, should be
wrapped or protected from UV exposure.
Hanging
Because plastic reacts differently than metal, varying
hanger styles are required. The designer of a system
should specify the exact hanger and location instead of
leaving this portion up to the installer.
Consult Asahi/America’s Engineering Department for the
hanging distance required on ProVent® systems.
Welding Methods
There are several options for installing a ProVent®
system. Many projects will incorporate two or three
different joining techniques.
The methods are:
• Conventional butt fusion
• Hot air welding
• Extrusion welding
ProVent® is made to the same outer wall dimensions
(DIN Standards) as all other polypropylene and PVDF
pipe systems offered by Asahi/America. The same
butt fusion equipment and methodology can be used
to assemble these systems. Butt fusion provides full
pressure rated welds and offers a high degree of
reliability for ventilation welding. However, depending
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS VENTILATION
F-12
on the size of pipe and location of the welds, butt fusion
can be cumbersome. Conducting a weld in a ceiling of
24” pipe will be difficult and will consume a significant
amount of time to lift the pipe, the tool, and an operator
into position.
In many cases, it is recommended to prefabricate
a system on the ground or in a workshop and then
conduct final assembly using flange connections. In
addition to using flange connections for final hookup, couplings and slip flanges can be used. These
components can be hot air welded or extrusion welded,
depending on the size of the pipe and the required
system operating pressure.
Hand welding (hot air or extrusion welding) is
a convenient method for welding in place or in
prefabrication. The following is a detail of a slip
coupling being hand welded. This method, while
convenient, is highly reliant on an operator’s skill. Hot
air welding is simple and requires minimal practice to
become proficient; however, extrusion welding is more
complicated, and a more extensive training course is
required. Once these skills are mastered, they will prove
highly useful during installation. It is recommended on
all ProVent® projects to buy at least one hot air welding
tool, as there is always a need for it.
Figure F-13 . Weld option
COMPRESSED AIR
Compressed Air System Design
A compressed air system made of thermoplastic piping
is a simplified installation. The Air-Pro® system by
Asahi/America provides fast, safe installation with all of
the long-term corrosion resistance of plastics that are
ideal for air systems. This section reviews the necessary
items to consider when designing a compressed air
system. The topics covered are:
• Materials of construction
Hot Gas Weld
Single Bead ExtrusionBead
Slip Flange
Provent Pipe
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• Operating parameters, oils
• System sizing
• Thermal expansion
• Other considerations
• Hanging
• Welding methods
Materials of Construction
When designing a compressed air system, it is critical
to use materials that are manufacturer recommended
for the application. Only certain thermoplastics are
approved for use in compressed air applications due to
safety precautions that must be considered.
Thermoplastics, such as PVC, are not recommended for
use in compressed air applications due to their highly
crystalline structure. Under pressure, air will compress,
generating a high potential energy. In the event of a
failure, the release of the compressed air turns the
potential energy into kinetic energy, which releases at
high velocities as the air decompresses. Brittle materials
can shatter and break into fragments at the point of
failure. The plastic pieces that break off are dangerous
to surrounding personnel, causing injury and possible
death.
The use of Air-Pro® for compressed air service is
recommended by Asahi/America. The Air-Pro® system
was specifically designed for compressed air. The
material’s ductile nature makes it safe in the event
of any possible failure. In failure mode, the material
will stretch and tear, without the fragmentation of any
material. Air-Pro® is similar to copper pipe when it breaks
open due to failure in a frozen application. Air-Pro® has
been tested for impact failure at full pressure and at cold
temperatures, displaying safe ductile properties under all
conditions.
For compressed air systems, Air-Pro® is recommended.
Operating Parameters, Oils
Because thermoplastic systems have varying ratings at
different temperatures, it is important to design a system
around all of the parameters that it will be subjected to.
As a first pass, verify the following operating parameters:
• Continuous operating temperature
• Continuous operating pressure
• Oil to be used in compressor
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSCOMPRESSED AIR
F-13
By knowing the above parameters, thermoplastic pipe
systems can be selected. Compare the actual conditions
to the allowable ratings of the material being selected for
the job. It is important to predict elevated temperatures,
as thermoplastics have reduced pressure ratings at
higher temperatures. The Air-Pro® system is rated at
230psi at 68°F (20°C). Table F-1 lists correction factors
for higher temperatures.
Table F-1 . Air-Pro® Pressure Rating Correction
Factor
Multiply the standard rating of 230psi by the correction
factor that correlates with a system’s expected operating
temperature.
Valves should be verified separately from a piping
system in terms of temperature and pressure, as certain
styles and brands of valves have lower ratings than the
pipe system.
Finally, in compressed air systems, oil is used in the
compressor as a lubricant. Depending on the filter
and drying system, it is common for the oil to get into
the pipe system. With certain plastics, such as ABS,
synthetic oils can break down the plastic or the glue and
cause failures over time. For most mineral and synthetic
compressor oils, Air-Pro® is resistant to the effects of
the oil. For an exact recommendation, contact
Asahi/America’s Engineering Department to verify your
oil and application.
After verifying the standard operating conditions, it is
necessary to examine other operations that might affect
the piping. The following is a sample of questions to
investigate prior to specifying a material.
• Will there be spikes in temperature or pressure?
• Is there a cleaning operation that the piping will be
exposed to?
• If yes, what is the cleaning agent? What
temperature will the cleaning be conducted at?
• Will the system be exposed to sunlight or other
sources of UV?
Each of the previous questions should be answered,
Temperature Correction
F C Factor
68 20 1.00
86 30 0.88
104 40 0.79
140 60 0.65
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and the desired material should be checked for
suitability based on the above factors, as well as any
others that might be unique to the system in question.
System Sizing
Designing pipe lines for compressed air or gas
is considerably different from designing a noncompressible liquid system. Gases are compressible,
so there are more variables to consider. Designs
should take into account current and future demands
to avoid unnecessarily large pressure drops as a
system is expanded. Elevated pressure drops represent
unrecoverable energy and financial losses.
One advantage in designing an Air-Pro® system is its
smooth internal bore and resistance to corrosion in
moist environments, which means the material can be
used for years with extraordinarily low maintenance
and without increases in pressure drop common to
metal systems. Condensate and moist environments
cause most metal systems to scale, pit, and corrode,
resulting in an increased pressure drop. For Air-Pro®
piping, the roughness factor (C) of the pipe internals
is approximately 150 to 165. This factor is inversely
proportional to friction head losses. As C decreases,
system friction increases. Because Air-Pro® pipe is
resistant to corrosion, the roughness factor will not
decrease over time; therefore, the pressure drop will
not increase. Conversely, a carbon steel system with
an initial roughness factor of 120 will scale over time,
causing an increase in friction, increased pressure
drops, and greater demand on the air compressor unit.
Main Lines
Normal compressed air systems incorporate two types
of pipe lines when designed correctly: the main (or the
trunk) line and the branch lines. Main lines are used
to carry the bulk of the compressed gas. Undersizing
the main line can create large pressure drops and high
velocities throughout the system. In general, systems
should be oversized to allow for future expansion, as
well as reduce the demand on the compressor.
Oversizing the main line will be more of an initial capital
expense, but it can prove to be an advantage over time.
In addition to reducing pressure drop, the extra volume
in the trunk line acts as an added receiver, reducing the
compressor demand and allowing for future expansion.
Small mains with high velocities can also cause
problems with condensed water. High air velocities pick
up the condensed water and spray it through the line.
With a larger diameter, velocities are lowered, allowing
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS COMPRESSED AIR
F-14
water to collect on the bottom of the pipe while air flows
over the top. A generally accepted value for velocity
in the main line is 20 feet per second. It may also be
preferable to arrange the mains in a loop to have the
entire pipe act as a reservoir.
Figure F-14 . Main compressed air loop with
branches
To design the main line of a compressed gas system,
Equation F-1 has been developed:
Equation F-1 relates the pipe’s inside diameter (d) to
the pressure drop. In order to use the equation, certain
information must be known. First, the required air
consumption must be predetermined. Based on required
air consumption, a compressor can be chosen with an
output pressure rating (P). The length of the main pipe
line to be installed and the number of fittings in the main
line must also be known. For fittings, use Appendix A
to determine the equivalent length of pipe per fitting
style. The allowable pressure in the system has to be
specified. Typically, a value of 4psi or less is used as a
general rule of thumb for compressed air systems.
To summarize, the following data should be specified:
Goosenecks
d =
0.00067 L Q1.85 (F-1) DP P
Where: d = inside diameter (inches)
L = length of main line (ft)
Q = standard volumetric ow rate (make-up air)
P = output pressure from compressor (psi)
DP = allowable pressure drop (psi)
0.2
L = length of main line (ft)
Q = standard volumetric ow rate (make-up air)
P = output pressure from compressor (psi)
DP = allowable pressure drop (psi)
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Branch Lines
Lines of 100 feet or less coming off the main line
are referred to as branch lines. Because these lines
are relatively short in length and the water from
condensation is separated in the main lines, branches
are generally sized smaller and allow for higher
velocities and pressure drops.
To prevent water from entering the branch line,
gooseneck fittings are used to draw air from the top of
the main line, leaving condensed water on the bottom of
the main line.
Thermal Expansion
Based on your operating criteria, thermal expansion
may need to be considered. For systems maintained
at consistent temperatures, compensation for thermal
effects may not be required. However, it is important to
review all aspects of the operating environment, such
as:
• Is it outdoors where the pipe will be exposed to
changing weather?
• Is the system spiked with a high-temperature
cleaning solution?
• Will the system run at a significantly higher
temperature than the installation temperature?
The occurrence of any thermal change in a plastic
system will cause the material to expand or contract.
Thermoplastic systems can be used in hot applications
and in applications where the temperature is cyclical; it
just requires analysis of the thermal expansion effects.
In most cases, the use of expansions, offsets, and
proper hanging techniques is all that is required to
ensure a proper design.
Hot systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping, which, in turn, decreases the support spacing
between pipe hangers. In smaller dimensions, using
continuous supports made of some type of channel or
split plastic pipe is recommended.
Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. Certain hangers should be used
as guides to allow the pipe to move back and forth inline, while other hangers should be anchoring locations
used to direct the expansion into the compensating
device. The anchors and hangers should be designed to
withstand the thermal end load.
Other Considerations
UV Exposure
The Air-Pro® system is not rated for direct UV
exposure. In certain outdoor applications, wrapping
the pipe for protection is recommended. There are
a variety of methods to accomplish this wrapping.
Consult with Asahi/America’s Engineering Department
for recommendations on Air-Pro® in UV exposed
applications.
Insulation
Insulation is an effective method of protecting a pipe
system from UV exposure, as well as providing required
insulation for the system or media being transported. A
serious difference between plastic and metal is plastic’s
thermal properties. A metal pipe system will quickly
take the temperature of the media being transported.
A system carrying a media at 150°F (66°C) will have
an outer wall temperature close to or at 150°F (66°C).
In contrast, thermoplastics have an inherent insulating
property that maintains heat inside the pipe better than
a metal system. The advantage is that a plastic pipe has
better thermal properties, which translates into improved
operating efficiencies and reduced insulation thickness.
Direct Connection to a Compressor
As with any material, Air-Pro® has upper temperature
and pressure rating limitations. For the majority of
compressed air systems, Air-Pro® is ideal and meets the
requirements. One common concern with compressed
air systems is the temperature of the air directly leaving
the compressor. In many cases, this temperature is
extremely high and can exceed the rating of Air-Pro®.
In these locations, it is not recommended to directly
attach the Air-Pro® system to the compressor. Instead,
start the Air-Pro® system after a cooler or dryer, where
temperatures are lower. In between the compressor
and the dryer/cooler, use metal piping to handle the
higher temperatures. The length of metal pipe in these
locations is generally very short and should have
minimal effect on the air quality.
Hanging
Because plastic reacts differently than metal, varying
hanger styles are required. The designer of a system
should specify the exact hanger and location instead
of leaving this portion up to the installer. Use Table F-2
to determine the hanging distance required on Air-Pro®
systems.
F
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONSCOMPRESSED AIR
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In smaller dimensions, it may be advantageous to use a
continuous support for horizontal piping.
Table F-2 . Maximum Hanging Distances for Air-Pro®
Systems
Welding Methods
The system designer should specify the equipment
method to be used in any given project. The choice of
particular equipment should be based on the following
concerns:
• Installation location
• Size range
• System complexity
Socket fusion is ideal for small, simple, low-cost
systems. Socket fusion can be done quite easily with
a hand-held welding plate and a few inserts. With just
a limited amount of practice, an installer can make
safe and reliable joints. For larger dimensions, up to a
maximum of 4”, bench-style socket fusion equipment is
available for keeping joints aligned.
For systems that have dimensions above 4”, butt fusion
is a logical choice. Welding can take place in a variety
of climates and conditions. In addition, butt fusion offers
the widest variety of welding equipment options. Tools
are available for bench welding, trench welding, and
welding in the rack, making it completely versatile for
almost all applications.
Because Air-Pro® is available as a socket system from
1/2” to 4”, the only selection of equipment is between the
hand-held tool or the larger bench-style tool. However, if
a system is mostly pipe with long, straight runs, then the
use of butt fusion can be considered. Using butt fusion
on the pipe-to-pipe welds will reduce the amount of
welds, as well as decrease the need for coupling fittings
to connect the pipe. However, in these installations, two
welding methods on the job site are required: butt fusion
for the pipe and socket fusion for the fitting connections.
Pipe Size Support Spacing (ft)
(inches) 68°F (20°C) 104°F (40°C)
1/2 6.2 8.2
3/4 9.2 2.3
1 3.6 3.3
1- 1/4 6.3 1.4
1-1/2 1.4 5.4
2 5.1 4.6
3 8.4 8.1
SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS COMPRESSED AIR
F-16
F
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Section G
DESIGN &
PRESSURE TESTING
Contents
Single Contained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Double Contained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6
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SINGLE CONTAINED
Single Wall Chemical Pipe
System Design
When properly designing a single wall pipe system for
the transport of chemicals, several factors need to be
reviewed. A properly designed thermoplastic system will
provide years of reliable service without the headaches
of corrosion problems. At the time of design, consider
and plan for the following items:
• Materials of construction
• Thermal expansion
• System sizing
• UV considerations
• Insulation
• Hanging
• Welding methods
Materials of Construction
The first and foremost item in any system design (metal
or thermoplastic) is the media that will be running
through the pipes and parameters of operation. Using
accurate data for the system design will transfer to years
of reliable operation. When considering the system
design, answer the following questions:
• What chemical(s) will be in contact with the system?
• What are the chemical concentrations?
• At what temperature will the system operate?
• At what pressure will the system operate?
• What is the flow of the media in the system?
By answering these questions, the proper material
of construction can be selected for the project. A
thermoplastic system’s ratings for temperature and
pressure are based on water. The addition of certain
chemicals will add stress to the system and may
reduce the recommended operating parameters. For
less aggressive chemicals, use the printed resistance
tables available on our web site. For more aggressive
chemicals or mixtures of chemicals, the manufacturer of
the pipe system should be consulted.
After verifying the standard operating conditions, it is
necessary to examine other operations that might affect
the piping. The following is a sample of questions to
investigate prior to specifying a material.
• Will there be spikes in temperature or pressure?
G
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING SINGLE CONTAINED
G-2
• Is there a cleaning operation that the piping will be
exposed to?
• If yes, what is the cleaning agent? At what
temperature will the cleaning be conducted?
• Will the system be exposed to sunlight or other
sources of UV?
Each of these questions should be answered, and the
desired material should be checked for suitability based
on these factors as well as any others that might be
unique to the system in question.
Finally, in addition to verifying the temperature, pressure,
and media within the thermoplastic pipe material, it
is also necessary to verify other components in the
system, such as valves, gaskets, valve seat and seals,
etc. These should be examined in the same manner as
the pipe material.
Thermal Expansion
Based on your operating criteria, thermal expansion
may need to be considered. For systems maintained
at consistent temperatures, compensation for thermal
effects may not be required. However, it is important to
review all aspects of the operating environment, such
as:
• Is it outdoors where the pipe will be exposed to
changing weather?
• Is the system spiked with a high temperature
cleaning solution?
• Will the system run at a significantly higher
temperature than the installation temperature?
The occurrence of any thermal change in a plastic
system will cause the material to expand or contract. As
an example of the effect, polypropylene will grow roughly
one inch for every 100 linear feet and 10 ∆T.
Thermoplastic systems can be used in hot applications
and applications where the temperature is cyclical; it just
requires analysis of the thermal expansion effects. In
most cases, the use of expansions, offsets, and proper
hanging techniques is all that is required to ensure a
proper design.
Hot systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping, which, in turn, decreases the support spacing
between pipe hangers. In smaller dimensions, using
continuous supports made of some type of channel or
split plastic pipe is recommended.
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Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. Certain hangers should be used
as guides to allow the pipe to move back and forth inline, while other hangers should be anchoring locations
used to direct the expansion into the compensating
device. The anchors and hangers should be designed to
withstand the thermal end load generated by the thermal
expansion. Figure G-1 is an example of an anchor type
restraint fitting that is available from Asahi/America.
Figure G-1. Restraint fitting
System Sizing
When using any thermoplastic with a hazardous
chemical, it is recommended to maintain flow rates
below a velocity of 5 feet/second. High velocities can
lead to water hammer in the event of an air pocket in
the system. Water hammer can generate excessive
pressures that can damage a system. For safety
reasons, high velocities should be avoided.
In addition, high velocities also mean added pressure
drop, which, in turn, increases demand on the pump.
If the flow velocity is not required, it is recommended
to size a system with minimal pressure drop. It is also
recommended to oversize a design to allow for future
expansion or chemical demand. Once a system is in
place, it is difficult to add capacity to it.
UV Considerations
All thermoplastic materials react to the exposure of UV
differently. PVDF and E-CTFE materials are almost
completely UV resistant over the course of their design
life. However, certain chemicals containing Cl anions
exposed to UV light can create a free radical Cl, which
will attack the PVDF pipe wall.
Polypropylene is not UV stable. In direct exposure to
sunlight, it will break down. The effect can be seen in a
noticeable color change in the pipe. In a pigmented PP
system, the color change will actually create a protective
shield on the outer layer of the pipe and prevent further
degradation. For PP pipes with a wall thickness greater
G
SINGLE CONTAINED
G-3
than 1/4”, the effect of UV is reduced, so they can be
used outside. However, it is still recommended to protect
the pipes from UV exposure for added safety. Natural
PP will not self-create a UV shield as the pigment PP
does; therefore, UV protection is required all the time on
natural PP systems.
Other materials, such as HDPE, may or may not be UV
stabilized. PE containing carbon black is generally UV
stable and can handle direct exposure. Other HDPE
materials may require protection. Use of protection
should be based on the individual grade of the
polyethylene. Consult the manufacturer for details.
Insulation
Insulation is an effective method of protecting a pipe
system from UV exposure, as well as providing required
insulation for the system or media being transported. A
serious difference between plastic and metal is plastic’s
thermal properties. A metal pipe system will quickly
take the temperature of the media being transported.
A system carrying a media at 150°F (66°C) will have
an outer wall temperature close to or at 150°F (66°C).
In contrast, thermoplastics have an inherent insulating
property that maintains heat inside the pipe better than
a metal system. The advantage is that a plastic pipe has
better thermal properties, which translates into improved
operating efficiencies and reduced insulation thickness.
Hanging
Because plastic reacts differently than metal, varying
hanger styles are required. The designer of a system
should specify the exact hanger and location instead of
leaving this portion up to the installer.
Welding Methods
The system designer should specify the welding method
to be used in any given project. Asahi/America offers
several choices for joining PVDF and PP together. The
choice of a particular method should be based on the
following concerns:
• Installation location
• Size range
• System complexity
PVDF can be installed using butt fusion, IR fusion,
socket fusion, and beadless HPF fusion. All methods
are proven in chemical systems, and each has its
own advantages. Polyropylene is weldable using butt,
IR, or socket fusion. In addition, Asahi/America offers
electrofusion couplings for PP that are ideal for repairs.
Place Clamp Here
Butt End
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(Electrofusion PP couplings may have reduced chemical
resistance. Consult factory.) E-CTFE can be welded
using butt or IR fusion. It is recommended to assemble
Halar® with IR fusion, as special heating elements are
required for welding Halar® with conventional butt fusion
equipment.
Socket fusion is ideal for small, simple, low-cost
systems. In small diameters, 1/2” - 1-1/4” socket fusion
can be done quite easily with a hand-held welding plate
and a few inserts. With just a limited amount of practice,
an installer can make safe and reliable joints. For larger
dimensions, up to a maximum of 4”, bench-style socket
fusion equipment is available for keeping joints aligned.
For systems that have dimensions above 4”, butt and
IR fusion make a logical choice. Butt fusion is available
in every pipe size made available by Asahi/America.
Welding can take place in a variety of climates and
conditions. In addition, butt fusion offers the widest
variety of welding equipment options. Tools are available
for bench welding, trench welding, and welding in
the rack, making it completely versatile for almost all
applications.
IR fusion is available for welding 1/2” to 10”. IR is an
extension of the butt fusion method. The operation is the
same with the exception that the material being joined is
not in contact with the heat source. Rather, the material
is brought in close to the heating element, and the heat
radiates off to the components. The advantage of this
method for chemical systems is the elimination of molten
material sticking to the heat source.
IR fusion is better suited for indoor applications. IR
fusion equipment is highly sophisticated, providing the
operator with detailed information on the weld process
and quality. For critical applications with dangerous
media, IR fusion may be best suited due to the quality
assurance built into each piece of equipment.
Burial Practices for Single Wall Piping
When designing the underground burial of thermoplastic
piping, both static earth loads and live loads from traffic
must be taken into account. The static load is the weight
of the column of soil on the piping. The actual static
load that the pipe is subjected to is dependent on many
factors: the type of soil, the compaction of the soil, the
width and detail of the trench, and the depth that the
pipe is buried. The deeper the burial, the higher the load.
Burial of Single Wall Piping
G
SINGLE CONTAINED
G-4
Live loads decrease radially from the point at the
surface from which they are applied. Live loads will
have little effect on piping systems except at shallow
depths. Polypropylene, polyethylene, and PVDF are
flexible conduits. According to a basic rule of thumb, at
least two percent of deflection can be achieved without
any structural damage or cracking. When analyzing
a system for its capability of withstanding earth and
live loading, deflection under proposed conditions is
compared to maximum allowable deflection (five percent
for PP and PE and three percent for PVDF), and then
the adequacy is judged.
Determination of Earth Loads
The method for determining earth loads of a flexible
conduit is the Marston Theory of loads on underground
conduits. From the theory, it is concluded that the load
on a rigid conduit is greater than on a flexible conduit.
To determine the earth load on a flexible conduit, the
Marston equation for earth loads is used. The ratio
of the load on a rigid conduit to the load on a flexible
conduit is:
The theory implies that a trench width twice the width
of a conduit being buried will result in a load on a rigid
conduit twice that of a flexible conduit. Figure G-2
displays the dimensions indicated in Equation G-1.
(G-1)
Wc (rigid)
Wc (exible)
Bd Bc =
Wc = Cd w Bd Bc (G-2)
Where: Wc= load on conduit (lbs/linear ft)
w = soil density (lbs/ft3)
Bc = horizontal width of conduit (ft)
Bd = horizontal width at top of trench (ft)
Cd = load coecient
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Figure G-2 . Example of underground installation
The load coefficient (Cd) depends on the ratio of
the height of the fill to the trench width and can be
determined from the following equation:
From Equation G-3 , a larger load can be expected at
increasing widths. As trench width increases, this load
increases at a decreasing rate until a value as prism
load is attained. For most applications, this value can be
calculated as follows:
And prism load, expressed in terms of soil pressure, is
as follows:
G
SINGLE CONTAINED
G-5
Prism loading is the maximum attainable load in a
burial situation and represents a conservative design
approach. Due to the fact that frost and water action in
a soil may dissipate frictional forces of the trench, the
long-term load may approach the prism load. Therefore,
it is recommended that this load be considered when
designing an underground thermoplastic piping system.
Simplified Method for Burial Design
To properly determine the feasibility of thermoplastic
piping systems in a buried application, follow the steps
below. These steps will provide the proper design to
resist static soil loads.
Step 1.
Determine the soil load exerted on the pipe in lbs/linear
foot.
The following information is required:
Pipe Diameter: ______________________________
Soil Type: ______________________________
Trench Width: ______________________________
Burial Depth: ______________________________
It is critical to pay particular attention to the trenching
details. If proper trenching cannot be accomplished,
values for the load should be determined using the
prism load values.
Actual Soil Load: ___________________ per linear foot
Step 2 .
Determine the E’ Modulus of the soil.
E’ Modulus values are based on the soil type and the
proctor. If on-site conditions are not known, use a low
value to be conservative.
E’ = _________________________________________
Step 3 .
Determine the allowable load on the pipe.
The allowable load on the pipe is compared to the actual
load to determine the suitability of the burial application.
In addition, safety factors can be calculated. Allowable
loads are based on the pipe diameter, material, wall
thickness, and E’ Modulus. To determine the allowable
loads please contact Asahi/America Engineering
Department.
(G-3)Cd =
(1-e(-2KµH/Bd))
2Kµ
Where: e = natural logarithm base
K = Rankine’s ratio of lateral to vertical
pressure
µ
material and sides of the trench
Wc = H w Bc (G-4)
P = Wc H (G-4)
Where: P = pressure due to soil weight at
depth H (lbs/ft2)
H = height of ll (ft)
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Max allowable soil load _____________ per linear foot.
If the actual load is less than the allowable load, the
installation is acceptable, providing that a 2:1 safety
factor is present.
Safety Factor = Max allowable load/actual soil load.
SF = ________________________________________
If the maximum allowable load is less than the actual
load, changes will have to be made, such as burial
depth, trench details, or pipe wall thickness. The
allowable loads for Duo-Pro® pipe are based on an
allowable ring deflection of five percent for PP and
HDPE and three percent for PVDF.
Live Load Designs
For applications where live loads are present, a general
rule of thumb is to place the pipe five feet below the
source of the live load. If piping is only being exposed
to a live load for a short length of time and cannot be
placed five feet down, it may be advantageous to sleeve
the pipe through a steel pipe or enclose it in concrete.
In general, live loads should be added to static earth
loads to determine the total load exerted on the pipe
under site conditions. In Figure G-3, H2O highway
loading, the effects of live load and static earth loads
combined on a pipe can be viewed. In shallow depths,
shallower than the five-foot mark, the effect of traffic is
significant and needs to be added to the static load to
determine the effect. From the graph, it is demonstrated
that the effect of a live load becomes minimal at greater
depths. In all cases of static and live loads, consult
Asahi/America’s Engineering Department for assistance
on design.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-6
Figure G-3 . H2O highway loading
DOUBLE CONTAINED
Double Wall Chemical Pipe
System Design
Double containment piping systems are one of the
most economical and reliable methods for protecting
against primary piping leaks of corrosive or hazardous
fluids. The Duo-Pro® and Fluid-Lok® systems offered by
Asahi/America are the original and flagship products
of the industry. When designed and applied correctly,
the system can be expected to have a long service life
that often exceeds 50 years. Double contained systems
constructed from thermoplastic materials offer significant
cost savings and superior chemical resistance over
their metal counterparts. A combination of government
regulations, increased concern over environmental
and personal safety, and a growing fear of litigation
has hastened the development and improvement
of double contained piping components into highly
engineered systems. With over 25 years of experience
in thermoplastic double containment piping, no other
company can match Asahi/America’s experience and
quality.
Use this guide to assist in the design and layout of a
double wall pipe system for multiple applications. This
guide highlights the areas that an engineer should take
into consideration when designing a system.
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Vertical Soil Pressure (lbs/ft2)
H
ei gh t o
f C
ov er (f ee t) Source: American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC
Total load
(live and dead)
Live load applied on assumed area of 30 x 40
H20 live load
+ impact
Dead load = 120 lb/ft3
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Cost, reliability, and ease of installation can all be
improved by careful planning in the conceptual and
design phases of any piping project. For double
containment systems, the following items must be given
careful consideration:
• When to use double containment piping
• Materials of construction
• System selection
• System sizing
• Specialty fittings
• Double contained valves
• Thermal expansion (particularly important in
thermoplastic systems)
• Hanging
• Burial
• Welding methods
• UV exposure and weatherability
Leak detection is also an important part of double
containment systems. Leak detection of some sort
is required on all underground double containment
systems. The type of leak detection, the installation
method, and the system set-up are very different from
system to system. For this reason, leak detection will be
discussed separately later in this section.
When to Use Double Containment Piping
Underground EPA Requirements
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
adopted regulations on underground storage tanks
(USTs) and related piping. The EPA states that these
systems pose threats to the environment.
EPA regulation 40 CFR 280 spells out the minimum
requirements for USTs that contain petroleum or
hazardous chemicals.
A summary of the EPA’s requirements that affect double
containment piping follows.
This is a brief overview. A project engineer needs a
thorough understanding of the regulations prior to
designing a system.
EPA’s Regulations Cover:
Media: All chemicals listed under Subtitle 1 of 40 CFR
280.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-7
Systems: All USTs and related piping.
System requirements: All USTs and pipes must be
installed so that a release from the product pipe is
contained or diverted to a proper collection system.
Containment may be done via a trench, dike, or double
containment pipe and tanks. The containment materials
must be able to hold the leaking product for a minimum
of 30 days. By then, scheduled inspections and periodic
monitoring should identify the failure and correct the
situation.
Leak detection: Drainage and suction lines require
monthly manual inspections for product line leaks.
Pressurized systems require automatic monitoring
for product failure. In case of a leak, the system must
automatically restrict flow of the product.
Compliance dates: The EPA has set requirements
for the date of compliance for both new and existing
systems. Contact Asahi/America for the latest standard,
or visit the EPA’s web site at www.epa.org.
Above ground: In addition to the EPA requirements for
below grade systems, many companies have adopted
policies for overhead piping to protect personnel from a
possible leak of a harmful chemical.
Materials of Construction
The majority of double containment systems installed
worldwide are thermoplastic due to the ease of joining
and chemical resistance to hazardous media and
underground moisture. Asahi/America offers several
materials to handle a wide range of applications.
Materials include:
• Polypropylene
• PVDF
• E-CTFE: Halar®
• HDPE: High Density Polyethylene
The carrier pipe (the inner pipe also known as the
product pipe) material is selected based on common
piping practices using variables such as:
• What chemical(s) will be in contact with the system?
• What are the chemical concentrations?
• At what temperature will the system operate?
• At what pressure will the system operate?
• What is the flow of the media in the system?
By answering these questions, the proper materials
of construction for the carrier can be selected for the
project. To assist in the material selection, refer to the
chemical resistance tables in Section D. A thermoplastic
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system’s ratings for temperature and pressure are based
on water. The addition of certain chemicals will add
stress to the system and may reduce the recommended
operating parameters. For less aggressive chemicals,
the use of printed resistance tables is perfectly
suitable. For more aggressive chemicals or mixtures of
chemicals, the manufacturer of the pipe system should
be consulted.
After verifying the standard operating conditions, it
is necessary to examine other operations that might
affect the piping. The following is a sample of items to
investigate prior to specifying a material.
• Will there be spikes in temperature or pressure?
• Is there a cleaning operation that the piping will be
exposed to?
• If yes, what is the cleaning agent? At what
temperature will the cleaning be conducted?
• Will the system be exposed to sunlight or other
sources of UV?
Each of the previous questions should be answered,
and the desired material should be checked for
suitability based on the above factors, as well as any
others that might be special to the system in question.
Finally, in addition to verifying the temperature, pressure,
and media within the thermoplastic pipe material, it
is also necessary to verify other components in the
system, such as valves, gaskets, valve seat and seals,
etc. These should be examined in the same manner as
the pipe material.
Once the product pipe has been selected, the
containment pipe must be selected. In most cases,
the containment pipe is the same as the carrier pipe,
such as in polypropylene and HDPE systems. Using
the same material internally and externally yields
many time-saving advantages on a project. However,
in many systems where the product pipe required is a
more expensive material, such as PVDF or E-CTFE, a
polypropylene outer shell is often used.
Sizing the containment pipe requires the consideration
of many factors that are different than those used to size
the carrier.
These include:
• Static and live burial loading
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DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-8
• Leak detection requirements
• Hanging requirements for above-ground applications
• Physical space constraints
• Manufacturability and availability
• Operating pressure
When a double contained system is buried, the
containment pipe bears the static soil load and the
dynamic loading imposed by traffic, equipment, etc.
Section C provides a detailed discussion for calculating
static and dynamic loading to determine the required
wall thickness.
Leak detection requirements must also be considered.
Depending on the type of leak detection chosen, there
may be minimum requirements for the amount of
annular space necessary for successful installation and
operation. As a general rule of thumb, a minimum of
3/4” of annular space is required for the installation of
a continuous cable system. Leak detection options are
discussed in detail later in this section.
Hanging requirements and physical space constraints
are also important considerations. Often, trenches or
pipe racks are crowded with other systems, so the
containment must not be too large. The designer of a
system should specify the exact hanger location instead
of leaving this portion up to the installer.
Manufacturability and availability can also influence
the selection of containment pipe. There must
be adequate clearance between the carrier and
containment to facilitate efficient manufacturing. This
is especially important for the manufacturing of fittings.
Asahi/America has spent several years improving
fabrication techniques to offer the widest variety of sizes
in the marketplace. The designer should also be careful
to design with standard pipe sizes to avoid costly delays
due to lack of availability.
Operating pressure parameters may be quite different
for the containment pipe than for the carrier. Often,
systems are designed so that any leaks into the annular
space drain directly into a manhole or sump. In these
open-ended systems, it is virtually impossible to build
up significant pressure. As a matter of economy, the
containment pipe often has a lower pressure rating and
therefore a higher dimensional ratio than the carrier
pipe.
The final consideration when choosing the containment
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pipe is the environment in which it will be installed. Outer
UV exposure is not ideal for polypropylene systems, and
protection of the pipe may be required. If surrounding
temperatures are extremely low, then certain materials
will become brittle in the cold. Consult Asahi/America for
specific recommendations in these cases.
System Selection
As stated in the previous section, the material must
be selected based on the media to run through the
system, as well as the operating conditions such as
pressure, temperature, and media concentration. In a
double containment system, the selection of pipe and
associate pipe pressure ratings can be complex, as any
combination of material can be used. Table G-1 lists
possible pipe ratings that can be used for both the inner
and outer pipe wall.
Table G-1 . Pressure Ratings and SDR Values
In addition to all of the choices in material,
Asahi/America offers three systems for double
containment piping:
• Duo-Pro®
• Poly-Flo®
• Fluid-Lok®
Each system has its ideal purposes and advantages. A
description of the three systems follows.
Duo-Pro®
The Duo-Pro® system is the flagship of the Asahi/
America double containment piping system offerings.
Duo-Pro® is available in polypropylene, PVDF, E-CTFE,
and in any combination of the three. Duo-Pro® is
available in systems ranging from 1”x 3” to 18”x 24”. In
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-9
addition, larger systems have been made available on
request.
Duo-Pro® is a fabricated system made from extruded
pipe and primarily molded fittings. It has a complete
range of molded pressure fittings that are fabricated into
double containment fittings at the factory. In addition,
Duo-Pro® is ideal for drainage applications, having a
whole compliment of fittings for drainage applications.
It can be assembled using simultaneous butt fusion or
staggered butt fusion.
The Duo-Pro® system is assembled using a support
disc on each end of a pipe or fitting. The support disc
centers the carrier inside the containment and locks
the two pipes together for simultaneous fusion. On pipe
runs, the spider clip fitting is used to support the pipe
inside the containment piping. Spider clips are spaced
based on hanging criteria by size and material and are
designed to avoid the point loading of the pipes.
Figure G-4. Support discs and spider clip fittings
Per the EPA’s requirements, any double contained
system needs to have leak detection. The methods
of leak detection include manual inspection, low point
sensors, and continuous leak detection cable. The leak
detection cable is installed in between the annular space
between the inner and outer pipe. Duo-Pro® is designed
to provide sufficient space for the installation of a leak
detection cable. Contact Asahi/America technical staff
for an exact recommendation.
Figure G-5 . Duo-Pro® piping system
PRO 150 Polypropylene 150 SDR 11
PRO 90* Polypropylene 90 SDR 17
PRO 45 Polypropylene 45 SDR 33
PVDF 230 PVDF 230 SDR 21
PVDF 150 PVDF 150 SDR 11
HDPE 150 High Density PP 150 SDR 11
HDPE 90 High Density PP 90 SDR 17
HDPE 45 High Density PP 45 SDR 33
Halar® E-CTFE Non-Standard
* Available, but less common. ** Not all materials are available in every diameter size.
System Material** Pressure Standard
Name Rating (psi) Dimensional Ratio
Molded Fabricated Spider Clip
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
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Poly-Flo®
The Poly-Flo® system is a unique dual extruded and
molded system. In all other double containment pipe
systems, the inner and outer components are made
separately and then assembled into a double wall
configuration. This adds time and labor to each project.
The Poly-Flo® system produces both the inner and
outer piping at the same time. Asahi/America’s patented
extrusion process locks the pipe together by use of
continuous support ribs. In addition, most fittings in the
system are molded as single-piece components. The
only deviation is HDPE material, where many fittings are
fabricated from double wall pipe.
Poly-Flo® is available in 1”x 2”, 2”x 3”, and 4”x 6”.
(Consult Asahi/America for the availability of 6”x
8”.) Poly-Flo® is available in three materials: black
polypropylene (UV stabilized), PVDF, and HDPE. It is
a unique system, where the carrier pipe has an OD
consistent with IPS pipe, while the outer pipe is a jacket
not corresponding to an IPS dimension.
Poly-Flo® is assembled using simultaneous butt fusion
only. The system is available with manual and low- point
leak detection sensors only. The use of a leak detection
cable is not possible due to the limited annular space.
Figure G-6 . Poly-Flo® piping system
Fluid-Lok®
The Fluid-Lok® system is an all HDPE system. It is
manufactured in a similar process to the Duo-Pro®
system. Fluid-Lok® is available in many sizes, ranging
from 1”x 3” to systems as large as 36”x 42”.
Besides being an all HDPE system, Fluid-Lok® is
different than Duo-Pro® in that most fittings are
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-10
fabricated and not molded. Fabricated fittings are ideal
for the application of long sweep 90s and 45s, which are
often required in these systems. Fluid-Lok® is designed
to accommodate leak detection low-point sensors or
cable. In addition, HDPE manholes are available and
can be directly welded to the pipe system to avoid
unnecessary fittings and provide more consistency and
leak protection.
Figure G-7 . Fluid-Lok® piping system
The availability of many materials and three piping
systems creates many choices. Each system is
designed for specific applications and assembly
techniques. To assist in the proper selection of the
system, consider the following questions and answers.
Question/Answer
Q: Are you operating under pressure or drainage?
A: Pressure systems may need to have consistent
pressure rating fittings on both the carrier and
containment pipe. DWV fittings are not allowed in
pressure systems.
Q: Do you require consistent pressure ratings on the
carrier and containment?
A: If not, cost can be saved by using 150psi carrier
piping and 45psi containment piping.
Q: What material are you using?
A: Material requirements may determine the system
you can choose.
Q: Do you require continuous cable leak detection?
A: Only the Duo-Pro® and Fluid-Lok® systems can
accommodate cable systems.
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Based on knowing the operating parameters and the
desired material, one of the following systems can be
chosen for the installations.
Table G-2 . Double Containment Systems
System Sizing
It is recommended to maintain flow rates below a
velocity of 5 ft/second when using any thermoplastic with
a hazardous chemical. High velocities can lead to water
hammer in the event of an air pocket in the system.
Water hammers can generate excessive pressures
that can damage a system. For safety reasons, high
velocities should be avoided.
In addition, high velocities also mean added pressure
drop, which, in turn, increases demand on the pump.
If the flow velocity is not required, it is recommended
to size a system with minimal pressure drop. It is also
recommended to oversize a design to allow for future
expansion or chemical demand. Once a system is in
place, it is difficult to add capacity to it.
Specialty Fittings
Double containment systems, for the most part, can
be thought of in the same manner as single wall piping
systems with a few exceptions. In a double wall system,
the issue of thermal expansion is more complicated,
welding is similar but not the same, and the outer
containment pipe must have a start and stop.
The major fitting that sets Asahi/America systems apart
from all other double wall systems is the patented
Dogbone™ force transfer fitting. The Dogbone™ fitting
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DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-11
can be used in many ways to assist in the design of a
proper double containment piping system.
The Dogbone™ is used for:
• Locking the inner and outer pipes together
• Compartmentalizing pipe section
• Termination of the containment pipe
• Sensor installation
• Control of thermal expansion
Figures G-8 through G-11 depict a few uses of the
Dogbone™.
Figure G-8 . Outer containment termination
Figure G-9 . Locking inner and outer pipes
Dogbones™ are available in solid and annular forms.
A solid Dogbone™ does not allow the passage of fluid
in the annular space to pass through, while annular
Dogbones™ will allow the passage. The placement and
purpose of the fitting will determine the style required.
Dogbone™ fittings are available in the Duo-Pro® and
Fluid-Lok® systems. The Poly-Flo® system does not
require the fitting, as the pipe is continuously supported
and locked together.
Finally, the Dogbone™ can be used for connecting
low-point leak detectors, ventilation, and drainage.
When designing a double wall system, it is important
to incorporate high point vents to eliminate air from the
system. In addition, in the event of a leak, a drainage
PRO 150 x 150 Duo-Pro Polypropylene 1 x 3 to 16 x 20
PRO 150 x 45 Duo-Pro Polypropylene 2 x 4 to 18 x 24
PRO 45 x 45 Duo-Pro Polypropylene 4 x 8 to 18 x 24
PVDF x Pro 150 Duo-Pro PVDF x Polypro 1 x 3 to 12 x 16
PVDF x Pro 45 Duo-Pro PVDF x Polypro 2 x 4 to 12 x 16
PVDF x PVDF Duo-Pro PVDF x PVDF 1 x 3 to 8 x 12
Poly-Flo BPP Poly-Flo Black Polypropylene 1 x 2, 2 x 3, 4 x 6
Poly-Flo PVDF* Poly-Flo PVDF 1 x 2, 2 x 3
Poly-Flo HDPE Poly-Flo HDPE 1 x 2, 2 x 3, 4 x 6
HDPE SDR 21x21 Fluid-Lok HDPE 1 x 3 to 16 x 20
HDPE SDR 17x17 Fluid-Lok HDPE 3 x 6 to 18 x 24
HDPE SDR 17x33 Fluid-Lok HDPE 3 x 6 to 18 x 24
HDPE SDR 33x33 Fluid-Lok HDPE 3 x 6 to 18 x 24
Product System Material Size Range
Name Name** (inches)
* Consult factory for availability.
** Fluid-Lok is available in other SD ratios, as well as larger dimensions.
Dogbone
Dogbone
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method for the containment pipe is required. Connection
methods for these valve requirements are shown in
Figures G-10 through G-13.
Figure G-10 . Ventilation of inner pipe: Duo-Pro® and
Fluid-Lok®
Figure G-11 . Drainage of containment pipe: Duo-Pro®
and Fluid-Lok®
Figure G-12 . Ventilation of inner pipe: Poly-Flo®
system
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-12
Figure G-13 . Drainage of containment pipe:
Poly-Flo® system with low point sensor
Double Contained Valves
In pressurized systems, the necessity of valves can be
accomplished without interrupting the integrity of the
double containment system. Double contained valves
are available in many shapes and forms; they are also
available in any style valve, such as ball, butterfly,
diaphragm, check, and gate. The valve selected, based
on the application, determines the shape of the outer
containment.
The following figures demonstrate a few valve
configurations that are available from Asahi/America.
Other options are readily available on request.
Figure G-14 . Double contained ball valve with stem
Dogbone
Dogbone
Socket AdapterOuter Wall Reducer(if necessary)
Ball Valve
Outer Wall Adapter
1" x 2" Outer Wall
O Ring Flange
Float Switch Adapter
Float Switch
Signal Wires to
Control System
N/C Valve
Water Inlet
(for rinse-out)DrainageOutlet
N/C Valve
1" x 2" Outer Wall Flange
Outer Wall Reducer
(if necessary)
Dogbone Seal
Optional (2 sides)
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extension: Duo-Pro® system
Figure G-15 . Double contained ball valve without
stem extension: Poly-Flo® system
Figure G-16 . Double contained diaphragm valve with
stem extension: Poly-Flo® system
More than valves can be installed. Items such as flow
meters and temperature and pressure monitors can also
be incorporated into the internal containment portion
of the system. Contact Asahi/America’s Engineering
Department to discuss your particular needs. It is
important to specify and design in the need to access
valves for maintenance purposes.
Thermal Expansion
Based on your operating criteria, thermal expansion
may need to be considered. For systems maintained
at consistent temperatures, compensation for thermal
effects may not be required. In a double contained
piping system, three types of expansion can occur:
• The carrier pipe is exposed to thermal changes,
while the containment remains constant. This is
typically possible when the carrier pipe is exposed
to liquids of various temperatures, while the outer
containment is in a constant environment, such as in
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-13
buried applications.
• The containment piping experiences thermal
changes, while the carrier remains constant. The
typical application is outdoor pipe racking with
constant temperature media being transported in the
carrier.
• Both inner and outer pipes experience temperature
changes.
The Dogbone™ fitting is a proven and effective way to
control thermal expansion where a restrained system is
acceptable. It can also be used to direct the growth of
a flexible system. For systems maintained at consistent
temperatures, compensation for thermal effects may
not be required. However, it is important to review all
aspects of the operating environment, such as:
• Is it outdoors where it will be exposed to changing
weather?
• Is the system spiked with a high temperature
cleaning solution?
• Will the system run at a significantly higher or lower
temperature than the installation temperature?
The occurrence of any thermal change in a plastic
system will cause the material to expand or contract.
Thermoplastic systems can be used in hot applications
and applications where the temperature is cyclical; it just
requires analysis of the thermal expansion effects. In
most cases, the use of expansions, offsets, and proper
hanging techniques is all that is required to ensure a
proper design.
Hot systems also reduce the rigidity of thermoplastic
piping, which, in turn, decreases the support spacing
between hangers. In smaller dimensions, it is
recommended to use continuous supports made of
some type of channel or split plastic pipe.
Finally, the use of hangers as guides and anchors
becomes important. Certain hangers should be used
as guides to allow the pipe to move in-line, while other
hangers should be anchoring locations used to direct the
expansion into the compensating device. The anchors
and hangers should be designed to withstand the
thermal end-load.
In a buried system, the standard Dogbone™ fitting will
lock the inner and outer pipes together. The surrounding
ground and fill should eliminate the movement of the
Removable Cover
Dogbone Seal
Optional (2 sides)
Containment Box
Containment Box
Removable Cover Dogbone Seal
Optional (2 sides)
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outer pipe. In systems that are hung, the outer pipe
hanger must withstand the thermal end-load. To properly
hang these systems, a special Restraint Dogbone™ is
recommended at the hanger locations.
Figure G-17 . Dogbones™
Hanging
As in any thermoplastic system, the selection of hangers
is an important decision. Hangers that scratch or create
point loads on the pipe are not recommended. The ideal
hanger is a thermoplastic component. In many cases, an
all-plastic hanger may not be available. In these cases,
a metal hanger is acceptable, but precautions should
be taken. Any sharp edges on the hanger should be
removed. A cushion made of rubber is recommended
in the event that the pipe shifts because it will prevent
scratching.
Burial
Due to EPA requirements, the burial of double
containment piping is a common practice. In most cases,
the burial of a double wall pipe is the same as that of a
single wall pipe system. Careful consideration of the soil
type, compaction, trench detailing, back fill, load, etc. is
necessary when considering the proper design.
Live loads also pose the added complication when
burying a system. It is important to look at the possibility
of the pipe system being driven over, as well as the type
of vehicle that would be creating the live load.
In the design, it is imperative to call out the
recommendations of the burial in the details of the
drawing set. By calling these details out, the contractor
will be in a better position to properly install the pipe as
required.
Welding Methods
All double containment systems offered by Asahi/
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-14
America are available for butt fusion assembly. Butt
fusion provides reliable fusion, but it is also ideally suited
for the double wall system. By properly aligning the
carrier and containment piping with the support disc,
both the inner and outer pipe can be welded at the same
time. This reduces the assembly time, as well as the
need for extra fittings such as couplings. What can be
accomplished in one weld can take up to four welds in
other systems (weld the inner and outer separately on
either side of a coupling).
When building a system that is made of dissimilar
materials (example: PVDF x Pro 45), the pipes
cannot be welded simultaneously due to different heat
and joining force requirements. For these systems,
staggered welding is required, where the inner pipe is
welded first and the outer pipe welded second using
a special annular heating element. Staggered fusion
does take more time due to the extra welds, but it still
proves to be economical when compared to using
similar materials such as PVDF on both the carrier
and containment pipe, depending on pipe size, project
requirements, and installation environment.
UV Exposure and Weatherability
All thermoplastic materials react to the exposure
of UV differently. PVDF and E-CTFE materials are
completely UV resistant over the course of their design
life. However, certain chemicals containing Cl anions
exposed to UV light can create a free radical Cl that will
attack the PVDF pipe wall.
Polypropylene is not UV stable. In direct exposure to
sunlight, it will break down. The effect can be seen in
a noticeable color change in the pipe. In pigmented
PP systems, the color change will actually create a
protective shield on the outer layer of the pipe and
prevent further degradation. For PP pipes with a wall
thickness greater than 1/4”, the effect of UV is normally
reduced and can be used outside. However, it is still
recommended to protect it from UV exposure for added
safety.
The Fluid-Lok® HDPE material is UV stabilized.
Fluid-Lok® pipes contain carbon black to make the
material UV stable and acceptable for use in outdoor
applications. Other HDPE materials made by other
manufacturers may require protection. Be sure to
consult manufacturer prior to selecting a pipe system.
Leak Detection Design
In all buried applications of double containment piping,
Non-Restraint Restraint
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the EPA (40 CFR 280) has set a requirement for leak
detection. Drainage and suction lines require monthly
manual inspections for product line leaks. Pressurized
systems require automatic monitoring for product failure.
In case of a leak, the system must automatically restrict
the flow of the product.
Asahi/America’s systems are designed to accommodate
many different technologies for detecting a leak. The
following methods are acceptable:
• Low-point leak detection sensors
• Continuous leak detection cable systems
• Visual inspection (only acceptable on drainage
systems)
The selection of the leak detection system will play
a critical role in the layout of the piping system. For
instance, if a cable method is used, it will require
additional fittings, called access ports for pulling the
cable. Pipes and fittings will need to be ordered with
pull ropes installed at the factory. Finally, the placement
of the cable will need to be factored in. For some
installations, only the main trunk line will have cable; in
others, the cable will split and run up each of the branch
lines.
This guide has been created to assist in the pipe layout
and design of a leak detection system. Each type of
system is discussed in regard to its use in an Asahi/
America double containment piping system.
Low Point Leak Detection Sensors
Low point leak detection sensors can be used in any of
Asahi/America’s double wall systems:
• Poly-Flo®
• Duo-Pro®
• Fluid-Lok®
For the Poly-Flo® system, low-point sensors are the
only automatic system available.
Low-point leak detection is relatively straightforward
in terms of design. The sensing technology consists
of either capacitive or float-type switches. These
switches are placed in strategic locations throughout
a system to properly identify leaks and then determine
their location within a reasonable length of pipe. If an
insufficient amount of sensors is used and a leak occurs,
determining the location of that leak can be extremely
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-15
difficult, especially if the piping is buried. It is always
more practical to use a few more sensors at the time of
installation, as it could lead to huge cost savings in the
long run in the event of a system leak.
Mounting of the Sensor
Asahi/America pipe systems can accommodate
mounting sensors in a variety of different methods. In
some cases, it is ideal to place the sensor with as tight
of a profile to the pipe as possible; in other instances,
a low-point leak sensor installation may also require a
valve for drainage. When using low-point sensors in
below-grade applications, it is important that special
considerations are taken in the excavation to ensure that
the sensors are not damaged during installation or back
fill.
Figures G-18 through G-21 depict a few assemblies for
mounting low-point sensors into the annular space of a
double contained pipe system.
Figure G-18 . Drain and low-point Poly-Flo® system
Figure G-19 . Simple connection, Duo-Pro® FluidLok® systems
Outer Wall Adapter
1" x 2" Outer Wall
O Ring Flange
Float Switch Adapter
Float Switch
Signal Wires to
Control System
N/C Valve
Water Inlet
(for rinse-out)DrainageOutlet
N/C Valve
1" x 2" Outer Wall Flange
Outer Wall Reducer
(if necessary)
Dogbone
Low Point Sensor
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Figure G-20 . Connection with drain valve, Duo-Pro®/
Fluid-Lok® systems
Figure G-21 . End-of-line connection option, DuoPro® / Fluid-Lok® systems
Location of the Sensors
The location of the sensors should be based on finding
the leak with relatively no confusion. By placing the
sensors on the branch of tees or lateral (wye) type
connections, the line causing the leak is easily identified.
In addition, placing the sensor every 100 to 150 feet
reduces the area that would be in question if a leak was
to occur.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-16
Figure G-22 shows an example of a system and the
ideal locations for the low-point sensors.
Figure G-22 . Sample locations for low point sensors
Compartmentalizing the System
The practice of compartmentalizing the outer
containment pipe is in conjunction with the strategic
placement of sensors. Should a major leak were to
occur, it is possible that more than one sensor could
be tripped in a short time frame. If you have no way of
knowing which sensor tripped first, then the value of
multiple sensors is lost.
Using the Dogbone™ fitting, sections of the annular
space can be made into individual compartments. In the
case of a leak, the fluid will pass into the annular space,
but it will be locked into a compartment and not allowed
to spread throughout the system. This method has two
advantages: one helps to identify leak locations, and the
other reduces the need to dry out a large section of the
annular space once the leak is found and repaired.
Figure G-23 demonstrates the use of solid Dogbones™
to create compartments.
Figure G-23 . Leak detection compartments
Continuous Cable Leak Detection Systems
Continuous cable leak detection systems offer the
best method for locating a leak in the annular space
of a double containment pipe system. A cable system
can generally pinpoint the location of the leak with an
accuracy of ±0.5 feet. It can also incorporate low-point
Dogbone
Valve
Low Point Sensor
Dogbone
Low Point Sensor
Secondary
Containment
Tank
Primary
Tank
Sensor 1 Sensor 2
Sensor 3 Sensor 4
Dogbone DogboneSection with Leak
Low Point Sensor
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P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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probes to offer maximum flexibility to the designer.
Entire systems can be mapped out, installed, and fed
back to an easy-to-understand operating panel. Most
large systems use leak detection cable as the preferred
method for monitoring the system.
All pressure double wall pipe systems are required
to have automated leak detection in below-grade
applications. In these cases, cable is the recommended
method.
The discussion of leak detection cable is broken down
into two topics: the pipe layout requirements and the
electrical cable layout requirements.
Pipe Layout Requirements (Annular Space)
Leak detection cable can be used in the following
Asahi/America systems:
• Duo-Pro®
• Fluid-Lok®
Unfortunately, due to the narrow annular space in a
Poly-Flo® system, the cable cannot be pulled through the
system, eliminating its use. Continuous cable systems
require a minimum of 3/4” of annular space to pull cable
through easily. In Duo-Pro® and Fluid-Lok® systems,
certain pipe configurations can have small annular
space, making the cable pull difficult or impossible.
For instance, 1 x 3 Pro 150 x 150 Duo-Pro® systems
have a 0.813 space all around. After accounting for
the weld bead, the space will be lower than 0.75”. For
this application, 1 x 4 Pro 150 x 150 or 1 x 4 Pro 150
x 45 should be considered to ease the installation.
Consult Asahi/America’s Engineering Department for
the available annular space on Duo-Pro® systems and
Fluid-Lok® systems.
To clarify once again, for ease of installation, the annular
space needs to be a minimum of 3/4” to accommodate
easy cable pulls.
Pipe
There are no special requirements for pipe. Both the
Duo-Pro® and Fluid-Lok® systems are designed to
accommodate cable leak detection. Support discs on
the ends of pipe and fittings provide a wide opening on
the bottom of the pipe, as well as either cut outs or vent
holes in other sections, depending on the pipe size.
On pipe runs, the carrier pipe is supported by the use
of spider clips, which support the carrier pipe without
blocking the bottom of the annular space.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-17
Figure G-24 . Two typical end-of-pipe support discs
to accommodate leak detection
There are only two important items to keep in mind.
When ordering pipe, ensure that pull rope is ordered
to be installed on the pipe. The second is during
installation; it is critical to align the pipe and fittings
properly to ensure that support disc openings are
located on the bottom. Forgetting this can lead to
significant difficulty when trying to pull cable into the
system.
Access Points
Asahi/America offers a standard fitting for accessing the
annular space, known as the Access Tee or Pull Port
Tee. While it can be common practice in HDPE systems
to cut windows into the pipe to access the rope or cable
and then weld a saddle on afterward, this is not an
acceptable design. While it is possible to cut windows,
this should only be used when the rope or cable is
caught in the line and no other alternative is available.
Access tees are supplied with a low-pressure threadon cap; for full pressure rating on the outer wall pipe, a
flange and blind flange configuration is available.
Figure G-25 . Access tee with threaded cover
Figure G-26. Access tee with flanged cover
Molded Fabricated
Height can be variable
depending on burial depth
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
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Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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Access tees are supplied in two pieces, allowing the
installer to weld the proper pipe height to the tee base to
come up to grade.
Once the selection of the access tee style is determined,
the strategic location of the pull ports is required. In
general, pull ports should be located at no more than
500-foot intervals on straight runs. Each 90° change in
direction is approximately equal to 150 feet of straight
run. Pull ports should be installed to avoid binding the
pull rope. Access tees should also be placed at the
beginning and the end of branch locations requiring
cables. For tie-ins to the main cable, it is best to place
the access tee on the main run in front of the branch
location.
Figure G-27 shows a small schematic on a drainage
system and the proper location of the access port.
Figure G-27 . Pull port locations for leak detection
cable
Dogbones in a Cable System
In a double containment system, the Dogbone™ fitting is
used to lock the inner pipe together for proper restraint
or for the control of thermal expansion. Unlike lowpoint systems, creating compartments in the system is
not practical. If Dogbone™ fittings are required in the
system, the use of the annular style is required to allow
cable to pass through.
Figure G-28 . Annular Dogbone with cable
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-18
Sensor Cable Requirements
Sensor Cable
The proper selection of the sensor cable is imperative to
the successful operation of any leak detection system.
Most systems use a specially designed coaxial cable
for sensing leaks. Some cables are designed to sense
only water, others are designed to sense corrosive
chemicals, and some are designed to sense the
presence of hydrocarbons. There are also combinations
of these available that can sense corrosive water-based
liquids while ignoring hydrocarbons and vice versa;
in addition, there are some cables that can sense
water and hydrocarbons. These selections increase
the flexibility of system applications. The chemistry of
the media must be considered to ensure the proper
selection of the sensing cable.
Jumper Cable
Jumper cable is used to connect sensor cable segments
and probes together to form the sensing string. Jumper
cable is not affected by contact with water. However,
installation in conduit is recommended to prevent
physical damage. If needed, jumper cable can be
directly buried.
The Connectors
The cable connection is perhaps the most critical
component to a hassle-free commissioning of the
system. Factory training of all personnel installing
connectors is strongly recommended to save many
hours troubleshooting a system with poor connections.
The connectors are typically standard UHF coaxial cable
connectors that are connected together with an adapter.
Because there is the possibility of the connection
getting wet in the event of a leak, each connection
must be carefully sealed with shrink tubing upon the
commissioning of the system.
The Control Panel
The control panel is the heart of the leak detection
system. It is typically mounted in a location that is
convenient for an operator to monitor its status. The
control panel can be ordered in several configurations.
Some are multi-channel devices that are capable
of monitoring several systems simultaneously. Care
must also be taken to specify a panel that is capable
of monitoring the required length of sensor cable. The
control panel should have a visual readout of some
sort and a keypad for operation. It should also provide
provisions to interface with a computer to use diagnostic
and programming tools that are available.
Pull Port
Pull Port
Pull Port
Pull Port
Pull Port
Dogbone
Annular Openning
Cable
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
Figure G-29 . Layout of the cable with jumpers
Visual Inspection Monitoring
For drainage-only applications, an alternative method
to automated leak detection is manual inspection. As
long as monitoring can be accomplished every 30 days
and recorded, manual inspection is allowed. For manual
inspection, low-point drains are placed at collection
points in line as required. By designing in-wells, systems
can be opened and the annular space can be inspected
to sight a possible leak. Manual inspection can also
be accomplished at the end of the line. Figures G-30
and D-38 show two possible designs for manual leak
detection. Probes can also be placed in wells as a
manner of automated detection with a view point.
Figure G-30 . In-line inspection well
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-19
Figure G-31 . End-of-line inspection wall
Burial Practices for Double Wall Piping
The procedure is the same as that of a single wall
system. All calculations should be based on the outer
wall, containment, pipe OD, and wall thickness.
If leak detection cable is used on a buried double wall
system, it is necessary to calculate the actual deflection
and the resulting annular space to ensure that the cable
will have adequate clearance. See Figure G-32.
Figure G-32. Deflection of double contained pipe
The following formula is used to calculate deflection on
the containment pipe.
Access Port
Connector
Leak Detection Cable
Jumper Cable
Inner Carrier Pipe Not Shown
20 Feet
(at end)
Containment
Pipe
50 Feet
(at beginning)
Panel
Grade
Probe Option
Removable Cover
Leak
Detection
Cable
Deection of
Containment Pipe
Restricts Annular
Space
∆X =
(K WC r
3) (G-6) (E I + 0.061 E1r3)
Where: ∆X = horizontal deection based on
inside diameter (in)
DL = deection lag factor (use 1.5)
K = bedding constant (Appendix B)
WC = Marston load per until length of
pipe (lbs/linear in)
r = radius of pipe (in)
E = modulus of elasticity of pipe
materials (psi)
I = moment of inertia of the pipe wall
(in3 = t3/12 (App. A, Tables A-28 to A-32)
E1 = modulus of soil reaction (psi)
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. 2013-A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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Installation of a Buried System
These preparations can be used for either single wall or
double contained piping systems.
Trench Preparation – General
The recommended trench width for both single and
double wall can be found by adding one foot to the width
of the pipe to be buried. Larger trench widths can be
tolerated, but trench widths greater than the diameter
plus two feet typically produce large loads on the pipe.
For small diameter pipes (4” and less), smaller trench
widths are suggested. The important point to remember
is that the trench width at the top of the conduit is
the dimension that determines the load on the pipe.
Therefore, the sides of the trench can be sloped at an
angle starting above this point to assist with minimizing
soil loads in loose soil conditions (prior to compaction).
If the trench widths described are exceeded, or if the
pipe is installed in a compacted embankment, it is
recommended that embedment should be compacted to
2-1/2” pipe diameter from the pipe on both sides. If this
distance is less than the distance to the trench walls,
then the embedment materials should be compacted all
the way to the trench wall.
When installing long lengths of piping underground, it
may not be necessary to use elbows, as long as the
minimum radii of bending for specific diameters and wall
thicknesses are observed. If the soil is well compacted,
thrust blocks are not required. However, if changes of
directions are provided with tees or elbows, or if the
soil is not well compacted, thrust blocks should be
provided. The size and type of a thrust block are related
to maximum system pressure, size of pipe, direction
of change (vertical or horizontal), soil type, and type of
fitting or bend. To determine the thrust block area, it is
suggested that a geotechnical engineer be consulted
and soil bearing tests be conducted, if deemed
necessary.
If the bottom of the trench is below the water table,
actions must be taken to adequately correct the
situation. The use of well points or underdrains is
suggested in this instance, at least until the pipe has
been installed and backfilling has proceeded to the
point at which flotation can no longer occur. The water
in the trench should be pumped out, and the bottom of
the trench should be stabilized with the use of suitable
foundation material, compacted to the density of the
bedding material. In a double containment system,
annular spaces must be sealed to prevent water from
getting into the space.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-20
For unstable trench bottoms, as in muddy or sandy
soils, excavate to a depth of four to six inches below the
trench bottom grade, backfill with a suitable foundation
material, and compact to the density of the bedding
material. Be sure to remove all rocks, boulders, or
ledges within six inches in any direction from the pipe.
At anchors, valves, flanges, etc., independent support
should be provided by the use of a reinforcing concrete
pad poured underneath the pipe that is equivalent to five
times the length of the anchors, valves, or flanges. In
addition, reinforcing rods should be provided to securely
keep the appurtenance from shifting, thereby preventing
shearing and bending stresses on the piping. It is
strongly suggested that an elastomeric material be used
to prevent stress concentration loading on the piping
caused by the reinforcing rod.
Laying of Pipe Line and Backfilling Procedure
Caution must be exercised so that straight lengths
or piping prepared above ground does not exceed
the minimum bending radius of the piping. For a
given trench height, “h,” the minimum length of piping
necessary to overcome failure due to bending strain can
be determined by the following procedure.
Step 1 .
Determine trench height = “h.” This trench height will
equate to the offset value “A.”
Step 2 .
Determine Rb from longitudinal bending tables (see
Appendix A) for the pipe diameter to be laid.
Step 3 .
Determine the angle of lateral deflection (α).
Step 4 .
Determine the central angle β.
Step 5 .
Determine the minimum length “L” in inches.
A = 2Rb (sin Q)
2 (G-7)
(G-8)α = sin-1
h 2Rb ) 1/2 (
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
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P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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If the value determined in Step 5 is greater than the
entire length to be buried, due to a deep trench or short
segment, then the entire length should be lifted with
continuous support and simultaneously placed into the
trench.
If the pipe is pulled along the ground surface, be sure
to clear the area of any sharp objects. Some means to
prevent scarring to minimize soil friction should be used.
Because the allowable working stress at the pipe laying
surface temperature should not be exceeded, pulling
force should not exceed:
Because the soil will provide friction against a pipe
that is being pulled on the ground, a length “L” will be
achieved where the pipe can no longer be pulled without
exceeding the maximum allowable stress of the piping.
This length can be estimated by:
Muddy soil with a low coefficient of friction will allow for a
longer length to be pulled.
For small diameter pipes (2-1/2” and under), the pipe
should be snaked, especially if installed during the
middle of a hot summer day. The recommendations for
offset distance and snaking length should be observed,
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-21
as outlined in the Thermal Expansion section. It is
suggested that the laying of the pipe into the trench on
a summer day take place first thing in the morning to
minimize thermal contraction effects. For larger diameter
pipes with well-compacted soil, friction should prevent
pipe movement due to thermal expansion and minimize
the need for snaking, although it is still recommended.
The initial backfilling procedure should consist of filling
in on the sides of the piping with soil that is free of rocks
and debris. The filling should be compacted by hand
with a tamping device, ensuring that the soil is forced
under the pipe, and it should continue until a level of
compacted fill 6” to 12” above the top of the pipe is
achieved. This process should be performed in gradual,
consistent steps of approximately a 4” layer of fill at any
one time to avoid the arching effect of the soil. When
this procedure is accomplished, the final backfill can
proceed. With a soil that is free of large rocks or other
solids, the final fill can be accomplished.
Figure G-33 . Example of underground installation
The piping location should be accurately recorded at
this point, and it is suggested to place a conductive wire
or shield in the vicinity in order to locate the piping at a
later date by the use of an underground metal detector.
This will ensure that piping can still be located if the
installation plans are misplaced.
Figure G-34 . Illustration of terms relating to snaking
of pipe within a trench
L =
βRb (G-9) 57.3
Where: h = A = height of trench (in)
β = 2α = central angle (degrees)
Rb = radius of bending (in)
(Appendix A)
L = minimum laying length (in)
PF = SF x S x A (G-10)
Where: PF = maximum pulling force (lbs)
S = maximum allowable stress (psi)
A = cross-sectional area of pipe wall (in2)
SF = safety factor = 0.5
L =
2.3 SF S
(G-11) (μ cos Ø + sin Ø)
Where: L = maximum pulling length (feet)
S = maximum allowable stress (psi)
SF = safety factor = 0.5
μ = coecient of friction between
the soil and pipe wall
Ø = gradient (ground slope)
Pipe
Depth
Backll
85% Proctor
Sand
95% Proctor
Pea Gravel
9"
9"
6"
6"
6"
Offset
Offset
Snaking Length
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
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Filling the System
The piping should be capped off at the end of the spool
section to be tested and fitted with an adapter to allow
tie-in for testing. All flanges in the vertical position should
be left open at this point. Bleed off air through the relief
valves.
Introduce water very slowly into the system at the low
point. In no instance should the water velocity exceed
two feet per second. When the water fills all vertical
risers, the flanges can be resealed. The relief valves
should be left open until it is certain that all air is out of
the system.
The system can then be brought up to pressure through
gradual steps using a hand pump or other similar
equipment.
Do not use city water pressure to accomplish this step if
the water pressure in the city mains is greater than the
pressure test to be conducted.
Conducting the Test
The test should be done in gradual steps of 10psi for
Pro 150/PE 150, 5psi for Pro 45/PE 45, or 10psi for
PVDF until the desired pressure is achieved. There
will be some gradual drop in pressure due to natural
creep effects and elongation of the pipe wall. Also, there
could be some drop occurring due to thermal expansion
effects where there are sudden environmental
temperature changes.
After one hour, check the pressure gauge. If there is
a decrease without an indication of leakage, pump
the pressure back up to the test pressure. If the total
pressure drops more than 10 percent after the second
pressurization, the test can be considered a failed
test. Check the system for leaks or other problems.
Otherwise, continue the pressure test for a minimum of
two hours up to a recommended duration of 12 hours, or
as required by local code requirements.
Cyclic Hydrostatic Testing
In critical applications, the inner piping should be
tested hydrostatically for more than one cycle. To test
for more than one cycle, do not empty the system and
start over. Instead, drop the system pressure down to
below 5psi, and then raise it back to the desired test
pressure in gradual steps of 10 to 20psi. Follow the
same procedures as previously described. Repeat
this procedure for as many cycles as required up to a
maximum recommendation of seven cycles.
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-22
Note: Do not use fabricated drainage fittings in
pressurized systems where a pressure over 10 feet of
head is required. Use molded pressure fittings in these
applications.
Carrier Pipe, Drainage Systems
Inner piping that is intended for drainage service (10
feet of head or less) should be tested by implementing
a 10-foot standing water test. A 10-foot standing water
test consists of welding or attaching in some manner a
10-foot riser to the upstream (high end) of the system. It
is not unusual for there to be several high points (branch
connections) in a system. It is important that every riser
or branch connection be affixed with a 10-foot riser in
order to ensure that every point in the system will see 10
feet of head. In fact, at the low point, the system will see
a pressure equal to 10 feet of head plus the value of the
elevation change. A maximum of 20 feet of head must
not be exceeded in a drainage system.
To consider a standing water test acceptable, the water
level after 12 hours should be at a level equal to the
level at the start of the test, minus normal evaporation
and expansion due to temperature fluctuations.
Compressed air or gas should not be used for pressure
testing of any carrier pipe in excess of 10psi.
Containment Pipe, Pressure Systems
If outer piping is designed and required to withstand the
same pressure as the inside piping, then a hydrostatic
pressure test should be conducted for both inner and
outer pipes. This is for situations where the inner
pipe pressure is greater than 10 psi. It is important to
remember that when the annular space is pressurized
during this situation, two pipes are involved. A plastic
pipe is always less capable of withstanding external
pressure than internal pressure. The inner pipe should
be kept full of water at a pressure equal to the pressure
test of the outer pipe.
Equal pressure on the carrier and containment is
necessary for the following reasons:
1. To prevent possible collapse of the inner piping
during the test.
2. Both the inner and outer piping will elongate equally,
therefore minimizing any differential stress or stress
buildup between the two pipes.
3. In the event of a carrier failure, the containment
piping must handle the same pressure as the carrier.
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The inner pipe will continue to pressurize the outer
pipe until the two reach an equilibrium.
Filling the System
The outer piping can be filled after the inner test is
conducted or at the same time as the inner pipe. The
system should be filled in the exact same way as
described for pressurized carrier pipe.
Do not use city water pressure to accomplish this step if
the water pressure in the city mains is greater than the
pressure test to be conducted.
In many cases, it is not an advantage to conduct a
hydrostatic test on the annular space, as it is very
difficult to dry the space after the test. An air test can
be used as an alternative. The pressure should be no
higher than 10psi, and extra safety precautions must
be made for surrounding personnel. In all cases, the
ambient temperature should be above 32°F (0°C) .
The carrier pipe should also be filled with water and
pressurized any time a test is conducted on the annular
space.
Conducting the Test
Testing is conducted on the containment in the same
manner as the carrier. The test should be done in
gradual steps of 10psi for Pro 150/PE 150 or 5psi for
Pro 45/PE 45 until the desired test pressure is achieved.
There will be some gradual drop in pressure due to
natural creep effects and elongation of the pipe wall.
Also, there could be some drop occurring due to thermal
expansion effects where there are sudden ambient
changes.
After one hour, check the pressure gauge. If there is
a decrease without an indication of leakage, pump
the pressure back up to the test pressure. If the total
pressure drops more than 10 percent after this second
pressurization, the test can be considered a failed test.
Check the system for leaks or other problems. In larger
systems and pipelines exposed to large changes in
temperature, it may take several tries to get the pressure
to remain constant. Otherwise, continue the pressure
test for a minimum of two hours up to a recommended
duration of 12 hours. A cyclic hydrostatic test as
described previously for the inner pipes may be used
where appropriate.
Note: Do not use fabricated drainage fittings in
pressurized systems where a pressure exceeding 10
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-23
feet of head is required. Use molded pressure fittings in
these applications.
Containment Pipe, Drainage Systems
Outer piping that is intended for drainage capability (10
feet of head or less) or that is flowing open- end should
be tested by implementing a 10-foot standing water test.
It should be noted that the carrier pipe pressure must be
maintained equal to the outer pipe pressure at all points
in order to prevent the inner pipe from collapsing. Pro
45/PE 45 inside carrier pipe is common in some largediameter systems, such as drainage mains. In order
to test these systems, special consideration must be
given to ensure that the inner pipe is kept under equal
pressure with the outer pipe.
The standing water test should be conducted in the
same manner as the inside pipes. A riser should be
attached to every vertical riser equal to 10 feet, and
the system should be filled with water. The level should
be checked after 12–18 hours. If no fluid has escaped
(minus normal evaporative losses and expansion due to
temperature fluctuation), the test should be considered
successful. It should be noted that the total of the
change in elevation plus 10 feet should not exceed the
sum of 20 feet.
In order to avoid trapping fluid in the annular space, a
low-pressure compressed air or nitrogen test (≤10 psi)
may be used. Note that if this type of test is used, the
carrier inner pipe must be filled with fluid and kept to
at least the level of the pressure in the annular space
to prevent collapse. If this type of test is used, it is
required to “soap” each joint thoroughly to check for
visual leaks. In addition, the pressure gauge must also
be checked after 2–12 hours for indication . Again, any
time compressed air is used, extra safety precautions
should be taken. Air tests should be done at 32° F (0°C)
or higher ambient temperature.
Annular Test, Drainage Systems
The purpose of the annular test is to test both the carrier
and containment simultaneously. For low-pressure
drainage systems, an annular test can be conducted to
reduce test time. This type of test can only be used on
drainage systems using a Pro150 carrier.
Cap off the carrier and containment pipe, and provide
a pressure gauge on each. Using low-pressure
compressed air (≤10 psi), charge the annular space.
In a tight system, the containment gauge should read
10psi (minus losses due to creep), and the carrier gauge
DESIGN & PRESSURE TESTING
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P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
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should be zero. If there is a leak in the containment
piping, the containment gauge will begin to drop.
However, if there is a leak in the carrier piping, the inner
piping will become pressurized. See Figure F-98 for
typical test results. Pressure should be maintained on
the system for 2–12 hours to ensure against a possible
slow leak.
Figure G-35 . Annular pressure test leak indications
G
DOUBLE CONTAINED
G-24
0
0
10
10
0
0
10
10
(a) Leak Out of Containment Pipe (b) Leak In to Carrier Pipe
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ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-1
Appendix A
SYSTEM TABLES
Contents
Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-2
Pressure Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-2
PVDF 150 (SDR 33), PVDF 230 (SDR 21) App. A-2
PP 45 (SDR 32.5), PP 150 (SDR 11), . . App. A-2
and (SDR 32.5), PE 80 (SDR 11) . . . . . . . App. A-2
Air-Pro/PE 100 (SDR 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-2
Halar/E-CTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-2
External Support Spacing: Single Wall Pipe . . . App. A-3
Pro 150, Pro 45, Purad PVDF, . . . . . . . . . .App. A-3
Air-Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-4
External Support Spacing: Double Wall Pipe . .App. A-4
Duo-Pro, Fluid-Lok, Poly-Flo, . . . . . . . . . .App. A-4
Internal Support Spacing: Double Wall Pipe . .App. A-5
Duo-Pro, Fluid-Lok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-5
Long-Term Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-5
PP, PVDF, E-CTFE, HDPE . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-5
Bending Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-6
Single Wall, Double Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-6
Burial Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-7
Max. Allowable Soil Load: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-7
Pro 150, Pro 45, PVDF, Duo-Pro . . . . . . .App. A-7
Max. Allowable Soil Load: Double Wall Pipe . App. A-7
Fluid-Lok, Poly-Flo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-7
Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-8
Pressure Drop Versus Flow: Single Wall Pipe .App. A-8
Pro 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-8
Pro 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-9
PVDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-10
Poly-Flo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-11
Eq. Length of Fittings: Single & Double Wall . . . App. A-12
Proline and Duo-Pro, Poly-Flo, Air-Pro . . App. A-12
Dimensional Pipe Data . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-13
Pro 150, Pro 90, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-13
Pro 45, PVDF, Poly-Flo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-14
HDPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-15
Air-Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-16
Annular Spacing: Duo-Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-16/17
Vacuum Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-17
Heat Loss per Linear Foot . . . . . . . . . App. A-18
Purad PVDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-18
Proline Pro 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-19
Proline Pro 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-20
Spiral Factor/Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-20
Valve Heat Loss Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-20
Heat Gain per Linear Foot . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-21
Pro 150 in Still Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. A-21/25
Pro 150 in Moving Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-26/30
Pro 45 in Still Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-31/34
Pro 45 in Moving Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. A-35/37
Table App. A-3 Permissible Operating Pressures for HDPE Pipe (psi)
1820 58 73 90 100 113 125 145 180 215 303
1730 55 69 86 96 108 119 138 170 207 288
1600 51 64 80 90 100 110 128 160 190 267
1520 48 60 76 85 95 105 122 150 182 253
1390 44 56 70 77 87 96 111 140 167 232
1260 40 50 63 70 79 87 101 125 150 210
1130 36 45 57 63 71 78 90 113 135 188
1000 32 40 50 56 63 69 80 100 120 167
900 28 36 45 50 56 62 72 90 108 150
800 25 32 40 45 50 55 64 80 96 133
50
60
73.4
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Temperature Hydrostatic Design Basis Pipe Standard Dimension Radio (SDR)
(° F) (psi) SDR 32.5 SDR 26 SDR 21 SDR 19 SDR 17 SDR 15.5 SDR 13.5 SDR 11 SDR 9.3 SDR 7.0
A
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ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A
PRESSURE RATINGSAPPENDIX A
App. A-2
Table App. A-1 Permissible Operating Pressures for Purad PVDF Pipe and Fittings (bar)
1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 20 Years 50 Years
PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF PVDF
Temperature 150 230 150 230 150 230 150 230 150 230
(° C) SDR 33 SDR 21 SDR 33 SDR 21 SDR 33 SDR 21 SDR 33 SDR 21 SDR 33 SDR 21
13 20 12 18 11 18 11 17 10 16
10 16 10 15 9 15 9 14 8 13
9 14 9 14 9 14 9 14 9 14
7 12 7 11 6 10 6 10 6 9
6 10 6 9 5 9 5 8 5 8
5 9 5 8 4.5 7 4 7 4 7
4.5 7 4.5 7 4 6 3.5 6 3.5 6
4 6.5 4 6 3.5 5.5 3 5 3 5
3.5 6 3 5 3 5 2.5 4.5 2.5 4
3 5 3 4.5 2.5 4.5 2.3 4 1.8 3.5
2.8 4.5 2.5 4 2 4 2 3.5 1.7 3
2.5 4 2 3.5 1.5 3.5 1.5 3 1.5 2.5
2 3.5 1.5 3 1.3 3 1.3 2.5 1 2
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Table App. A-2 Permissible Operating Pressures for Polypropylene Proline Pro 150 and Proline Pro 45 (psi)
1 Year 5 Years 10 Years 25 Years 50 Years
Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro
Temperature 45 150 45 150 45 150 45 150 45
(° C) SDR 32.5 SDR 11 SDR 32.5 SDR 11 SDR 32.5 SDR 11 SDR 32.5 SDR 11 SDR 32.5
58 180 52 168 53 165 51 156 45 150
49 154 46 145 46 141 45 136 44 133
45 133 41 125 41 122 36 113 35 104
36 113 34 104 32 99 29 90 26 70
30 96 26 81 24 75 21 64 18 55
26 78 20 61 18 55 15 46 15 46
20 61 15 46 13 41 12 38 — —
13 41 10 32 8 26 — — — —
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
95
150
SDR 11
Pro
Table App. A-4. Air-Pro Pressure
Rating Correction (PE 100 SDR 7)
Temperature Correction
° F ° C Factor
68 20 1.00
86 30 0.88
104 40 0.79
140 60 0.65
For a given operating temperature, multiply the norminal
pressure rating by the correction factor to determine the
maximum rated operating pressure.
Table App. A-5. Halar/E-CTFE Pressure Rating Correction
* Drainage pressure only.
Temperature Correction
° F ° C Factor
68 20 1.00
83 30 0.90
104 40 0.82
121 50 0.73
140 60 0.65
158 70 0.54
Temperature Correction
° F ° C Factor
176 80 0.39
194 90 0.27
212 100 0.20
256 125 0.10
292 150 *
340 170 *
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ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-3
SUPPORT SPACINGS APPENDIX A
A
1/2 3 2.5 2.5 2 2 2 2
3/4 3 3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2
1 3.5 3 3 3 3 2.5 2.5
11/2 4 3.5 3 3 3 3 3
2 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 3 3
21/2 5 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 3
3 5.5 5 4 4 4 3.5 3.5
4 6 5 5 4 4 4 4
6 7 6 6 5 5 4.5 4.5
8 7.5 7 6 6 5.5 5 5
10 8.5 7.5 7 6.5 6 6 5.5
12 9.5 8.5 8 7 7 6.5 6
14 10 8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5 6.5
16 10.5 9.5 8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5
18 11.5 10 9 8.5 8 7.5 7
Nominal
Diameter 68° F/ 86° F/ 104° F/ 122° F/ 140° F/ 158° F/ 176° F/
(inches) 20° C 30° C 40° C 50° C 60° C 70° C 80° C
2 2.5 2.25 2.25 2 1.5 1.5 1.5
21/2 2.75 2.5 2.25 2.25 2 1.5 1.5
4 3.5 2.75 2.75 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25
6 4 3.5 3.5 2.75 2.75 2.5 2.5
8 4 4 3.5 3.5 3 2.75 2.75
10 4.5 4 4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3
12 5 4.5 4.5 4 4 3.5 3.5
14 5.5 4.5 4.5 4 4 3.5 3.5
16 6 5 4.5 4 4 4 3.5
18 6.5 5.5 5 4.5 4.5 4 4
20 6.5 6 5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4
24 7.5 6.5 5.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4
Nominal
Diameter 68° F/ 86° F/ 104° F/ 122° F/ 140° F/ 158° F/ 176° F/
(inches) 20° C 30° C 40° C 50° C 60° C 70° C 80° C
1/2 3 2.5 2.5 2 2 2 2
3/4 3 3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2
1 3.5 3 3 3 3 2.5 2.5
11/2 4 3.5 3 3 3 3 3
2 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 3 3
21/2 5 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 3
3 5.5 5 4 4 4 3.5 3.5
4 6 5 5 4 4 4 4
6 7 6 6 5 5 4.5 4.5
8 7.5 7 6 6 5.5 5 5
10 8.5 7.5 7 6.5 6 6 5.5
12 9.5 8.5 8 7 7 6.5 6
Nominal
Diameter 68° F/ 86° F/ 104° F/ 122° F/ 140° F/ 158° F/ 176° F/
(inches) 20° C 30° C 40° C 50° C 60° C 70° C 80° C
Table App. A-6. Proline Pro 150 Support Spacing (feet)*
Table App. A-7. Proline Pro 45 Support Spacing (feet)*
Table App. A-8. Purad PVDF Support Spacing (feet)*
* Above values are based on water with specific gravity = 1.0. Correction factors must be used for denser fluids
as follows: 0.90 for S.G. = 1.5, 0.85 for S.G. = 2.0, 0.80 and for S.G. = 2.5.
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ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-4
SUPPORT SPACINGSAPPENDIX A
A
1/2 2.8 2.6
3/4 3.2 2.9
1 3.6 3.3
11/4 4.1 3.6
11/2 4.5 4.1
2 5.1 4.6
3 8.4 8.15
Nominal
Diameter 68° F/ 104° F/
(inches) 20° C 40° C
Table App. A-10. Double Containment External Support Spacing (inches)*
Containment Size Duo-Pro HDPE / Fluid-Lok
(nom inches) PRO 150 PR0 45 PVDF SDR 11 SDR 17 SDR 32
3 72 NA 124 55 48 10
4 96 70 130 60 55 20
6 108 80 144 70 68 35
8 112 86 157 80 79 48
10 118 98 165 90 87 58
12 125 110 165 100 94 65
14 137 125 NA 107 100 70
16 150 140 NA 115 106 77
18 NA 148 NA 122 112 80
20 NA 148 NA 130 117 85
24 NA 170 NA NA 125 93
* Support spacing is based on S.G. of 1.0. Corrections factors must be used for denser fluids as follows:
0.90 for S.G.=1.5, 0.85 for S.G.=2.0 and 0.80 for S.G.=2.5.
Support spacing based on water at 68° F. Corrections factors must be used for elevated temperatures.
Refer to Table A-13.
Table App. A-11 Poly-Flo External Support Spacing (inches)*
Size BPP PVDF HDPE
1x2 65 66 81
2x3 78 80 100
4x6 112 114 NA
6x8 121 124 NA
* Support spacing is based on S.G. of 1.0.
Correction factors must be used for denser fluids
as follows: 0.90 for S.G. =1.25, 0.85 for S.G. =1.50,
0.75 for S.G. =1.75, 0.70 for S.G. =2.00.
Support spacing based on water at 68° F.
Corrections factors must be used for
elevated temperatures. Refer to Table App. A-13.
Table App. A-9. Air-Pro Support
Spacing (feet)
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Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-5
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-13. Double Containment Support Spacing
Temperature Correction Factors for Duo-Pro and Fluid-Lok
Temperature (° F) PP PVDF Halar® HDPE
73 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
100 0.94 0.85 0.85 0.95
140 0.86 0.71 0.71 0.86
180 0.76 0.64 0.64 NA
200 NA 0.50 0.50 NA
240 NA 0.30 0.30 NA
280 NA NA 0.20 NA
Table App. A-12. Double Containment Internal Support Spider
Clip Spacing (inches)*
Carrier Size Duo-Pro HDPE / Fluid-Lok
(nom in) Pro 150 Pro 45 PVDF Halar® SDR11 SDR17 SDR32
1 42 NA 42 44 30 NA NA
2 54 NA 54 59 42 36 NA
3 66 NA 66 69 48 42 36
4 72 42 72 72 54 48 42
6 84 48 84 NA 66 60 54
8 90 48 90 NA 78 72 60
10 102 54 102 NA 84 78 66
12 114 60 114 NA 96 84 72
14 120 66 NA NA 102 90 78
16 126 72 NA NA 108 96 84
18 138 78 NA NA 114 102 90
20 NA 78 NA NA 120 108 96
* Support spacing based on water at 68° F. Correction factors must be used for elevated temperatures.
Refer to Table App. A-13.
Temperature
PP PVDF Halar® HDPE(° F)
73 26,100 98,000 88,000 30,000
100 21,025 87,000 78,300 —*
140 16,025 54,000 48,600 —*
180 10,000 40,000 36,000 NA
200 NA 31,000 28,000 NA
240 NA 25,000 22,500 NA
280 NA 17,000 15,000 NA
*For conservative estimate use value @ 73° F.
Table App. A-14. Long-Term Modulus of Elasticity (psi)
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Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-6
BENDING RADIUSAPPENDIX A
A
1 x 3 NA 608 NA 669 608 NA
2 x 4 744 744 NA 818 744 744
3 x 6 1081 1081 1081 1198 1081 1081
4 x 8 1352 1352 1352 1186 1352 1352
6 x 10 1691 1691 1691 1858 1691 1691
8 x 12 2131 2131 2131 2342 2131 2131
10 x 14 2402 2402 2402 NA NA NA
12 x 16 2707 2707 2707 NA NA NA
14 x 18 3045 NA 3045 NA NA NA
16 x 20 3384 NA 3384 NA NA NA
18 x 24 4262 NA 4262 NA NA NA
20 x 24 4262 NA 4262 NA NA NA
Table App. A-16. Allowable Bending Radius-Double Wall (inches)
Size PRO 150 x 45 PRO 150 x 150 PRO 45 x 45 PVDF x PVDF PVDF x PRO 150 PVDF X PRO 45
Pro 150 (SDR 11) 30 x Outside Diameter 75 x Outside Diameter
Pro 90 (SDR 17) 30 x Outside Diameter 75 x Outside Diameter
Pro 45 (SDR 33) 60 x Outside Diameter 150 x Outside Diameter
Table App. A-15. Allowable Bending Radius-Proline
Polypropylene (inches)
Proline 20° C (68° F) 0° C (32° F)
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Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-7
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-17. Max Allowable Soil Load for PP, PVDF,
and Duo-Pro* (lbs per linear ft)
Size Material Soil Modulus (E')
200 psi 400 psi 700 psi 1000 psi
Pro 150 749 847 995 1144
2 Pro 45 138 251 422 592
PVDF 386 495 659 824
Pro 150 897 1015 1191 1367
2.5 Pro 45 165 300 502 704
PVDF 245 379 581 782
Pro 150 1047 1189 1400 1612
3 Pro 45 196 358 601 844
PVDF 270 432 675 918
Pro 150 1272 1445 1704 1963
4 Pro 45 243 440 737 1034
PVDF 341 538 835 1132
Pro 150 1870 2121 2497 2874
6 Pro 45 349 637 1069 1500
PVDF 484 772 1204 1635
Pro 150 2319 2633 3104 3576
8 Pro 45 435 795 1336 1876
PVDF 599 959 1499 2040
Pro 150 2913 3305 3894 4483
10 Pro 45 546 996 1671 2346
PVDF 754 1204 1880 2555
Pro 150 3657 4151 4894 4636
12 Pro 45 687 1254 2105 2957
PVDF 948 1515 2367 3218
14
Pro 150 4106 4664 5501 6338
Pro 45 776 1415 2375 3334
16
Pro 150 4625 5254 6197 7140
Pro 45 870 1591 2673 3754
18
Pro 150 5219 4926 6987 8047
Pro 45 981 1792 3008 4225
20 Pro 45 1088 1989 3341 4693
24 Pro 45 1376 2511 4213 5914
Size 200 (psi) 400 (psi) 700 (psi) 1000 (psi)
1 x 2 399 449 524 599
2 x 3 749 847 995 1144
4 x 6 1047 1189 1400 1612
Table App. A-19. Maximum Allowable Soil Load
for Poly-Flo Pipe (lbs per linear ft)
Soil Modulus (E')
Table App. A-18. Maximum Allowable Soil Load for
Fluid-Lok Double Containment HDPE Pipe
Max Burial Depth, ft Max Deflection, %
SDR
in dry soil of 100 lbs/cu ft Max External Pressure, psi after installation
Soil Modulus, psi* Soil Modulus, psi* Soil Modulus, psi*
1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 3000
32.5 25 32 37 17 22 26 1.7 0.9 0.6
26.0 33 45 52 23 31 36 2.3 1.2 0.8
21.0 46 61 71 32 42 49 3.2 1.6 1.1
19.0 52 69 81 36 48 56 3.6 1.8 1.2
17.0 61 121 181 42 84 126 4.2 2.1 1.4
15.5 56 112 168 39 78 117 3.9 2.0 1.3
13.5 49 98 147 34 68 102 3.4 1.7 1.1
11.0 39 78 117 27 54 81 2.7 1.4 0.9
9.3 33 68 101 23 47 70 2.3 1.2 0.8
8.3 30 61 89 21 42 62 2.1 1.1 0.7
7.3 26 52 79 18 36 55 1.8 0.9 0.6
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ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-8
FLUID DYNAMICSAPPENDIX A
A
1
1.
17
2
2.
34
5
5.
64
7
8.
18
10
11
.7
0
39
.1
2
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
12
5
15
0
17
5
20
0
25
0
30
0
35
0
40
0
45
0
50
0
60
0
70
0
80
0
90
0
10
00
20
00
25
00
50
00
75
00
Ta b le A
p p . A
-2
0.
P
ro lin
e P
ro 1
50
V
el o ci ti es a nd P
re ss ur e D
ro p s 12
.2
0
9.
31
8.
13
2.
49
3.
85
0.
40
2.
46
0.
13
1.
58
0.
05
0.
99
0.
01
9.
75
3.
50
4.
62
0.
57
2.
95
0.
19
1.
89
0.
08
1.
19
0.
02
0.
94
0.
01
11
.4
0
4.
64
5.
39
0.
75
3.
44
0.
26
2.
21
0.
09
1.
39
0.
03
1.
09
0.
02
6.
16
0.
97
3.
94
0.
32
2.
52
0.
11
1.
59
0.
03
1.
25
0.
02
Fl o w R
at e (g p m )
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
0
.5
5
0.
68
0.
15
0.
39
0.
04
0.
24
0.
01
1
.9
9
1.
37
0.
54
0.
78
0.
14
0.
49
0.
04
0.
32
0.
02
10
.8
4
3.
42
2.
95
1.
95
0.
75
1.
22
0.
24
0.
79
0.
08
0.
50
0.
03
0.
35
0.
01
0.
24
0.
01
20
.2
1
4.
79
5.
51
2.
72
1.
39
1.
71
0.
45
1.
11
0.
10
0.
70
0.
05
0.
49
0.
02
0.
34
0.
02
6
.8
5
10
.6
6
3.
89
2.
70
2.
45
0.
87
1.
58
0.
30
1.
00
1.
01
0.
70
0.
04
0.
49
0.
03
10
.3
0
22
.5
9
5.
64
5.
72
3.
67
1.
85
2.
37
0.
64
1.
49
0.
21
1.
05
0.
09
0.
73
0.
06
0.
49
0.
01
7.
78
9.
74
4.
90
3.
15
3.
16
1.
09
1.
99
0.
36
1.
41
0.
15
0.
97
0.
10
0.
65
0.
02
9.
73
14
.7
2
6.
12
4.
77
3.
95
1.
64
2.
49
0.
54
1.
76
0.
23
1.
22
0.
13
0.
81
0.
03
11
.7
0
20
.6
3
7.
34
6.
68
4.
74
2.
30
2.
99
0.
75
2.
11
0.
32
1.
46
0.
17
0.
98
0.
05
8
.5
7
8.
89
5.
53
3.
07
3.
49
0.
10
2.
48
0.
43
1.
70
0.
23
1.
14
0.
06
0.
54
0.
01
9
.7
8
11
.3
8
6.
32
3.
92
3.
98
1.
27
2.
81
0.
55
1.
94
0.
28
1.
30
0.
08
0.
62
0.
02
11
.0
0
14
.1
6
7.
11
4.
88
4.
48
1.
59
3.
18
0.
68
2.
19
0.
34
1.
48
0.
10
0.
69
0.
02
7.
90
5.
93
4.
98
1.
93
3.
52
0.
83
2.
43
0.
47
1.
63
0.
13
0.
77
0.
03
9
.4
8
8.
31
5.
98
2.
71
4.
22
1.
16
2.
92
0.
63
1.
95
0.
18
0.
92
0.
03
0.
59
0.
01
11
.1
0
11
.1
0
6.
97
3.
60
4.
92
1.
54
3.
40
0.
81
2.
28
0.
24
1.
08
0.
04
0.
69
0.
02
7.
97
4.
61
5.
62
1.
97
3.
89
1.
00
2.
60
0.
30
1.
23
0.
05
0.
79
0.
02
8.
96
5.
73
6.
33
2.
46
4.
38
1.
22
2.
93
0.
38
1.
39
0.
06
0.
89
0.
03
9.
96
6.
97
7.
03
2.
99
4.
86
1.
84
3.
25
0.
46
1.
54
0.
07
0.
98
0.
03
12
.5
0
10
.5
0
8.
79
4.
52
8.
08
2.
58
4.
08
0.
89
1.
92
0.
11
1.
23
0.
04
0.
79
0.
01
10
.6
0
6.
33
7.
29
3.
43
4.
88
0.
07
2.
31
0.
18
1.
48
0.
05
0.
95
0.
02
8.
51
4.
39
5.
69
1.
29
2.
69
0.
21
1.
72
0.
07
1.
10
0.
02
9.
72
6.
64
6.
50
1.
65
3.
08
0.
27
1.
97
0.
09
1.
26
0.
03
6
.9
3
1.
20
4.
43
0.
40
2.
84
0.
14
1.
78
0.
04
1.
40
0.
03
1.
11
0.
01
7
.6
9
1.
46
4.
92
0.
49
3.
15
0.
16
1.
98
0.
05
1.
56
0.
03
1.
23
0.
02
9
.2
3
2.
04
5.
90
0.
69
3.
78
0.
23
2.
38
0.
07
1.
87
0.
04
1.
48
0.
02
1.
17
0.
01
10
.8
0
2.
75
6.
89
0.
92
4.
41
0.
31
2.
78
0.
10
2.
19
0.
06
1.
72
0.
03
1.
36
0.
02
7.
87
1.
17
5.
04
0.
40
3.
17
0.
13
2.
50
0.
07
1.
97
0.
04
1.
55
0.
02
8.
85
1.
45
5.
67
0.
49
3.
57
0.
16
2.
81
0.
09
2.
21
0.
05
1.
75
0.
03
9.
84
1.
78
6.
30
0.
60
3.
97
0.
19
3.
12
0.
11
2.
46
0.
06
1.
94
0.
03
12
.6
0
2.
17
7.
93
0.
70
6.
24
0.
39
4.
82
0.
22
3.
89
0.
13
9.
92
1.
07
7.
80
0.
59
6.
15
0.
33
4.
86
0.
19
12
.3
0
1.
20
9.
72
0.
68
14
.6
0
1.
43
1 /
2
3 /
4
1
11
/4
11
/2
2
21
/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
V
=
V
el oc ity
o f w
at er in ft /s ; P
=
P
re ss ur e d ro p in p si /1
00
ft o f p
ip e b as ed u p on t he H
az en a nd W
ill
ia m s m et ho d , u
si ng C
=
1
50
in E
q ua tio
n C
-2
0.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-9
FLUID DYNAMICS APPENDIX A
A
Fl o w R
at e (g p m )
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
5 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
12
5
15
0
17
5
20
0
25
0
30
0
35
0
40
0
45
0
50
0
60
0
70
0
80
0
90
0
1,
00
0
2,
00
0
2,
50
0
5,
00
0
7,
50
0
10
,0
00
Ta b le A
p p . A
-2
1.
P
ro lin
e P
ro 4
5
Ve lo ci ti es a nd P
re ss ur e D
ro p s V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
0.
38
0.
01
0.
53
0.
03
0.
37
0.
01
0.
76
0.
05
0.
53
0.
02
0.
37
0.
01
1.
13
0.
10
0.
80
0.
05
0.
55
0.
02
1.
51
0.
18
1.
07
0.
08
0.
74
0.
03
0.
50
0.
01
1.
89
0.
27
1.
34
0.
12
0.
92
0.
05
0.
62
0.
02
2.
27
0.
38
1.
60
0.
16
1.
11
0.
08
0.
74
0.
03
2.
64
0.
51
1.
87
0.
22
1.
29
0.
09
0.
87
0.
03
3.
02
0.
65
2.
14
0.
28
1.
48
0.
11
0.
99
0.
04
3.
40
0.
81
2.
40
0.
35
1.
66
0.
14
1.
12
0.
05
3.
78
0.
99
2.
67
0.
42
1.
84
0.
17
1.
24
0.
06
4.
53
1.
38
3.
20
0.
59
2.
22
0.
24
1.
49
0.
09
0.
70
0.
01
5.
29
1.
84
3.
74
0.
79
2.
59
0.
32
1.
74
0.
12
0.
82
0.
02
6.
04
2.
35
4.
27
1.
03
2.
96
0.
41
1.
99
0.
16
0.
94
0.
03
6.
80
2.
93
4.
80
1.
26
3.
33
0.
52
2.
23
0.
19
1.
05
0.
03
7.
55
3.
56
5.
34
1.
53
3.
69
0.
62
2.
48
0.
24
1.
17
0.
04
9.
44
5.
38
6.
68
2.
34
4.
62
0.
94
3.
10
0.
36
1.
46
0.
08
0.
93
0.
01
8.
01
3.
24
5.
54
1.
33
3.
72
0.
50
1.
76
0.
08
1.
12
0.
03
9.
35
4.
31
6.
47
1.
76
4.
34
0.
67
2.
05
0.
11
1.
31
0.
03
0.
84
0.
01
10
.6
8
5.
53
7.
39
2.
26
4.
96
0.
86
2.
34
0.
14
1.
50
0.
03
0.
96
0.
02
9.
24
3.
41
6.
20
1.
29
2.
93
0.
21
1.
87
0.
05
1.
20
0.
02
11
.0
8
4.
78
7.
44
1.
81
3.
51
0.
29
2.
24
0.
07
1.
44
0.
03
8.
68
2.
42
4.
10
0.
39
2.
62
0.
10
1.
68
0.
04
1.
06
0.
01
9.
93
3.
09
4.
68
0.
50
2.
99
0.
13
1.
92
0.
06
1.
21
0.
02
11
.1
7
3.
84
5.
27
0.
62
3.
37
0.
16
2.
16
0.
07
1.
36
0.
02
1.
07
5.
85
0.
75
3.
74
0.
19
2.
40
0.
09
1.
51
0.
03
1.
19
0.
02
7.
02
1.
05
4.
49
0.
26
2.
87
0.
12
1.
81
0.
04
1.
43
0.
02
1.
12
0.
01
8.
19
1.
40
5.
24
0.
36
3.
35
0.
15
2.
11
0.
05
1.
66
0.
03
1.
31
0.
02
9.
36
1.
79
5.
98
0.
45
3.
83
0.
20
2.
41
0.
08
1.
90
0.
04
1.
50
0.
02
V
=
V
el oc ity
o f w
at er in ft /s ; P
=
P
re ss ur e d ro p in p si /1
00
ft o f p
ip e b as ed u p on t he H
az en a nd W
ill
ia m s m et ho d , u
si ng C
=
1
50
in E
q ua tio
n C
-2
0.
1
0.
53
2.
23
6.
73
0.
56
4.
31
0.
26
2.
71
0.
08
2.
14
0.
05
1.
68
0.
03
1.
30
0.
01
1
1.
70
2.
71
7.
48
0.
68
4.
79
0.
31
3.
02
0.
10
2.
38
0.
06
1.
87
0.
03
1.
48
0.
02
1.
20
0.
01
14
.9
6
2.
47
9.
58
1.
11
6.
03
0.
36
4.
75
0.
20
3.
74
0.
11
2.
96
0.
06
2.
39
0.
04
1.
51
0.
01
11
.9
6
1.
68
7.
54
0.
55
5.
94
0.
31
4.
67
0.
17
3.
69
0.
10
2.
99
0.
06
1.
89
0.
02
11
.8
8
1.
10
9.
35
0.
61
7.
39
0.
35
5.
98
0.
21
3.
77
0.
07
14
.0
0
0.
30
11
.0
0
0.
74
8.
97
0.
44
5.
66
0.
14
14
.8
0
1.
26
12
.0
0
0.
75
7.
55
0.
24
2
21
/2
3
4
6
7
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-10
FLUID DYNAMICSAPPENDIX A
A
Fl o w R
at e (g p m )
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
1 2 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
12
5
15
0
17
5
20
0
25
0
30
0
35
0
40
0
45
0
50
0
60
0
70
0
80
0
90
0
10
00
20
00
25
00
50
00
Ta b le A
p p . A
-2
2.
P
ur ad P
V
D
F
Ve lo ci ti es a nd P
re ss ur e D
ro p s V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
V
P
1.
01
0.
38
0.
58
0.
1
0.
36
0.
03
0.
21
0.
01
2.
02
1.
36
1.
17
0.
37
0.
71
0.
11
0.
42
0.
03
0.
27
0.
01
5.
06
7.
42
2.
92
2.
01
1.
78
0.
60
1.
06
0.
17
0.
67
0.
06
0.
41
0.
02
7.
09
13
.8
0
4.
09
3.
74
2.
49
1.
11
1.
49
0.
32
0.
94
0.
10
0.
57
0.
03
0.
38
0.
01
10
.1
3
26
.8
0
5.
84
7.
24
3.
55
2.
16
2.
12
0.
62
1.
35
0.
20
0.
81
0.
06
0.
54
0.
02
8.
76
15
.3
0
5.
33
4.
57
3.
19
1.
31
2.
02
0.
43
1.
22
0.
13
0.
81
0.
05
0.
4
0
11
.7
0
26
.1
0
7.
10
7.
79
4.
25
2.
24
2.
69
0.
74
1.
62
0.
21
1.
07
0.
08
0.
6
0
8.
88
11
.8
0
5.
31
3.
37
3.
37
1.
11
2.
03
0.
32
1.
34
0.
12
0.
79
0.
04
0.
50
0.
01
10
.7
0
16
.5
0
6.
37
4.
73
4.
04
1.
46
2.
43
0.
45
1.
61
0.
17
0.
99
0.
06
0.
62
0.
02
7.
43
6.
30
4.
71
2.
08
2.
84
0.
60
1.
88
0.
22
1.
19
0.
08
0.
74
0.
03
8.
50
8.
06
5.
38
2.
66
3.
24
0.
78
2.
15
0.
29
1.
39
0.
11
0.
87
0.
03
9.
56
10
.0
0
6.
06
3.
31
3.
65
0.
96
2.
42
0.
36
1.
59
0.
14
0.
99
0.
04
10
.6
2
12
.2
0
6.
73
4.
02
4.
05
1.
17
2.
69
0.
43
1.
79
0.
17
1.
12
0.
05
9.
93
3.
09
4.
10
0.
39
2.
62
0.
13
1.
92
0.
06
1.
06
0.
01
11
.2
0
3.
84
4.
68
0.
49
2.
99
0.
16
2.
16
0.
07
1.
21
0.
02
5.
27
0.
61
3.
37
0.
20
2.
40
0.
08
1.
36
0.
02
5.
85
0.
75
3.
74
0.
25
2.
87
0.
12
1.
51
0.
03
7.
02
1.
05
4.
49
0.
35
3.
35
0.
16
1.
81
0.
03
8.
19
1.
40
5.
24
0.
47
3.
83
0.
20
2.
11
0.
05
9.
36
1.
79
5.
98
0.
60
4.
31
0.
26
2.
41
0.
06
10
.5
0
2.
23
6.
73
0.
75
4.
79
0.
31
2.
71
0.
08
7.
48
0.
91
9.
58
1.
11
3.
02
0.
10
15
.0
0
3.
29
12
.0
0
1.
68
6.
03
0.
36
7.
54
1.
97
15
.1
0
1.
97
V
=
V
el oc ity
o f w
at er in ft /s ; P
=
P
re ss ur e d ro p in p si /1
00
ft o f p
ip e b as ed u p on t he H
az en a nd W
ill
ia m s m et ho d , u
si ng C
=
1
50
in E
q ua tio
n C
-2
0.
0.
01
0.
02
8.
08
5.
63
4.
86
1.
64
3.
22
0.
60
1.
99
0.
21
1.
24
0.
06
0.
70
0.
02
9.
42
7.
49
5.
67
2.
18
3.
76
0.
80
2.
38
0.
29
1.
49
0.
09
0.
82
0.
02
10
.8
0
9.
60
6.
48
2.
79
4.
30
1.
03
2.
78
0.
39
1.
74
0.
12
0.
94
0.
03
7.
29
3.
47
4.
83
1.
28
3.
18
0.
49
1.
99
0.
16
1.
05
0.
03
8.
10
4.
22
5.
37
1.
55
3.
57
0.
61
2.
23
0.
19
1.
17
0.
04
0.
75
0.
01
10
.1
3
6.
38
6.
71
2.
35
4.
96
0.
74
2.
48
0.
24
1.
46
0.
06
0.
93
0.
02
8.
06
3.
29
5.
96
1.
13
3.
10
0.
36
1.
76
0.
08
1.
12
0.
03
9.
40
4.
37
6.
95
1.
58
3.
72
0.
50
2.
05
0.
10
1.
31
0.
03
0.
96
10
.7
0
5.
60
7.
94
2.
10
4.
34
0.
85
2.
34
0.
14
1.
50
0.
04
1.
20
11
.9
0
9.
06
6.
20
1.
81
2.
93
0.
21
1.
87
0.
07
1.
44
7.
44
2.
41
3.
51
0.
29
2.
24
0.
10
1.
68
0.
01
0.
02
0.
03
0.
04
1 /
2
3 /
4
1
11
/4
11
/2
2
21
/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-11
FLUID DYNAMICS APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-23. Poly-Flo Friction Losses and Pressure Drops (per 100 ft of pipe)*
1 x 2 2 x 3 4 x 6
Flow Friction Loss Pressure Drop Friction Loss Pressure Drop Friction Loss Pressure Drop
(gpm) (ft of water) (psi) (ft of water) (psi) (ft of water) (psi)
1 0.10 0.04
2 0.37 0.16
3 0.78 0.34
5 2.00 0.87
7 3.73 1.61 0.13 0.06
10 7.21 3.12 0.25 0.11
15 15.29 6.62 0.54 0.23
20 26.04 11.27 0.92 0.40
25 39.37 17.04 1.38 0.60 0.05 0.02
35 73.42 37.78 2.58 1.12 0.09 0.04
50 142.14 61.53 4.99 2.16 0.17 0.07
75 10.58 4.58 0.36 0.16
100 18.03 7.80 0.62 0.27
150 38.20 16.54 1.31 0.57
250 98.38 42.59 3.37 1.46
500 12.18 5.27
750 25.82 11.18
1000 43.98 19.04
1250 66.49 28.78
1500 93.20 40.34
*Note: Units shown are for specific gravities of working fluids less than or equal to 1.0. Correction factors for more dense
fluids are as follows: 0.90 for SG = 1.25, 0.85 for SG = 1.50, 0.75 for SG = 1.75, 0.70 for SG = 2.00.
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
FLOW RATE (gal/min)
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
D
R
O
P
(p si )
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 400 800 1200 1600
FLOW RATE (gal/min)
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
D
R
O
P
(p si )
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
FLOW RATE (gal/min)
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
D
R
O
P
(p si )
Table App. A-24. Poly-Flo Pressure Drops (per 100 ft of pipe)
1 x 2 Inch Pipe 2 x 3 Inch Pipe 4 x 6 Inch Pipe
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-12
FLUID DYNAMICSAPPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-26. Equivalent Lengths for
Poly-Flo Fittings (for friction loss in ft)
Equivalent Length (feet)
Description 1 x 2 2 x 3 4 x 6
90° Elbow 5.0 10.0 N/A
90° Elbow, Long Sweep N/A 8.6 12.4
45° Elbow 1.7 4.3 6.2
Tee, Side Outlet 4.0 8.0 16.0
Tee, Straight Flow 1.5 3.0 6.0
1/2 1.50 0.80 3.25 4.0 2.00 1.33
3/4 2.00 1.00 4.00 1.5 1.00
1 2.75 1.25 6.00 1.0 0.6 2.0 1.50 0.50
11/4 3.50 1.70 8.00 3.0 1.75
11/2 4.25 2.00 9.00 1.5 2.20
2 5.50 2.50 12.00 2.5 2.0 1.2 4.0 2.50 1.00
21/2 7.00 3.00 14.00 2.5 6.0 3.50
3 8.00 3.80 17.00 4.0 3.0 7.0
4 11.00 5.00 21.00 5.0 4.0 2.5 8.0 5.00 2.00
6 16.00 7.50 34.00 7.0 6.0 12.0 7.00
8 20.00 10.00 44.00 10.0 8.0 4.0 10.00 4.00
10 25.00 12.50 55.00 12.5 10.0 6.0 12.50
12 32.00 15.00 58.00 15.0 12.0 7.0
14 25.00 12.00 80.00 7.00
16 30.00 15.00 90.00 20.0 16.0 9.0
18 32.50 16.00 100.00
20 35.00 17.00 110.00
24 40.00 20.00 140.00
Table App. A-25. Equivalent Lengths for Proline and Duo-Pro Fittings (for friction loss in ft)
Carrier Size 90° 45° Concentric Reduction = D2/D1* Concentric Reduction = D1/D2**
(nom in) Elbow Elbow Tee 1/4 1/2 3/4 1/4 1/2 3/4
* D2 = larger diameter portion, which is shown in size column.
** D1= smaller diameter portion, which is shown in size column.
Table App. A-27. Equivalent Lengths for Air-Pro Fittings (for friction loss in ft-in)
Nominal Diameter (in.)
Description 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3
Socket 0'-8" 0'-8" 0'-11" 1'-4" 1'-8" 2'-0" 3'-7"
45° Elbow 0'-8" 0'-11" 1'-4" 2'-0" 3'-0" 4'-0" 7'-6"
90° Elbow 1'-4" 2'-4" 3'-4" 4'-3" 5'-11" 7'-6" 14'-9"
Tee 2'-7" 4'-7" 6'-3" 7'-10" 9'-2" 12'-5" 24'-7"
Reducer 0'-11" 1'-4" 1'-8" 2'-0" 2'-4" 3'-0" 6'-10"
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-13
DIMENSIONAL PIPE DATA APPENDIX A
A
 20 0.79 0.066 0.59 0.049 0.098 0.274 0.0019 0.213
25 0.98 0.082 0.77 0.064 0.106 0.468 0.0032 0.293
32 1.26 0.105 1.02 0.085 0.118 0.823 0.0057 0.424
40 1.57 0.131 1.28 0.107 0.146 1.294 0.0090 0.654
50 1.97 0.164 1.61 0.134 0.181 2.026 0.0141 1.017
63 2.48 0.207 2.02 0.169 0.228 3.216 0.0223 1.615
75 2.95 0.246 2.41 0.201 0.272 4.560 0.0317 2.288
90 3.54 0.295 2.90 0.241 0.323 6.594 0.0458 3.266
110 4.33 0.361 3.54 0.295 0.394 9.861 0.0685 4.869
160 6.30 0.525 5.15 0.429 0.575 20.83 0.1446 10.34
200 7.87 0.656 6.44 0.537 0.717 32.58 0.2263 16.11
250 9.84 0.820 8.05 0.671 0.898 50.86 0.3532 25.22
315 12.40 1.033 10.14 0.845 1.130 80.78 0.5610 40.01
355 13.98 1.165 11.43 0.953 1.272 102.7 0.7129 50.76
400 15.75 1.312 12.88 1.073 1.433 130.3 0.9051 64.45
450 17.72 1.476 14.49 1.207 1.614 164.9 1.1449 81.66
500 19.69 1.640 16.10 1.342 1.791 203.6 1.4142 100.7
0.0129 0.033 0.344 0.094 2.474
0.0287 0.058 0.439 0.127 3.092
0.0698 0.111 0.571 0.181 3.958
0.1687 0.214 0.715 0.275 4.947
0.4103 0.417 0.894 0.429 6.184
1.0346 0.834 1.126 0.671 7.792
2.0771 1.407 1.341 0.939 9.276
4.2770 2.414 1.610 1.341 11.13
9.5290 4.401 1.969 2.012 13.61
42.769 13.58 2.862 4.293 19.79
104.21 26.47 3.579 6.64 24.74
254.82 51.78 4.472 10.40 30.92
641.82 103.5 5.636 16.50 38.96
1034.3 148.0 6.352 20.93 43.91
1667.4 211.8 7.157 26.63 49.47
2673.1 301.8 8.051 33.67 55.66
4070.7 413.6 8.947 41.59 61.84
1/2
3/4
1
11/4
11/2
2
21/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Wall Cross Moment Section Mid- Polypro
Size Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Thick Internal Area Section of Inertia Modulus Radius Weight Circum
(nom in) (mm) (in) (ft) (in) (ft) (in) (in2) (ft2) (in2) (in4) (in3) (in) (lbs/lin ft) (ft)
50 1.97 0.164 1.74 0.145 0.114 2.378 0.017 0.665 0.287
63 2.48 0.207 2.20 0.183 0.142 3.790 0.026 1.041 0.714
75 2.95 0.246 2.61 0.218 0.169 5.367 0.037 1.480 1.439
90 3.54 0.295 3.14 0.262 0.201 7.752 0.054 2.108 2.955
110 4.33 0.361 3.83 0.320 0.248 11.55 0.080 3.181 6.653
160 6.30 0.525 5.58 0.465 0.358 24.48 0.170 6.687 29.61
200 7.87 0.656 6.98 0.581 0.449 38.23 0.265 10.47 72.42
250 9.84 0.820 8.72 0.727 0.559 59.78 0.415 16.30 176.3
315 12.40 1.033 10.99 0.916 0.705 94.9 0.659 25.90 444.5
355 13.98 1.165 12.39 1.033 0.791 120.6 0.838 32.78 714.9
400 15.75 1.312 13.96 1.163 0.894 153.1 1.063 41.71 1154.0
450 17.72 1.476 15.71 1.309 1.004 193.8 1.346 52.71 1847.0
500 19.69 1.640 17.46 1.455 1.114 239.3 1.662 65.00 2812.0
560 22.05 1.837 19.55 1.629 1.248 300.2 2.085 81.55 4426.0
630 24.80 2.067 21.99 1.833 1.406 379.9 2.638 103.3 7095.0
0.292 0.927 0.282 6.184
0.576 1.169 O.443 7.792
0.975 1.392 0.630 9.276
1.668 1.671 0.872 11.13
3.072 2.041 1.341 13.61
9.401 2.970 2.817 19.79
18.39 3.713 4.360 24.74
35.82 4.642 6.774 30.92
71.68 5.848 10.73 38.96
102.3 6.593 13.62 43.91
146.6 7.427 17.24 49.47
208.5 8.356 21.80 55.66
285.7 9.285 26.90 61.84
401.5 10.400 33.74 69.26
572.1 11.700 42.73 77.92
11/2
2
21/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
Wall Cross Moment Section Mid- Polypro
Size Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Thick Internal Area Section of Inertia Modulus Radius Weight Circum
(mm) (in) (ft) (in) (ft) (in) (in2) (ft2) (in2) (in4) (in3) (in) (lbs/lin ft) (ft)(nom in)
Table App. A-28. Proline Pro 150 (SDR 11) Metric Pipe Dimensional
Table App. A-29. Proline Pro 90 (SDR 17) Metric Pipe Dimensional
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-14
DIMENSIONAL PIPE DATAAPPENDIX A
A
63 2.48 0.207 2.32 0.194 0.079 4.238 0.029 0.594
75 2.95 0.246 2.76 0.230 0.094 5.999 0.042 0.848
90 3.54 0.295 3.32 0.277 0.110 8.672 0.060 1.189
110 4.33 0.361 4.06 0.338 0.138 12.92 0.090 1.815
160 6.30 0.525 5.91 0.492 0.197 27.39 0.190 3.774
200 7.87 0.656 7.39 0.615 0.244 42.84 0.298 5.851
250 9.84 0.820 9.23 0.769 0.307 66.89 0.464 9.199
315 12.40 1.033 11.63 0.969 0.386 106.2 0.738 14.560
355 13.98 1.165 13.10 1.092 0.437 134.8 0.936 18.590
400 15.75 1.312 14.77 1.231 0.488 171.4 1.190 23.400
450 17.72 1.476 16.61 1.385 0.551 216.8 1.506 29.720
500 19.69 1.640 18.46 1.539 0.610 267.8 1.860 36.570
560 22.05 1.837 20.68 1.723 0.685 335.8 2.332 45.970
630 24.80 2.067 23.26 1.938 0.772 424.9 2.951 58.260
0.429 0.346 1.201 0.262 7.792
0.867 0.588 1.429 0.369 9.276
1.753 0.990 1.717 0.510 11.130
3.993 1.844 2.096 0.805 13.610
17.58 5.583 3.051 1.610 19.790
42.62 10.83 3.815 2.482 24.740
104.70 21.27 4.768 3.823 30.920
263.10 42.43 6.008 6.104 38.960
426.40 61.01 6.770 7.780 43.910
681.90 86.61 7.630 9.793 49.470
1096.00 123.70 8.583 12.340 55.660
1665.00 169.20 9.537 15.230 61.840
2625.00 238.10 10.680 19.120 69.260
4210.00 339.50 12.020 24.210 77.920
2
21/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
Wall Cross Moment Section Mid- Polypro
Size Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Thick Internal Area Section of Inertia Modulus Radius Weight Circum
(mm) (in) (ft) (in) (ft) (in) (in2) (ft2) (in2) (in4) (in3) (in) (lbs/lin ft) (ft)(nom in)
230 20 0.79 0.066 0.64 0.053 .075 0.319 0.0022 0.167
230 25 0.98 0.082 0.83 0.070 .075 0.547 0.0038 0.214
230 32 1.26 0.105 1.07 0.089 .094 0.901 0.0063 0.346
230 40 1.57 0.131 1.39 0.115 .094 1.508 0.0105 0.439
230 50 1.97 0.164 1.73 0.144 .114 2.357 0.0164 0.687
230 63 2.48 0.207 2.24 0.187 .118 3.955 0.0275 0.877
230 75 2.95 0.246 2.67 0.222 .142 5.596 0.0389 1.252
150 90 3.54 0.295 3.32 0.277 .110 8.672 0.0602 1.189
150 110 4.33 0.361 4.06 0.339 .134 12.970 0.0900 1.765
150 160 6.30 0.525 5.91 0.493 .193 27.460 0.1907 3.701
150 200 7.87 0.656 7.39 0.615 .244 42.840 0.2975 5.851
150 250 9.84 0.820 9.24 0.770 .303 67.000 0.4653 9.085
150 315 12.40 1.033 11.64 0.970 .382 106.370 0.7387 14.420
0.0107 0.027 0.356 0.141 2.474
0.0222 0.045 0.455 0.181 3.092
0.0591 0.094 0.583 0.295 3.958
0.1209 0.153 0.740 0.369 4.947
0.2951 0.300 0.925 0.570 6.184
0.6129 0.494 1.181 0.731 7.792
1.2394 0.840 1.406 1.040 9.276
1.7534 0.990 1.717 0.993 11.130
3.8897 1.796 2.098 1.476 13.610
17.266 5.482 3.053 3.045 19.790
42.621 10.830 3.815 4.823 24.740
103.450 21.020 4.770 7.438 30.920
260.680 42.040 6.010 16.500 38.960
1/2
3/4
1
11/4
11/2
2
21/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
Size
(nom in)
Pressure
Rating
(psi)
Wall Cross Moment Section Mid- PVDF
Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Thick Internal Area Section of Inertia Modulus Radius Weight Circum
(mm) (in) (ft) (in) (ft) (in) (in2) (ft2) (in2) (in4) (in3) (in) (lbs/lin ft) (ft)
* For dimensions on other sizes, Asahi/America dimensional guides.
1.950 1.75 1.220 1.02 0.100 0.817 0.933 0.305 0.65 1.2
3.035 2.79 2.280 2.03 0.125 3.237 1.989 1.705 1.00 1.9
6.080 5.68 4.560 4.16 0.200 13.590 6.434 22.510 2.80 NA
8.000 7.44 6.000 5.44 0.280 23.240 11.820 71.280 7.00 NA
0.65 6.126
1.00 9.535
2.80 19.100
7.00 25.130
1 x 2
2 x 3
4 x 6
6 x 8
Outer Pipe Inner Pipe
Size
(nom in)
Wall Internal Cross Moment Polypro PVDF HDPE
OD ID OD ID Thick Area Section of Inertia Weight Weight Weight Circum
(in) (in) (in) (in) (in) (in2) (in2) (in4) (lbs/lin ft) (lbs/lin ft) (lbs/lin ft) (ft)
Table App. A-30. Proline Pro 45 (SDR 32.5) Metric Pipe Dimensional
Table App. A-31. Purad PVDF Metric Pipe Dimensional Data
Table App. A-32. Poly-Flo Pipe Dimensional Data
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-15
DIMENSIONAL PIPE DATA APPENDIX A
A
3 /
4"
1"
1
1 /
4"
1
1 /
2"
2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8"
10
"
12
"
14
"
16
"
18
"
20
"
2
11
/2
"
22
"
24
"
26
"
28
"
30
"
8
00
m m 32
"
34
"
36
"
10
00
m m 42
"
12
00
m m 54
"
1.
05
0
.1
50
.1
8
.1
17
.1
5
.0
95
.1
2*
1.
31
5
.1
88
.2
9
.1
46
.2
3
.1
20
.1
9*
1.
66
0
.2
37
.4
6
.1
84
.3
7
.1
51
.3
1*
1.
90
0
.2
71
.6
0
.2
11
.4
8
.1
73
.4
1*
2.
37
5
.3
39
.9
4
.2
64
.7
6
.2
16
.6
4*
.1
76
.5
3
.1
53
.4
7
.1
40
.4
3
3.
50
0
.5
00
2.
05
.3
89
1.
66
.3
18
1.
39
*
.2
59
1.
15
.2
26
1.
02
.2
06
.9
3*
4.
50
0
.6
43
3.
39
.5
00
2.
74
.4
09
2.
29
*
.3
33
1.
90
.2
90
1.
68
*
.2
65
1.
54
*
5.
56
3
.7
95
5.
17
.6
18
4.
18
.5
06
3.
51
.4
12
2.
91
.3
59
2.
57
.3
27
2.
35
6.
62
5
.9
46
7.
33
.7
36
5.
93
.6
02
4.
97
*
.4
91
4.
13
.4
27
3.
63
.3
90
3.
34
*
7.
12
5
1.
01
8
8.
49
.7
92
6.
86
.6
48
5.
75
.5
28
4.
78
.4
60
4.
21
.4
20
3.
86
8.
62
5
1.
23
2
12
.4
3
.9
58
10
.0
5
.7
84
8.
42
*
.6
39
7.
00
.5
56
6.
16
.5
07
5.
65
*
1
0.
75
0
1.
53
6
19
.3
2
1.
19
4
15
.6
1
.9
77
13
.0
9*
.7
96
10
.8
7
.6
94
9.
58
.6
32
8.
78
*
1
2.
75
0
1.
82
1
27
.1
6
1.
41
7
21
.9
7
1.
15
9
18
.4
1*
.9
44
15
.2
9
.8
23
13
.4
8*
.7
50
12
.3
6*
1
4.
00
0
2.
00
0
32
.7
6
1.
55
6
26
.5
0
1.
27
3
22
.2
0*
1.
03
7
18
.4
4
.9
03
16
.2
4
.8
24
14
.9
1*
1
6.
00
0
1.
77
8
34
.6
0
1.
45
5
29
.0
0*
1.
18
5
24
.0
9
1.
03
2
21
.2
1
.9
41
19
.4
6*
1
8.
00
0
2.
00
0
43
.7
9
1.
63
6
36
.6
9*
1.
33
3
30
.4
8
1.
16
1
26
.8
4*
1.
05
9
24
.6
4*
2
0.
00
0
2.
22
2
54
.0
5
1.
81
8
45
.3
0*
1.
48
1
37
.6
3
1.
29
0
33
.1
4
1.
17
6
30
.4
1*
2
1.
50
0
2.
38
9
62
.4
7
1.
95
5
52
.3
7
1.
59
3
43
.5
1
1.
38
7
38
.3
0
1.
26
5
35
.1
6
2
2.
00
0
2
.4
44
65
.4
0
2.
00
0
54
.8
2*
1.
63
0
45
.5
6
1.
41
9
40
.1
0
1.
29
4
36
.8
0
2
4.
00
0
2.
66
7
77
.8
5
2.
18
2
65
.2
4*
1.
77
8
54
.2
1
1.
54
8
47
.7
2
1.
41
2
43
.8
1*
2
6.
00
0
2.
36
4
76
.5
7
1.
92
6
63
.6
2
1.
67
7
56
.0
0
1.
52
9
51
.3
9
2
8.
00
0
2.
54
5
88
.7
8
2.
07
4
73
.7
8
1.
80
6
64
.9
5
1.
64
7
59
.6
2*
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P
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p si 80
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P
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)
M
in M
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in M
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in M
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al l W
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ei gh t W
al l W
ei gh t W
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ei gh t W
al l W
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ei gh t (in
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(lb
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(lb
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(i ro n pi pe s iz e) d ia m et er s w hi ch d es ig na te th e no m in al d ia m et er fo r 1
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at a P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-16
DIMENSIONAL PIPE DATAAPPENDIX A
A
20 0.79 0.066 0.64
25 0.98 0.082 0.83
32 1.26 0.105 1.07
40 1.57 0.131 1.39
50 1.97 0.164 1.73
63 2.48 0.207 2.24
75 2.95 0.246 2.67
90 3.54 0.295 3.32
110 4.33 0.361 4.06
1/2
3/4
1
11/4
11/2
2
21/2
3
4
Size
(nom in)
Wall
Outer Diameter Thickness Weight
(mm) (in) (inches) (lbs/ft)
1 x 3 SDR-11 SDR-11 0.82
2 x 4 SDR-11 SDR-11 0.53
2 x 4 SDR-11 SDR-32 0.79
3 x 6 SDR-11 SDR-11 0.80
3 x 6 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.18
4 x 8 SDR-11 SDR-11 1.05
4 x 8 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.53
4 x 8 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.53
6 x 10 SDR-11 SDR-11 0.88
6 x 10 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.47
6 x 10 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.47
8 x 12 SDR-11 SDR-11 1.14
8 x 12 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.88
8 x 12 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.88
10 x 14 SDR-11 SDR-11 0.80
10 x 14 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.63
10 x 14 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.63
12 x 16 SDR-11 SDR-11 1.05
12 x 16 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.19
12 x 16 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.19
14 x 18 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.32
14 x 18 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.32
16 x 20 SDR-11 SDR-32 1.36
16 x 20 SDR-32 SDR-32 1.36
16 x 20 SDR-32 SDR-32 2.77
Table App. A-35. Annular Space for Duo-Pro
Polypropylene x Polypropylene Assemblies (inches)
(inches) Rating Thickness (inches)
Nominal Carrier Containment Annular
Size Presure Wall Space
Table App. A-34. Air-Pro (PE 100, SDR 7) Pipe Dimensional Data
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-17
VACUUM RATING APPENDIX A
A
1 x 3 230 SDR-11 0.82
1 x 2 230 SDR-32 1.03
2 x 4 230 SDR-11 0.53
2 x 4 230 SDR-32 0.79
3 x 6 150 SDR-11 0.80
3 x 6 150 SDR-32 1.18
4 x 8 150 SDR-11 1.05
4 x 8 150 SDR-32 1.53
6 x 10 150 SDR-11 0.88
6 x 10 150 SDR-32 1.47
8 x 12 150 SDR-11 1.14
8 x 12 150 SDR-32 1.88
10 x 14 150 SDR-11 0.80
10 x 14 150 SDR-32 1.63
12 x 16 150 SDR-11 1.05
12 x 16 150 SDR-32 1.19
Table App. A-36. Annular Space for Duo-Pro
PVDF Carrier Pipe Assemblies (inches)
* For PVDF containment , sizes 3"-12" are SDR 32. For Poly-Pro containment,
sizes 3"-18" can be SDR 11 (Pro 150), and sizes 4"-16" can be SDR 32 (Pro 45)
(inches) (psi) Thickness* (inches)
Nominal Carrier Containment Annular
Size Presure Rating Wall Space
Table App. A-37. Collapse Pressures
Pro 150 (SDR 11) Pro 45 (SDR 32.5) Pro 30 (SDR 41) HDPE 150 (SDR 11) PVDF
° F /° C (psi) ° F /° C (psi) ° F /° C (psi) ° F /° C (psi) ° F /° C (psi)
68/20 32.3 68/21 1.2 68/22 0.73 68/23 28.5 68/24 17.4
83/30 28.9 83/31 1.1 83/32 0.66 83/33 24.0 83/34 34.0
104/40 25.5 104/41 1.0 104/42 0.58 104/43 19.7 104/44 7.3
140/60 18.7 140/61 0.7 140/62 0.44 140t63 — 140/64 3.6
176/80 — 176/81 — 176/82 0.29 176/83 — 176/84 2.9
200/93.3 — 200/93.4 — 200/93.5 0.21 200/93.6 — 200/93.7 2.6
— — — — 248/120 — 248/121 — 248/122 2.5
Full vacuum = 14.7 psi, values greater are considered full vacuum.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-18
HEAT LOSS APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-38. PVDF Pipe Heat Loss in Watts per Linear Foot
Nominal Diameter of Pipe In Inches
∆T 0.375 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12
50 1.98 2.26 2.64 3.13 3.75 4.41 5.33 6.29 7.31 8.58 11.62 13.92 16.57 19.78
75 2.96 3.39 3.97 4.70 5.62 6.61 8.00 9.43 10.97 12.87 17.43 20.80 24.85 29.67
100 3.95 4.52 5.29 6.27 7.49 8.82 10.67 12.58 14.62 17.16 23.24 27.85 33.14 39.57
125 4.94 5.66 6.61 7.83 9.36 11.02 13.33 15.72 18.28 21.46 29.05 34.80 41.43 49.46
150 5.93 6.79 7.93 9.40 11.24 13.23 16.00 18.86 21.94 25.75 34.86 41.78 49.72 59.36
175 6.92 7.92 9.25 10.97 13.11 15.43 18.67 22.01 25.60 30.04 40.68 48.70 58.01 69.25
200 7.90 9.05 10.58 12.54 14.98 17.64 21.34 25.15 29.26 34.33 46.49 55.71 66.30 79.15
50 1.37 1.54 1.75 2.03 2.37 2.74 3.25 3.75 4.32 5.04 6.78 8.14 9.75 11.76
75 2.05 2.3 2.63 3.05 3.55 4.12 4.88 5.63 6.48 7.56 10.17 12.21 14.62 17.64
100 2.73 3.07 3.5 4.06 4.74 5.49 6.50 7.51 8.64 10.08 13.56 16.27 19.50 23.53
125 3.42 3.84 4.38 5.08 5.92 6.86 8.13 9.39 10.80 12.60 16.96 20.30 24.37 29.41
150 4.10 4.61 5.25 6.09 7.11 8.23 9.76 11.26 12.96 15.11 20.35 24.41 29.25 35.29
175 4.79 5.37 6.13 7.11 8.29 9.6 11.38 13.14 15.12 17.63 23.74 28.40 34.13 41.17
200 5.47 6.14 7.00 8.12 9.48 10.98 13.01 15.02 17.28 20.15 27.13 32.55 39.00 47.06
50 1.13 1.26 1.41 1.61 1.85 2.12 2.48 2.82 3.22 3.72 4.95 5.90 7.07 8.53
75 1.70 1.88 2.12 2.42 2.78 3.18 3.72 4.24 4.83 5.59 7.43 8.87 10.61 12.80
100 2.26 2.51 2.82 3.23 3.71 4.24 4.96 5.65 6.44 7.45 9.91 11.83 14.15 17.07
125 2.83 3.14 3.53 4.04 4.64 5.30 6.20 7.06 8.05 9.31 12.38 14.79 17.68 21.34
150 3.39 3.77 4.23 4.84 5.56 6.37 7.44 8.47 9.66 11.17 14.86 17.75 21.22 25.60
175 3.96 4.39 4.94 5.65 6.49 7.43 8.68 9.89 11.27 13.04 17.34 20.70 24.76 29.87
200 4.52 5.02 5.65 6.46 7.42 8.49 9.92 11.3 12.88 14.90 19.82 23.60 28.29 34.14
50 1.00 1.10 1.23 1.39 1.58 1.79 2.07 2.34 2.64 3.03 3.99 4.74 5.64 6.79
75 1.50 1.65 1.84 2.08 2.37 2.69 3.10 3.50 3.96 4.55 5.98 7.10 8.46 10.18
100 2.00 2.20 2.45 2.78 3.16 3.58 4.14 4.67 5.28 6.07 7.98 9.47 11.28 13.58
125 2.50 2.75 3.07 3.47 3.95 4.48 5.17 5.84 6.6 7.59 9.97 11.84 14.10 16.97
150 3.00 3.30 3.68 4.17 4.74 5.37 6.21 7.01 7.92 9.10 11.96 14.21 16.92 20.36
175 3.50 3.86 4.29 4.86 5.53 6.27 7.24 8.17 9.25 10.62 13.96 16.58 19.74 23.76
200 4.00 4.41 4.91 5.56 6.32 7.16 8.28 9.34 10.57 12.14 15.95 18.94 22.56 27.15
50 0.92 1.00 1.11 1.25 1.40 1.58 1.81 2.03 2.28 2.61 3.39 4.00 4.75 5.69
75 1.37 1.50 1.66 1.87 2.11 2.37 2.72 3.05 3.42 3.91 5.08 6.00 7.12 8.54
100 1.83 2.00 2.22 2.49 2.81 3.16 3.62 4.06 4.57 5.21 6.78 8.00 9.49 11.38
125 2.29 2.50 2.77 3.11 3.51 3.95 4.53 5.08 5.71 6.51 8.47 10.00 11.87 14.23
150 2.75 3.01 3.33 3.74 4.21 4.74 5.44 6.09 6.85 7.82 10.17 12.01 14.24 17.08
175 3.20 3.51 3.88 4.36 4.92 5.53 6.34 7.11 7.99 9.12 11.86 14.01 16.61 19.92
200 3.66 4.01 4.43 4.98 5.62 6.32 7.25 8.12 9.13 10.42 13.55 16.01 18.98 22.77
50 0.85 0.93 1.02 1.14 1.28 1.44 1.63 1.82 2.04 2.31 2.98 3.50 4.13 4.94
75 1.28 1.40 1.54 1.72 1.92 2.15 2.45 2.73 3.06 3.47 4.47 5.25 6.20 7.41
100 1.71 1.86 2.05 2.29 2.57 2.87 3.27 3.64 4.07 4.62 5.96 7.00 8.27 9.88
125 2.14 2.33 2.56 2.86 3.21 3.59 4.09 4.55 5.09 5.78 7.45 8.75 10.33 12.35
150 2.56 2.79 3.07 3.43 3.85 4.31 4.9 5.46 6.11 6.94 8.94 10.50 12.40 14.82
175 2.99 3.26 3.59 4.01 4.49 5.03 5.72 6.38 7.13 8.09 10.43 12.25 14.47 17.29
200 3.42 3.72 4.10 4.58 5.13 5.74 6.54 7.29 8.15 9.25 11.91 14.00 16.53 19.76
50 0.77 0.84 0.91 1.01 1.12 1.24 1.40 1.55 1.72 1.93 2.45 2.86 3.35 3.97
75 1.16 1.25 1.37 1.52 1.68 1.87 2.10 2.32 2.58 2.90 3.68 4.28 5.02 5.95
100 1.54 1.67 1.82 2.02 2.24 2.49 2.81 3.10 3.44 3.87 4.90 5.71 6.69 7.94
125 1.93 2.09 2.28 2.53 2.81 3.11 3.51 3.87 4.30 4.83 6.13 7.14 8.36 9.92
150 2.31 2.51 2.74 3.03 3.37 3.73 4.21 4.65 5.15 5.80 7.35 8.57 10.04 11.91
175 2.70 2.92 3.19 3.54 3.93 4.36 4.91 5.42 6.01 6.77 8.58 9.99 11.71 13.89
200 3.08 3.34 3.65 4.04 4.49 4.98 5.61 6.20 6.87 7.74 9.81 11.42 13.38 15.88
n.l.t.
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
n.i.t. = nominal insulation thickness of foamed elastomer in inches; ∆T = temperature difference between cold fluid and desired maintenance in °F; body of table is in
watts per linear foot of pipe. Heat loss values are calculated using Equation C-67). Values are for moving air at 20 mph velocity, assuming no outer cladding.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-19
HEAT LOSS APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-39. Proline Pro 150 Pipe Heat Loss in Watts per Linear Foot
Nominal Diameter of Pipe In Inches
n.l.t. ∆T 0.375 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10
0.5 50 1.99 2.28 2.65 3.17 3.73 4.37 5.17 5.88 6.75 7.84 10.26 12.01 13.94
75 2.98 3.42 3.97 4.76 5.60 6.55 7.76 8.82 10.12 11.76 15.39 18.02 20.91
100 3.97 4.56 5.30 6.34 7.47 8.74 10.35 11.77 13.50 15.68 20.52 24.02 27.88
125 4.97 5.70 6.62 7.93 9.33 10.92 12.94 14.71 16.87 19.59 25.66 30.03 34.85
150 5.96 6.84 7.94 9.52 11.20 13.11 15.53 17.65 20.25 23.51 30.79 36.04 41.82
1.0 50 1.37 1.54 1.75 2.05 2.36 2.73 3.19 3.61 4.12 4.77 6.30 7.44 8.77
75 2.06 2.32 2.63 3.07 3.55 4.09 4.79 5.41 6.17 7.16 9.44 11.17 13.16
100 2.74 3.09 3.50 4.09 4.73 5.46 6.39 7.21 8.23 9.54 12.59 14.89 17.55
125 3.43 3.86 4.38 5.12 5.91 6.82 7.98 9.01 10.29 11.93 15.74 18.61 21.94
150 4.12 4.63 5.26 6.14 7.09 8.19 9.58 10.82 12.35 14.32 18.89 22.33 26.33
1.5 50 1.13 1.26 1.41 1.62 1.85 2.11 2.44 2.74 3.10 3.58 4.69 5.54 6.55
75 1.70 1.89 2.12 2.44 2.78 3.17 3.67 4.11 4.66 5.37 7.03 8.31 9.82
100 2.27 2.52 2.83 3.25 3.70 4.23 4.89 5.48 6.21 7.15 9.38 11.08 13.09
125 2.84 3.15 3.53 4.06 4.63 5.28 6.11 6.85 7.76 8.94 11.72 13.85 16.36
150 3.40 3.78 4.24 4.87 5.56 6.34 7.33 8.22 9.31 10.73 14.07 16.62 19.64
2.0 50 1.00 1.11 1.23 1.40 1.58 1.78 2.04 2.28 2.56 2.94 3.81 4.49 5.30
75 1.50 1.66 1.84 2.10 2.37 2.68 3.07 3.42 3.85 4.40 5.72 6.74 7.95
100 2.01 2.21 2.46 2.79 3.15 3.57 4.09 4.55 5.13 5.87 7.63 8.98 10.60
125 2.51 2.76 3.07 3.49 3.94 4.46 5.11 5.69 6.41 7.34 9.54 11.23 13.25
150 3.01 3.32 3.68 4.19 4.73 5.35 6.13 6.83 7.69 8.81 11.44 13.48 15.90
2.5 50 0.92 1.01 1.11 1.25 1.40 1.58 1.79 1.99 2.22 2.53 3.26 3.83 4.50
75 1.38 1.51 1.66 1.88 2.10 2.36 2.69 2.98 3.34 3.80 4.89 5.74 6.75
100 1.83 2.01 2.22 2.50 2.81 3.15 3.59 3.97 4.45 5.07 6.53 7.65 9.01
125 2.29 2.51 2.77 3.13 3.51 3.94 4.48 4.97 5.56 6.33 8.16 9.57 11.26
150 2.75 3.02 3.33 3.76 4.21 4.73 5.38 5.96 6.67 7.60 9.79 11.48 13.51
3.0 50 0.86 0.93 1.03 1.15 1.28 1.43 1.62 1.79 1.99 2.25 2.88 3.37 3.95
75 1.28 1.40 1.54 1.72 1.92 2.15 2.43 2.68 2.99 3.38 4.32 5.05 5.92
100 1.71 1.87 2.05 2.30 2.56 2.86 3.24 3.57 3.98 4.51 5.76 6.73 7.89
125 2.14 2.33 2.56 2.88 3.20 3.58 4.05 4.47 4.98 5.64 7.20 8.41 9.87
150 2.57 2.80 3.08 3.45 3.85 4.29 4.86 5.36 5.97 6.76 8.64 10.10 11.84
4.0 50 0.77 0.84 0.91 1.01 1.12 1.24 1.39 1.52 1.69 1.89 2.38 2.76 3.22
75 1.16 1.26 1.37 1.52 1.68 1.86 2.09 2.29 2.53 2.84 3.58 4.15 4.83
100 1.55 1.67 1.83 2.03 2.24 2.48 2.78 3.05 3.37 3.79 4.77 5.53 6.45
125 1.93 2.09 2.28 2.54 2.80 3.10 3.48 3.81 4.21 4.73 5.96 6.91 8.06
150 2.32 2.51 2.74 3.04 3.36 3.72 4.17 4.57 5.06 5.68 7.15 8.29 9.67
12 14 16 18
16.14 17.36 18.61 19.85
24.22 26.05 27.91 29.78
32.29 34.73 37.22 39.71
40.37 43.42 46.52 49.64
48.44 52.10 55.93 59.57
10.37 11.29 12.26 13.28
15.56 16.94 18.40 19.92
20.75 22.59 24.53 26.56
25.93 28.24 30.66 33.20
31.12 33.88 36.8 39.84
7.78 8.50 9.28 10.10
11.67 12.75 13.91 15.15
15.56 17.00 18.55 20.20
19.45 21.25 23.19 25.25
23.34 25.51 27.83 30.30
6.3 6.89 7.54 8.22
9.45 10.34 11.30 12.33
12.6 13.79 15.07 16.44
15.75 17.24 18.84 20.55
18.9 20.68 22.61 24.67
5.35 5.85 6.39 6.98
8.02 8.77 9.59 10.47
10.69 11.70 12.79 13.96
13.36 14.62 15.99 17.46
16.04 17.54 19.18 20.95
4.68 5.11 5.59 6.10
7.01 7.67 8.38 9.15
9.35 10.22 11.18 12.20
11.69 12.78 13.97 15.20
14.03 15.34 16.76 18.31
3.8 4.14 4.52 4.93
5.7 6.21 6.78 7.40
7.6 8.29 9.04 9.87
9.49 10.36 11.30 12.33
11.39 12.43 13.57 14.80
n.i.t. = nominal insulation thickness of foamed elastomer in inches; ∆T = temperature difference between cold fluid and desired maintenance in °F; body of table is in
watts per linear foot of pipe. Heat loss values are calculated using Equation C-67). Values are for moving air at 20 mph velocity, assuming no outer cladding.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-20
HEAT LOSSAPPENDIX A
A
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
1.0 NR NR NR NR NR
1.5 NR NR NR NR NR
2.0 17 NR NR NR NR
2.5 20 14 NR NR NR
3.0 24 17 13 NR NR
3.5 28 19 15 13 NR
4.0 31 21 17 14 NR
4.5 35 24 19 16 14
5.0 39 26 21 18 15
6.0 46 31 25 21 18
8.0 59 41 33 28 24
Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm
Table App. A-41. Spiral Factor/Pitch
Spiral Factor (feet of auto-tractor per feet of pipe)Pipe Size
(ips)
Valve Type Std 90
Gate 4.3
Butterfly 2.3
Ball 2.6
Globe 3.9
For Example: Heat loss for a 2" gate valve is 4.3 times the heat loss for one foot of
pipe of the same size and insulation.
Table App. A-42. Valve Heat Loss Factor
n.l.t. ∆T 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
0.5 50 5.61 6.45 7.50 8.85 12.11 14.63 17.59 21.25 23.38 25.72 28.16 30.55 36.15
75 8.42 9.68 11.25 13.28 18.17 21.95 26.38 31.87 35.07 38.59 42.25 45.83 54.23
100 11.22 12.90 15.01 17.71 24.23 29.26 35.18 42.50 46.76 51.45 56.34 61.12 72.31
125 14.03 16.13 18.76 22.14 30.29 36.58 43.98 53.13 58.45 64.32 70.43 76.40 90.39
150 16.83 19.36 22.51 26.56 36.35 43.90 52.78 63.76 70.15 77.19 84.52 91.69 108.48
1.0 50 3.35 3.81 4.38 5.13 6.95 8.37 10.09 12.27 13.56 15.00 16.54 18.06 21.78
75 5.03 5.72 6.58 7.70 10.42 12-56 15.14 18.40 20.34 22.50 24.81 27.10 32.68
100 6.71 7.62 8.77 10.26 13.90 16.75 20.19 24.53 27.13 30.00 33.09 36.13 43.57
125 8.38 9.53 10.96 12.83 17.37 20.94 25.24 30.67 33.91 37.51 41.36 45.16 54.47
150 10.06 11.44 13.16 15.39 20.85 25.12 30.28 36.80 40.69 45.01 49.63 54.20 65.36
1.5 50 2.54 2.86 3.26 3.77 5.04 6.04 7.25 8.80 9.73 10.76 11.88 12.99 15.75
75 3.81 4.29 4.88 5.66 7.56 9.06 10.88 13.19 14.59 16.14 17.82 19.49 23.63
100 5.07 5.71 6.51 7.55 10.08 12.08 14.51 17.59 19.45 21.52 23.76 25.98 31.51
125 6.34 7.14 8.14 9.44 12.60 15.10 18.13 21.99 24.32 26.90 29.70 32.48 39.38
150 7.61 8.57 9.77 11.33 15.13 18.12 21.76 26.39 29.18 32.28 35.65 38.98 47.26
2.0 50 2.11 2.36 2.67 3.07 4.04 4.81 5.75 6.95 7.68 8.49 9.37 10.24 12.43
75 3.16 3.54 4.00 4.60 6.07 7.22 8.63 10.43 11.52 12.73 14.05 15.36 18.65
100 4.22 4.72 5.33 6.14 8.09 9.63 11.51 13.91 15.36 16.97 18.73 20.48 24.86
125 5.27 5.89 6.67 7.67 10.11 12.04 14.39 17.38 19.20 21.22 23.42 25.60 31.08
150 6.33 7.07 8.00 9.20 12.13 14.44 17.26 20.86 23.04 25.46 28.10 30.72 37.30
2.5 50 1.84 2.05 2.30 2.63 3.43 4.06 4.83 5.80 16.40 7.07 7.79 8.51 10.33
75 2.76 3.07 3.45 3.95 5.14 6.09 7.24 8.71 9.60 10.60 11.69 12.77 15.49
100 3.69 4.10 4.60 5.26 6.86 8.12 9.65 11.61 12.81 14.13 15.58 17.02 20.66
125 4.61 5.12 5.75 6.58 8.57 10.15 12.07 14.52 16.01 17.67 19.48 21.28 25.82
150 5.53 6.14 6.90 7.89 10.29 12.17 14.48 17.42 19.21 21.20 23.37 25.53 30.99
3.0 50 1.66 1.84 2.05 2.33 3.01 3.54 4.19 5.03 5.53 6.09 6.71 7.32 8.88
75 2.49 2.75 3.08 3.50 4.52 5.31 6.29 7.54 8.30 9.14 10.07 10.99 13.31
100 3.32 3.67 4.10 4.66 6.02 7.09 8.39 10.05 11.06 12.19 13.42 14.65 17.75
125 4.15 4.59 5.13 5.83 7.53 8.86 10.48 12.56 13.83 15.24 16.78 18.31 22.19
150 4.98 5.51 6.15 7.00 9.03 10.63 12.58 15.08 16.59 18.28 20.13 21.97 26.63
4.0 50 1.42 1.56 1.73 1.95 2.47 2.88 3.38 4.02 4.41 4.85 5.32 5.80 7.00
75 2.13 2.34 2.59 2.92 3.71 4.33 5.08 6.04 6.62 7.27 7.99 8.70 10.50
100 2.84 3.12 3.46 3.89 4.95 5.77 6.77 8.05 8.83 9.70 10.65 11.59 14.00
125 3.55 3.90 4.32 4.87 6.18 7.21 8.46 10.06 11.04 12.12 13.31 14.49 17.50
150 4.26 4.68 5.19 5.84 7.42 8.65 10.16 12.08 13.24 14.54 15.97 17.39 21.00
Table App. A-40. Proline Pro 45 Pipe Heat Loss in Watts per Linear Foot
Nominal Diameter of Pipe In Inches
n.i.t. = nominal insulation thickness of foamed elastomer in inches; ∆T = temperature difference between cold fluid and desired maintenance in °F; body of table is in
watts per linear foot of pipe. Heat loss values are calculated using Equation C-67). Values are for moving air at 20 mph velocity, assuming no outer cladding.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-21
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-43. Heat Gain Values for Pro150 in Still Air Conditions
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 0.5", O.D. = 0.79" Pipe Size = 0.75", O.D. = 0.98" Pipe Size = 1.0", O.D. = 1.26"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
255
2.5 55
15.8 42.3 14.4 41.5 12.9 41 19.5 42.5
11.7 63.1 10.7 60.4 9.6 58 14 62.8
9.5 72.4 8.7 68.9 7.8 65.6 11.2 71.9
8.2 77.3 7.4 73.5 6.7 69.6 9.5 76.9
7.3 80.3 6.6 76.2 5.9 72.1 8.4 79.9
6.6 82.3 6 78 5.4 73.7 7.6 81.9
6.1 83.6 5.5 79.3 5 74.8 6.9 83.4
5.4 85.4 4.9 80.8 4.4 76.2 6.1 85.1
4.9 86.4 4.4 81.8 4 77.1 5.5 86.2
4.5 87.2 4.1 82.4 3.7 77.7 5 87
4.0 88 3.6 83.2 3.3 78.4 4.4 87.9
3.7 88.5 3.3 83.6 3 78.8 4 88.4
14.4 46.5 12.9 46 11.5 45.2 17.7 46.9
10.7 65.4 9.6 63 8.5 60.5 12.7 65.4
8.7 73.9 7.8 70.6 6.9 67.2 10.2 73.5
7.4 78.5 6.7 74.6 5.9 70.9 8.6 78.1
6.6 81.2 5.9 77.1 5.3 72.9 7.6 80.8
6.0 83 5.4 78.7 4.8 74.4 6.9 82.6
5.5 84.3 5 79.8 4.4 75.4 6.3 83.9
4.9 85.8 4.4 81.2 3.9 76.7 5.5 85.6
4.4 86.8 4 82.1 3.5 77.5 5 86.6
4.1 87.4 3.7 82.7 3.3 77.9 4.6 87.2
3.6 88.2 3.3 83.4 2.9 78.6 4 88.1
3.3 88.6 3 83.8 2.7 78.9 3.7 88.5
12.9 51 11.5 50.2 10.1 49.5 15.9 51.3
9.6 68 8.5 65.5 7.5 62.8 11.4 67.9
7.8 75.6 6.9 72.2 6.1 68.7 9.2 75.2
6.7 79.6 5.9 75.9 5.2 71.9 7.8 79.2
5.9 82.1 5.3 77.9 4.6 73.9 6.9 81.7
5.4 83.7 4.8 79.4 4.2 75.1 6.2 83.4
5.0 84.8 4.4 80.4 3.9 75.9 5.7 84.5
4.4 86.2 3.9 81.7 3.4 77.1 5 86
4.0 87.1 3.5 82.5 3.1 77.8 4.5 86.9
3.7 87.7 3.3 82.9 2.9 78.2 4.1 87.5
3.3 88.4 2.9 83.6 2.6 78.7 3.6 88.3
3.0 88.8 2.7 83.9 2.3 79.1 3.3 88.7
11.5 55.2 10.1 54.5 8.6 54 14.2 55.4
8.5 70.5 7.5 67.8 6.4 65.3 10.2 70.2
6.9 77.2 6.1 73.7 5.2 70.4 8.1 76.9
5.9 80.9 5.2 76.9 4.5 73 6.9 80.5
5.3 82.9 4.6 78.9 4 74.7 6.1 82.6
4.8 84.4 4.2 80.1 3.6 75.8 5.5 84.1
4.4 85.4 3.9 80.9 3.3 76.6 5.1 85.1
3.9 86.7 3.4 82.1 2.9 77.5 4.4 86.5
3.5 87.5 3.1 82.8 2.7 78 4 87.3
3.3 87.9 2.9 83.2 2.5 78.4 3.7 87.8
2.9 88.6 2.6 83.7 2.2 78.9 3.2 88.5
2.7 88.9 2.3 84.1 2 79.2 2.9 88.8
10.1 59.5 8.6 59 7.2 58.2 12.4 59.8
7.5 72.8 6.4 70.3 5.3 67.8 8.9 72.7
6.1 78.7 5.2 75.4 4.3 72 7.1 78.5
5.2 81.9 4.5 78 3.7 74.3 6 81.7
4.6 83.9 4 79.7 3.3 75.6 5.3 83.6
4.2 85.1 3.6 80.8 3 76.5 4.8 84.9
3.9 85.9 3.3 81.6 2.8 77.1 4.4 85.8
3.4 87.1 2.9 82.5 2.4 77.9 3.9 86.9
3.1 87.8 2.7 83 2.2 78.4 3.5 87.6
2.9 88.2 2.5 83.4 2.1 78.7 3.2 88.1
2.6 88.7 2.2 83.9 1.8 79.1 2.8 88.7
2.3 89.1 2 84.2 1.7 79.3 2.6 89
17.7 41.9 15.9 41.3 24.7 43.2 22.5 42.4 20.2 41.7
12.7 60.4 11.4 57.9 17.2 62.8 15.7 60.2 14.1 57.7
10.2 68.5 9.2 65.2 13.6 71.6 12.3 68.3 11.1 64.9
8.6 73.1 7.8 69.2 11.4 76.5 10.4 72.6 9.3 69
7.6 75.8 6.9 71.7 10 79.4 9.1 75.4 8.2 71.3
6.9 77.6 6.2 73.4 8.9 81.5 8.1 77.3 7.3 73.1
6.3 78.9 5.7 74.5 8.2 82.9 7.4 78.6 6.7 74.2
5.5 80.6 6 76 7.1 84.8 6.4 80.3 5.8 75.8
5.0 81.6 4.5 76.9 6.3 86 5.7 81.4 5.2 76.7
4.6 82.2 4.1 77.5 5.8 86.7 5.3 82 4.7 77.4
4.0 83.1 3.6 78.3 5 87.7 4.6 82.9 4.1 78.1
3.7 83.5 3.3 78.7 4.6 88.2 4.1 83.4 3.7 78.6
15.9 46.3 14.2 45.4 22.5 47.4 20.2 46.7 18 45.9
11.4 62.9 10.2 60.2 15.7 65.2 14.1 62.7 12.5 60.2
9.2 70.2 8.1 66.9 12.3 73.3 11.1 69.9 9.9 66.6
7.8 74.2 6.9 70.5 10.4 77.6 9.3 74 8.3 70.1
6.9 76.7 6.1 72.6 9.1 80.4 8.2 76.3 7.2 72.4
6.2 78.4 5.5 74.1 8.1 82.3 7.3 78.1 6.5 73.8
5.7 79.5 5.1 75.1 7.4 83.6 6.7 79.2 5.9 74.9
5.0 81 4.4 76.5 6.4 85.3 5.8 80.8 5.1 76.3
4.5 81.9 4 77.3 5.7 86.4 5.2 81.7 4.6 77.1
4.1 82.5 3.7 77.8 5.3 87 4.7 82.4 4.2 77.6
3.6 83.3 3.2 78.5 4.6 87.9 4.1 83.1 3.7 78.3
3.3 83.7 2.9 78.8 4.1 88.4 3.7 83.6 3.3 78.7
14.2 50.4 12.4 49.8 20.2 51.7 18 50.9 15.7 50.3
10.2 65.2 8.9 62.7 14.1 67.7 12.5 65.2 11 62.6
8.1 71.9 7.1 68.5 11.1 74.9 9.9 71.6 8.6 68.3
6.9 75.5 6 71.7 9.3 79 8.3 75.1 7.3 71.3
6.1 77.6 5.3 73.6 8.2 81.3 7.2 77.4 6.3 73.3
5.5 79.1 4.8 74.9 7.3 83.1 6.5 78.8 5.7 74.6
5.1 80.1 4.4 75.8 6.7 84.2 5.9 79.9 5.2 75.5
4.4 81.5 3.9 76.9 5.8 85.8 5.1 81.3 4.5 76.7
4 82.3 3.5 77.6 5.2 86.7 4.6 82.1 4 77.5
3.7 82.8 3.2 78.1 4.7 87.4 4.2 82.6 3.7 77.9
3.2 83.5 2.8 78.7 4.1 88.1 3.7 83.3 3.2 78.5
2.9 83.8 2.6 79 3.7 88.6 3.3 83.7 2.9 78.9
12.4 54.8 10.6 54.2 18 55.9 15.7 55.3 13.5 54.4
8.9 67.7 7.6 65.2 12.5 70.2 11 67.6 9.4 65.1
7.1 73.5 6.1 70.2 9.9 76.6 8.6 73.3 7.4 70
6 76.7 5.2 72.8 8.3 80.1 7.3 76.3 6.2 72.6
5.3 78.6 4.6 74.5 7.2 82.4 6.3 78.3 5.4 74.3
4.8 79.9 4.1 75.6 6.5 83.8 5.7 79.6 4.9 75.3
4.4 80.8 3.8 76.3 5.9 84.9 5.2 80.5 4.5 76.1
3.9 81.9 3.3 77.4 5.1 86.3 4.5 81.7 3.9 77.1
3.5 82.6 3 77.9 4.6 87.1 4 82.5 3.4 77.8
3.2 83.1 2.8 78.3 4.2 87.6 3.7 82.9 3.2 78.2
2.8 83.7 2.4 78.8 3.7 88.3 3.2 83.5 2.8 78.7
2.6 84 2.2 79.1 3.3 88.7 2.9 83.9 2.5 79
10.6 59.2 8.9 58.3 15.7 60.3 13.5 59.4 11.2 58.8
7.6 70.2 6.4 67.6 11 72.6 9.4 70.1 7.8 67.7
6.1 75.2 5.1 71.8 8.6 78.3 7.4 75 6.2 71.6
5.2 77.8 4.3 74.1 7.3 81.3 6.2 77.6 5.2 73.8
4.6 79.5 3.8 75.4 6.3 83.3 5.4 79.3 4.5 75.2
4.1 80.6 3.4 76.4 5.7 84.6 4.9 80.3 4.1 76.1
3.8 81.3 3.2 76.9 5.2 85.5 4.5 81.1 3.7 76.8
3.3 82.4 2.8 77.8 4.5 86.7 3.9 82.1 3.2 77.7
3.0 82.9 2.5 78.3 4 87.5 3.4 82.8 2.9 78.2
2.8 83.3 2.3 78.6 3.7 87.9 3.2 83.2 2.6 78.5
2.4 83.8 2 79 3.2 88.5 2.8 83.7 2.3 79
2.2 84.1 1.8 79.3 2.9 88.9 2.5 84 2.1 79.2
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-22
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Table App A-43. Heat Gain Values for Pro150 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 1.25", O.D. = 1.58" Pipe Size = 1.5", O.D. = 1.97" Pipe Size = 2.0", O.D. = 2.48"
30.1 44.5 27.4 43.6 24.6 42.8 35.8 46.6
20.7 63 18.8 60.5 16.9 58 24.5 63.7
16.1 71.5 14.7 68.1 13.2 64.8 19 71.6
13.5 76.2 12.2 72.5 11 68.7 15.8 76.1
11.7 79.2 10.6 75.2 9.6 71.1 13.6 79.1
10.4 81.2 9.5 77 8.5 72.8 12.1 81
9.5 82.6 8.6 78.3 7.7 74 11 82.4
8.1 84.6 7.4 80.1 6.6 75.6 9.4 84.3
7.2 85.8 6.6 81.1 5.9 76.5 8.3 85.6
6.6 86.6 6 81.9 5.4 77.2 7.5 86.4
5.7 87.6 5.2 82.8 4.7 78 6.4 87.4
5.1 88.1 4.6 83.3 4.2 78.5 5.7 88
27.4 48.6 24.6 47.8 21.9 46.9 32.6 50.5
18.8 65.5 16.9 63 15 60.4 22.3 66
14.7 73.1 13.2 69.8 11.7 66.6 17.3 73.3
12.2 77.5 11 73.7 9.8 70 14.4 77.4
10.6 80.2 9.6 76.1 8.5 72.1 12.4 80
9.5 82 8.5 77.8 7.6 73.6 11 81.8
8.6 83.3 7.7 79 6.9 74.7 10 83.1
7.4 85.1 6.6 80.6 5.9 76.1 8.5 84.9
6.6 86.1 5.9 81.5 5.3 76.9 7.5 86
6 86.9 5.4 82.2 4.8 77.5 6.8 86.7
5.2 87.8 4.7 83 4.1 78.2 5.8 87.7
4.6 88.3 4.2 83.5 3.7 78.7 5.2 88.2
24.6 52.8 21.9 51.9 19.2 51 29.3 54.5
16.9 68 15 65.4 13.2 62.8 20.1 68.4
13.2 74.8 11.7 71.6 10.3 68.2 15.6 74.9
11 78.7 9.8 75 8.6 71.2 12.9 78.7
9.6 81.1 8.5 77.1 7.4 73.2 11.2 81
8.5 82.8 7.6 78.6 6.6 74.4 9.9 82.7
7.7 84 6.9 79.7 6 75.3 9 83.8
6.6 85.6 5.9 81.1 5.2 76.5 7.7 85.4
5.9 86.5 5.3 81.9 4.6 77.3 6.8 86.4
5.4 87.2 4.8 82.5 4.2 77.8 6.1 87.1
4.7 88 4.1 83.2 3.6 78.5 5.3 87.9
4.2 88.5 3.7 83.7 3.2 78.8 4.7 88.4
21.9 56.9 19.2 56 16.4 55.2 26.1 58.4
15 70.4 13.2 67.8 11.3 65.3 17.8 70.9
11.7 76.6 10.3 73.2 8.8 69.9 13.8 76.7
9.8 80 8.6 76.2 7.3 72.5 11.5 79.9
8.5 82.1 7.4 78.2 6.4 74.1 9.9 82
7.6 83.6 6.6 79.4 5.7 75.2 8.8 83.5
6.9 84.7 6 80.3 5.2 76 8 84.5
5.9 86.1 5.2 81.5 4.4 77.1 6.8 85.9
5.3 86.9 4.6 82.3 3.9 77.7 6 86.8
4.8 87.5 4.2 82.8 3.6 78.1 5.4 87.4
4.1 88.2 3.6 83.5 3.1 78.7 4.7 88.1
3.7 88.7 3.2 83.8 2.8 79 4.2 88.6
19.2 61 16.4 60.2 13.7 59.3 22.8 62.4
13.2 72.8 11.3 70.3 9.4 67.7 15.6 73.2
10.3 78.2 8.8 74.9 7.3 71.6 12.1 78.3
8.6 81.2 7.3 77.5 6.1 73.7 10 81.2
7.4 83.2 6.4 79.1 5.3 75.1 8.7 83
6.6 84.4 5.7 80.2 4.7 76 7.7 84.3
6 85.3 5.2 81 4.3 76.7 7 85.2
5.2 86.5 4.4 82.1 3.7 77.5 6 86.4
4.6 87.3 3.9 82.7 3. 78.1 5.3 87.2
4.2 87.8 3.6 83.1 3 78.4 4.8 87.7
3.6 88.5 3.1 83.7 2.6 78.9 4.1 88.4
3.2 88.8 2.8 84 2.3 79.2 3.6 88.8
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 so
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
32.6 45.5 29.3 44.5 42.8 48.8 38.9 47.6 35 46.3
22.3 61 20.1 58.4 29.3 64.4 26.6 61.7 24 59
17.3 68.3 15.6 64.9 22.7 71.8 20.6 68.5 18.6 65.1
14.4 72.4 12.9 68.7 18.8 76.1 17.1 72.4 15.4 68.6
12.4 75 11.2 71 16.1 79 14.7 74.9 13.2 70.9
11 76.8 9.9 72.7 14.3 80.8 13 76.7 11.7 72.5
10 78.1 9 73.8 12.9 82.3 11.7 78 10.5 73.7
8.5 79.9 7.7 75.4 10.9 84.2 9.9 79.7 8.9 75.3
7.5 81 6.8 76.4 9.6 85.4 8.7 80.8 7.8 76.3
6.8 81.7 6.1 77.1 8.6 86.3 7.9 81.6 7.1 76.9
5.8 82.7 5.3 77.9 7.3 87.3 6.7 82.5 6 77.8
5.2 83.2 4.7 78.4 6.5 87.9 5.9 83.1 5.3 78.3
29.3 49.5 26.1 48.4 38.9 52.6 35 51.3 31.1 50.1
20.1 63.4 17.8 60.9 26.6 66.7 24 64 21.3 61.4
15.6 69.9 13.8 66.7 20.6 73.5 18.6 70.1 16.5 66.8
12.9 73.7 11.5 69.9 17.1 77.4 15.4 73.6 13.6 69.9
11.2 76 9.9 72 14.7 79.9 13.2 75.9 11.7 72
9.9 77.7 8.8 73.5 13 81.7 11.7 77.5 10.4 73.3
9 78.8 8 74.5 11.7 83 10.5 78.7 9.4 74.4
7.7 80.4 6.8 75.9 9.9 84.7 8.9 80.3 7.9 75.8
6.8 81.4 6 76.8 8.7 85.8 7.8 81.3 7 76.6
6.1 82.1 5.4 77.4 7.9 86.6 7.1 81.9 6.3 77.3
5.3 82.9 4.7 78.1 6.7 87.5 6 82.8 5.3 78
4.7 83.4 4.2 78.6 5.9 88.1 5.3 83.3 4.7 78.5
26.1 53.4 22.8 52.4 35 56.3 31.1 55.1 27.2 53.8
17.8 65.9 15.6 63.2 24 69 21.3 66.4 18.6 63.7
13.8 71.7 12.1 68.3 18.6 75.1 16.5 71.8 14.4 68.5
11.5 74.9 10 71.2 15.4 78.6 13.6 74.9 11.9 71.2
9.9 77 8.7 73 13.2 80.9 11.7 77 10.3 72.9
8.8 78.5 7.7 74.3 11.7 82.5 10.4 78.3 9.1 74.2
8 79.5 7 75.2 10.5 83.7 9.4 79.4 8.2 75.1
6.8 80.9 6 76.4 8.9 85.3 7.9 80.8 6.9 76.3
6 81.8 5.3 77.2 7.8 86.3 7 81.6 6.1 77.1
5.4 82.4 4.8 77.7 7.1 86.9 6.3 82.3 5.5 77.6
4.7 83.1 4.1 78.4 6 87.8 5.3 83 4.7 78.3
4.2 83.6 3.6 78.8 5.3 88.3 4.7 83.5 4.1 78.7
22.8 57.4 19.5 56.4 31.1 60.1 27.2 58.8 23.3 57.6
15.6 68.2 13.4 65.6 21.3 71.4 18.6 68.7 16 66
12.1 73.3 10.4 69.9 16.5 76.8 14.4 73.5 12.4 70.1
10 76.2 8.6 72.5 13.6 79.9 11.9 76.2 10.2 72.5
8.7 78 7.4 74.1 11.7 82 10.3 77.9 8.8 74
7.7 79.3 6.6 75.1 10.4 83.3 9.1 79.2 7.8 75
7 80.2 6 75.9 9.4 84.4 8.2 80.1 7 75.8
6 81.4 5.1 76.9 7.9 85.8 6.9 81.3 6 76.8
5.3 82.2 4.5 77.6 7 86.6 6.1 82.1 5.2 77.5
4.8 82.7 4.1 78 6.3 87.3 5.5 82.6 4.7 78
4.1 83.4 3.5 78.6 5.3 88 4.7 83.3 4 78.5
3.6 83.8 3.1 78.9 4.7 88.5 4.1 83.7 3.5 78.9
19.5 61.4 16.3 60.2 27.2 63.8 23.3 62.6 19.4 61.3
13.4 70.6 11.1 68.1 18.6 73.7 16 71 13.3 68.4
10.4 74.9 8.7 71.6 14.4 78.5 12.4 75.1 10.3 71.7
8.6 77.5 7.2 73.7 11.9 81.2 10.2 77.5 8.5 73.7
7.4 79.1 6.2 75 10.3 82.9 8.8 79 7.3 75
6.6 80.1 5.5 75.9 9.1 84.2 7.8 80 6.5 75.8
6 80.9 5 76.6 8.2 85.1 7 80.8 5.9 76.5
5.1 81.9 4.3 77.4 6.9 86.3 6 81.8 5 77.3
4.5 82.6 3.8 78 6.1 87.1 5.2 82.5 4.4 77.9
4.1 83 3.4 78.4 5.5 87.6 4.7 83 3.9 78.3
3.5 83.6 2.9 78.8 4.7 88.3 4 83.5 3.3 78.8
3.1 83.9 2.6 79.1 4.1 88.7 3.5 83.9 3 79
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-23
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Table App A-43. Heat Gain Values for Pro150 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 3.0", O.D. = 3.54" Pipe Size = 4.0", O.D. = 4.33" Pipe Size = 6.0", O.D. = 6.29"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 so
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
55.3 52.7 50.2 51.1 45.2 49.5 63.1 55.2
38.4 65.8 34.9 63 31.4 60.2 44.4 66.9
29.8 72.4 27.1 69 24.4 65.6 34.7 72.8
24.6 76.3 22.4 72.5 20.1 68.8 28.7 76.5
21.1 78.9 19.2 74.9 17.3 70.9 24.6 79
18.6 80.7 16.9 76.6 15.2 72.4 21.6 80.8
16.7 82.1 15.2 77.8 13.7 73.5 19.4 82.1
14 84 12.8 79.5 11.5 75 16.3 83.9
12.2 65.2 11.1 80.6 10 76 14.1 85.1
10.9 86 9.9 81.4 9 76.7 12.6 85.9
9.2 67.1 8.4 82.3 7.5 77.6 10.5 87
8.1 87.7 7.3 83 6.6 78.2 9.2 87.6
50.2 56.1 45.2 54.5 40.2 52.9 57.4 58.4
34.9 68 31.4 65.2 27.9 62.4 40.4 68.9
27.1 74 24.4 70.6 21.7 67.2 31.5 74.4
22.4 77.5 20.1 73.8 17.9 70 26 77.8
19.2 79.9 17.3 75.9 15.3 72 22.3 80
16.9 81.6 15.2 77.4 13.5 73.3 19.7 81.6
15.2 82.8 13.7 78.5 12.1 74.3 17.6 82.8
12.8 84.5 11.5 80 10.2 75.6 14.8 84.4
11.1 85.6 10 81 8.9 76.5 12.8 85.5
9.9 86.4 9 81.7 8 77.1 11.4 86.3
8.4 87.3 7.5 82.6 6.7 77.9 9.6 87.2
7.3 88 6.6 83.2 5.9 78.4 8.3 87.9
45.2 59.5 40.2 57.9 35.2 56.3 51.7 61.5
31.4 70.2 27.9 67.4 24.4 64.6 36.3 71.1
24.4 75.6 21.7 72.2 19 68.8 28.4 76
20.1 78.8 17.9 75 15.7 71.3 23.4 79
17.3 80.9 15.3 77 13.4 73 20.1 81
15.2 82.4 13.5 78.3 11.8 74.1 17.7 82.4
13.7 83.5 12.1 79.3 10.6 75 15.9 83.5
11.5 85 10.2 80.6 8.9 76.2 13.3 85
10 86 8.9 81.5 7.8 76.9 11.6 85.9
9 86.7 8 82.1 7 77.4 10.3 86.6
7.5 87.6 6.7 82.9 5.8 78.2 8.6 87.5
6.6 88.2 5.9 83.4 5.1 78.6 7.5 88.1
40.2 62.9 35.2 61.3 30.1 59.7 45.9 64.7
27.9 72.4 24.4 69.6 20.9 66.8 32.3 73.2
21.7 77.2 19 73.8 16.3 70.4 25.2 77.5
I7.9 80 15.7 76.3 13.4 72.5 20.8 80.2
15.3 82 13.4 78 11.5 74 17.9 82
13.5 83.3 11.8 79.1 10.1 75 15.7 83.3
12.1 84.3 10.6 80 9.1 75.7 14.1 84.2
10.2 85.6 8.9 81.2 7.7 76.7 11.8 85.5
8.9 86.5 7.8 81.9 6.7 77.4 10.3 86.4
8 87.1 7 82.4 6 77.8 9.2 87
6.7 87.9 5.8 83.2 5 78.4 7.6 87.8
5.9 88.4 5.1 83.6 4.4 78.8 6.7 88.3
35.2 66.3 30.1 64.7 25.1 63.1 40.2 67.8
24.4 74.6 20.9 71.8 17.4 69 28.3 75.2
19 78.8 16.3 75.4 13.5 72 22.1 79.1
15.7 81.3 13.4 77.5 11.2 73.8 18.2 81.4
13.4 83 11.5 79 9.6 75 15.6 83
11.8 84.1 10.1 80 8.5 75.8 13.8 84.1
10.6 85 9.1 80.7 7.6 76.4 12.4 84.9
8.9 86.2 7.7 81.7 6.4 77.2 10.3 86.1
7.8 86.9 6.7 82.4 5.6 77.8 9 86.9
7 87.4 6 82.8 5 78.2 8 87.4
5.8 88.2 5 83.4 4.2 78.7 6.7 88.1
5.1 88.6 1 4.4 83.8 3.7 79 1 5.8 88.5
57.4 53.4 51.7 51.5 78.5 60.2 71.3 57.9 64.2 55.6
40.4 63.9 36.3 61.1 57.2 69.1 52 66 46.8 62.9
31.5 69.4 28.4 66 45.3 74.1 41.2 70.5 37.1 67
26 72.8 23.4 69 37.7 77.2 34.3 73.4 30.9 69.5
22.3 75 20.1 71 32.5 79.4 29.5 75.3 26.6 71.3
19.7 76.6 17.7 72.4 28.6 80.9 26 76.8 23.4 72.6
17.6 77.8 15.9 73.5 25.7 82.1 23.4 77.8 21 73.6
14.8 79.4 13.3 75 21.5 83.8 19.5 79.4 17.6 74.9
12.8 80.5 11.6 75.9 18.6 84.9 16.9 80.4 15.2 75.9
11.4 81.3 10.3 76.6 16.5 85.8 15 81.1 13.5 76.5
9.6 82.2 8.6 77.5 13.6 86.8 12.4 82.1 11.2 77.4
8.3 82.9 7.5 78.1 11.8 87.5 10.7 82.7 9.6 78
51.7 56.5 45.9 54.7 71.3 62.9 64.2 60.6 57.1 58.3
36.3 66.1 32.3 63.2 52 71 46.8 67.9 41.6 64.8
28.4 71 25.2 67.5 41.2 75.5 37.1 72 32.9 68.4
23.4 74 20.8 70.2 34.3 78.4 30.9 74.5 27.4 70.7
20.1 76 17.9 72 29.5 80.3 26.6 76.3 23.6 72.3
17.7 77.4 15.7 73.3 26 81.8 23.4 77.6 20.8 73.4
15.9 78.5 14.1 74.2 23.4 82.8 21 78.6 18.7 74.3
13.3 80 11.8 75.5 19.5 84.4 17.6 79.9 15.6 75.5
11.6 80.9 10.3 76.4 16.9 85.4 15.2 80.9 13.5 76.3
10.3 81.6 9.2 77 15 86.1 13.5 81.5 12 76.9
8.6 82.5 7.6 77.8 12.4 87.1 11.2 82.4 9.9 77.7
7.5 83.1 6.7 78.3 10.7 87.7 9.6 83 8.6 78.2
45.9 59.7 40.2 57.8 64.2 65.6 57.1 63.3 49.9 61.1
32.3 68.2 28.3 65.2 46.8 72.9 41.6 69.8 36.4 66.7
25.2 72.5 22.1 69.1 37.1 77 32.9 73.4 28.8 69.9
20.8 75.2 18.2 71.4 30.9 79.5 27.4 75.7 24 71.9
17.9 77 15.6 73 26.6 81.3 23.6 77.3 20.7 73.2
15.7 78.3 13.8 74.1 23.4 82.6 20.8 78.4 18.2 74.2
14.1 79.2 12.4 74.9 21 83.6 18.7 79.3 16.3 75
11.8 80.5 10.3 76.1 17.6 84.9 15.6 80.5 13.7 76.1
10.3 81.4 9 76.9 15.2 85.9 13.5 81.3 11.8 76.8
9.2 82 8 77.4 13.5 86.5 12 81.9 10.5 77.3
7.6 82.8 6.7 78.1 11.2 87.4 9.9 82.7 8.7 78
6.7 83.3 5.8 78.5 9.6 88 8.6 83.2 7.5 78.4
40.2 62.8 34.4 61 57.1 68.3 49.9 66.1 42.8 63.8
28.3 70.2 24.2 67.4 41.6 74.8 36.4 71.7 31.2 68.6
22.1 74.1 18.9 70.7 32.9 78.4 28.8 74.9 24.7 71.3
18.2 76.4 15.6 72.7 27.4 80.7 24 76.9 20.6 73
15.6 78 13.4 74 23.6 82.3 20.7 78.2 17.7 74.2
13.8 79.1 11.8 75 20.8 83.4 18.2 79.2 15.6 75.1
12.4 79.9 10.6 75.7 18.7 84.3 16.3 80 14 75.7
10.3 81.1 8.9 76.6 15.6 85.5 13.7 81.1 11.7 76.6
981.9 7.7 77.3 13.5 86.3 11.8 81.8 10.1 77.3
882.4 6.9 77.8 12 86.9 10.5 82.3 9 77.7
6.7 83.1 5.7 78.4 9.9 87.7 8.7 83 7.4 78.3
5.8 83.5 5 78.7 8.6 88.2 7.5 83.4 6.4 78.6
34.4 66 28.7 64.2 49.9 71.1 42.8 68.8 35.7 66.5
24.2 72.4 20.2 69.5 36.4 76.7 31.2 73.6 26 70.5
18.9 75.7 15.8 72.2 28.8 79.9 24.7 76.3 20.6 72.8
15.6 77.7 13 73.9 24 81.9 20.6 78 17.2 74.2
13.4 79 11.2 75 20.7 83.2 17.7 79.2 14.8 75.2
11.8 80 9.8 75.8 18.2 84.2 15.6 80.1 13 75.9
10.6 80.7 8.8 76.4 16.3 85 14 80.7 11.7 76.4
8.9 81.6 7.4 77.2 13.7 86.1 11.7 81.6 9.8 77.2
7.7 82.3 6.4 77.8 11.8 86.8 10.1 82.3 8.4 77.7
6.9 82.8 5.7 78.1 10.5 87.3 9 82.7 7.5 78.1
5.7 83.4 4.8 78.6 8.7 88 7.4 83.3 6.2 78.6
5.1 83.7 1 4.2 78.9 1 7.5 1 88.4 1 6.4 1 83.6 1 5.4 1 78.9
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
Table App A-43. Heat Gain Values for Pro150 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 8", O.D. = 7.87" Pipe Size = 10", O.D. = 9.84" Pipe Size = 12", O.D. = 12.4"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 155
88.2 63.2 80.2 60.7 72.2 58.1 97.6 66.3
65.8 70.7 59.9 67.4 53.9 64.2 74.8 72.3
52.8 74.9 48 71.3 43.2 67.7 61 75.9
44.3 77.7 40.3 73.8 36.3 69.9 51.6 78.4
38.3 79.7 34.8 75.6 31.4 71.5 44.9 80.1
33.9 81.1 30.8 76.9 27.7 72.7 39.8 81.4
30.4 82.3 27.6 78 24.9 73.7 35.8 82.5
25.4 83.9 23.1 79.4 20.8 75 30 84
22 84.9 20 80.4 18 75.9 26 85
19.5 85.7 17.7 81.1 15.9 76.5 23 85.7
16 86.8 14.6 82.1 13.1 77.4 18.9 86.7
13.8 87.4 12.5 82.7 11.3 77.9 16.2 87.4
80.2 65.7 72.2 63.1 64.2 60.5 88.8 68.5
59.9 72.4 53.9 69.2 47.9 65.9 68 73.9
48 76.3 43.2 72.7 38.4 69 55.4 77.2
40.3 78.8 36.3 74.9 32.2 71.1 46.9 79.4
34.8 80.6 31.4 76.5 27.9 72.5 40.8 81
30.8 81.9 27.7 77.7 24.6 73.6 36.2 82.2
27.6 83 24.9 78.7 22.1 74.4 32.6 83.1
23.1 84.4 20.8 80 18.5 75.5 27.3 84.5
20 85.4 18 80.9 16 76.3 23.6 85.4
17.7 86.1 15.9 81.5 14.2 76.9 20.9 86.1
14.6 87.1 13.1 82.4 11.7 77.6 17.2 87
12.5 87.7 11.3 82.9 10 78.1 14.8 87.6
72.2 68.1 64.2 65.5 56.1 63 79.9 70.6
53.9 74.2 47.9 70.9 41.9 67.7 61.2 75.5
43.2 77.7 38.4 74 33.6 70.4 49.9 78.5
36.3 79.9 32.2 76.1 28.2 72.2 42.2 80.5
31.4 81.5 27.9 77.5 24.4 73.4 36.7 81.9
27.7 82.7 24.6 78.6 21.5 74.4 32.6 83
24.9 83.7 22.1 79.4 19.3 75.1 29.3 83.8
20.8 85 18.5 80.5 16.2 76.1 24.6 85
18 85.9 16 81.3 14 76.8 21.3 85.9
15.9 86.5 14.2 81.9 12.4 77.3 18.8 86.5
13.1 87.4 11.7 82.6 10.2 77.9 15.5 87.3
11.3 87.9 10 83.1 8.8 78.4 13.3 87.9
64.2 70.5 56.1 68 48.1 65.4 71 72.8
47.9 75.9 41.9 72.7 35.9 69.4 54.4 77.1
38.4 79 33.6 75.4 28.8 71.8 44.3 79.8
32.2 81.1 28.2 77.2 24.2 73.3 37.5 81.5
27.9 82.5 24.4 78.4 20.9 74.4 32.6 82.8
24.6 83.6 21.5 79.4 18.5 75.2 28.9 83.8
22.1 84.4 19.3 80.1 16.6 75.8 26.1 84.5
18.5 85.5 16.2 81.1 13.9 76.6 21.8 85.6
16 86.3 14 81.8 12 77.2 18.9 86.3
14.2 86.9 12.4 82.3 10.6 77.7 16.7 86.9
11.7 87.6 10.2 82.9 8.8 78.2 13.8 87.6
10 88.1 8.8 83.4 7.5 78.6 11.8 88.1
56.1 73 48.1 70.4 40.1 67.8 62.1 74.9
41.9 77.7 35.9 74.4 29.9 71.2 47.6 78.7
33.6 80.4 28.8 76.8 24 73.2 38.8 81
28.2 82.2 24.2 78.3 20.1 74.4 32.8 82.6
24.4 83.4 20.9 79.4 17.4 75.3 28.6 83.7
21.5 84.4 18.5 80.2 15.4 76 25.3 84.6
19.3 85.1 16.6 80.8 13.8 76.5 22.8 85.2
16.2 86.1 13.9 81.6 11.6 77.2 19.1 86.1
14 86.8 12 82.2 10 77.7 16.5 86.8
12.4 87.3 10.6 82.7 8.9 78 14.7 87.3
10.2 87.9 8.8 83.2 7.3 78.5 12 87.9
8.8 88.4 7.5 83.6 6.3 78.8 10.3 88.3
88.8 63.5 79.9 60.6 107.3 69.3 97.5 66.2 87.8 63.1
68 68.9 61.2 65.5 84.6 74 76.9 70.5 69.2 66.9
55.4 72.2 49.9 68.5 70.1 77 63.7 73.2 57.3 69.4
46.9 74.4 42.2 70.5 60 79.1 54.5 75.1 49.1 71.1
40.8 76 36.7 71.9 52.5 80.6 47.8 76.5 43 72.3
36.2 77.2 32.6 73 46.8 81.8 42.6 77.5 38.3 73.3
32.6 78.1 29.3 73.8 42.3 82.7 38.5 78.4 34.6 74.1
27.3 79.5 24.6 75 35.6 84.1 32.4 79.6 29.1 75.2
23.6 80.4 21.3 75.9 30.9 85 28.1 80.5 25.3 75.9
20.9 81.1 18.8 76.5 27.4 85.8 24.9 81.1 22.4 76.5
17.2 82 15.5 77.3 22.5 86.7 20.5 82 18.4 77.3
14.8 82.6 13.3 77.9 19.3 87.4 17.5 82.6 15.8 77.8
79.9 65.6 71 62.8 97.5 71.2 87.8 68.1 78 65
61.2 70.5 54.4 67.1 76.9 75.5 69.2 71.9 61.5 68.4
49.9 73.5 44.3 69.8 63.7 78.2 57.3 74.4 51 70.6
42.2 75.5 37.5 71.5 54.5 80.1 49.1 76.1 43.6 72.1
36.7 76.9 32.6 72.8 47.8 81.5 43 77.3 38.2 73.2
32.6 78 28.9 73.8 42.6 82.5 38.3 78.3 34.1 74
29.3 78.8 26.1 74.5 38.5 83.4 34.6 79.1 30.8 74.7
24.6 80 21.8 75.6 32.4 84.6 29.1 80.2 25.9 75.7
21.3 80.9 18.9 76.3 28.1 85.5 25.3 80.9 22.5 76.4
18.8 81.5 16.7 76.9 24.9 86.1 22.4 81.5 19.9 76.9
15.5 82.3 13.8 77.6 20.5 87 18.4 82.3 16.4 77.6
13.3 82.9 11.8 78.1 17.5 87.6 15.8 82.8 14 78.1
71 67.8 62.1 64.9 87.8 73.1 78 70 68.3 66.9
54.4 72.1 47.6 68.7 69.2 76.9 61.5 73.4 53.8 69.8
44.3 74.8 38.8 71 57.3 79.4 51 75.6 44.6 71.7
37.5 76.5 32.8 72.6 49.1 81.1 43.6 77.1 38.2 73.1
32.6 77.8 28.6 73.7 43 82.3 38.2 78.2 33.4 74
28.9 78.8 25.3 74.6 38.3 83.3 34.1 79 29.8 74.8
26.1 79.5 22.8 75.2 34.6 84.1 30.8 79.7 26.9 75.4
21.8 80.6 19.1 76.1 29.1 85.2 25.9 80.7 22.7 76.2
18.9 81.3 16.5 76.8 25.3 85.9 22.5 81.4 19.7 76.8
16.7 81.9 14.7 77.3 22.4 86.5 19.9 81.9 17.4 77.3
13.8 82.6 12 77.9 18.4 87.3 16.4 82.6 14.3 77.9
11.8 83.1 10.3 78.3 15.8 87.8 14 83.1 12.3 78.3
62.1 69.9 53.3 67.1 78 75 68.3 71.9 58.5 68.7
47.6 73.7 40.8 70.3 61.5 78.4 53.8 74.8 46.1 71.3
38.8 76 33.3 72.3 51 80.6 44.6 76.7 38.2 72.9
32.8 77.6 28.1 73.7 43.6 82.1 38.2 78.1 32.7 74.1
28.6 78.7 24.5 74.6 38.2 83.2 33.4 79 28.7 74.9
25.3 79.6 21.7 75.3 34.1 84 29.8 79.8 25.5 75.5
22.8 80.2 19.5 75.9 30.8 84.7 26.9 80.4 23.1 76
19.1 81.1 16.4 76.7 25.9 85.7 22.7 81.2 19.4 76.8
16.5 81.8 14.2 77.3 22.5 86.4 19.7 81.8 16.9 77.3
14.7 82.3 12.6 77.7 19.9 86.9 17.4 82.3 14.9 77.7
12 82.9 10.3 78.2 16.4 87.6 14.3 82.9 12.3 78.2
10.3 83.3 8.9 78.6 14 88.1 12.3 83.3 10.5 78.6
53.3 72.1 44.4 69.2 68.3 76.9 58.5 73.7 48.8 70.6
40.8 75.3 34 72 53.8 79.8 46.1 76.3 38.5 72.7
33.3 77.3 27.7 73.6 44.6 81.7 38.2 77.9 31.9 74.1
28.1 78.7 23.5 74.7 38.2 83.1 32.7 79.1 27.3 75
24.5 79.6 20.4 75.5 33.4 84 28.7 79.9 23.9 75.7
21.7 80.3 18.1 76.1 29.8 84.8 25.5 80.5 21.3 76.3
19.5 80.9 16.3 76.6 26.9 85.4 23.1 81 19.2 76.7
16.4 81.7 13.7 77.2 22.7 86.2 19.4 81.8 16.2 77.3
14.2 82.3 11.8 77.7 19.7 86.8 16.9 82.3 14 77.8
12.6 82.7 10.5 78 17.4 87.3 14.9 82.7 12.5 78.1
10.3 83.2 8.6 78.5 14.3 87.9 12.3 83.2 10.2 78.5
18.9 83.6 7.4 78.81 12.3 88.31 10.5 83.6 8.8 78.8
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-24
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Table App. A-43. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 14", O.D. = 13.98" Pipe Size = 16", O.D. = 15.75" Pipe Size = 18", O.D. = 17.72"
112.1 70.9 101.9 67.6 91.8 64.3 116.7 72.3
89.7 75.0 81.6 71.3 73.4 67.7 94.8 75.9
75.0 77.6 68.2 73.8 61.4 69.9 80.0 78.2
64.6 79.5 58.7 75.5 52.9 71.4 69.3 80.0
56.8 80.9 51.7 76.8 46.5 72.6 61.3 81.3
50.8 82.0 46.2 77.8 41.6 73.5 55.0 82.3
46.0 82.9 41.8 78.6 37.7 74.2 49.9 83.1
38.9 84.2 35.3 79.7 31.8 75.2 42.3 84.3
33.8 85.1 30.7 80.6 27.6 76.0 36.8 85.2
30.0 85.8 27.2 81.2 24.5 76.6 32.7 85.8
24.6 86.7 22.4 82.0 20.2 77.3 26.9 86.7
21.1 87.3 19.2 82.6 17.3 77.8 23.1 87.3
101.9 72.6 91.8 69.3 81.6 66.1 106.1 73.9
81.6 76.3 73.4 72.7 65.3 69.0 86.2 77.1
66.2 78.8 61.4 74.9 54.6 71.0 72.7 79.3
58.7 80.5 52.9 76.4 47.0 72.4 63.0 80.9
51.7 81.8 46.5 77.6 41.3 73.4 55.7 82.1
46.2 82.8 41.6 78.5 37.0 74.2 50.0 83.0
41.8 83.6 37.7 79.2 33.5 74.8 45.4 83.7
35.3 84.7 31.8 80.2 28.3 75.8 38.5 84.8
30.7 85.6 27.6 81.0 24.6 76.4 33.5 85.6
27.2 86.2 24.5 81.6 21.8 76.9 29.8 86.2
22.4 87.0 20.2 82.3 17.9 77.6 24.5 87.0
19.2 87.6 17.3 82.8 15.3 78.1 21.0 87.6
91.8 74.3 81.6 71.1 71.4 67.8 95.5 75.5
73.4 77.7 65.3 74.0 57.1 70.4 77.5 78.4
61.4 79.9 54.6 76.0 47.7 72.1 65.4 80.4
52.9 81.4 47.0 77.4 41.1 73.3 56.7 81.8
46.5 82.6 41.3 78.4 36.2 74.2 50.1 82.9
41.6 83.5 37.0 79.2 32.3 74.9 45.0 83.7
37.7 84.2 33.5 79.8 29.3 75.5 40.9 84.3
31.8 85.2 28.3 80.8 24.7 76.3 34.6 85.3
27.6 86.0 24.6 81.4 21.5 76.9 30.1 86.1
24.5 86.6 21.8 81.9 19.1 77.3 26.8 86.6
20.2 87.3 17.9 82.6 15.7 77.9 22.0 87.3
17.3 87.8 15.3 83.1 13.4 78.3 18.9 87.8
81.6 76.1 71.4 72.8 61.2 69.5 84.9 77.1
65.3 79.0 57.1 75.4 49.0 71.8 68.9 79.7
54.6 81.0 47.7 77.1 40.9 73.3 58.2 81.4
47.0 82.4 41.1 78.3 35.2 74.3 50.4 82.7
41.3 83.4 36.2 79.2 31.0 75.1 44.6 83.6
37.0 84.2 32.3 79.9 27.7 75.7 40.0 84.4
33.5 84.8 29.3 80.5 25.1 76.1 36.3 85.0
28.3 85.8 24.7 81.3 21.2 76.8 30.8 85.9
24.6 86.4 21.5 81.9 18.4 77.3 26.8 86.5
21.8 86.9 19.1 82.3 16.3 77.7 23.8 87.0
17.9 87.6 15.7 82.9 13.4 78.2 19.6 87.6
15.3 88.1 13.4 83.3 11.5 78.6 16.8 88.1
71.4 77.8 61.2 74.5 51.0 71.3 74.3 78.7
57.1 80.4 49.0 76.8 40.8 73.2 60.3 81
47.7 82.1 40.9 78.3 34.1 74.4 50.9 82.5
41.1 83.3 35.2 79.3 29.4 75.2 44.1 83.6
36.2 84.2 31.0 80.1 25.8 75.9 39.0 84.4
32.3 84.9 27.7 80.7 23.1 76.4 35.0 85.1
29.3 85.5 25.1 81.1 20.9 76.8 31.8 85.6
24.7 86.3 21.2 81.8 17.7 77.4 26.9 86.4
21.5 86.9 18.4 82.3 15.4 77.8 23.4 86.9
19.1 87.3 16.3 82.7 13.6 78.1 20.8 87.4
15.7 87.9 13.4 83.2 11.2 78.5 17.1 87.9
13.4 88.3 11.5 83.6 9.6 78.8 14.7 88.3
106.1 68.9 95.5 65.5 120.9 73.7 109.9 70.2 98.9 66.7
86.2 72.1 77.5 68.4 99.6 76.8 90.6 73.0 81.5 69.2
72.7 74.3 65.4 70.4 84.9 78.9 77.2 74.9 69.5 70.9
63.0 75.9 56.7 71.8 74.1 80.4 67.3 76.3 60.6 72.2
55.7 77.1 50.1 72.9 65.8 81.6 59.8 77.4 53.8 73.1
50.0 78.0 45.0 73.7 59.3 82.5 53.9 78.2 48.5 73.9
46.4 78.7 40.9 74.3 54.0 83.3 49.1 78.9 44.2 74.5
38.5 79.8 34.6 75.3 45.9 84.4 41.8 79.9 37.6 75.4
33.5 80.6 30.1 76.1 40.1 85.3 36.5 80.7 32.8 76.1
29.8 81.2 26.8 76.6 35.7 85.9 32.4 81.3 29.2 76.6
24.5 82.0 22.0 77.3 29.4 86.8 26.7 82.1 24.1 77.4
21.0 82.6 18.9 77.8 25.2 87.4 22.9 82.6 20.6 77.8
95.5 70.5 84.9 67.1 109.9 75.2 98.9 71.7 88.0 68.1
77.5 73.4 68.9 69.7 90.6 78.0 81.5 74.2 72.5 70.4
65.4 75.4 58.2 71.4 77.2 79.9 69.5 75.9 61.7 71.9
56.7 76.8 50.4 72.7 67.3 81.3 60.6 77.2 53.9 73.0
50.1 77.9 44.6 73.6 59.8 82.4 53.8 78.1 47.9 73.9
45.0 78.7 40.0 74.4 53.9 83.2 48.5 78.9 43.1 74.6
40.9 79.3 36.3 75.0 49.1 83.9 44.2 79.5 39.3 75.1
34.6 80.3 30.8 75.9 41.8 84.9 37.6 80.4 33.4 76.0
30.1 81.1 26.8 76.5 36.5 85.7 32.8 81.1 29.2 76.6
26.8 81.6 23.8 77.0 32.4 86.3 29.2 81.6 25.9 77.0
22 82.3 19.6 77.6 26.7 87.1 24.1 82.4 21.4 77.6
18.9 82.8 16.8 78.1 22.9 87.6 20.6 82.8 18.3 78.1
84.9 72.1 74.3 68.7 98.9 76.7 88.0 73.1 77.0 69.6
68.9 74.7 60.3 71.0 81.5 79.2 72.5 75.4 63.4 71.6
58.2 76.4 50.9 72.5 69.5 80.9 61.7 76.9 54.0 72.9
50.4 77.7 44.1 73.6 60.6 82.2 53.9 78.0 47.1 73.9
44.6 78.6 39.0 74.4 53.8 83.1 47.9 78.9 41.9 74.7
40.0 79.4 35.0 75.1 48.5 83.9 43.1 79.6 37.7 75.3
36.3 80.0 31.8 75.6 44.2 84.5 39.3 80.1 34.3 75.7
30.8 80.9 26.9 76.4 37.6 85.4 33.4 81.0 29.2 76.5
26.8 81.5 23.4 76.9 32.8 86.1 29.2 81.6 25.5 77.0
23.8 82 20.8 77.4 29.2 86.6 25.9 82.0 22.7 77.4
19.6 82.6 17.1 77.9 24.1 87.4 21.4 82.6 18.7 77.9
16.8 83.1 14.7 78.3 20.6 87.8 18.3 83.1 16.0 78.3
74.3 73.7 63.7 70.3 88.0 78.1 77.0 74.6 66.0 71.1
60.3 76.0 51.7 72.3 72.5 80.4 63.4 76.6 54.3 72.8
50.9 77.5 43.6 73.6 61.7 81.9 54.0 77.9 46.3 73.9
44.1 78.6 37.8 74.5 53.9 83.0 47.1 78.9 40.4 74.8
39.0 79.4 33.4 75.2 47.9 83.9 41.9 79.7 35.9 75.4
35.0 80.1 30.0 75.8 43.1 84.6 37.7 80.3 32.3 75.9
31.8 80.6 27.2 76.2 39.3 85.1 34.3 80.7 29.4 76.3
26.9 81.4 23.1 76.9 33.4 86.0 29.2 81.5 25.1 77.0
23.4 81.9 20.1 77.4 29.2 86.6 25.5 82.0 21.9 77.4
20.8 82.4 17.9 77.7 25.9 87.0 22.7 82.4 19.5 77.8
17.1 82.9 14.7 78.2 21.4 87.6 18.7 82.9 16.0 78.2
14.7 83.3 12.6 78.6 18.3 88.1 16.0 83.3 13.7 78.6
63.7 75.3 53.1 72.0 77.0 79.6 66.0 76.1 55.0 72.6
51.7 77.3 43.1 73.6 63.4 81.6 54.3 77.8 45.3 74.0
43.6 78.6 36.4 74.7 54.0 82.9 46.3 78.9 38.6 74.9
37.8 79.5 31.5 75.4 47.1 83.9 40.4 79.8 33.7 75.6
33.4 80.2 27.9 76.0 41.9 84.7 35.9 80.4 29.9 76.2
30.0 80.8 25.0 76.5 37.7 85.3 32.3 80.9 26.9 76.6
27.2 81.2 22.7 76.9 34.3 85.7 29.4 81.3 24.5 77.0
23.1 81.9 19.2 77.4 29.2 86.5 25.1 82.0 20.9 77.5
20.1 82.4 16.7 77.8 25.5 87.0 21.9 82.4 18.2 77.9
17.9 82.7 14.9 78.1 22.7 87.4 19.5 82.8 16.2 78.1
14.7 83.2 12.2 78.5 18.7 87.9 16.0 83.2 13.4 78.5
12.6 83.6 10.5 78.8 16.1 88.3 13.7 83.6 11.5 78.8
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 155
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-25
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 0.5", O.D. = 0.79" Pipe Size =0.75", O.D. = 0.98" Pipe Size = 1", O.D. = 1.26"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
53.7 43.4 51.8 65.8 56.8 59.9 54.7 53.9 52.8
74.7 17.9 70.7 27.1 78.6 24.6 74.6 22.1 70.7
79.2 12.1 74.8 18.0 83.5 16.4 79.1 14.7 74.7
81.1 9.4 76.5 13.9 B5.6 12.7 81.0 11.4 76.4
82.2 7.9 77.5 11.6 86.7 10.5 82.0 9.5 77.3
82.8 6.9 78.0 10.1 87.4 9.2 82.7 8.2 77.9
83.2 6.2 78.4 9.0 87.9 8.2 83.1 7.4 78.3
83.7 5.3 78.9 7.6 88.5 6.9 83.7 6.2 78.8
84.0 4.7 79.1 6.7 88.9 6.1 84.0 5.5 79.1
84.2 4.3 79.3 6.0 89.1 5.5 84.2 4.9 79.3
84.5 3.7 79.5 5.2 89.4 4.7 84.4 4.3 79.5
84.6 3.4 79.6 4.7 89.5 4.2 84.6 3.8 79.6
56.8 38.6 54.9 59.9 59.7 53.9 57.8 47.9 55.8
75.7 15.9 71.8 24.6 79.6 22.1 75.7 19.7 71.7
79.8 10.7 75.4 16.4 84.1 14.7 79.7 13.1 75.3
81.5 8.4 76.9 12.7 86.0 11.4 81.4 10.1 76.8
82.5 7.0 77.7 10.5 87.0 9.5 82.3 8.4 77.6
83.0 6.2 78.2 9.2 87.7 8.2 82.9 7.3 78.1
83.4 5.5 78.6 8.2 88.1 7.4 83.3 6.5 78.5
83.9 4.7 79.0 6.9 88.7 6.2 83.8 5.5 78.9
84.1 4.2 79.2 6.1 89.0 5.5 84.1 4.9 79.2
84.3 3.8 79.4 5.5 89.2 4.9 84.3 4.4 79.3
84.5 3.3 79.6 4.7 89.4 4.3 84.5 3.8 79.5
84.6 3.0 79.7 4.2 89.6 3.8 84.6 3.4 79.7
59.9 33.7 58.1 53.9 62.8 47.9 60.8 41.9 58.8
76.8 13.9 72.8 22.1 80.7 19.7 76.7 17.2 72.7
80.4 9.4 76.0 14.7 84.7 13.1 80.3 11.5 75.8
81.9 7.3 77.3 11.4 86.4 10.1 81.8 8.9 77.2
82.7 6.2 78.0 9.5 87.3 8.4 82.6 7.4 77.9
83.2 5.4 78.5 8.2 87.9 7.3 83.1 6.4 78.4
83.6 4.9 78.7 7.4 88.3 6.5 83.5 5.7 78.7
84 4.1 79.1 6.2 88.8 5.5 83.9 4.8 79.1
84.2 3.7 79.3 5.5 89.1 4.9 84.2 4.3 79.3
84.4 3.3 79.5 4.9 89.3 4.4 84.3 3.8 79.4
84.6 2.9 79.6 4.3 89.5 3.8 84.5 3.3 79.6
84.7 2.6 79.7 3.8 89.6 3.4 84.7 3.0 79.7
63.1 28.9 61.2 47.9 65.8 41.9 63.8 35.9 61.9
77.8 11.9 73.8 19.7 81.7 17.2 77.7 14.8 73.8
81.0 8.0 76.6 13.1 85.3 11.5 80.8 9.8 76.5
82.3 6.3 77.7 10.1 86.8 8.9 82.2 7.6 77.6
83.0 5.3 78.3 8.4 87.6 7.4 82.9 6.3 78.2
83.5 4.6 78.7 7.3 88.1 6.4 83.4 5.5 78.6
83.7 4.2 78.9 6.5 88.5 5.7 83.7 4.9 78.9
84.1 3.5 79.3 5.5 88.9 4.8 84.1 4.1 79.2
84.3 3.1 79.4 4.9 89.2 4.3 84.3 3.6 79.4
84.5 2.9 79.5 4.4 89.3 3.8 84.4 3.3 79.5
84.6 2.5 79.7 3.8 89.5 3.3 84.6 2.8 79.7
84.7 2.3 79.8 3.4 89.7 3.0 84.7 2.5 79.7
66.2 24.1 64.3 41.9 66.8 35.9 66.9 29.9 64.9
78.8 9.9 74.9 17.2 82.7 14.8 78.8 12.3 74.8
81.6 6.7 77.1 11.5 85.8 9.8 81.5 8.2 77.0
82.7 5.2 78.1 8.9 87.2 7.6 82.6 6.3 78.0
83.3 4.4 78.6 7.4 87.9 6.3 83.2 5.3 78.5
83.7 3.9 78.9 6.4 88.4 5.5 83.6 4.6 78.8
83.9 3.5 79.1 5.7 88.7 4.9 83.9 4.1 79.1
84.3 3.0 79.4 4.8 89.1 4.1 84.2 3.4 79.3
84.4 2.6 79.5 4.3 89.3 3.6 84.4 3.0 79.5
84.5 2.4 79.6 3.8 89.4 3.3 84.5 2.7 79.6
84.7 2.1 79.7 3.3 89.6 2.8 84.7 2.4 79.7
84.8 1.9 79.8 3.0 89.7 2.5 84.7 2.1 79.8
43.7 54.8 39.7 53 35.7 51.2 53.0 55.6 48.2
18.3 78.8 16.6 74.8 14.9 70.9 21.9 78.7 19.9
12.5 83.8 11.3 79.4 10.2 75.0 14.7 83.7 13.4
9.8 85.9 8.9 81.3 8.1 76.7 11.5 85.8 10.5
8.3 87.0 7.6 82.3 6.8 77.6 9.7 86.9 8.8
7.4 87.7 6.7 82.9 6.0 78.1 8.5 87.6 7.7
6.7 88.1 6.1 83.3 5.4 78.5 7.6 88.0 6.9
5.7 88.7 5.2 83.8 4.7 78.9 6.5 88.6 5.9
5.1 89.0 4.7 84.1 4.2 79.2 5.8 88.9 5.2
4.7 89.2 4.3 84.3 3.8 79.4 5.3 89.2 4.8
4.1 89.5 3.7 84.5 3.4 79.5 4.6 89.4 4.2
3.8 89.6 3.4 84.6 3.1 79.7 4.1 89.6 3.8
39.7 58.0 35.7 56.2 31.8 54.4 48.2 58.7 43.4
16.6 79.8 14.9 75.9 13.3 71.9 19.9 79.7 17.9
11.3 84.4 10.2 80.0 9.1 75.5 13.4 84.2 12.1
8.9 86.3 8.1 81.7 7.2 77.0 10.5 86.1 9.4
7.6 87.3 6.8 82.6 6.1 77.8 8.8 87.2 7.9
6.7 87.9 6.0 83.1 5.4 78.3 7.7 87.8 6.9
6.1 88.3 5.4 83.5 4.8 78.7 6.9 88.2 6.2
5.2 88.8 4.7 83.9 4.2 79.0 5.9 88.7 5.3
4.7 89.1 4.2 84.2 3.7 79.3 5.2 89.0 4.7
4.3 89.3 3.8 84.4 3.4 79.4 4.8 89.2 4.3
3.7 89.5 3.4 84.5 3.0 79.6 4.2 89.5 3.7
3.4 89.6 3.1 84.7 2.7 79.7 3.8 89.6 3.4
35.7 61.2 31.8 59.4 27.8 57.6 43.4 61.8 38.6
14.9 80.9 13.3 76.9 11.6 72.9 17.9 80.7 15.9
10.2 85.0 9.1 80.5 7.9 76.1 12.1 84.8 10.7
8.1 86.7 7.2 82.0 6.3 77.4 9.4 86.5 8.4
6.8 87.6 6.1 82.8 5.3 78.1 7.9 87.5 7.0
6.0 88.1 5.4 83.3 4.7 78.5 6.9 88.0 6.2
5.4 88.5 4.8 83.7 4.2 78.8 6.2 88.4 5.5
4.7 88.9 4.2 84.0 3.6 79.2 5.3 88.9 4.7
4.2 89.2 3.7 84.3 3.3 79.4 4.7 89.1 4.2
3.8 89.4 3.4 84.4 3.0 79.5 4.3 89.3 3.8
3.4 89.5 3.0 84.6 2.6 79.7 3.7 89.5 3.3
3.1 89.7 2.7 84.7 2.4 79.7 3.4 89.6 3.0
31.8 64.4 27.8 62.6 23.8 60.8 38.6 64.9 33.7
13.3 81.9 11.6 77.9 10.0 73.9 15.9 81.8 13.9
9.1 85.5 7.9 81.1 6.8 76.6 10.7 85.4 9.4
7.2 87.0 6.3 82.4 5.4 77.8 8.4 86.9 7.3
6.1 87.8 5.3 83.1 4.5 78.4 7.0 87.7 6.2
5.4 88.3 4.7 83.5 4.0 78.8 6.2 88.2 5.4
4.8 88.7 4.2 83.8 3.6 79.0 5.5 88.6 4.9
4.2 89.0 3.6 84.2 3.1 79.3 4.7 89.0 4.1
3.7 89.3 3.3 84.4 2.8 79.5 4.2 89.2 3.7
3.4 89.4 3.0 84.5 2.6 79.6 3.8 89.4 3.3
3.0 89.6 2.6 84.7 2.2 79.7 3.3 89.6 2.9
2.7 89.7 2.4 84.7 2.0 79.8 3.0 89.7 2.6
27.8 67.6 23.8 65.8 19.8 64.0 33.7 68.1 28.9
11.6 82.9 10.0 78.9 8.3 74.9 13.9 82.8 11.9
7.9 86.1 6.8 81.6 5.7 77.2 9.4 86.0 8.0
6.3 87.4 5.4 82.8 4.5 78.1 7.3 87.3 6.3
5.3 88.1 4.5 83.4 3.8 78.6 6.2 88.0 5.3
4.7 88.5 4.0 83.8 3.3 79.0 5.4 88.5 4.6
4.2 88.8 3.6 84.0 3.0 79.2 4.9 88.7 4.2
3.6 89.2 3.1 84.3 2.6 79.4 4.1 89.1 3.5
3.3 89.4 2.8 84.5 2.3 79.6 3.7 89.3 3.1
3.0 89.5 2.6 84.6 2.1 79.6 3.3 89.5 2.9
2.6 89.7 2.2 84.7 1.9 79.7 2.9 89.6 2.5
2.4 89.7 2.0 84.8 1.7 79.8 2.6 89.7 2.3
Table App. A-44. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Moving Air Conditions
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-26
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 1.25", O.D. = 1.58" Pipe Size = 1.5", O.D. = 1.97" Pipe Size = 2", O.D. = 2.48"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
77.4 60.0 69.6 57.5 94.8 65.7 86.2 62.9 77.6 60.1
34.4 75.1 30.9 71.1 44.5 79.6 40.5 75.6 36.4 71.5
22.9 79.1 20.6 74.7 30.0 83.6 27.2 79.2 24.5 74.8
17.6 80.9 15.8 76.3 23.0 85.5 20.9 80.9 18.8 76.3
14.5 81.9 13.1 77.2 18.9 86.5 17.2 81.9 15.5 77.2
12.5 82.5 11.3 77.8 16.3 87.2 14.8 82.5 13.3 77.7
11.1 83.0 10.0 78.2 14.4 87.7 13.1 82.9 11.8 78.1
9.2 83.5 8.3 78.7 11.8 88.3 10.8 83.5 9.7 78.6
8.0 83.9 7.2 79.0 10.2 88.7 9.3 83.8 8.4 78.9
7.1 84.1 6.4 79.2 9.1 88.9 8.3 84.0 7.4 79.1
6.0 84.4 5.4 79.4 7.6 89.3 6.9 84.3 6.2 79.4
5.3 84.5 4.8 79.6 6.7 89.4 6.1 84.5 5.5 79.5
69.6 62.5 61.9 60.0 86.2 67.9 77.6 65.1 69.0 62.3
30.9 76.1 27.5 72.1 40.5 80.6 36.4 76.5 32.4 72.4
20.6 79.7 18.3 75.3 27.2 84.2 24.5 79.8 21.8 75.3
15.8 81.3 14.1 76.7 20.9 85.9 18.8 81.3 16.7 76.7
13.1 82.2 11.6 77.5 17.2 86.9 15.5 82.2 13.8 77.5
11.3 82.8 10.0 78.0 14.8 87.5 13.3 82.7 11.8 78.0
10.0 83.2 8.9 78.4 13.1 87.9 11.8 83.1 10.4 78.3
8.3 83.7 7.4 78.8 10.8 88.5 9.7 83.6 8.6 78.8
7.2 84.0 6.4 79.1 9.3 88.8 8.4 83.9 7.4 79.1
6.4 84.2 5.7 79.3 8.3 89.0 7.4 84.1 6.6 79.2
5.4 84.4 4.8 79.5 6.9 89.3 6.2 84.4 5.5 79.5
4.8 84.6 4.3 79.6 6.1 89.5 5.5 84.5 4.9 79.6
61.9 65.0 54.2 62.5 77.6 70.1 69.0 67.3 60.3 64.5
27.5 77.1 24.1 73.1 36.4 81.5 32.4 77.4 28.3 73.4
18.3 80.3 16.0 75.9 24.5 84.8 21.8 80.3 19.1 75.9
14.1 81.7 12.3 77.1 18.8 86.3 16.7 81.7 14.6 77.1
11.6 82.5 10.2 77.8 15.5 87.2 13.8 82.5 12.1 77.8
10.0 83.0 8.8 78.3 13.3 87.7 11.8 83.0 10.4 78.2
8.9 83.4 7.8 78.6 11.8 88.1 10.4 83.3 9.1 78.5
7.4 83.8 6.4 79.0 9.7 88.6 8.6 83.8 7.5 78.9
6.4 84.1 5.6 79.2 8.4 88.9 7.4 84.1 6.5 79.2
5.7 84.3 5.0 79.4 7.4 89.1 6.6 84.2 5.8 79.3
4.8 84.5 4.2 79.6 6.2 89.4 5.5 84.5 4.9 79.5
4.3 84.6 3.7 79.7 5.5 89.5 4.9 84.6 4.3 79.6
54.2 67.5 46.4 65.0 69.0 72.3 60.3 69.5 51.7 66.7
24.1 78.1 20.6 74.1 32.4 82.4 28.3 78.4 24.3 74.3
16.0 80.9 13.8 76.4 21.8 85.3 19.1 80.9 16.3 76.5
12.3 82.1 10.6 77.5 16.7 86.7 14.6 82.1 12.6 77.5
10.2 82.8 8.7 78.1 13.8 87.5 12.1 82.8 10.3 78.1
8.8 83.3 7.5 78.5 11.8 88.0 10.4 83.2 8.9 78.5
7.8 83.6 6.7 78.8 10.4 88.3 9.1 83.5 7.8 78.8
6.4 84.0 5.5 79.1 8.6 88.8 7.5 83.9 6.5 79.1
5.6 84.2 4.8 79.3 7.4 89.1 6.5 84.2 5.6 79.3
5.0 84.4 4.3 79.4 6.6 89.2 5.8 84.3 5.0 79.4
4.2 84.6 3.6 79.6 5.5 89.5 4.9 84.5 4.2 79.6
3.7 84.7 3.2 79.7 4.9 89.6 4.3 84.6 3.7 79.7
46.4 70.0 38.7 67.5 60.3 74.5 51.7 71.7 43.1 68.9
20.6 79.1 17.2 75.1 28.3 83.4 24.3 79.3 20.2 75.3
13.8 81.4 11.5 77.0 19.1 85.9 16.3 81.5 13.6 77.1
10.6 82.5 8.8 77.9 14.6 87.1 12.6 82.5 10.5 77.9
8.7 83.1 7.3 78.4 12.1 87.8 10.3 83.1 8.6 78.4
7.5 83.5 6.3 78.8 10.4 88.2 8.9 83.5 7.4 78.7
6.7 83.8 5.5 79.0 9.1 88.5 7.8 83.8 6.5 79.0
5.5 84.1 4.6 79.3 7.5 88.9 6.5 84.1 5.4 79.2
4.8 84.3 4.0 79.4 6.5 89.2 5.6 84.3 4.6 79.4
4.3 84.4 3.6 79.5 5.8 89.3 5.0 84.4 4.1 79.5
3.6 84.6 3.0 79.7 4.9 89.5 4.2 84.6 3.5 79.7
3.2 84.7 2.7 79.8 4.3 89.6 3.7 84.7 3.0 79.7
76.6 59.1 69.6 57.0 62.6 54.8 85.1 62.5
32.3 78.8 29.4 74.8 26.4 70.8 37.8 79.2
21.4 83.5 19.5 79.0 17.5 74.6 25.2 83.5
16.5 85.5 15.0 80.9 13.5 76.3 19.4 85.5
13.6 86.6 12.4 81.9 11.2 77.2 16.0 86.6
11.8 87.3 10.7 82.6 9.7 77.8 13.8 87.3
10.5 87.8 9.5 83.0 8.6 78.2 12.2 87.8
8.8 88.4 8.0 83.6 7.2 78.7 10.1 88.4
7.7 88.8 7.0 83.9 6.3 79.0 8.8 88.7
6.9 89.0 6.3 84.1 5.6 79.2 7.9 89.0
5.9 89.3 5.3 84.4 4.8 79.5 6.6 89.3
5.2 89.5 4.8 84.5 4.3 79.6 5.9 89.5
69.6 62.0 62.6 59.8 55.7 57.6 77.4 65.0
29.4 79.8 26.4 75.8 23.5 71.8 34.4 80.1
19.5 84.0 17.5 79.6 15.6 75.2 22.9 84.1
15 .0 85.9 13.5 81.3 12.0 76.7 17.6 85.9
12.4 86.9 11.2 82.2 9.9 77.6 14.5 86.9
10.7 87.6 9.7 82.8 8.6 78.1 12.5 87.5
9.5 88.0 8.6 83.2 7.6 78.4 11.1 88.0
8.0 88.6 7.2 83.7 6.4 78.9 9.2 88.5
7.0 88.9 6.3 84.0 5.6 79.1 8.0 88.9
6.3 89.1 5.6 84.2 5.0 79.3 7.1 89.1
5.3 89.4 4.8 84.5 4.3 79.5 6.0 89.4
4.8 89.5 4.3 84.6 3.8 79.6 5.3 89.5
62.6 64.8 55.7 62.6 48.7 60.4 69.6 67.5
26.4 80.8 23.5 76.8 20.6 72.8 30.9 81.1
17.5 84.6 15.6 80.2 13.6 75.8 20.6 84.7
13.5 86.3 12.0 81.7 10.5 77.1 15.8 86.3
11.2 87.2 9.9 82.6 8.7 77.9 13.1 87.2
9.7 87.8 8.6 83.1 7.5 78.3 11.3 87.8
8.6 88.2 7.6 83.4 6.7 78.6 10.0 88.2
7.2 88.7 6.4 83.9 5.6 79.0 8.3 88.7
6.3 89.0 5.6 84.1 4.9 79.2 7.2 89.0
5.6 89.2 5.0 84.3 4.4 79.4 6.4 89.2
4.8 89.5 4.3 84.5 3.7 79.6 5.4 89.4
4.3 89.6 3.8 84.6 3.3 79.7 4.8 89.6
55.7 67.6 48.7 65.4 41.8 63.2 61.9 70.0
23.5 81.8 20.6 77.8 17.6 73.9 27.5 82.1
15.6 85.2 13.6 80.8 11.7 76.4 18.3 85.3
12.0 86.7 10.5 82.1 9.0 77.5 14.1 86.7
9.9 87.6 8.7 82.9 7.4 78.2 11.6 87.5
8.6 88.1 7.5 83.3 6.4 78.6 10.0 88.0
7.6 88.4 6.7 83.6 5.7 78.8 8.9 88.4
6.4 88.9 5.6 84.0 4.8 79.1 7.4 88.8
5.6 89.1 4.9 84.2 4.2 79.3 6.4 89.1
5.0 89.3 4.4 84.4 3.8 79.5 5.7 89.3
4.3 89.5 3.7 84.6 3.2 79.6 4.8 89.5
3.8 89.6 3.3 84.7 2.9 79.7 4.3 89.6
48.7 70.4 41.8 68.2 34.8 66.0 54.2 72.5
20.6 82.8 17.6 78.9 14.7 74.9 24.1 83.1
13.6 85.8 11.7 81.4 9.7 77.0 16.0 85.9
10.5 87.1 9.0 82.5 7.5 78.0 12.3 87.1
8.7 87.9 7.4 83.2 6.2 78.5 10.2 87.8
7.5 88.3 6.4 83.6 5.4 78.8 8.8 88.3
6.7 88.6 5.7 83.8 4.8 79.0 7.8 88.6
5.6 89.0 4.8 84.1 4.0 79.3 6.4 89.0
4.9 89.2 4.2 84.3 3.5 79.5 5.6 89.2
4.4 89.4 3.8 84.5 3.1 79.6 5.0 89.4
3.7 89.6 3.2 84.6 2.7 79.7 4.2 89.6
3.3 89.7 2.9 84.7 2.4 79.8 3.7 89.71
Table App. A-44. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-27
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 3", O.D. = 3.54" Pipe Size = 4", O.D. = 4.33" Pipe Size = 6", O.D. = 6.29"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
69.3 96.4 65.8 130.2 76.8 118.3 73.0 106.5 69.2
76.9 52.6 72.7 79.2 82.3 72.0 78.0 64.8 73.7
79.6 36.7 75.2 57.5 84.6 52.3 80.1 47.1 75.6
81.0 28.6 76.4 45.5 85.9 41.4 81.3 37.2 76.6
81.9 23.6 77.2 37.9 86.7 34.4 82.0 31.0 77.3
82.4 20.2 77.7 32.6 87.2 29.6 82.5 26.7 77.7
82.8 17.8 78.1 28.7 87.7 26.1 82.9 23.5 78.1
83.4 14.5 78.5 23.4 88.2 21.3 83.4 19.1 78.5
83.7 12.4 78.8 19.9 88.6 18.1 83.7 16.3 78.8
83.9 10.9 79.1 17.5 88.8 15.9 83.9 14.3 79.0
84.2 9.0 79.3 14.2 89.1 12.9 84.2 11.6 79.3
84.4 7.7 79.5 12.2 89.3 11.1 84.4 10.0 79.4
70.8 85.7 67.4 118.3 78.0 106.5 74.2 94.7 70.4
77.7 46.7 73.5 72.0 83.0 64.8 78.7 57.6 74.4
80.2 32.7 75.7 52.3 85.1 47.1 80.6 41.8 76.1
81.4 25.4 76.8 41.4 86.3 37.2 81.6 33.1 77.0
82.2 21.0 77.5 34.4 87.0 31.0 82.3 27.5 77.6
82.7 18.0 77.9 29.6 87.5 26.7 82.7 23.7 78.0
83.1 15.8 78.3 26.1 87.9 23.5 83.1 20.9 78.3
83.5 12.9 78.7 21.3 88.4 19.1 83.5 17.0 78.7
83.8 11.0 79.0 18.1 88.7 16.3 83.8 14.5 78.9
84.1 9.7 79.2 15.9 88.9 14.3 84.0 12.7 79.1
84.3 8.0 79.4 12.9 89.2 11.6 84.3 10.3 79.4
84.5 6.9 79.5 11.1 69.4 10.0 84.4 8.9 79.5
72.4 75.0 69.0 106.5 79.2 94.7 75.4 82.8 71.6
78.5 40.9 74.3 64.8 83.7 57.6 79.4 50.4 75.1
80.7 28.6 76.2 47.1 85.6 41.8 81.1 36.6 76.6
81.8 22.2 77.2 37.2 86.6 33.1 82.0 29.0 77.4
82.5 18.3 77.8 31.0 87.3 27.5 82.6 24.1 77.9
82.9 15.7 78.2 26.7 87.7 23.7 83.0 20.7 78.3
83.3 13.8 78.5 23.5 88.1 20.9 83.3 18.3 78.5
83.7 11.3 78.9 19.1 88.5 17.0 83.7 14.9 78.9
84.0 9.6 79.1 16.3 88.8 14.5 83.9 12.7 79.1
84.2 8.5 79.3 14.3 89.0 12.7 84.1 11.1 79.2
84.4 7.0 79.5 11.6 89.3 10.3 84.4 9.1 79.4
84.5 6.0 79.6 10.0 89.4 8.9 84.5 7.8 79.6
74.6 4.3 70.5 94.7 80.4 82.8 76.6 71.0 72.8
79.3 35.1 75.1 57.6 84.4 50.4 80.1 43.2 75.8
81.2 24.5 76.8 41.8 86.1 36.6 81.6 31.4 77.1
82.2 19.0 77.6 33.1 87.0 29.0 82.4 24.8 77.8
82.8 15.7 78.1 27.5 87.6 24.1 82.9 20.7 78.2
83.2 13.5 78.5 23.7 88.0 20.7 83.3 17.8 78.5
83.5 11.8 78.7 20.9 88.3 18.3 83.5 15.7 78.7
83.9 9.7 79.0 17.0 88.7 14.9 83.9 12.8 79.0
84.1 8.2 79.2 14.5 88.9 12.7 84.1 10.9 79.2
84.3 7.3 79.4 12.7 89.1 11.1 84.2 9.5 79.3
84.5 6.0 79.5 10.3 89.4 9.1 84.4 7.8 79.5
84.6 5.2 79.6 8.9 89.5 7.8 84.6 6.6 79.6
75.5 53.6 72.1 82.8 81.6 71.0 77.8 59.2 74.0
80.1 29.2 75.9 50.4 85.1 43.2 80.8 36.0 76.5
81.8 20.4 77.3 36.6 86.6 31.4 82.1 26.1 77.6
82.6 15.9 78.0 29.0 87.4 24.8 82.8 20.7 78.1
83.1 13.1 78.4 24.1 87.9 20.7 83.2 17.2 78.5
83.5 11.2 78.7 20.7 88.3 17.8 83.5 14.8 78.8
83.7 9.9 78.9 18.3 88.5 15.7 83.7 13.0 78.9
84 8.0 79.2 14.9 88.9 12.8 84.0 10.6 79.2
84.2 6.9 79.4 12.7 89.1 10.9 84.2 9.1 79.3
84.4 6.1 79.5 11.1 89.2 9.5 84.3 7.9 79.5
84.5 5.0 79.6 9.1 89.4 7.8 84.5 6.5 79.6
84.6 4.3 79.7 7.8 89.6 6.6 84.6 5.5 79.7
109.9 70.2 99.9 67.0 89.9 63.8 117.8 72.7 107.1
56.6 80.5 51.5 76.3 46.3 72.2 64.3 81.1 58.4
38.9 83.9 35.4 79.4 31.9 75. 44.9 84.1 40.8
30.1 85.5 27.3 80.9 24.6 76.3 34.9 85.6 31.7
24.8 86.5 22.5 81.8 20.3 77.2 28.8 86.6 26.2
21.2 87.2 19.3 82.4 17.4 77.7 24.7 87.2 22.4
18.7 87.6 17.0 82.9 15.3 78.1 21.7 87.6 19.7
15.3 88.2 13.9 83.4 12.5 78.6 17.7 88.2 16.1
13.1 88.6 11.9 83.7 10.7 78.9 15.1 88.6 13.7
11.6 88.9 10.5 84.0 9.5 79.1 13.3 88.8 12.1
9.6 89.2 8.7 84.3 7.8 79.3 10.9 89.2 10.0
8.3 89.4 7.5 84.4 6.8 79.5 9.5 89.4 8.6
99.9 72.0 89.9 68.8 79.9 65.6 107.1 74.3 96.4
51.5 81.3 46.3 77.2 41.2 73.1 58.4 81.9 52.6
35.4 84.4 31.9 80.0 28.3 75.5 40.8 84.6 36.7
27.3 85.9 24.6 81.3 21.9 76.8 31.7 86.0 28.6
22.5 86.8 20.3 82.2 18.0 77.5 26.2 86.9 23.6
19.3 87.4 17.4 82.7 15.4 78.0 22.4 87.4 20.2
17.0 87.9 15.3 83.1 13.6 78.3 19.7 87.8 17.8
13.9 88.4 12.5 83.6 11.1 78.7 16.1 88.4 14.5
11.9 88.7 10.7 83.9 9.5 79.0 13.7 88.7 12.4
10.5 89.0 9.5 84.1 8.4 79.2 12.1 88.9 10.9
8.7 89.3 7.8 84.3 7.0 79.4 10.0 89.2 9.0
7.5 89.4 6.8 84.5 6.0 79.6 8.6 89.4 7.7
89.9 73.8 79.9 70.6 69.9 67.4 96.4 75.8 85.7
46.3 82.2 41.2 78.1 36.0 74.0 52.6 82.7 46.7
31.9 85.0 28.3 80.5 24.8 76.1 36.7 85.2 32.7
24.6 86.3 21.9 81.8 19.1 77.2 28.6 86.4 25.4
20.3 87.2 18.0 82.5 15.8 77.8 23.6 87.2 21.0
17.4 87.7 15.4 83.0 13.5 78.2 20.2 87.7 18.0
15.3 88.1 13.6 83.3 11.9 78.5 17.8 88.1 15.8
12.5 88.6 11.1 83.7 9.7 78.9 14.5 88.5 12.9
10.7 88.9 9.5 84.0 8.3 79.1 12.4 88.8 11.0
9.5 89.1 8.4 84.2 7.4 79.3 10.9 89.1 9.7
7.8 89.3 7.0 84.4 6.1 79.5 9.0 89.3 8.0
6.8 89.5 6.0 84.6 5.3 79.6 7.7 89.5 6.9
79.9 75.6 69.9 72.4 59.9 69.2 85.7 77.4 75.0
41.2 83.1 36.0 79.0 30.9 74.8 46.7 83.5 40.9
28.3 85.5 24.8 81.1 21.2 76.7 32.7 85.7 28.6
21.9 86.8 19.1 82.2 16.4 77.6 25.4 86.8 22.2
18.0 87.5 15.8 82.8 13.5 78.1 21.0 87.5 18.3
15.4 88.0 13.5 83.2 11.6 78.5 18.0 87.9 15.7
13.6 88.3 11.9 83.5 10.2 78.7 15.8 88.3 13.8
11.1 88.7 9.7 83.9 8.3 79.0 12.9 88.7 11.3
9.5 89.0 8.3 84.1 7.1 79.3 11.0 89.0 9.6
8.4 89.2 7.4 84.3 6.3 79.4 9.7 89.2 8.5
7.0 89.4 6.1 84.5 5.2 79.6 8.0 89.4 7.0
6.0 89.6 5.3 84.6 4.5 79.7 6.9 89.5 6.0
69.9 77.4 59.9 74.2 49.9 71.0 75.0 79.0 64.3
36.0 84.0 30.9 79.8 25.7 75.7 40.9 84.3 35.1
24.8 86.1 21.2 81.7 17.7 7.2 28.6 86.2 24.5
19.1 87.2 16.4 82.6 13.7 78.0 22.2 87.2 19.0
15.8 87.8 13.5 83.1 11.3 78.4 18.3 87.8 15.7
13.5 88.2 11.6 83.5 9.6 78.7 15.7 88.2 13.5
11.9 88.5 10.2 83.7 8.5 78.9 13.8 88.5 11.8
9.7 88.9 8.3 84.0 6.9 79.2 11.3 88.9 9.7
8.3 89.1 7.1 84.3 5.9 79.4 9.6 89.1 8.2
7.4 89.3 6.3 84.4 5.3 79.5 8.5 89.3 7.3
6.1 89.5 5.2 84.6 4.3 79.6 7.0 89.5 6.0
5.3 89.6 4.5 84.7 3.8 79.7 6.0 89.6 5.2
Table App. A-44. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-28
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 8", O.D. = 7.87" Pipe Size = 10", O.D. = 9.84" Pipe Size = 12", O.D. = 12.4"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
76.6 116.7 72.4 148.0 82.4 134.6 78.1 121.1 73.8
79.4 80.2 74.9 107.5 84.6 97.7 80.1 87.9 75.6
80.8 61.4 76.2 84.7 85.8 77.0 81.2 69.3 76.6
81.7 50.0 77.0 70.1 86.6 63.8 81.9 57.4 77.2
82.2 42.3 77.5 60.0 87.1 54.6 82.4 49.1 77.7
82.7 36.8 77.9 52.6 87.5 47.8 82.8 43.0 78.0
83.0 32.6 78.2 46.9 87.9 42.6 83.0 38.3 78.2
83.4 26.7 78.6 38.7 88.3 35.2 83.4 31.6 78.6
83.7 22.8 78.8 33.1 88.6 30.1 83.7 27.1 78.8
83.9 20.0 79.0 29.0 88.8 26.4 83.9 23.8 79
84.2 16.2 79.3 23.5 89.1 21.4 84.2 19.3 79.3
84.3 13.8 79.4 20.0 89.3 18.2 84.3 16.3 79.4
77.4 103.8 73.3 134.6 83.1 121.1 78.8 107.7 74.5
79.9 71.3 75.5 97.7 85.1 87.9 80.6 78.2 76.1
81.2 54.6 76.6 77.0 86.2 69.3 81.6 61.6 77.0
82.0 44.4 77.3 63.8 86.9 57.4 82.2 51.0 77.5
82.5 37.6 77.8 54.6 87.4 49.1 82.7 43.7 77.9
82.9 32.7 78.1 47.8 87.8 43.0 83.0 38.2 78.2
83.2 29.0 78.4 42.6 88.0 38.3 83.2 34.1 78.4
83.6 23.8 78.7 35.2 88.4 31.6 83.6 28.1 78.8
83.8 20.3 79.0 30.1 88.7 27.1 83.8 24.1 79.0
84.0 17.8 79.1 26.4 B8.9 23.8 84.0 21.1 79.1
84.3 14.4 79.3 21.4 89.2 19.3 84.3 17.1 79.3
84.4 12.2 79.5 18.2 89.3 16.3 84.4 14.5 79.5
78.3 90.8 74.1 121.1 83.8 107.7 79.5 94.2 75.2
80.5 62.4 76.1 87.9 85.6 78.2 81.1 68.4 76.6
81.6 47.8 77.1 69.3 86.6 61.6 82.0 53.9 77.3
82.3 38.9 77.7 57.4 87.2 51.0 82.5 44.6 77.8
82.8 32.9 78.1 49.1 87.7 43.7 82.9 38.2 78.2
83.1 28.6 78.4 43.0 88.0 38.2 83.2 33.5 78.4
83.4 25.4 78.6 38.3 88.2 34.1 83.4 29.8 78.6
83.7 20.8 78.9 31.6 88.6 28.1 83.8 24.6 78.9
84.0 17.7 79.1 27.1 88.8 24.1 84.0 21.1 79.1
84.1 15.5 79.2 23.8 89.0 21.1 84.1 18.5 79.2
84.3 12.6 79.4 19.3 89.3 17.1 84.3 15.0 79.4
84.5 10.7 79.5 16.3 89.4 14.5 84.5 12.7 79.5
79.1 77.8 75.0 107.7 84.5 94.2 80.2 80.7 75.9
81.1 53.4 76.6 78.2 86.1 68.4 81.6 58.6 77.1
82.1 40.9 77.5 61.6 87.0 53.9 82.3 46.2 77.7
82.7 33.3 78.0 51.0 87.5 44.6 82.8 38.3 78.1
83.1 28.2 78.3 43.7 87.9 38.2 83.2 32.7 78.4
83.4 24.5 78.6 38.2 88.2 33.5 83.4 28.7 78.7
83.6 21.7 78.8 34.1 88.4 29.8 83.6 25.6 78.8
83.9 17.8 79.0 28.1 88.8 24.6 83.9 21.1 79.1
84.1 15.2 79.2 24.1 89.0 21.1 84.1 18.0 79.2
84.2 13.3 79.3 21.1 89.1 18.5 84.2 15.8 79.3
84.4 10.8 79.5 17.1 89.3 15.0 84.4 12.8 79.5
84.5 9.2 79.6 14.5 89.5 12.7 84.5 10.9 79.6
80.0 64.9 75.8 94.2 85.2 80.7 80.9 67.3 76.5
81.6 44.5 77.2 68.4 86.6 58.6 82.1 48.9 77.5
82.5 34.1 77.9 53.9 87.3 46.2 82.7 38.5 78.1
83.0 27.8 78.3 44.6 87.8 38.3 83.1 31.9 78.5
83.3 23.5 78.6 38.2 88.2 32.7 83.4 27.3 78.7
83.6 20.4 78.8 33.5 88.4 28.7 83.7 23.9 78.9
83.8 18.1 79.0 29.8 88.6 25.6 83.8 21.3 79.0
84.0 14.9 79.2 24.6 88.9 21.1 84.1 17.6 79.2
84.2 12.7 79.3 21.1 89.1 18.0 84.2 15.0 79.4
84.3 11.1 79.4 18.5 89.2 15.8 84.3 13.2 79.5
84.5 9.0 79.6 15.0 89.4 12.8 94.5 10.7 79.6
84.6 7.6 79.7 12.7 89.5 10.9 84.6 9.1 79.7
137.1 78.9 124.7 74.9 112.2 70.9 142.7 80.8 129.7
88.7 83.0 80.7 78.7 72.6 74.3 98.0 83.8 89.1
66.1 85.0 60.1 80.4 54.1 75.9 75.0 85.4 68.2
53.0 86.1 48.2 81.4 43.4 76.8 61.1 86.3 55.5
44.4 86.8 40.4 82.1 36.3 77.4 51.7 87.0 47.0
38.4 87.3 34.9 82.6 31.4 77.8 44.9 87.4 40.8
33.9 87.7 30.8 82.9 27.7 78.1 39.8 87.8 36.2
27.7 88.2 25.2 83.4 22.7 78.5 32.7 88.2 29.7
23.6 88.6 21.4 83.7 19.3 78.8 27.9 88.6 25.3
20.7 88.8 18.8 83.9 16.9 79.0 24.4 88.8 22.2
16.8 89.1 15.2 84.2 13.7 79.3 19.8 89.1 18.0
14.3 89.3 13.0 84.4 11.7 79.4 16.8 89.3 15.3
124.7 79.9 112.2 75.9 99.7 71.9 129.7 81.6 116.7
80.7 83.7 72.6 79.3 64.5 74.9 89.1 84.4 80.2
60.1 85.4 54.1 80.9 48.1 76.3 68.2 85.8 61.4
48.2 86.4 43.4 81.8 38.5 77.2 55.5 86.7 50.0
40.4 87.1 36.3 82.4 32.3 77.7 47.0 87.2 42.3
34.9 87.6 31.4 82.8 27.9 78.1 40.8 87.7 36.8
30.8 87.9 27.7 83.1 24.7 78.3 36.2 88.0 32.6
25.2 88.4 22.7 83.5 20.1 78.7 29.7 88.4 26.7
21.4 88.7 19.3 83.8 17.1 79.0 25.3 88.7 22.8
18.8 88.9 16.9 84.0 15.0 79.1 22.2 88.9 20.0
15.2 89.2 13.7 84.3 12.2 79.3 18.0 89.2 16.2
13.0 89.4 11.7 84.4 10.4 79.5 15.3 89.3 13.8
112.2 80.9 99.7 76.9 87.3 72.9 116.7 82.4 103.8
72.6 84.3 64.5 79.9 56.5 75.6 80.2 84.9 71.3
54.1 85.9 48.1 81.3 42.1 76.8 61.4 86.2 54.6
43.4 86.8 38.5 82.2 33.7 77.5 50.0 87.0 44.4
36.3 87.4 32.3 82.7 28.3 78.0 42.3 87.5 37.6
31.4 87.8 27.9 83.1 24.4 78.3 36.8 87.9 32.7
27.7 88.1 24.7 83.3 21.6 78.5 32.6 88.2 29.0
22.7 88.5 20.1 83.7 17.6 78.9 26.7 88.6 23.8
19.3 88.8 17.1 84.0 15.0 79.1 22.8 88.8 20.3
16.9 89.0 15.0 84.1 13.1 79.2 20.0 89.0 17.8
13.7 89.3 12.2 84.3 10.7 79.4 16.2 89.3 14.4
11.7 89.4 10.4 84.5 9.1 79.5 13.8 89.4 12.2
99.7 81.9 87.3 77.9 74.8 73.9 103.8 83.3 90.8
64.5 84.9 56.5 80.6 48.4 76.2 71.3 85.5 62.4
48.1 86.3 42.1 81.8 36.1 77.3 54.6 86.6 47.8
38.5 87.2 33.7 82.5 28.9 77.9 44.4 87.3 38.9
32.3 87.7 28.3 83.0 24.2 78.3 37.6 87.8 32.9
27.9 88.1 24.4 83.3 20.9 78.5 32.7 88.1 28.6
24.7 88.3 21.6 83.5 18.5 78.7 29.0 88.4 25.4
20.1 88.7 17.6 83.9 15.1 79.0 23.8 88.7 20.8
17.1 89.0 15.0 84.1 12.9 79.2 20.3 89.0 17.7
15.0 89.1 13.1 84.2 11.3 79.3 17.8 89.1 15.5
12.2 89.3 10.7 84.4 9.1 79.5 14.4 89.3 12.6
10.4 89.5 9.1 84.5 7.8 79.6 12.2 89.5 10.7
87.3 82.9 74.8 78.9 62.3 75.0 90.8 84.1 77.8
56.5 85.6 48.4 81.2 40.3 76.8 62.4 86.1 53.4
42.1 86.8 36.1 82.3 30.1 77.7 47.8 87.1 40.9
33.7 87.5 28.9 82.9 24.1 78.2 38.9 87.7 33.3
28.3 88.0 24.2 83.3 20.2 78.6 32.9 88.1 28.2
24.4 88.3 20.9 83.5 17.4 78.8 28.6 88.4 24.5
21.6 88.5 18.5 83.7 15.4 79.0 25.4 88.6 21.7
17.6 88.9 15.1 84.0 12.6 79.2 20.8 88.9 17.8
15.0 89.1 12.9 84.2 10.7 79.3 17.7 89.1 15.2
13.1 89.2 11.3 84.3 9.4 79.4 15.5 89.2 13.3
10.7 89.4 9.1 84.5 7.6 79.6 12.6 89.4 10.8
9.1 89.5 7.8 84.6 6.5 79.7 10.7 89.5 9.2
Table App. A-44. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-29
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 14", O.D. = 13.98" Pipe Size = 16", O.D. = 15.75" Pipe Size = 18", O.D. = 17.72"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
138.9 79.4 125.0 74.9 154.5 84.4 140.5 80.0 126.4 75.5
106.2 80.8 95.6 76.2 121.0 85.7 110.0 81.1 99.0 76.5
86.2 81.6 77.6 77.0 99.7 86.5 90.6 81.8 81.5 77.2
72.7 82.2 65.5 77.5 84.9 87.1 77.2 82.3 69.5 77.6
63.0 82.6 56.7 77.8 74.1 87.5 67.3 82.7 60.6 77.9
55.7 82.9 50.1 78.1 65.8 87.8 59.8 83.0 53.8 78.2
50.0 83.2 45.0 78.3 59.3 88.0 53.9 83.2 48.5 78.4
41.6 83.5 37.5 78.7 49.6 88.4 45.1 83.5 40.6 78.7
35.8 83.8 32.2 78.9 42.8 88.7 38.9 83.8 35.0 78.9
31.5 83.9 28.4 79.0 37.7 88.8 34.3 83.9 30.9 79.1
25.6 84.2 23.0 79.3 30.7 89.1 27.9 84.2 25.2 79.3
21.7 84.3 19.6 79.4 26.1 89.3 23.7 84.3 21.4 79.4
125.0 79.9 111.1 75.5 140.5 85.0 126.4 80.5 112.4 76.0
95.6 81.2 85.0 76.6 110.0 86.1 99.0 81.5 88.0 76.9
77.6 82.0 69.0 77.3 90.6 86.8 81.5 82.2 72.5 77.5
65.5 82.5 58.2 77.8 77.2 87.3 69.5 82.6 61.8 77.9
56.7 82.8 50.4 78.1 67.3 87.7 60.6 82.9 53.9 78.2
50.1 83.1 44.6 78.3 59.8 88.0 53.8 83.2 47.9 78.4
45.0 83.3 40.0 78.5 53.9 88.2 48.5 83.4 43.1 78.6
37.5 83.7 33.3 78.8 45.1 88.5 40.6 83.7 36.1 78.8
32.2 83.9 28.6 79.0 38.9 88.8 35.0 83.9 31.1 79.0
28.4 84.0 25.2 79.1 34.3 88.9 30.9 94.1 27.5 79.2
23.0 84.3 20.5 79.3 27.9 89.2 25.2 84.3 22.4 79.3
19.6 84.4 17.4 79.5 23.7 89.3 21.4 84.4 19.0 79.5
111.1 80.5 97.2 76.1 126.4 85.5 112.4 81.0 98.3 76.5
85.0 81.6 74.3 77.0 99.0 86.5 88.0 81.9 77.0 77.3
69.0 82.3 60.4 77.6 81.5 87.2 72.5 82.5 63.4 77.8
58.2 82.8 50.9 78.0 69.5 87.6 61 .8 82.9 54.0 78.1
50.4 83.1 44.1 78.3 60.6 87.9 53.9 83.2 47.1 78.4
44.6 83.3 39.0 78.5 53.8 88.2 47.9 83.4 41.9 78.6
40.0 83.5 35.0 78.7 48.5 88.4 43.1 83.6 37.7 78.8
33.3 83.8 29.1 79.0 40.6 88.7 36.1 83.8 31.6 79.0
28.6 84.0 25.1 79.1 35.0 88.9 31.1 84.0 27.2 79.1
25.2 84.1 22.1 79.2 30.9 89.1 27.5 84.2 24.0 79.3
20.5 84.3 17.9 79.4 25.2 89.3 22.4 84.3 19.6 79.4
17.4 84.5 15.2 79.5 21.4 89.4 19.0 84.5 16.6 79.5
97.2 81.1 83.3 76.6 112.4 86.0 98.3 81.5 84.3 77.0
74.3 82.0 63.7 77.5 88.0 86.9 77.0 82.3 66.0 77.7
60.4 82.6 51.7 78.0 72.5 87.5 63.4 82.8 54.4 78.1
50.9 83.0 43.6 78.3 61.8 87.9 54.0 83.1 46.3 78.4
44.1 83.3 37.8 78.6 53.9 88.2 47.1 83.4 40.4 78.6
39.0 83.5 33.4 78.7 47.9 88.4 41.9 83.6 35.9 78.8
35.0 83.7 30.0 78.9 43.1 88.6 37.7 83.8 32.3 78.9
29.1 84.0 25.0 79.1 36.1 88.8 31.6 84.0 27.1 79.1
25.1 84.1 21.5 79.3 31.1 89.0 27.2 84.1 23.3 79.3
22.1 84.2 18.9 79.4 27.5 89.2 24.0 84.3 20.6 79.4
17.9 84.4 15.4 79.5 22.4 89.3 19.6 84.4 16.8 79.5
15.2 84.5 13.0 79.6 19.0 89.5 16.6 84.5 14.2 79.6
83.3 81.6 69.4 77.2 98.3 86.5 84.3 82.0 70.2 77.5
63.7 82.5 53.1 77.9 77.0 87.3 66.0 82.7 55.0 78.1
51.7 83.0 43.1 78.3 63.4 87.8 54.4 83.1 45.3 78.4
43.6 83.3 36.4 78.6 54.0 88.1 46.3 83.4 38.6 78.7
37.8 83.6 31.5 78.8 47.1 88.4 40.4 83.6 33.7 78.9
33.4 83.7 27.9 79.0 41.9 88.6 35.9 83.8 29.9 79.0
30.0 83.9 25.0 79.1 37.7 88.8 32.3 83.9 26.9 79.1
25.0 84.1 20.8 79.3 31.6 89.0 27.1 84.1 22.5 79.3
21.5 84.3 17.9 79.4 27.2 89.1 23.3 84.3 19.5 79.4
18.9 84.4 15.8 79.5 24.0 89.3 20.6 84.4 17.2 79.5
15.4 84.5 12.8 79.6 19.6 89.4 16.8 84.5 14.0 79.6
13.0 84.6 10.9 79.7 16.6 89.5 14.2 84.6 11.9 79.7
150.6 83.1 136.9 78.8 123.2 74.4 152.7 83.8
112.3 85.0 102.1 80.4 91.9 75.9 116.8 85.4
89.8 86.1 81.7 81.4 73.5 76.8 94.8 86.3
75.1 86.8 68.3 82.0 61.4 77.3 80.0 86.9
64.6 87.3 58.8 82.5 52.9 77.8 69.3 87.4
56.0 87.6 51.7 82.8 46.5 78.1 61.3 87.7
50.8 87.9 46.2 83.1 41.6 78.3 55.0 88.0
42.1 88.3 38.3 83.5 34.5 78.6 45.8 88.4
36.1 88.6 32.9 83.7 29.6 78.9 39.4 88.6
31.7 88.8 28.9 83.9 26.0 79.0 34.7 88.8
25.8 89.1 23.4 84.2 21.1 79.3 28.2 89.1
21.9 89.3 19.9 84.3 17.9 79.4 23.9 89.3
136.9 83.8 123.2 79.4 109.5 75.0 138.9 84.4
102.1 85.4 91.9 80.9 81.7 76.3 106.2 85.8
81.7 86.4 73.5 81.8 65.3 77.1 86.2 86.6
68.3 87 61.4 82.3 54.6 77.6 72.7 87.2
58.8 87.5 52.9 82.8 47.0 78.0 63.0 87.6
51.7 87.8 46.5 83.1 41.4 78.3 55.7 87.9
46.2 88.1 41.6 83.3 37.0 78.5 50.0 88.2
38.3 88.5 34.5 83.6 30.6 78.8 41.6 88.5
32.9 88.7 29.6 83.9 26.3 79.0 35.8 88.8
28.9 88.9 26.0 84.0 23.1 79.1 31.5 88.9
23.4 89.2 21.1 84.3 18.7 79.3 25.6 89.2
19.9 89.3 17.9 84.4 15.9 79.5 21.7 89.3
123.2 84.4 109.5 80.0 95.8 75.6 125.0 84.9
91.9 85.9 81.7 81.3 71.5 76.8 95.6 86.2
73.5 86.8 65.3 82.1 57.2 77.5 77.6 87.0
61.4 87.3 54.6 82.6 47.8 77.9 65.5 87.5
52.9 87.8 47.0 83.0 41.1 78.3 56.7 87.8
46.5 88.1 41.4 83.3 36.2 78.5 50.1 88.1
41.6 88.3 37.0 83.5 32.4 78.7 45.0 88.3
34.5 88.6 30.6 83.8 26.8 78.9 37.5 88.7
29.6 88.9 26.3 84.0 23.0 79.1 32.2 88.9
26 89.0 23.1 84.1 20.2 79.2 28.4 89
21.1 89.3 18.7 84.3 16.4 79.4 23.0 89.3
17.9 89.4 15.9 84.5 13.9 79.5 19.6 89.4
109.5 85.0 95.8 80.6 82.1 76.3 111.1 85.5
81.7 86.3 71.5 81.8 61.3 77.3 85.0 86.6
65.3 87.1 57.2 82.5 49.0 77.8 69.0 87.3
54.6 87.6 47.8 82.9 41.0 78.2 58.2 87.8
47.0 88.0 41.1 83.3 35.3 78.5 50.4 88.1
41.4 88.3 36.2 83.5 31.0 78.7 44.6 88.3
37.0 88.5 32.4 83.7 27.7 78.9 40.0 88.5
30.6 88.8 26.8 83.9 23.0 79.1 33.3 88.8
26.3 89.0 23.0 84.1 19.7 79.2 28.6 89.0
23.1 89.1 20.2 84.2 17.3 79.4 25.2 89.1
18.7 89.3 16.4 84.4 14.1 79.5 20.5 89.3
15.9 89.5 13.9 84.5 11.9 79.6 17.4 89.5
95.8 85.6 82.1 81.3 68.5 76.9 97.2 86.1
71.5 86.8 61.3 82.3 51.0 77.7 74.3 87.0
57.2 87.5 49.0 82.8 40.8 78.2 60.4 87.6
47.8 87.9 41.0 83.2 34.1 78.5 50.9 88.0
41.1 88.3 35.3 83.5 29.4 78.8 44.1 88.3
36.2 88.5 31.0 83.7 25.8 78.9 39.0 88.5
32.4 88.7 27.7 83.9 23.1 79.1 35.0 88.7
26.8 88.9 23.0 84.1 19.2 79.2 29.1 89.0
23.0 89.1 19.7 84.2 16.4 79.4 25.1 89.1
20.2 89.2 17.3 84.4 14.4 79.5 22.1 89.2
16.4 89.4 14.1 84.5 11.7 79.6 17.9 89.4
13.9 89.5 11.9 84.6 9.9 79.7 15.2 89.51
Table App. A-44. Heat Gain Values for Pro 150 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-30
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-31
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 2", O.D. = 2.48" Pipe Size = 3", O.D. = 3.54" Pipe Size = 4", O.D. = 4.33"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
41.6 58.0 40.9 83.8 43.8 76.2 43.0 68.6 42.2
59.0 37.0 56.7 53.8 62.0 48.9 59.5 44.0 57.1
66.9 27.6 63.7 40.1 70.2 36.4 67.0 32.8 63.8
71.2 22.3 67.6 32.3 74.8 29.3 71.2 26.4 67.6
74.0 18.8 70.1 27.2 77.8 24.7 73.9 22.2 70.1
75.9 16.4 71.8 23.6 79.9 21.5 75.8 19.3 71.7
77.3 14.6 73.1 21.0 81.4 19.1 77.2 17.2 73.0
79.2 12.2 74.7 17.4 83.4 15.8 79.0 14.2 74.6
80.4 10.5 75.8 15.0 84.8 13.6 80.2 12.2 75.7
81.2 9.4 76.6 13.2 85.7 12.0 81.1 10.8 76.5
82.2 7.8 77.5 11.0 86.8 10.0 82.1 9.0 77.4
82.9 6.8 78.1 9.5 87.6 8.6 82.8 7.8 78.0
45.9 51.5 45.3 76.2 48 68.6 47.2 61.0 46.4
61.7 32.9 59.3 48.9 64.5 44.0 62.1 39.1 59.6
68.7 24.6 65.5 36.4 72.0 32.8 68.8 29.2 65.6
72.6 19.8 69.0 29.3 76.2 26.4 72.6 23.5 69.0
75.1 16.8 71.2 24.7 78.9 22.2 75.1 19.8 71.1
76.8 14.6 72.7 21.5 80.8 19.3 76.7 17.2 72.6
78.1 13.0 73.8 19.1 82.2 17.2 78.0 15.3 73.7
79.7 10.8 75.3 15.8 84.0 14.2 79.6 12.6 75.2
80.8 9.4 76.3 13.6 85.2 12.2 80.7 10.9 76.2
81.6 8.3 77.0 12.0 86.1 10.8 81.5 9.6 76.9
82.5 6.9 77.8 10.0 87.1 9.0 82.4 8.0 77.7
83.1 6.1 78.3 8.6 87.8 7.8 83.0 6.9 78.2
50.3 45.1 49.6 68.6 52.2 61.0 51.4 53.3 50.6
64.3 28.8 61.9 44.0 67.1 39.1 64.6 34.2 62.2
70.5 21.5 67.3 32.8 73.8 29.2 70.6 25.5 67.4
74.0 17.3 70.4 26.4 77.6 23.5 74.0 20.5 70.4
76.2 14.7 72.3 22.2 80.1 19.8 76.1 17.3 72.3
77.7 12.8 73.6 19.3 81.7 17.2 77.6 15.0 73.6
78.8 11.4 74.6 17.2 83.0 15.3 78.7 13.4 74.5
80.3 9.5 75.9 14.2 84.6 12.6 80.2 11.0 75.9
81.3 8.2 76.8 12.2 85.7 10.9 81.2 9.5 76.7
82.0 7.3 77.3 10.8 86.5 9.6 81.9 8.4 77.3
82.8 6.1 78.1 9.0 87.4 8.0 82.7 7.0 78.0
83.3 5.3 78.5 7.8 88.0 6.9 83.2 6.0 78.5
54.6 38.6 54.0 61.0 56.4 53.3 55.6 45.7 54.8
66.9 24.7 64.4 39.1 69.6 34.2 67.2 29.3 64.7
72.3 18.4 69.1 29.2 75.6 25.5 72.4 21.9 69.2
75.4 14.9 71.7 23.5 79.0 20.5 75.4 17.6 71.7
77.3 12.6 73.4 19.8 81.1 17.3 77.3 14.8 73.4
78.6 11.0 74.5 17.2 82.6 15.0 78.6 12.9 74.5
79.6 9.8 75.4 15.3 83.7 13.4 79.5 11.5 75.3
80.9 8.1 76.5 12.6 85.2 11.0 80.9 9.5 76.4
81.8 7.0 77.2 10.9 86.2 9.5 81.7 8.2 77.1
82.3 6.2 77.7 9.6 86.9 8.4 82.3 7.2 77.7
83.1 5.2 78.4 8.0 87.7 7.0 83.0 6.0 78.3
83.5 4.5 78.7 6.9 88.2 6.0 83.5 5.2 78.7
59.0 32.2 58.3 53.3 60.6 45.7 59.8 38.1 59.0
69.4 20.6 67.0 34.2 72.2 29.3 69.7 24.4 67.3
74.1 15.4 70.9 25.5 77.4 21.9 74.2 18.2 71.0
76.7 12.4 73.1 20.5 80.4 17.6 76.7 14.7 73.1
78.4 10.5 74.5 17.3 82.3 14.8 78.4 12.4 74.4
79.5 9.1 75.5 15.0 83.6 12.9 79.5 10.7 75.4
80.4 8.1 76.2 13.4 84.5 11.5 80.3 9.5 76.1
81.5 6.8 77.1 11.0 85.9 9.5 81.4 7.9 77.0
82.2 5.8 77.7 9.5 86.7 8.2 82.1 6.8 77.6
82.7 5.2 78.1 8.4 87.3 7.2 82.7 6.0 78.0
83.4 4.3 78.6 7.0 88.0 6.0 83.3 5.0 78.6
83.7 3.8 78.6 6.0 88.5 5.2 83.7 4.4 78.9
51.6 40.3 46.9 39.9 42.2 39.4 70.8 42.3 64.4
33.2 61.0 30.2 58.6 27.2 56.2 45.3 61.5 41.2
25.0 70.0 22.7 66.8 20.4 63.7 33.8 70.0 30.7
20.3 75.0 18.4 71.4 16.6 67.7 27.3 74.8 24.8
17.3 78.1 15.7 74.2 14.1 70.3 23.0 77.9 20.9
15.1 80.3 13.8 76.2 12.4 72.1 20.1 80.0 18.3
13.6 81.8 12.3 77.6 11.1 73.3 17.9 81.5 16.3
11.4 83.9 10.4 79.5 9.3 75.0 14.9 83.6 13.5
10.0 85.2 9.1 80.6 8.2 76.1 12.9 84.9 11.7
8.9 86.1 8.1 81.5 7.3 76.8 11.4 85.8 10.4
7.6 87.2 6.9 82.5 6.2 77.7 9.5 87.0 8.7
6.7 87.9 6.1 83.1 5.5 78.2 8.3 87.7 7.6
46.9 44.9 42.2 44.4 37.5 43.9 64.4 46.6 58.0
30.2 63.6 27.2 61.2 24.1 58.9 41.2 64.0 37.0
22.7 71.8 20.4 68.7 18.2 65.4 30.7 71.9 27.6
18.4 76.4 16.6 72.7 14.8 69.1 24.8 76.2 22.3
15.7 79.2 14.1 75.3 12.6 71.4 20.9 79.0 18.8
13.8 81.2 12.4 77.1 11.0 73.0 18.3 80.9 16.4
12.3 82.6 11.1 78.3 9.9 74.1 16.3 82.3 14.6
10.4 84.5 9.3 80.0 8.3 75.6 13.5 84.2 12.2
9.1 85.6 8.2 81.1 7.3 76.5 11.7 85.4 10.5
8.1 86.5 7.3 61.8 6.5 77.2 10.4 86.2 9.4
6.9 87.5 6.2 82.7 5.5 78.0 8.7 87.2 7.8
6.1 88.1 5.5 83.2 4.9 78.4 7.6 87.9 6.8
42.2 49.4 37.5 48.9 32.8 48.4 58.0 50.9 51.5
27.2 66.2 24.1 63.9 21.1 61.5 37.0 66.7 32.9
20.4 73.7 18.2 70.4 15.9 67.3 27.6 73.7 24.6
16.6 77.7 14.8 74.1 12.9 70.5 22.3 77.6 19.8
14.1 80.3 12.6 76.4 11.0 72.5 18.8 80.1 16.8
12.4 82.1 11.0 78.0 9.6 73.9 16.4 81.8 14.6
11.1 83.3 9.9 79.1 8.6 74.8 14.6 83.1 13
9.3 85.0 8.3 80.6 7.3 76.1 12.2 84.7 10.8
8.2 86.1 7.3 81.5 6.3 77.0 10.5 85.8 9.4
7.3 86.8 6.5 82.2 5.7 77.5 9.4 86.6 8.3
6.2 87.7 5.5 83.0 4.8 78.2 7.8 87.5 6.9
5.5 88.2 4.9 83.4 4.3 78.6 6.8 88.1 6.1
37.5 53.9 32.8 53.4 28.1 53.0 51.5 55.3 45.1
24.1 68.9 21.1 66.5 18.1 64.2 32.9 69.3 28.8
18.2 75.4 15.9 72.3 13.6 69.1 24.6 75.5 21.5
14.8 79.1 12.9 75.5 11.1 71.8 19.8 79.0 17.3
12.6 81.4 11.0 77.5 9.4 73.6 16.8 81.2 14.7
11.0 83.0 9.6 78.9 8.3 74.7 14.6 82.7 12.8
9.9 84.1 8.6 79.8 7.4 75.6 13.0 83.8 11.4
8.3 85.6 7.3 81.1 6.2 76.7 10.8 85.3 9.5
7.3 86.5 6.3 82.0 5.4 77.4 9.4 86.3 8.2
6.5 87.2 5.7 82.5 4.9 77.9 8.3 87.0 7.3
5.5 88.0 4.8 83.2 4.1 78.5 6.9 87.8 6.1
4.9 88.4 4.3 83.6 3.6 78.9 6.1 88.3 5.3
32.8 58.4 28.1 58.0 23.5 57.4 45.1 59.6 38.6
21.1 71.5 18.1 69.2 15.1 66.8 28.8 71.9 24.7
15.9 77.3 13.6 74.1 11.3 70.9 21.5 77.3 18.4
12.9 80.5 11.1 76.8 9.2 73.2 17.3 80.4 14.9
11.0 82.5 9.4 78.6 7.8 74.6 14.7 82.3 12.6
9.6 83.9 8.3 79.7 6.9 75.6 12.8 83.6 11
8.6 84.8 7.4 80.6 6.2 76.3 11.4 84.6 9.8
7.3 86.1 6.2 81.7 5.2 77.2 9.5 85.9 8.1
6.3 87.0 5.4 82.4 4.5 77.8 8.2 86.8 7
5.7 87.5 4.9 82.9 4.1 78.2 7.3 87.3 6.2
4.8 88.2 4.1 83.5 3.4 78.7 6.1 88.1 5.2
4.3 88.6 3.6 83.9 3.0 79.0 5.3 88.5 4.5
Table App. A-45. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Still Air Conditions
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-32
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 6", O.D. = 6.29" Pipe Size = 8", O.D. = 7.87" Pipe Size = 10", O.D. = 9.84"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
114.0 46.7 103.6 45.7 93.3 44.6 135.7 48.8 123.4
74.0 63.0 67.2 60.5 60.5 57.9 89.1 63.8 81.0
56.2 70.6 50.2 67.3 45.2 64.1 66.8 70.9 60.8
44.4 74.9 40.4 71.3 36.3 67.7 53.8 75.1 48.9
37.3 77.8 33.9 73.9 30.5 70.0 45.2 77.6 41.1
32.3 79.8 29.4 75.7 26.4 71.6 39.1 79.8 35.6
28.6 81.2 26.0 70.7 23.4 72.8 34.6 81.2 31.4
23.5 83.2 21.3 78.9 19.2 74.5 28.3 83.2 25.7
20.1 64.5 18.2 80.1 16.4 75.5 24.1 84.5 21.9
17.6 85.6 16.0 80.9 14.4 76.3 21.1 85.4 19.2
14.4 86.7 13.1 82.0 11.8 77.3 17.1 86.6 15.6
12.4 87.4 11.2 82.6 10.1 77.9 14.6 87.3 13.3
103.6 60.7 93.3 49.6 82.9 48.5 123.4 52.6 111.0
67.2 65.5 60.5 62.9 53.8 60.4 81.0 66.2 72.9
50.2 72.3 45.2 69.1 40.2 65.9 60.8 72.7 54.7
40.4 76.3 36.3 72.7 32.3 69.0 48.9 76.5 44.0
33.9 78.9 30.5 75.0 27.1 71.1 41.1 78.9 37.0
29.4 80.7 26.4 76.6 23.5 72.6 35.6 80.7 32.0
26.0 82.0 23.4 77.8 20.8 73.6 31.4 82 28.3
21.3 83.9 19.2 79.5 17.1 75.1 25.7 81.8 23.1
18.2 85.1 16.4 80.5 14.6 76.0 21.9 65.0 19.7
16.0 85.9 14.4 81.3 12.8 76.7 19.2 85.8 17.3
13.1 87.0 11.8 82.3 10.5 77.6 15.6 86.9 14.0
11.2 87.6 10.1 82.9 9.0 78.1 13.3 87.5 11.9
93.3 54.6 82.9 63.5 72.5 52.5 111.0 56.3 98.7
60.5 67.9 53.8 65.4 47.1 62.8 72.9 68.6 64.8
45.2 74.1 40.2 70.9 35.2 67.6 54.7 74.4 48.6
36.3 77.7 32.3 74.0 28.3 70.4 44.0 77.8 39.1
30.6 80.0 27.1 76.1 23.7 72.2 37.0 80.0 32.9
26.4 81.6 23.5 77.6 20.6 73.5 32.0 81.6 28.4
23.4 82.8 20.8 78.6 18.2 74.4 28.3 82.8 25.1
19.2 84.5 17.1 80.1 14.9 75.7 23.1 84.4 20.6
16.4 85.5 14.6 81.0 12.8 76.5 19.7 85.5 17.5
14.4 86.3 12.8 81.7 11.2 77.1 17.3 66.2 15.3
11.8 87.3 10.5 82.6 9.2 77.9 14.0 87.2 12.5
10.1 87.9 9.0 83.1 7.9 78.3 11.9 87.8 10.6
82.9 58.5 72.5 57.5 62.2 56.4 98.7 60.1 86.4
53.8 70.4 47.1 67.8 40.3 65.3 64.8 70.9 56.7
40.2 75.9 35.2 72.6 30.1 69.4 48.6 76.1 42.5
32.3 79.0 28.3 75.4 24.2 71.8 39.1 79.2 34.2
27.1 81.1 23.7 77.2 20.4 73.3 32.9 81.1 28.8
23.5 82.6 20.6 78.5 17.6 74.4 28.4 82.6 24.9
20.8 83.6 18.2 79.4 15.6 75.2 25.1 83.6 22.0
17.1 85.1 14.9 80.7 12.8 76.3 20.6 85.0 18.0
14.6 86.0 12.8 81.5 10.9 77.0 17.5 86.0 15.3
12.8 86.7 11.2 82.1 9.6 77.5 15.3 86.6 13.4
10.5 87.6 9.2 82.9 7.9 78.2 12.5 87.5 10.9
9.0 88.1 7.9 63.3 6.7 78.6 10.6 88.0 9.3
72.5 62.5 62.2 61.4 51.8 60.3 86.4 63.8 74
47.1 72.8 40.3 70.3 33.6 67.7 56.7 73.3 48.6
35.2 77.6 30.1 74.4 25.1 71.2 42.5 77.9 36.5
28.3 80.4 24.2 76.8 20.2 73.2 34.2 80.5 29.3
23.7 82.2 20.4 78.3 17.0 74.4 28.8 82.2 24.6
20.8 83.5 17.6 79.4 14.7 75.3 24.9 83.5 21.3
18.2 84.4 15.6 80.2 13.0 76.0 22.0 84.4 18.9
14.9 85.7 12.8 81.3 10.7 76.9 16.0 85.6 15.4
12.8 86.5 10.9 82.0 9.1 77.5 15.3 86.5 13.1
11.2 87.1 9.6 82.5 8.0 77.9 13.4 87.1 11.5
9.2 87.9 7.9 83.2 6.6 78.5 10.9 87.8 9.3
7.9 88.3 6.7 83.6 5.6 78.6 9.3 88.3 8.0
47.6 111.0 46.3 159.3 51.4 144.9 49.8 130.4 48.4
61.2 72.9 58.6 106.5 64.8 96.8 62.1 87.1 59.4
67.7 54.7 64.4 80.4 71.4 73.1 68.1 65.8 64.8
71.5 44.0 67.8 64.9 75.4 59.0 71.7 53.1 68.0
73.9 37.0 70.0 54.6 78.0 49.6 74.1 44.7 70.2
75.7 32.0 71.6 47.3 79.8 43.0 75.7 38.7 71.7
77.0 28.3 72.8 41.8 81.2 38.0 77.0 34.2 72.8
78.8 23.1 74.4 34.1 83.1 31.0 78.7 27.9 74.4
80.0 19.7 75.5 29.0 84.4 26.4 79.9 23.7 75.4
80.8 17.3 76.2 25.3 85.3 23.0 80.7 20.7 76.2
81.9 14.0 77.2 20.5 86.5 18.6 81.8 16.7 77.1
82.5 11.9 77.8 17.4 87.2 15.8 82.5 14.2 77.7
51.3 98.7 50.1 144.9 54.8 130.4 53.4 115.9 51.9
63.6 64.8 60.9 96.8 67.1 87.1 64.4 77.4 61.7
69.4 48.6 66.1 73.1 73.1 65.8 69.8 58.5 66.5
72.8 39.1 69.2 59.0 76.7 53.1 73.0 47.2 69.4
75.3 2.9 71.1 49.6 79.1 44.7 75.2 39.7 71.3
76.6 28.4 72.6 43.0 80.7 38.7 76.7 34.4 72.6
77.8 25.1 73.6 38.0 82 34.2 77.8 30.4 73.6
79.4 20.6 75.0 31.0 83.7 27.9 79.4 24.8 75.0
80.5 17.5 76.0 26.4 84.9 23.7 80.4 21.1 75.9
81.2 15.3 76.6 23.0 85.7 20.7 81.2 18.4 76.6
82.2 12.5 77.5 18.6 86.8 16.7 82.1 14.9 77.4
82.8 10.6 78.0 15.8 87.5 14.2 82.7 12.6 78.0
56.1 86.4 53.8 130.4 58.4 115.9 56.9 101.4 55.4
65.9 56.7 63.3 87.1 69.4 77.4 06.7 67.7 64.0
71.1 42.5 67.9 65.8 74.8 58.5 71.5 51.2 68.2
74.2 34.2 70.5 53.1 78.0 47.2 74.4 41.3 70.7
76.1 28.8 72.2 44.7 80.2 39.7 76.3 34.7 72.4
77.6 24.9 73.5 38.7 81.7 34.4 77.6 30.1 73.5
78.6 22.0 74.4 34.2 82.8 30.4 78.6 26.6 74.4
80.0 18.0 75.6 27.9 84.4 24.8 80.0 21.7 75.6
81.0 15.3 76.5 23.7 85.4 21.1 80.9 18.4 76.4
81.6 13.4 77.1 20.7 86.2 18.4 81.6 16.1 77.0
82.5 10.9 77.8 16.7 87.1 14.9 82.4 13.0 77.8
83.0 9.3 78.3 14.2 87.7 12.6 83.0 11.0 78.2
58.8 74.0 57.6 115.9 61.9 101.4 60.4 86.9 58.9
68.3 48.6 65.7 77.4 71.7 67.7 89.0 58.1 66.3
72.9 36.5 69.6 58.5 76.5 51.2 73.2 43.9 69.9
75.5 29.3 71.9 47.2 79.4 41.3 75.7 35.4 72.0
77.2 24.6 73.4 39.7 81.3 34.7 77.4 29.8 73.4
78.5 21.3 74.4 34.4 82.6 30.1 78.5 25.8 74.4
79.4 18.9 75.2 30.4 83.6 26.6 79.4 22.8 75.2
80.6 15.4 76.3 24.8 85.0 21.7 80.6 18.6 76.2
81.5 13.1 77.0 21.1 85.9 18.4 81.4 15.8 76.9
82.1 11.5 77.5 18.4 86.6 16.1 82.0 13.8 77.4
82.8 9.3 78.1 14.9 87.4 13.0 82.8 11.2 78.1
83.3 8.0 78.5 12.6 88.0 11.0 83.2 9.5 78.5
62.6 61.7 61.3 101.4 65.4 86.9 63.9 72.4 62.4
70.7 40.5 68.1 67.7 74.0 58.1 71.3 48.4 68.5
74.6 30.4 71.3 51.2 78.2 43.9 74.9 36.5 71.6
78.9 24.4 73.2 41.3 80.7 35.4 77.0 29.5 73.3
78.4 20.5 74.5 34.7 82.4 29.8 78.4 24.8 74.5
79.4 17.8 75.3 30.1 83.5 25.8 79.4 21.5 75.4
80.2 15.7 76.0 28.6 84.4 22.8 00.2 19.0 76.0
81.3 12.9 76.9 21.7 85.6 18.6 81.2 15.5 76.9
82.0 10.9 77.5 18.4 86.4 15.8 81.9 13.2 77.4
82.5 9.6 77.9 16.1 87.0 13.8 82.4 11.5 77.9
83.1 7.8 78.4 13.0 87.8 11.2 83.1 9.3 78.4
83.5 6.6 78.8 11.0 88.2 9.5 83.5 7.9 78.7
Table App. A-45. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-33
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 12", O.D. = 12.4" Pipe Size = 14", O.D. = 13.98" Pipe Size = 18", O.D. = 15.75"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
040 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 4O
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
250
2.5 50
055
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
53.8 164.5 51.9 217.1 57.1 197.3 55.1 177.6 53.1
63.8 113.7 60.9 151.8 67.4 138.0 64.4 124.2 61.5
69.0 87.2 65.6 117.1 72.8 106.4 69.4 95.8 65.9
72.2 70.9 68.5 95.6 76.2 86.9 72.4 78.2 68.7
74.4 59.9 70.5 80.9 78.5 73.6 74.5 66.2 70.6
75.9 52.0 71.8 70.3 80.1 63.9 76.0 57.5 71.9
77.1 46.0 72.9 62.2 81.4 56.6 77.2 50.9 73.0
78.8 37.6 74.4 50.8 83.2 46.2 78.8 41.6 74.4
79.9 31.9 75.4 43.1 84.4 39.2 79.9 35.3 75.4
80.7 27.8 76.1 37.6 85.2 34.2 80.6 30.8 76.1
81.7 22.3 77.0 30.2 86.3 27.4 81.7 24.7 77.0
82.4 18.8 77.6 25.4 87.1 23.1 82.3 20.8 77.6
56.9 146.2 55.0 197.3 60.1 177.6 58.1 157.9 56.1
65.9 101.0 63.1 138.0 69.4 124.2 66.5 110.4 63.5
70.6 77.5 67.2 106.4 74.4 95.8 70.9 85.1 67.5
73.5 63.0 69.8 86.9 77.4 78.2 73.7 69.5 69.9
75.5 53.3 71.5 73.6 79.5 66.2 75.6 58.8 71.6
76.8 46.2 72.8 63.9 81.0 57.5 76.9 51.1 72.8
77.9 40.9 73.7 56.6 82.2 50.9 78.0 45.3 73.7
79.4 33.4 75.0 46.2 83.8 41.6 79.4 37.0 75.0
80.4 28.3 75.9 39.2 84.9 35.3 80.4 31.4 75.9
81.1 24.7 76.5 34.2 85.6 30.8 81.1 27.4 76.5
82.0 19.8 77.4 27.4 86.7 24.7 82.0 21.9 77.4
82.6 16.7 77.9 23.1 87.3 20.8 82.6 18.5 77.9
60.0 128.0 58.1 177.6 63.1 157.9 61.1 138.1 59.1
68.1 88.4 65.2 124.2 71.5 110.4 68.5 96.6 65.6
72.2 67.8 68.8 95.8 75.9 85.1 72.5 74.5 69.1
74.8 55.2 71.1 78.2 78.7 69.5 74.9 60.8 71.2
76.5 46.6 72.6 66.2 80.6 58.8 76.6 51.5 72.7
77.8 40.4 73.7 57.5 81.9 51.1 77.8 44.7 73.7
78.7 35.8 74.5 50.9 83.0 45.3 78.7 39.6 74.5
80.0 29.2 75.6 41.6 84.4 37.0 80.0 32.3 75.7
80.9 24.8 76.4 35.3 85.4 31.4 80.9 27.5 76.4
81.5 21.6 77.0 30.8 86.1 27.4 81.5 23.9 77.0
82.4 17.4 77.7 24.7 87.0 21.9 82.4 19.2 77.7
82.9 14.6 78.2 20.8 87.6 18.5 82.9 16.2 78.1
63.1 109.7 61.3 157.9 66.1 138.1 64.1 118.4 62.1
70.2 75.8 67.3 110.4 73.5 96.6 70.6 82.8 67.6
73.8 58.1 70.4 85.1 77.5 74.5 74.1 63.9 70.6
76.1 47.3 72.3 69.5 79.9 60.8 76.2 52.1 72.5
77.6 40.0 73.6 58.8 81.6 51.5 77.7 44.1 73.7
78.7 34.7 74.6 51.1 82.8 44.7 78.7 38.3 74.6
79.5 30.7 75.3 45.3 83.7 39.6 79.5 33.9 75.3
80.6 25.0 76.3 37.0 85.0 32.3 80.7 27.7 76.3
81.4 21.3 76.9 31.4 85.9 27.5 81.4 23.5 76.9
82.0 18.5 77.4 27.4 86.5 23.9 82.0 20.5 77.4
82.7 14.9 78.0 21.9 87.4 19.2 82.7 16.5 78.0
83.2 12.5 78.4 18.5 87.9 16.2 83.1 13.8 78.4
66.3 91.4 64.4 138.1 69.1 118.4 67.1 98.7 65.0
72.3 63.1 69.4 96.6 75.6 82.8 72.6 69.0 69.7
75.4 48.4 72.0 74.5 79.1 63.9 75.6 53.2 72.2
77.3 39.4 73.6 60.8 81.2 52.1 77.5 43.4 73.7
78.6 33.3 74.7 51.5 82.7 44.1 78.7 36.8 74.8
79.6 28.9 75.5 44.7 83.7 38.3 79.6 31.9 75.5
80.3 25.6 76.1 39.6 84.5 33.9 80.3 28.3 76.1
81.3 20.9 76.9 32.3 85.7 27.7 81.3 23.1 76.9
81.9 17.7 77.4 27.5 86.4 23.5 81.9 19.6 77.4
82.4 15.4 77.8 23.9 87.0 20.5 82.4 17.1 77.8
83.0 12.4 78.4 19.2 87.7 16.5 83.0 13.7 78.3
83.4 10.5 78.7 16.2 88.1 13.8 83.4 11.5 78.7
186.5 54.1 169.6 52.3 152.6 50.6 201.1 55.7 182.8
127.2 66 115. 7 63.2 104.1 60.4 138.9 66.7 126.3
97.0 72 88.2 68.7 79.4 65.3 106.6 72.4 96.9
78.7 75.7 71.5 72.0 64.4 68.3 86.7 75.9 78.8
66.3 78.2 60.3 74.3 54.3 70.3 73.3 78.3 66.6
57.5 79.9 52.3 75.9 47.0 71.8 63.6 80.0 57.8
50.8 81.3 46.2 77.1 41.6 72.9 56.2 81.3 51.1
41.5 83.1 37.7 78.7 33.9 74.4 45.9 83.1 41.7
35.2 84.4 32.0 79.9 28.8 75.4 39.0 84.4 35.4
30.7 85.2 27.9 80.7 25.1 76.1 34.0 85.2 30.9
24.7 86.4 22.5 81.7 20.2 77.1 27.3 86.4 24.8
20.9 87.1 19.0 82.4 17.1 77.7 23.0 87.1 20.9
169.6 57.3 152.6 55.6 135.7 53.9 182.8 58.8 164.5
115.7 68.2 104.1 65.4 92.5 62.5 126.3 68.8 113.7
88.2 73.7 79.4 70.3 70.5 67.0 96.9 74.0 87.2
71.5 77.0 64.4 73.3 57.2 69.6 78.8 77.2 70.9
60.3 79.3 54.3 75.3 48.2 71.4 66.6 79.4 59.9
52.3 80.9 47.0 76.8 41.8 72.7 57.8 80.9 52.0
46.2 82.1 41.6 77.9 37.0 73.6 51.1 82.1 46.0
37.7 83.7 33.9 79.4 30.2 75.0 41.7 83.8 37.6
32.0 84.9 28.8 80.4 25.6 75.9 35.4 84.9 31.9
27.9 85.7 25.1 81.1 22.3 76.5 30.9 85.7 27.8
22.5 86.7 20.2 82.1 18.0 77.4 24.8 86.7 22.3
19.0 87.4 17.1 82.7 15.2 77.9 20.9 87.4 18.8
152.6 60.6 135.7 58.9 118.7 57.1 164.5 61.9 146.2
104.1 70.4 92.5 67.5 81.0 64.7 113.7 70.9 101.0
79.4 75.3 70.5 72.0 61.7 68.6 87.2 75.6 77.5
64.4 78.3 57.2 74.6 50.1 70.9 70.9 78.5 63.0
54.3 80.3 48.2 76.4 42.2 72.5 59.9 80.5 53.3
47.0 81.8 41.8 77.7 36.6 73.6 52.0 81.8 46.2
41.6 82.9 37.0 78.6 32.4 74.4 46.0 82.9 40.9
33.9 84.4 30.2 80.0 26.4 75.6 37.6 84.4 33.4
28.8 85.4 25.6 80.9 22.4 76.4 31.9 85.4 28.3
25.1 86.1 22.3 81.5 19.6 77.0 27.8 86.1 24.7
20.2 87.1 18.0 82.4 15.7 77.7 22.3 87.0 19.8
17.1 87.7 15.2 82.9 13.3 78.2 18.8 87.6 16.7
135.7 63.9 118.7 62.1 101.8 60.4 146.2 65.0 128.0
92.5 72.5 81.0 69.7 69.4 66.9 101.0 73.1 88.4
70.5 77.0 61.7 73.6 52.9 70.2 77.5 77.2 67.8
57.2 79.6 50.1 75.9 42.9 72.2 63.0 79.8 55.2
48.2 81.4 42.2 77.5 36.2 73.6 53.3 81.5 46.6
41.8 82.7 36.6 78.6 31.4 74.5 46.2 82.8 40.4
37.0 83.6 32.4 79.4 27.7 75.2 40.9 83.7 35.8
30.2 85.0 26.4 80.6 22.6 76.3 33.4 85.0 29.2
25.6 85.9 22.4 81.4 19.2 76.9 28.3 85.9 24.8
22.3 86.5 19.6 82.0 16.8 77.4 24.7 86.5 21.6
18.0 87.4 15.7 82.7 13.5 78.0 19.8 87.4 17.4
15.2 87.9 13.3 83.2 11.4 78.4 16.7 87.9 14.6
118.7 67.1 101.8 65.4 84.8 63.7 128.0 68.1 109.7
81.0 74.7 69.4 71.9 57.8 69.1 88.4 75.2 75.8
61.7 78.6 52.9 75.2 44.1 71.8 67.8 78.8 58.1
50.1 80.9 42.9 77.2 35.8 73.5 55.2 81.1 47.3
42.2 82.5 36.2 78.6 30.2 74.6 46.6 82.6 40.0
36.6 83.6 31.4 79.5 26.1 75.4 40.4 83.7 34.7
32.4 84.4 27.7 80.2 23.1 76.0 35.8 84.5 30.7
26.4 85.6 22.6 81.3 18.9 76.9 29.2 85.6 25.0
22.4 86.4 19.2 81.9 16.0 77.4 24.8 86.4 21.3
19.6 87.0 16.8 82.4 14.0 77.8 21.6 87.0 18.5
15.7 87.7 13.5 83.0 11.2 78.4 17.4 87.7 14.9
13.3 88.2 11.4 83.4 9.5 78.7 14.6 88.2 12.5
Table App. A-45. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-34
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 18", O.D. = 17.72" Pipe Size = 20", O.D. = 19.69" Pipe Size = 24", O.D. = 24.8"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
57.8 201.8 55.5 276.4 63.4 251.3 60.8 226.2 58.2
65.7 144.8 62.7 204.5 70.5 185.9 67.3 167.3 64.1
70.1 113.2 66.6 162.6 74.7 147.8 71.1 133.0 67.5
72.9 93.2 69.1 135.2 77.4 122.9 73.5 110.6 69.7
74.8 79.3 70.8 115.8 79.3 105.3 75.3 94.8 71.2
76.2 69.1 72.1 101.4 80.7 92.2 76.6 83.0 72.4
77.3 61.3 73.1 90.3 81.8 82.1 77.5 73.9 73.3
78.9 50.2 74.5 74.3 83.4 67.5 79.0 60.8 74.6
79.9 42.7 75.4 63.3 84.5 57.5 80.0 51.8 75.5
80.7 37.2 76.1 55.2 85.3 50.2 80.7 45.2 76.1
81.7 29.8 77.0 44.2 86.3 40.2 81.7 36.2 77.0
82.3 25.0 77.6 37.1 87.0 33.7 82.3 30.4 77.6
60.5 179.3 58.3 251.3 65.8 226.2 63.2 201.0 60.7
67.7 128.7 64.6 185.9 72.3 167.3 69.1 148.7 65.8
71.6 100.6 68.1 147.8 76.1 133.0 72.5 118.2 68.8
74.1 82.8 70.3 122.9 78.5 110.6 74.7 98.3 70.8
75.8 70.5 71.9 105.3 80.3 94.8 76.2 84.2 72.2
77.1 61.4 73.0 92.2 81.6 83.0 77.4 73.8 73.2
78.1 54.5 73.9 82.1 82.5 73.9 78.3 65.7 74.0
79.5 44.6 75.1 67.5 84.0 60.8 79.6 54.0 75.2
80.4 37.9 75.9 57.5 85.0 51.8 80.5 46.0 76.0
81.1 33.1 76.5 50.2 85.7 45.2 81.1 40.1 76.6
82.0 26.5 77.3 40.2 86.7 36.2 82.0 32.2 77.3
82.6 22.2 77.9 33.7 87.3 30.4 82.6 27.0 77.8
63.3 156.9 61.0 226.2 68.2 201.0 65.7 175.9 63.1
69.6 112.6 66.5 167.3 74.1 148.7 70.8 130.1 67.6
73.1 88.1 69.6 133.0 77.5 118.2 73.8 103.5 70.2
75.3 72.5 71.5 110.6 79.7 98.3 75.8 86.0 72.0
76.9 61.7 72.9 94.8 81.2 84.2 77.2 73.7 73.2
78.0 53.7 73.9 83.0 82.4 73.8 78.2 64.6 74.1
78.9 47.7 74.6 73.9 83.3 65.7 79.0 57.5 74.8
80.1 39.1 75.7 60.8 84.6 54.0 80.2 47.3 75.8
80.9 33.2 76.4 51.8 85.5 46.0 81.0 40.3 76.5
81.5 28.9 77.0 45.2 86.1 40.1 81.6 35.1 77.0
82.3 23.2 77.7 36.2 87.0 32.2 82.3 28.2 77.7
82.9 19.5 78.1 30.4 87.6 27.0 82.8 23.6 78.1
66.0 134.5 63.7 201.0 70.7 175.9 68.1 150.8 65.5
71.5 96.5 68.4 148.7 75.8 130.1 72.6 111.5 69.4
74.6 75.5 71.1 118.2 78.8 103.5 75.2 88.7 71.6
76.5 62.1 72.7 98.3 80.8 86.0 77.0 73.7 73.1
77.9 52.9 73.9 84.2 82.2 73.7 78.2 63.2 74.2
78.9 46.1 74.7 73.8 83.2 64.6 79.1 55.3 74.9
79.6 40.9 75.4 65.7 84.0 57.5 79.8 49.3 75.5
80.7 33.5 76.3 54.0 85.2 47.3 80.8 40.5 76.4
81.4 28.4 76.9 46.0 86.0 40.3 81.5 34.5 77
82.0 24.8 77.4 40.1 86.6 35.1 82.0 30.1 77.4
82.7 19.9 78.0 32.2 87.3 28.2 82.7 24.1 78
83.1 16.7 78.4 27.0 87.8 23.6 83.1 20.2 78.4
68.7 112.1 66.4 175.9 73.1 150.8 70.5 125.6 67.9
73.4 80.4 70.4 130.1 77.6 111.5 74.4 92.9 71.1
76.1 62.9 72.6 103.5 80.2 88.7 76.6 73.9 73
77.7 51.8 73.9 86.0 82.0 73.7 78.1 61.4 74.3
78.9 44.0 74.9 73.7 83.2 63.2 79.2 52.6 75.1
79.7 38.4 75.6 64.6 84.1 55.3 79.9 46.1 75.8
80.4 34.1 76.2 57.5 84.8 49.3 80.5 41.1 76.3
81.3 27.9 76.9 47.3 85.8 40.5 81.4 33.8 77
81.9 23.7 77.5 40.3 86.5 34.5 82.0 28.8 77.5
82.4 20.7 77.8 35.1 87.0 30.1 82.4 25.1 77.8
83.0 16.5 78.3 28.2 87.7 24.1 83.0 20.1 78.3
83.4 13.9 78.7 23.6 88.1 20.2 83.4 16.9 78.6
232.2 58.7 211.0 56.6 189.9 54.4 246.6 60.1 224.2
164.6 68.1 149.6 65.1 134.7 62.1 177.0 68.8 160.9
127.9 73.2 116.3 69.8 104.6 66.3 138.4 73.6 125.8
104.8 76.5 95.3 72.7 85.8 68.9 113.9 76.7 103.5
89.0 78.7 80.9 74.7 72.8 70.7 96.9 78.8 88.1
77.4 80.3 70.4 76.1 63.4 72.0 84.5 80.4 76.8
68.6 81.5 62.4 77.2 56.2 73.0 75.0 81.6 68.1
56.1 83.2 51.0 78.8 45.9 74.4 61.4 83.2 55.8
47.7 84.4 43.3 79.9 39.0 75.4 52.1 84.4 47.4
41.5 85.2 37.8 80.6 34.0 76.1 45.4 85.2 41.3
33.3 86.3 30.3 81.7 27.2 77.0 36.4 86.3 33.1
28.0 87.1 25.4 82.3 22.9 77.6 30.6 87.0 27.8
211.0 61.6 189.9 59.4 168.8 57.3 224.2 62.8 201.8
149.6 70.1 134.7 67.1 119.7 64.1 160.9 70.7 144.8
116.3 74.8 104.6 71.3 93.0 67.8 125.8 75.1 113.2
95.3 77.7 85.8 73.9 76.2 70.2 103.5 77.9 93.2
80.9 79.7 72.8 75.7 64.7 71.7 88.1 79.8 79.3
70.4 81.1 63.4 77.0 56.3 72.9 76.8 81.2 69.1
62.4 82.2 56.2 78.0 49.9 73.8 68.1 82.3 61.3
51.0 83.8 45.9 79.4 40.8 75.1 55.8 83.9 50.2
43.3 84.9 39.0 80.4 34.7 75.9 47.4 84.9 42.7
37.8 85.6 34.0 81.1 30.2 76.5 41.3 85.7 37.2
30.3 86.7 27.2 82.0 24.2 77.3 33.1 86.7 29.8
25.4 87.3 22.9 82.6 20.4 77.9 27.8 87.3 25.0
189.9 64.4 168.8 62.3 147.7 60.1 201.8 65.5 179.3
134.7 72.1 119.7 69.1 104.7 66.1 144.8 72.7 128.7
104.6 76.3 93.0 72.8 81.4 69.3 113.2 76.6 100.6
85.8 78.9 76.2 75.2 66.7 71.4 93.2 79.1 82.8
72.8 80.7 64.7 76.7 56.6 72.8 79.3 80.8 70.5
63.4 82.0 56.3 77.9 49.3 73.8 69.1 82.1 61.4
56.2 83.0 49.9 78.8 43.7 74.6 61.3 83.1 54.5
45.9 84.4 40.8 80.1 35.7 75.7 50.2 84.5 44.6
39.0 85.4 34.7 80.9 30.3 76.4 42.7 85.4 37.9
34.0 86.1 30.2 81.5 26.4 77.0 37.2 86.1 33.1
27.2 87.0 24.2 82.3 21.2 77.7 29.8 87.0 26.5
22.9 87.6 20.4 82.9 17.8 78.1 25.0 87.6 22.2
168.8 67.3 147.7 65.1 126.6 62.9 179.3 68.3 156.9
119.7 74.1 104.7 71.1 89.8 68.1 128.7 74.6 112.6
93.0 77.8 81.4 74.3 69.8 70.9 100.6 78.1 88.1
76.2 80.2 66.7 76.4 57.2 72.6 82.8 80.3 72.5
64.7 81.7 56.6 77.8 48.5 73.8 70.5 81.9 61.7
56.3 82.9 49.3 78.8 42.2 74.7 61.4 83.0 53.7
49.9 83.8 43.7 79.6 37.4 75.4 54.5 83.9 47.7
40.8 85.1 35.7 80.7 30.6 76.3 44.6 85.1 39.1
34.7 85.9 30.3 81.4 26.0 76.9 37.9 85.9 33.2
30.2 86.5 26.4 82.0 22.7 77.4 33.1 86.5 28.9
24.2 87.3 21.2 82.7 18.2 78.0 26.5 87.3 23.2
20.4 87.9 17.8 83.1 15.3 78.4 22.2 87.9 19.5
147.7 70.1 126.6 67.9 105.5 65.8 156.9 71.0 134.5
104.7 76.1 89.8 73.1 74.8 70.1 112.6 76.5 96.5
81.4 79.3 69.8 75.9 58.1 72.4 88.1 79.6 75.5
66.7 81.4 57.2 77.6 47.6 73.8 72.5 81.5 62.1
56.6 82.8 48.5 78.8 40.5 74.8 61.7 82.9 52.9
49.3 83.8 42.2 79.7 35.2 75.6 53.7 83.9 46.1
43.7 84.6 37.4 80.4 31.2 76.1 47.7 84.6 40.9
35.7 85.7 30.6 81.3 25.5 76.9 39.1 85.7 33.5
30.3 86.4 26.0 81.9 21.7 77.4 33.2 86.4 28.4
26.4 87.0 22.7 82.4 18.9 77.8 28.9 87.0 24.8
21.2 87.7 18.2 83.0 15.1 78.3 23.2 87.7 19.9
17.8 88.1 15.3 83.4 12.7 78.7 19.5 88.1 16.7
Table App. A-45. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Still Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-35
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 2", O.D. = 2.48 Pipe Size = 3", O.D. = 3.54" Pipe Size = 4", O.D. = 4.33"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
159.6 51.3 218.4 57.9 198.5 55.8 178.7 53.7
59.8 70.0 85.8 78.1 78.0 74.2 70.2 70.2
37.7 74.1 54.5 82.8 49.5 78.5 44.6 74.1
28.0 75.8 40.4 84.9 36.8 80.4 33.1 75.9
22.5 76.8 32.5 86.1 29.5 81.5 26.6 76.8
19.0 77.5 27.3 86.9 24.8 82.2 22.4 77.4
16.5 77.9 23.7 87.4 21.6 82.6 19.4 77.9
13.3 78.5 19.0 88.1 17.3 83.3 15.6 78.4
11.3 78.8 16.1 88.5 14.6 83.6 13.2 78.8
9.9 79.0 14.0 88.8 12.8 83.9 11.5 79.0
8.1 79.3 11.4 89.1 10.4 84.2 9.4 79.3
7.0 79.5 9.8 89.3 8.9 84.4 8.0 79.5
141.9 54.5 198.5 60.8 178.7 58.7 158.8 56.7
53.1 71.1 78.0 79.2 70.2 75.2 62.4 71.3
33.5 74.7 49.5 83.5 44.6 79.1 39.6 74.8
24.8 76.3 36.8 85.4 33.1 80.9 29.4 76.3
20.0 77.2 29.5 86.5 26.6 81.8 23.6 77.2
16.8 77.8 24.8 87.2 22.4 82.4 19.9 77.7
14.7 78.1 21.6 87.6 19.4 82.9 17.3 78.1
11.8 78.6 17.3 88.3 15.6 83.4 13.8 78.6
10.0 78.9 14.6 86.6 13.2 83.8 11.7 78.9
8.8 79.1 12.8 88.9 11.5 84.0 10.2 79.1
7.2 79.4 10.4 89.2 9.4 84.3 8.3 79.4
6.2 79.5 8.9 89.4 8.0 84.5 7.1 79.5
124.1 57.7 178.7 63.7 158.8 61.7 139.0 59.6
46.5 72.2 70.2 80.2 62.4 76.3 54.6 72.4
29.3 75.4 44.6 84.1 39.6 79.8 34.7 75.4
21.7 76.8 33.1 85.9 29.4 81.3 25.7 76.8
17.5 77.5 26.6 86.8 23.6 82.2 20.7 77.5
14.7 78 22.4 87.4 19.9 82.7 17.4 78.0
12.8 78.4 19.4 87.9 17.3 83.1 15.1 78.4
10.3 78.8 15.6 88.4 13.8 83.6 12.1 78.8
8.8 79.1 13.2 88.8 11.7 83.9 10.2 79.0
7.7 79.3 11.5 89.0 10.2 84.1 8.9 79.2
6.3 79.5 9.4 89.3 8.3 84.4 7.3 79.4
5.5 79.6 8.0 89.5 7.1 84.5 6.2 79.6
106.4 60.9 158.8 66.7 139.0 64.6 119.1 62.5
39.9 73.3 62.4 81.3 54.6 77.4 46.8 73.5
25.1 76 39.6 84.8 34.7 80.4 29.7 76.1
18.6 77.2 29.4 86.3 25.7 81.8 22.1 77.2
15.0 77.9 23.6 87.2 20.7 82.5 17.7 77.9
12.6 78.3 19.9 87.7 17.4 83.0 14.9 78.3
11.0 78.6 17.3 88.1 15.1 83.4 12.9 78.6
8.9 79 13.8 88.6 12.1 83.8 10.4 79.0
7.5 79.2 11.7 88.9 10.2 84.0 8.8 79.2
6.6 79.4 10.2 89.1 8.9 84.2 7.7 79.3
5.4 79.5 8.3 89.4 7.3 84.4 6.2 79.5
4.7 79.6 7.1 89.5 6.2 84.6 5.4 79.6
88.7 64.0 139.0 69.6 119.1 67.5 99.3 65.4
33.2 74.4 54.6 82.4 46.8 78.5 39.0 74.6
20.9 76.7 34.7 85.4 29.7 81.1 24.8 76.7
15.5 77.7 25.7 86.8 22.1 82.2 18.4 77.7
12.5 78.2 20.7 87.5 17.7 82.9 14.8 78.2
10.5 78.6 17.4 88.0 14.9 83.3 12.4 78.6
9.2 78.8 15.1 88.4 12.9 83.6 10.8 78.8
7.4 79.1 12.1 88.8 10.4 84.0 8.6 79.1
6.3 79.3 10.2 89.0 8.8 84.2 7.3 79.3
5.5 79.5 8.9 89.2 7.7 84.3 6.4 79.4
4.5 79.6 7.3 89.4 6.2 84.5 5.2 79.6
3.9 79.7 6.2 89.6 5.4 84.6 4.5 79.7
152.7 50.8 138.8 49.4 125.0 47.9 195.1 54.9 177.3 53.1
54.1 77.4 49.2 73.5 44.3 69.7 73.1 77.7 66.4 73.8
34.0 82.7 30.9 78.4 27.8 74.1 46.1 82.7 41.9 78.4
25.4 85.0 23.0 80.5 20.7 75.9 34.2 84.9 31.1 80.4
20.5 86.2 18.6 81.6 16.8 76.9 27.5 86.1 25.0 81.5
17.4 87.0 15.8 82.3 14.2 77.6 23.2 86.9 21.1 82.2
15.2 87.6 13.9 82.8 12.5 78.0 20.2 87.4 18.3 82.7
12.4 88.2 11.3 83.4 10.2 78.6 16.2 88.1 14.8 83.3
10.7 88.6 9.7 83.8 8.7 78.9 13.8 88.5 12.5 83.7
9.4 88.9 8.6 84.0 7.7 79.1 12.1 88.8 11.0 83.9
7.9 89.2 7.1 84.3 6.4 79.4 9.9 89.2 9.0 84.2
6.9 89.4 6.3 84.5 5.6 79.5 8.6 89.4 7.8 84.4
138.8 54.4 125.0 52.9 111.1 51.5 177.3 58.1 159.6 56.3
49.2 78.5 44.3 74.7 39.4 70.8 66.4 78.8 59.8 75.0
30.9 83.4 27.8 79.1 24.7 74.7 41.9 83.4 37.7 79.1
23 85.5 20.7 80.9 18.4 76.4 31.1 85.4 28.0 80.8
18.6 86.6 16.8 81.9 14.9 77.3 25.0 86.5 22.5 81.8
15.8 87.3 14.2 82.6 12.7 77.8 21.1 87.2 19.0 82.5
13.9 87.8 12.5 83.0 11.1 78.2 18.3 87.7 16.5 82.9
11.3 88.4 10.2 83.6 9.0 78.7 14.8 88.3 13.3 83.5
9.7 88.8 8.7 83.9 7.7 79.0 12.5 88.7 11.3 83.8
8.6 89.0 7.7 84.1 6.9 79.2 11.0 88.9 9.9 84.0
7.1 89.3 6.4 84.4 5.7 79.4 9.0 89.2 8.1 84.3
6.3 89.5 5.6 84.5 5.0 79.6 7.8 89.4 7.0 84.5
125.0 57.9 111.1 56.5 97.2 55.0 159.6 61.3 141.9 59.5
44.3 79.7 39.4 75.8 34.5 72.0 59.8 80.0 53.1 76.1
27.8 84.1 24.7 79.7 21.7 75.4 37.7 84.1 33.5 79.7
20.7 85.9 18.4 81.4 16.1 76.8 28.0 85.8 24.8 81.3
16.8 86.9 14.9 82.3 13.0 77.6 22.5 86.8 20.0 82.2
14.2 87.6 12.7 82.8 11.1 78.1 19.0 87.5 16.8 82.8
12.5 88.0 11.1 83.2 9.7 78.4 16.5 87.9 14.7 83.1
10.2 88.6 9.0 83.7 7.9 78.9 13.3 88.5 11.8 83.6
8.7 88.9 7.7 84.0 6.8 79.1 11.3 88.8 10.0 83.9
7.7 89.1 6.9 84.2 6.0 79.3 9.9 89.0 8.8 84.1
6.4 89.4 5.7 84.4 5.0 79.5 8.1 89.3 7.2 84.4
5.6 89.5 5.0 84.6 4.4 79.6 7.0 89.5 6.2 84.5
111.1 61.5 97.2 60.0 83.3 58.6 141.9 64.5 124.1 62.7
39.4 80.8 34.5 77.0 29.5 73.1 53.1 81.1 46.5 77.2
24.7 84.7 21.7 80.4 18.6 76.0 33.5 84.7 29.3 80.4
18.4 86.4 16.1 81.8 13.8 77.3 24.8 86.3 21.7 81.8
14.9 87.3 13.0 82.6 11.2 78.0 20.0 87.2 17.5 82.5
12.7 87.8 11.1 83.1 9.5 78.4 16.8 87.8 14.7 83.0
11.1 88.2 9.7 83.4 8.3 78.7 14.7 88.1 12.8 83.4
9.0 88.7 7.9 83.9 6.8 79.0 11.8 88.6 10.3 83.8
7.7 89.0 6.8 84.1 5.8 79.3 10.0 88.9 8.8 84.1
6.9 89.2 6.0 84.3 5.1 79.4 8.8 89.1 7.7 84.3
5.7 89.4 5.0 84.5 4.3 79.6 7.2 89.4 6.3 84.5
5.0 89.6 4.4 84.6 3.8 79.7 6.2 89.5 5.5 84.6
97.2 65.0 83.3 63.6 69.4 62.2 124.1 67.7 106.4 65.9
34.5 82.0 29.5 78.1 24.6 74.3 46.5 82.2 39.9 78.3
21.7 85.4 18.6 81.0 15.5 76.7 29.3 85.4 25.1 81.0
16.1 86.8 13.8 82.3 11.5 77.7 21.7 86.8 18.6 82.2
13.0 87.6 11.2 83.0 9.3 78.3 17.5 87.5 15.0 82.9
11.1 88.1 9.5 83.4 7.9 78.7 14.7 88.0 12.6 83.3
9.7 88.4 8.3 83.7 6.9 78.9 12.8 88.4 11.0 83.6
7.9 88.9 6.8 84.0 5.6 79.2 10.3 88.8 8.9 84.0
6.8 89.1 5.8 84.3 4.8 79.4 8.8 89.1 7.5 84.2
6.0 89.3 5.1 84.4 4.3 79.5 7.7 89.3 6.6 84.4
5.0 89.5 4.3 84.6 3.6 79.6 6.3 89.5 5.4 84.5
4.4 89.6 3.8 84.7 3.1 79.7 5.5 89.6 4.7 84.6
Table App. A-46. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Moving Air Conditions
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-36
HEAT GAINAPPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 6", O.D. = 6.29" Pipe Size = 8", O.D. = 7.87" Pipe Size = 10", O.D. = 9.84"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
273.6 62.9 246.2 60.1 328.9 68.7 299.0 65.7 269.1 62.6
124.5 75.2 112.1 71.2 160.3 79.9 145.7 75.8 131.2 71.7
81.5 78.8 73.3 74.4 106.9 83.4 97.1 79.0 87.4 74.6
61.0 80.5 54.9 75.9 80.6 85.2 73.3 80.6 66.0 76.0
49.0 81.5 44.1 76.8 65.0 86.2 59.1 81.5 53.2 76.9
41.2 82.1 37.1 77.4 54.7 86.9 49.7 82.1 44.7 77.4
35.6 82.6 32.1 77.8 47.3 87.3 43.0 82.6 38.7 77.8
28.3 83.2 25.5 78.4 37.5 88.0 34.1 83.2 30.7 78.3
23.6 83.6 21.3 78.7 31.3 88.4 28.5 83.5 25.6 78.7
20.5 83.8 18.4 78.9 27.0 88.7 24.6 83.8 22.1 78.9
16.3 84.1 14.7 79.2 21.5 89.0 19.5 84.1 17.6 79.2
13.8 84.3 12.4 79.4 18.0 89.2 16.4 84.3 14.7 79.4
246.2 65.1 218.9 62.3 299.0 70.7 269.1 67.6 239.2 64.5
112.1 76.2 99.6 72.2 145.7 80.8 131.2 76.7 116.6 72.6
73.3 79.4 65.2 75.0 97.1 84.0 87.4 79.6 77.7 75.2
54.9 80.9 48.8 76.4 73.3 85.6 66.0 81.0 58.6 76.5
44.1 81.8 39.2 77.2 59.1 86.5 53.2 81.9 47.3 77.2
37.1 82.4 32.9 77.7 49.7 87.1 44.7 82.4 39.8 77.7
32.1 82.8 28.5 78.1 43.0 87.6 38.7 82.8 34.4 78.1
25.5 83.4 22.6 78.5 34.1 88.2 30.7 83.3 27.3 78.5
21.3 83.7 18.9 78.8 28.5 88.5 25.6 83.7 22.8 78.8
18.4 83.9 16.4 79.0 24.6 88.8 22.1 83.9 19.7 79.0
14.7 84.2 13.1 79.3 19.5 89.1 17.6 84.2 15.6 79.3
12.4 84.4 11.0 79.5 16.4 89.3 14.7 84.4 13.1 79.4
218.9 67.3 191.5 64.5 269.1 72.6 239.2 69.5 209.3 66.5
99.6 77.2 87.2 73.2 131.2 81.7 116.6 77.6 102.0 73.6
65.2 80.0 57.0 75.7 87.4 84.6 77.7 80.2 68.0 75.8
48.8 81.4 42.7 76.8 66.0 86.0 58.6 81.5 51.3 76.9
39.2 82.2 34.3 77.5 53.2 86.9 47.3 82.2 41.4 77.6
32.9 82.7 28.8 78.0 44.7 87.4 39.8 82.7 34.8 78.0
28.5 83.1 24.9 78.3 38.7 87.8 34.4 83.1 30.1 78.3
22.6 83.5 19.8 78.7 30.7 88.3 27.3 83.5 23.9 78.7
18.9 83.8 16.6 79.0 25.6 88.7 22.8 83.8 19.9 79.0
16.4 84.0 14.3 79.2 22.1 88.9 19.7 84.0 17.2 79.1
13.1 84.3 11.4 79.4 17.6 89.2 15.6 84.3 13.7 79.4
11.0 84.5 9.6 79.5 14.7 89.4 13.1 84.4 11.5 79.5
191.5 69.5 164.1 66.7 239.2 74.5 209.3 71.5 179.4 68.4
87.2 78.2 74.7 74.1 116.6 82.6 102.0 78.6 87.4 74.5
57.0 80.7 48.9 76.3 77.7 85.2 68.0 80.8 58.3 76.4
42.7 81.8 36.6 77.3 58.6 86.5 51.3 81.9 44.0 77.4
34.3 82.5 29.4 77.9 47.3 87.2 41.4 82.6 35.5 77.9
28.8 83.0 24.7 78.3 39.8 87.7 34.8 83.0 29.8 78.3
24.9 83.3 21.4 78.5 34.4 88.1 30.1 83.3 25.8 78.6
19.8 83.7 17.0 78.9 27.3 88.5 23.9 83.7 20.5 78.9
16.6 84.0 14.2 79.1 22.8 88.8 19.9 84.0 17.1 79.1
14.3 84.2 12.3 79.3 19.7 89.0 17.2 84.1 14.7 79.3
11.4 84.4 9.8 79.5 15.6 89.3 13.7 84.4 11.7 79.5
9.6 84.5 8.3 79.6 13.1 89.4 11.5 84.5 9.8 79.6
164.1 71.7 136.8 68.9 209.3 76.5 179.4 73.4 149.5 70.3
74.7 79.1 62.3 75.1 102.0 83.6 87.4 79.5 72.9 75.4
48.9 81.3 40.7 76.9 68.0 85.8 58.3 81.4 48.6 77.0
36.6 82.3 30.5 77.7 51.3 86.9 44.0 82.4 36.6 77.8
29.4 82.9 24.5 78.2 41.4 87.6 35.5 82.9 29.6 78.3
24.7 83.3 20.6 78.6 34.8 88.0 29.8 83.3 24.9 78.6
21.4 83.5 17.8 78.8 30.1 88.3 25.8 83.6 21.5 78.8
17.0 83.9 14.1 79.1 23.9 88.7 20.5 83.9 17.1 79.1
14.2 84.1 11.8 79.3 19.9 89.0 17.1 84.1 14.2 79.3
12.3 84.3 10.2 79.4 17.2 89.1 14.7 84.3 12.3 79.4
9.8 84.5 8.2 79.6 13.7 89.4 11.7 84.5 9.8 79.5
8.3 84.6 6.9 79.7 11.5 89.5 9.8 84.6 8.2 79.6
114.0 46.7 103.6 45.7 93.3 44.6 300.9 65.7
74.0 62.0 67.2 60.5 60.5 57.9 137.0 79.3
55.2 70.6 50.2 67.3 45.2 64.1 89.6 83.2
44.4 74.9 40.4 71.3 36.3 67.7 67.1 85.0
37.3 77.8 33.9 73.9 30.5 70.0 53.9 86.1
32.3 79.8 29.4 75.7 26.4 71.6 45.3 86.8
28.6 81.2 26.0 77.0 23.4 72.8 39.2 87.3
23.5 83.2 21.3 78.9 19.2 74.5 31.1 88.0
20.1 84.5 18.2 80.1 16.4 75.5 26.0 88.4
17.6 85.5 16.0 80.0 14.4 76.3 22.5 88.7
14.4 86.7 13.1 82.0 11.8 77.3 18.0 89.0
12.4 87.4 11.2 82.6 10.1 77.9 15.1 89.3
103.6 50.7 93.3 49.6 82.9 48.5 273.6 67.9
67.2 65.5 60.5 62.9 53.8 60.4 124.5 80.2
50.2 72.3 45.2 69.1 40.2 65.9 81.5 83.8
40.4 76.3 36.3 72.7 32.3 69.0 61.0 85.5
33.9 78.9 30.5 75.0 27.1 71.1 49.0 86.5
29.4 80.7 26.4 76.6 23.5 72.6 41.2 87.1
26.0 82.0 23.4 77.8 20.8 73.6 35.6 87.6
21.3 83.9 19.2 79.5 17.1 75.1 28.3 88.2
18.2 85.1 16.4 80.5 14.6 76.0 23.6 88.6
16.0 85.9 14.4 81.3 12.8 76.7 20.5 88.8
13.1 87.0 11.8 82.3 10.5 77.6 16.3 89.1
11.2 87.6 10.1 82.9 9.0 78.1 13.8 89.3
93.3 54.6 82.9 53.5 72.5 52.5 246.2 70.1
60.5 67.9 53.8 65.4 47.1 62.8 112.1 81.2
45.2 74.1 40.2 70.9 35.2 67.6 73.3 84.4
36.3 77.7 32.3 74.0 28.3 70.4 54.9 85.9
30.5 80.0 27.1 76.1 23.7 72.2 44.1 86.8
26.4 81.6 23.5 77.6 20.6 73.5 37.1 87.4
23.4 82.8 20.8 78.6 18.2 74.4 32.1 87.8
19.2 84.5 17.1 80.1 14.9 75.7 25.5 88.4
16.4 85.5 14.6 81.0 12.8 76.5 21.3 88.7
14.4 86.3 12.8 81.7 11.2 77.1 18.4 88.9
11.8 87.3 10.5 82.6 9.2 77.9 14.7 89.2
10.1 87.9 9.0 83.1 7.9 78.3 12.4 89.4
82.9 58.5 72.5 57.5 62.2 56.4 218.9 72.3
53.8 70.4 47.1 67.8 40.3 65.3 99.6 82.2
40.2 75.9 35.2 72.6 30.1 69.4 65.2 85.0
32.3 79.0 28.3 75.4 24.2 71.8 48.8 86.4
27.1 81.1 23.7 77.2 20.4 73.3 39.2 87.2
23.5 82.6 20.6 78.5 17.6 74.4 32.9 87.7
20.8 83.6 18.2 79.4 15.6 75.2 28.5 88.1
17.1 85.1 14.9 80.7 12.8 76.3 22.6 88.5
14.6 86.0 12.8 81.5 10.9 77.0 18.9 88.8
12.8 86.7 11.2 82.1 9.6 77.5 16.4 89.0
10.5 87.6 9.2 82.9 7.9 78.2 13.1 89.3
9.0 88.1 7.9 83.3 6.7 78.6 11.0 89.5
72.5 62.5 62.2 61.4 51.8 60.3 191.5 74.5
47.1 72.8 40.3 70.3 33.6 67.7 87.2 83.2
35.2 77.6 30.1 74.4 25.1 71.2 57.0 85.7
28.3 80.4 24.2 76.8 20.2 73.2 42.7 86.8
23.7 82.2 20.4 78.3 17.0 74.4 34.3 87.5
20.6 83.5 17.6 79.4 14.7 75.3 28.8 88.0
18.2 84.4 15.6 80.2 13.0 76.0 24.9 88.3
14.9 85.7 12.8 81.3 10.7 76.9 19.8 88.7
12.8 86.5 10.9 82.0 9.1 77.5 16.6 89.0
11.2 87.1 9.6 82.5 8.0 77.9 14.3 89.2
9.2 87.9 7.9 83.2 6.6 78.5 11.4 89.4
7.9 88.3 6.7 83.6 5.6 78.8 9.6 89.5
Table App. A-46. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. A-37
HEAT GAIN APPENDIX A
A
Fluid
Temp
(F)
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Heat
Gain
Surface
Temp
Nominal
Insulation
Thichness
(inches)
90 85 80 90 85 80 90 85 80
Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F) Ambient Temperature (F)
Pipe Size = 12", O.D. = 12.4" Pipe Size = 13", O.D. = 13.98" Pipe Size = 16", O.D. = 15.75"
0 35
0.125 35
0.25 35
0.375 35
0.5 35
0.625 35
0.75 35
1 35
1.25 35
1.5 35
2 35
2.5 35
0 40
0.125 40
0.25 40
0.375 40
0.5 40
0.625 40
0.75 40
1 40
1.25 40
1.5 40
2 40
2.5 40
0 45
0.125 45
0.25 45
0.375 45
0.5 45
0.625 45
0.75 45
1 45
1.25 45
1.5 45
2 45
2.5 45
0 50
0.125 50
0.25 50
0.375 50
0.5 50
0.625 50
0.75 50
1 50
1.25 50
1.5 50
2 50
2.5 50
0 55
0.125 55
0.25 55
0.375 55
0.5 55
0.625 55
0.75 55
1 55
1.25 55
1.5 55
2 55
2.5 55
337.2 69.6 303.5 66.2 386.7 74.4 351.5 70.8 316.4 67.2
183.2 76.8 164.9 72.6 217.4 81.3 197.6 77.1 177.9 72.9
126.5 79.4 113.8 75.0 151.9 84.0 138.1 79.6 124.3 75.1
97.0 80.8 87.3 76.2 117.2 85.5 106.5 80.9 95.9 76.3
78.9 81.6 71.0 77.0 95.6 86.4 86.9 81.7 78.2 77.0
66.6 82.2 60.0 77.5 80.9 87.0 73.6 82.2 66.2 77.5
57.8 82.6 52.0 77.9 70.3 87.4 63.9 82.6 57.5 77.9
45.9 83.2 41.3 78.4 55.9 88.0 50.8 83.2 45.8 78.4
38.3 83.5 34.5 78.7 46.7 88.4 42.4 83.5 38.2 78.7
33.0 83.8 29.7 78.9 40.2 88.6 36.5 83.8 32.9 78.9
26.1 84.1 23.5 79.2 31.7 89.0 28.8 84.1 25.9 79.2
21.7 84.3 19.6 79.3 26.4 89.2 24.0 84.3 21.6 79.3
303.5 71.2 269.8 67.7 351.5 75.8 316.4 72.2 281.2 68.6
164.9 77.6 146.6 73.4 197.6 82.1 177.9 77.9 158.1 73.7
113.8 80.0 101.2 75.6 138.1 84.6 124.3 80.1 110.5 75.7
87.3 81.2 77.6 76.6 106.5 85.9 95.9 81.3 85.2 76.7
71.0 82.0 63.1 77.3 86.9 86.7 78.2 82.0 69.5 77.4
60.0 82.5 53.3 77.8 73.6 87.2 66.2 82.5 58.9 77.8
52.0 82.9 46.3 78.1 63.9 87.6 57.5 82.9 51.1 78.1
41.3 83.4 36.8 78.5 50.8 88.2 45.8 83.4 40.7 78.5
34.5 83.7 30.6 78.8 42.4 88.5 38.2 83.7 33.9 78.8
29.7 83.9 26.4 79.0 36.5 88.8 32.9 83.9 29.2 79.0
23.5 84.2 20.9 79.3 28.8 89.1 25.9 84.2 23.1 79.3
19.6 84.3 17.4 79.4 24.0 89.3 21.6 84.3 19.2 79.4
269.8 72.7 236.0 69.3 316.4 77.2 281.2 73.6 246.1 70.1
146.6 78.4 128.3 74.3 177.9 82.9 158.1 78.7 138.3 74.5
101.2 80.6 88.5 76.1 124.3 85.1 110.5 80.7 96.7 76.2
77.6 81.6 67.9 77.1 95.9 86.3 85.2 81.7 74.6 77.1
63.1 82.3 55.2 77.7 78.2 87.0 69.5 82.4 60.8 77.7
53.3 82.8 46.6 78.1 66.2 87.5 58.9 82.8 51.5 78.1
46.3 83.1 40.5 78.3 57.5 87.9 51.1 83.1 44.7 78.4
36.8 83.5 32.2 78.7 45.8 88.4 40.7 83.5 35.6 78.7
30.6 83.8 26.8 79 38.2 88.7 33.9 83.8 29.7 79.0
26.4 84.0 23.1 79.1 32.9 88.9 29.2 84.0 25.6 79.1
20.9 84.3 18.2 79.4 25.9 89.2 23.1 84.3 20.2 79.3
17.4 84.4 15.2 79.5 21.6 89.3 19.2 84.4 16.8 79.5
236.0 74.3 202.3 70.8 281.2 78.6 246.1 75.1 210.9 71.5
128.3 79.3 109.9 75.1 158.1 83.7 138.3 79.5 118.6 75.3
88.5 81.0 75.9 76.7 110.5 85.7 96.7 81.2 82.9 76.8
67.9 82.1 58.2 77.5 85.2 86.7 74.6 82.1 63.9 77.5
55.2 82.7 47.3 78.0 69.5 87.4 60.8 82.7 52.2 78.0
46.6 83.1 40.0 78.3 58.9 87.8 51.5 83.1 44.2 78.3
40.5 83.3 34.7 78.6 51.1 88.1 44.7 83.4 38.4 78.6
32.2 83.7 27.6 78.9 40.7 88.5 35.6 83.7 30.5 78.9
26.8 84.0 23.0 79.1 33.9 88.8 29.7 84.0 25.4 79.1
23.1 84.1 19.8 79.3 29.2 89.0 25.6 84.1 21.9 79.3
18.2 84.4 15.6 79.4 23.1 89.3 20.2 84.3 17.3 79.4
15.2 84.5 13.0 79.6 19.2 89.4 16.8 84.5 14.4 79.6
202.3 75.8 168.6 72.3 246.1 80.1 210.9 76.5 175.8 72.9
109.9 80.1 91.6 75.9 138.3 84.5 118.6 80.3 98.8 76.1
75.9 81.7 63.2 77.2 96.7 86.2 82.9 81.8 69.0 77.3
58.2 82.5 48.5 77.9 74.6 87.1 63.9 82.5 53.3 77.9
47.3 83.0 39.4 78.3 60.8 87.7 52.2 83.0 43.5 78.3
40.0 83.3 33.3 78.6 51.5 88.1 44.2 83.3 36.8 78.6
34.7 83.6 28.9 78.8 44.7 88.4 38.4 83.6 32.0 78.8
27.6 83.9 23.0 79.1 35.6 88.7 30.5 83.9 25.4 79.1
23.0 84.1 19.2 79.3 29.7 89.0 25.4 84.1 21.2 79.3
19.8 84.3 16.5 79.4 25.6 89.1 21.9 84.3 18.3 79.4
15.6 84.4 13.0 79.5 20.2 89.3 17.3 84.4 14.4 79.5
13.0 84.6 10.9 79.6 16.8 89.5 14.4 84.6 12.0 79.6
358.0 71.6 325.4 68.3 292.9 65.0 370.9 73.1
187.2 80.6 170.2 76.4 153.2 72.3 201.6 81.0
127.5 83.7 115.9 79.3 104.3 74.9 139.1 83.9
97.2 85.3 88.3 80.7 79.5 76.2 106.7 85.4
78.7 86.3 71.6 81.6 64.4 76.9 86.8 86.3
66.4 86.9 60.4 82.2 54.3 77.5 73.3 86.9
57.5 87.4 52.3 82.6 47.1 77.8 63.6 87.4
45.7 88.0 41.5 83.2 37.4 78.3 50.5 88.0
38.1 88.4 34.6 83.5 31.2 78.7 42.1 88.4
32.8 88.6 29.8 83.8 26.8 78.9 36.3 88.6
26.0 89.0 23.6 84.1 21.2 79.2 28.7 89.0
21.7 89.2 19.7 84.3 17.7 79.4 23.9 89.2
325.4 73.3 292.9 70.0 260.3 66.6 337.2 74.6
170.2 81.4 153.2 77.3 136.1 73.2 183.2 81.8
115.9 84.3 104.3 79.9 92.7 75.4 126.5 84.4
88.3 85.7 79.5 81.2 70.7 76.6 97.0 85.8
71.6 86.6 64.4 81.9 57.3 77.3 78.9 86.6
60.4 87.2 54.3 82.5 48.3 77.7 66.6 87.2
52.3 87.6 47.1 82.8 41.8 78.1 57.8 87.6
41.5 88.2 37.4 83.3 33.2 78.5 45.9 88.2
34.6 88.5 31.2 83.7 27.7 78.8 38.3 88.5
29.8 88.8 26.8 83.9 23.9 79.0 33.0 88.8
23.6 89.1 21.2 84.2 18.9 79.3 26.1 89.1
19.7 89.3 17.7 84.4 15.8 79.4 21.7 89.3
292.9 75.0 260.3 71.6 227.8 68.3 303.5 76.2
153.2 82.3 136.1 78.2 119.1 74.0 164.9 82.6
104.3 84.9 92.7 80.4 81.2 76.0 113.8 85.0
79.5 86.2 70.7 81.6 61.8 77.0 87.3 86.2
64.4 86.9 57.3 82.3 50.1 77.6 71.0 87.0
54.3 87.5 48.3 82.7 42.3 78.0 60.0 87.5
47.1 87.8 41.8 83.1 36.6 78.3 52.0 87.9
37.4 88.3 33.2 83.5 29.1 78.7 41.3 88.4
31.2 88.7 27.7 83.8 24.2 79.0 34.5 88.7
26.8 88.9 23.9 84.0 20.9 79.1 29.7 88.9
21.2 89.2 18.9 84.3 16.5 79.4 23.5 89.2
17.7 89.4 15.8 84.4 13.8 79.5 19.6 89.3
260.3 76.6 227.8 73.3 195.3 70.0 269.8 77.7
136.1 83.2 119.1 79.0 102.1 74.9 146.6 83.4
92.7 85.4 81.2 81.0 69.6 76.6 101.2 85.6
70.7 86.6 61.8 82.0 53.0 77.4 77.6 86.6
57.3 87.3 50.1 82.6 43.0 78.0 63.1 87.3
48.3 87.7 42.3 83.0 36.2 78.3 53.3 87.8
41.8 88.1 36.6 83.3 31.4 78.6 46.3 88.1
33.2 88.5 29.1 83.7 24.9 78.9 36.8 88.5
27.7 88.8 24.2 84.0 20.8 79.1 30.6 88.8
23.9 89.0 20.9 84.1 17.9 79.3 26.4 89.0
18.9 89.3 16.5 84.4 14.2 79.4 20.9 89.3
15.8 89.4 13.8 84.5 11.8 79.6 17.4 89.4
227.8 78.3 195.3 75.0 162.7 71.6 236.0 79.3
119.1 84.0 102.1 79.9 85.1 75.7 128.3 84.3
81.2 86.0 69.6 81.6 58.0 77.1 88.5 86.1
61.8 87.0 53.0 82.4 44.2 77.9 67.9 87.1
50.1 87.6 43.0 83.0 35.8 78.3 55.2 87.7
42.3 88.0 36.2 83.3 30.2 78.6 46.6 88.1
36.6 88.3 31.4 83.6 26.2 78.8 40.5 88.3
29.1 88.7 24.9 83.9 20.8 79.1 32.2 88.7
24.2 89.0 20.8 84.1 17.3 79.3 26.8 89.0
20.9 89.1 17.9 84.3 14.9 79.4 23.1 89.1
16.5 89.4 14.2 84.4 11.8 79.5 18.2 89.4
13.8 89.5 11.8 84.6 9.9 79.6 15.2 89.5
Table App. A-46. Heat Gain Values for Pro 45 in Moving Air Conditions (continued)
Fluid Temp = temperature of the chilled water (F).
Heat Gain (Btu per linear foot of pipe) calculated from Equation C-67.
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. A-38
APPENDIX A
A
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GENERAL ENGINEERING
TABLES
Contents
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-1
Appendix B
Prism Load Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .App. B-2
Marston Soil Load Values . . . . . . . . . . . App. B-3
E’ Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. B-11
Bedding Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . App. B-11
B
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A
BURIAL DATAAPPENDIX B
B-2
3 100 19.8 24.5 31.5 39.5 49.3 62.0 73.7 88.5
3 110 21.7 27.0 34.7 43.5 54.2 68.2 81.1 97.4
3 120 23.7 29.4 37.8 47.4 59.1 74.4 88.5 106.2
3 125 24.7 30.6 39.4 49.4 61.6 77.5 92.2 110.6
3 130 25.7 31.9 41.0 51.4 64.0 80.6 95.9 115.1
4 100 26.3 32.7 42.0 52.7 65.7 82.7 98.3 118.0
4 110 29.0 35.9 46.2 57.9 72.2 90.9 108.2 129.8
4 120 31.6 39.2 50.4 63.2 78.8 99.2 118.0 141.6
4 125 32.9 40.8 52.5 65.8 82.1 103.3 122.9 147.5
4 130 34.2 42.5 54.6 68.5 85.4 107.5 127.8 153.4
5 100 32.9 40.8 52.5 65.8 82.1 103.3 122.9 147.5
5 110 36.2 44.9 57.8 72.4 90.3 113.7 135.2 162.3
5 120 39.5 49.0 63.0 79.0 98.5 124.0 147.5 177.0
5 125 41.1 51.0 65.6 82.3 102.6 129.2 153.6 184.4
5 130 42.8 53.1 68.3 85.6 106.7 134.3 159.8 191.8
6 100 39.5 49.0 63.0 79.0 98.5 124.0 147.5 177.0
6 110 43.4 53.9 69.3 86.9 108.3 136.4 162.2 194.7
6 120 47.4 58.8 75.6 94.8 118.2 148.8 177.0 212.4
6 125 49.4 61.2 78.8 98.7 123.1 155.0 184.4 221.3
6 130 51.3 63.7 81.9 102.7 128.0 161.2 191.7 230.1
7 100 46.1 57.2 73.5 92.2 114.9 144.7 172.1 206.5
7 110 50.7 62.9 80.9 101.4 126.4 159.1 189.3 227.2
7 120 55.3 68.6 88.2 110.6 137.9 173.6 206.5 247.8
7 125 57.6 71.5 91.9 115.2 143.6 180.8 215.1 258.1
7 130 59.9 74.3 95.6 119.8 149.4 188.1 223.7 268.5
8 100 52.7 65.3 84.0 105.3 131.3 165.3 196.7 236.0
8 110 57.9 71.9 92.4 115.9 144.5 181.9 216.3 259.6
8 120 63.2 78.4 100.8 126.4 157.6 198.4 236.0 283.2
8 125 65.8 81.7 105.0 131.7 164.2 206.7 245.8 295.0
8 130 68.5 84.9 109.2 136.9 170.7 214.9 255.7 306.8
9 100 59.2 73.5 94.5 118.5 147.7 186.0 221.2 265.5
9 110 65.2 80.8 104.0 130.3 182.5 204.6 243.4 292.1
9 120 71.1 88.2 113.4 142.2 177.3 223.2 265.5 318.6
9 125 74.1 91.9 118.1 148.1 184.7 232.5 276.6 331.9
9 130 77.0 95.5 122.9 154.0 192.1 241.8 287.6 345.2
10 100 65.8 81.7 105.0 131.7 164.2 206.7 245.8 295.0
10 110 72.4 89.8 115.5 144.8 180.6 227.3 270.4 324.5
10 120 79.0 98.0 126.0 158.0 197.0 248.0 295.0 354.0
10 125 82.3 102.1 131.3 164.6 205.2 258.3 307.3 368.8
10 130 85.6 106.2 136.5 171.2 213.4 268.7 319.6 333.5
15 100 98.7 122.5 157.5 197.5 246.2 310.0 368.7 442.5
15 110 108.6 134.7 173.3 217.2 270.9 341.0 405.6 486.8
15 120 118.5 147.0 189.0 237.0 295.5 372.0 442.5 531.0
15 125 123.4 153.1 198.9 246.9 307.8 387.5 460.9 553.1
15 130 128.4 159.2 204.8 256.7 320.1 403.0 479.4 575.3
20 100 131.7 163.3 210.0 263.3 328.3 413.3 491.7 590.0
20 110 144.8 179.7 231.0 289.7 361.2 454.7 540.8 649.0
20 120 158.0 196.0 252.0 316.0 394.0 496.0 590.0 708.0
20 125 164.6 204.2 262.5 329.2 410.4 516.7 614.6 737.5
20 130 171.2 212.3 273.0 342.3 426.8 537.3 639.2 767.0
30 100 197.5 245.0 315.0 395.0 492.5 620.0 737.5 885.0
30 110 217.2 269.5 346.5 434.5 541.7 682.0 811.2 973.5
30 120 237.0 294.0 378.0 474.0 591.0 744.0 885.0 1062.0
30 125 246.9 306.2 393.8 493.7 615.6 775.0 921.9 1106.3
30 130 256.7 318.5 409.5 513.5 640.2 806.0 958.7 1150.5
50 100 329.2 408.3 525.0 658.3 820.8 1033.3 1229.2 1475.0
50 110 362.1 449.2 577.5 724.2 902.9 1136.7 1352.1 1622.5
50 120 395.0 490.0 630.0 790.0 985.0 1240.0 1475.0 1770.0
50 125 411.5 510.4 656.3 822.9 1026.0 1291.7 1536.5 1843.8
50 130 427.9 530.8 682.5 855.8 1067.1 1343.3 1597.9 1917.5
108.3 157.3 1 96.8 246.0 310.0 349.5 393.8 443 492.2 620.0
119.1 173.0 216.4 270.6 341.0 384.5 433.1 487.3 541.5 682.0
129.9 188.7 236.1 295.2 372.0 419.4 472.5 531.6 590.7 744.0
135.3 196.6 245.9 307.5 387.5 436.9 492.2 553.8 615.3 775.0
140.7 204.4 255.8 319.8 403.0 454.4 511.9 575.9 639.9 806.0
144.3 209.7 262.3 328.0 413.3 466.0 525.0 590.7 656.3 826.7
158.8 230.6 288.6 360.8 454.7 512.6 577.5 649.7 722.0 909.3
173.2 251.6 314.8 393.6 496.0 559.2 630.0 708.8 787.6 992.0
180.4 262.1 327.9 410.0 516.7 582.5 656.3 736.3 820.4 1033.3
187.6 272.6 341.0 426.4 537.3 605.8 682.5 767.9 853.2 1074.7
180.4 262.1 327.9 410.0 516.7 582.5 656.3 738.3 820.4 1033.3
198.5 288.3 360.7 451.0 568.3 640.8 721.9 812.2 902.5 1136.7
216.5 314.5 393.5 492.0 620.0 699.0 787.5 886.0 984.5 1240.0
225.5 327.6 409.9 512.5 645.8 728.1 820.3 922.9 1025.5 1291.7
234.5 340.7 426.3 533.0 671.7 757.3 853.1 959.8 1066.5 1343.3
216.5 314.5 393.5 492.0 620.0 699.0 787.5 886.0 984.5 1240.0
238.1 345.9 432.8 541.2 682.0 768.9 866.3 974.6 1082.9 1364.0
259.8 377.4 472.2 590.4 744.0 838.8 945.0 1063.2 1181.4 1488.0
270.6 393.1 491.9 615.0 775.0 873.8 984.4 1107.5 1230.6 1550.0
281.4 408.8 511.5 639.6 806.0 908.7 1023.8 1151.8 1279.8 1612.0
252.6 366.9 459.1 574.0 723.3 815.5 918.8 1033.7 1148.6 1446.7
277.8 403.6 505.0 631.4 795.7 897.1 1010.6 1137.0 1263.4 1591.3
303.1 440.3 550.9 688.8 868.0 978.6 1102.5 1240.4 1378.3 1736.0
315.7 458.6 573.9 717.5 904.2 1019.4 1148.4 1292.1 1435.7 1808.3
328.4 477.0 596.8 746.2 940.3 1060.2 1194.4 1343.8 1493.2 1880.7
288.7 419.3 524.7 656.0 826.7 932.0 1050.0 1181.3 1312.7 1653.3
317.5 461.3 577.1 721.6 909.3 1025.2 1155.0 1299.5 1443.9 1818.7
346.4 503.2 629.6 787.2 992.0 1118.4 1260.0 1417.6 1575.2 1984.0
360.8 524.2 655.8 820.0 1033.3 1165.0 1312.5 1476.7 1640.8 2066.7
375.3 545.1 682.1 852.8 1074.7 1211.6 1365.0 1535.7 1706.5 2149.3
324.7 471.7 590.2 738.0 930.0 1048.5 1181.3 1329.0 1476.7 1860.0
357.2 518.9 649.3 811.8 1023.0 1153.4 1299.4 1461.9 1624.4 2046.0
369.7 566.1 708.3 885.6 1116.0 1258.2 1417.5 1594.8 1772.1 2232.0
405.9 589.7 737.8 922.5 1162.5 1310.6 1476.6 1661.2 845.9 2325.0
422.2 613.3 767.3 959.4 1209.0 1363.1 1535.6 1727.7 1919.8 2418.0
360.8 524.2 655.8 820.0 1033.3 1165.0 1312.5 1476.7 1640.8 2066.7
396.9 576.6 721.4 902.0 1136.7 1281.5 1443.8 1624.3 1804.9 2273.3
433.0 629.0 787.0 984.0 1240.0 1398.0 1575.0 1772.0 1969.0 2480.0
451.0 655.2 819.8 1025.0 1291.7 1458.3 1640.6 1845.8 2051.0 2583.3
469.1 681.4 852.6 1066.0 1343.3 1514.5 1706.3 1919.7 2133.1 2686.7
541.2 786.2 983.7 1230.0 1550.0 1747.5 1968.8 2215.0 2461.2 3100.0
595.4 864.9 1082.1 1353.0 1705.0 1922.3 2165.6 2436.5 2707.4 3410.0
649.5 943.5 1180.5 1478.0 1860.0 2097.0 2362.5 2658.0 2953.5 3720.0
676.6 982.8 1229.7 1537.5 1937.5 2184.4 2460.9 2768.7 3076.6 3875.0
703.6 1022.1 1278.9 1599.0 2015.0 2271.8 2559.4 2879.5 3199.6 4030.0
721.7 1048.3 1311.7 1640.0 2066.7 2330.0 2625.0 2953.3 3281.7 4133.3
793.8 1153.2 1442.8 1804.0 2273.3 2563.0 2887.5 3248.7 3609.8 4546.7
866.0 1258.0 1574.0 1968.0 2480.0 2796.0 3150.0 3544.0 3938.0 4960.0
902.1 1310.4 1639.6 2050.0 2583.3 2912.5 3281.3 3691.7 4102.1 5166.7
938.2 1362.8 1705.2 2132.0 2686.7 3029.0 3412.5 3839.3 4266.2 5373.3
1082.5 1572.5 1967.5 2460.0 3100.0 3495.0 3937.5 4430.0 4922.5 6200.0
1190.7 1729.7 2164.2 2706.0 3410.0 3844.5 4331.3 4873.0 5414.7 6820.0
1299.0 1887.0 2361.0 2952.0 3720.0 4194.0 4725.0 5316.0 5907.0 7440.0
1353.1 1965.6 2459.4 3075.0 3875.0 4368.8 4921.9 5537.5 8153.1 7750.0
1407.2 2044.2 2557.7 3198.0 4030.0 4543.5 511 8.8 5759.0 6399.2 8060.0
1804.2 2620.8 3279.2 4100.0 5166.7 5825.0 6562.5 7383.3 8204.2 10333.3
1964.6 2882.9 3607.1 4510.0 5683.3 6407.5 7218.8 8121.7 9024.6 11366.7
2165.0 3145.0 3935.0 4920.0 6200.0 6990.0 7875.0 8860.0 9845.0 12400.0
2255.2 3276.0 4099.0 5125.0 6458.3 7281.3 8203.1 9229.2 10255.2 12916.7
2345.4 3407.1 4262.9 5330.0 6716.7 7572.5 8531.3 9598.3 10665.4 13433.3
Height Soil Wt Nom. O.D. 0.50 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3
(feet) (lb/ft3) Act. O.D. 0.79 0.98 1.26 1.58 1.97 2.48 2.95 3.54
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
4.33 6.29 7.87 9.84 12.4 13.98 15.75 17.72 19.69 24.8
Table B-1. Prism Load Values for Asahi/Americ Pipe
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-3
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX B
B
9.4 12.6 14.7 19.6 20.1 21.2 21.6
11.7 14.8 17.1 21.6 22.9 23.4 23.8
13.7 17.6 19.6 24.5 25.3 26.3 27
15.3 19.1 21.4 25.5 27.6 28.6 28.6
18 21.5 23.4 27.6 29.3 30.2 30.8
10.2 14.1 16.7 22.9 24.5 26.8 27.8
12.6 16.8 19.8 26.1 27 29.8 31
14.9 19.8 22.5 29.4 35.3 33.7 34.3
17.4 22.2 25.5 32.7 36.8 36.7 37.3
19.9 24.7 28.7 35 38.2 39.1 39.8
10.4 14.7 18.4 27.8 30.6 31 33.5
13.3 18.2 22 30.5 35 35.9 38.2
15.7 21.3 26 34.3 38.2 39.2 42.1
18.9 24.5 28.6 36.7 42.9 44.9 45.7
21.2 28.3 31.9 40.3 43 48.8 48.8
10.6 15.3 18.8 28.6 34.3 39.2 35.9
13.5 18.9 23.4 34.1 39.1 43.1 40.4
16.2 22.4 27.4 39.2 44.1 49 46.6
19.4 26 30.6 42.9 49 51 51
22.3 29.5 36.1 46.7 54.1 55.2 55.7
10.6 15.6 20.4 33.5 39.2 45.7 49
13.5 19.9 25.2 39.5 47.2 52.1 53.9
16.2 24.3 29.9 45.1 52.9 58.8 61.3
19.9 28.7 34.7 51 55.1 65.3 66.4
23.6 32.2 40.3 57.3 63.7 72.2 74.3
10.6 15.9 20.8 36.8 45.3 55.5 57.2
13.5 20.2 26.1 44 53.9 61.1 65.1
16.2 24.3 31.4 51.9 63.2 68.6 73.5
19.9 29.1 37.8 57.2 67.4 73.5 80.6
23.9 35.4 42.5 63.7 73.3 80.7 90.2
10.6 15.9 21.2 40 55.1 63.7 63.3
13.5 20.2 27 49.4 60.6 79.1 83.1
16.2 24.3 32.3 58.8 79.4 90.2 98
19.9 29.9 39.3 67.4 85.7 98 107.2
23.9 35.8 47.8 79.6 95.6 106.2 116.8
10.6 15.9 21.2 41.7 58.8 73.5 83.7
13.5 20.2 27 52.1 72.8 88 101.1
16.2 24.3 32.3 62.7 85.3 103.9 112.7
19.9 29.9 39.8 75.5 98 114.3 127.6
23.9 35.8 47.8 84.9 113.1 127.4 143.3
10.6 15.9 21.2 42.5 61.3 76.8 91.9
13.5 20.2 27 53.9 75.5 93.4 110
16.2 24.3 32.3 63.7 89.7 109.8 129.9
19.9 29.9 39.8 77.6 107.2 126.6 142.9
23.9 35.8 47.8 91.3 124.2 146.5 159.3
10.6 15.9 21.2 42.5 62.5 80 96
13.5 20.2 27 53.9 78.2 98.8 116.8
16.2 24.3 32.3 64.7 94.1 117.6 137.2
19.9 29.9 39.8 78.6 113.3 134.8 155.7
23.9 35.8 47.8 93.4 127.4 159.3 180.5
10.6 15.9 21.2 42.5 63.7 83.3 102.1
13.5 20.2 27 53.9 80.9 104.2 125.8
16.2 24.3 32.3 64.7 97 125.4 149.5
19.9 29.9 39.8 79.6 116.4 151.1 178.6
23.9 35.8 47.8 95.6 141.7 169.9 201.7
10.6 15.9 21.2 42.5 63.7 84.9 104.1
13.5 20.2 27 53.9 80.9 107.8 130.3
16.2 24.3 32.3 64.7 97 127.4 156.8
19.9 29.9 39.8 79.6 119.4 157.2 188.9
23.9 35.8 47.8 95.6 143.3 182.6 212.3
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 7.6 10.1 11.8 15.8 16.2 17.1 17.4
3 sand and gravel 110 9.4 11.9 13.8 17.4 18.5 18.8 19.2
3 saturated top soil 120 11.1 14.2 15.8 19.7 20.4 21.2 21.7
3 dry clay 125 12.3 15.4 17.3 20.6 22.2 23 23
3 saturated clay 130 14.5 17.3 18.8 22.3 23.6 24.3 24.8
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.2 11.4 13.5 18.4 19.7 21.6 22.4
4 sand and gravel 110 10.1 13.6 15.9 21 21.7 24 25
4 saturated top soil 120 12 16 18.2 23.7 28.4 27.2 27.6
4 dry clay 125 14 17.9 20.6 26.3 29.6 29.6 30
4 saturated clay 130 16 19.9 23.1 28.2 30.8 31.5 32.1
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.4 11.8 14.8 22.4 24.7 25 27
5 sand and gravel 110 10.7 14.7 17.7 24.6 28.2 29 30.8
5 saturated top soil 120 12.6 17.2 20.9 27.6 30.8 31.6 34
5 dry clay 125 15.2 19.7 23 29.6 34.6 36.2 36.8
5 saturated clay 130 17.1 22.8 25.7 32.5 34.7 39.4 39.4
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.3 15.1 23 27.6 31.6 29
6 sand and gravel 110 10.9 15.2 18.8 27.5 31.5 34.8 32.6
6 saturated top soil 120 13 18.1 22.1 31.6 35.5 39.5 37.5
6 dry clay 125 15.6 21 24.7 34.6 39.5 41.1 41.1
6 saturated clay 130 18 23.7 29.1 37.7 43.6 44.5 44.9
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.6 16.5 27 31.6 36.9 39.5
8 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16 20.3 31.9 38 42 43.4
8 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 24.1 36.3 42.7 47.4 49.4
8 dry clay 125 16 23.1 28 41.1 44.4 52.7 53.5
8 saturated clay 130 19 26 32.5 46.2 51.3 58.2 59.9
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 16.8 29.6 36.5 44.8 46.1
10 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21 35.5 43.4 49.2 52.5
10 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 25.3 41.9 51 55.3 59.2
10 dry clay 125 16 23.5 30.4 46.1 54.3 59.2 65
10 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.6 34.2 51.3 59 65 72.7
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 32.3 44.4 51.3 51
15 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 39.8 48.9 63.7 67
15 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 47.4 64 72.7 79
15 dry clay 125 16 24.1 31.7 54.3 69.1 79 86.4
15 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 64.2 77 85.6 94.1
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 33.6 47.4 59.2 67.5
20 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 42 58.7 71 81.5
20 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 50.6 68.7 83.7 90.8
20 dry clay 125 16 24.1 32.1 60.9 79 92.2 102.9
20 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 68.5 91.1 102.7 115.5
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 34.2 49.4 61.9 74.1
25 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 43.4 60.8 75.3 88.7
25 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 51.3 72.3 88.5 104.7
25 dry clay 125 16 24.1 32.1 62.5 86.4 102 115.2
25 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 73.6 100.1 118.1 128.4
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 34.2 50.4 64.5 77.4
30 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 43.4 63 79.7 94.1
30 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 52.1 75.8 94.8 110.6
30 dry clay 125 16 24.1 32.1 63.4 91.3 108.6 125.5
30 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 75.3 102.7 128.4 145.5
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 34.2 51.3 67.1 82.3
40 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 43.4 65.2 84 101.4
40 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 52.1 78.2 101.1 120.5
40 dry clay 125 16 24.1 32.1 64.2 93.8 121.8 144
40 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 77 114.2 136.9 162.6
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 8.6 12.8 17.1 34.2 51.3 68.5 83.9
50 sand and gravel 110 10.9 16.3 21.7 43.4 65.2 86.9 105
50 saturated top soil 120 13 19.6 26.1 52.1 78.2 102.7 126.4
50 dry clay 125 16 24.1 32.1 64.2 96.3 126.7 152.2
50 saturated clay 130 19.3 28.9 38.5 77 115.5 147.2 171.2
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 0.5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 0.5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 0.75 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 0.5 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. B-4
BURIAL DATAAPPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 12.1 16.1 18.9 25.2 25.8 27.3 27.8
3 sand and gravel 110 15 19.1 21.9 27.7 29.5 30 30.6
3 saturated top soil 120 17.6 22.7 25.2 31.5 32.5 33.8 34.7
3 dry clay 125 19.7 24.6 27.6 32.8 35.4 36.8 36.8
3 saturated clay 130 23.2 27.6 30 35.5 37.7 38.8 39.6
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.1 18.1 21.5 29.4 31.5 34.4 35.7
4 sand and gravel 110 16.2 21.7 25.4 33.5 34.7 38.3 39.8
4 saturated top soil 120 19.2 25.5 29 37.8 45.4 43.3 44.1
4 dry clay 125 22.3 28.5 32.8 42 47.3 47.3 47.9
4 saturated clay 130 25.6 31.7 36.9 45 49.1 50.2 51.2
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.4 18.9 23.6 35.7 39.4 39.9 43.1
5 sand and gravel 110 17 23.4 28.3 39.3 45 46.2 49.1
5 saturated top soil 120 20.2 27.4 33.4 44.1 49.1 50.4 54.2
5 dry clay 125 24.3 31.5 36.8 47.3 55.1 57.8 58.7
5 saturated clay 130 27.3 36.3 41 51.9 55.3 62.8 62.8
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 19.7 24.2 36.8 44.1 50.4 46.2
6 sand and gravel 110 17.3 24.3 30 43.9 50.2 55.4 52
6 saturated top soil 120 20.8 28.8 35.3 50.4 56.7 63 59.9
6 dry clay 125 24.9 33.5 39.4 55.1 63 65.6 65.6
6 saturated clay 130 28.7 37.9 46.4 60.1 69.6 71 71.7
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.1 26.3 43.1 50.4 58.8 63
8 sand and gravel 110 17.3 25.6 32.3 50.8 60.6 67 69.3
8 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 38.4 58 68 75.6 78.8
8 dry clay 125 25.6 36.9 44.6 65.6 70.9 84 85.3
8 saturated clay 130 30.4 41.5 51.9 73.7 81.9 92.8 95.6
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 26.8 47.3 58.3 71.4 73.5
10 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 33.5 56.6 69.3 78.5 83.7
10 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 40.3 66.8 81.3 88.2 94.5
10 dry clay 125 25.6 37.4 48.6 73.5 86.6 94.5 103.7
10 saturated clay 130 30.7 45.6 54.6 81.9 94.2 103.7 116
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 51.5 70.9 81.9 81.4
15 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 63.5 78 101.6 106.8
15 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 75.6 102.1 115.9 126
15 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 50.5 86.6 110.3 126 137.8
15 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 102.4 122.9 136.5 150.2
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 53.6 75.6 94.5 107.6
20 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 67 93.6 113.2 129.9
20 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 80.6 109.6 133.6 144.9
20 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 51.2 97.1 126 147 164.1
20 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 109.2 145.4 163.8 184.3
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 54.6 78.8 98.7 118.1
25 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 69.3 97 120.1 141.5
25 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 81.9 115.3 141.1 167
25 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 51.2 99.8 137.8 162.8 183.8
25 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 117.4 159.7 188.4 204.8
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 54.6 80.3 102.9 123.4
30 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 69.3 100.5 127.1 150.2
30 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 83.2 121 151.2 176.4
30 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 51.2 101.1 145.7 173.3 200.2
30 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 120.1 163.8 204.8 232.1
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 54.6 81.9 107.1 131.3
40 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 69.3 104 134 161.7
40 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 83.2 124.7 161.3 192.2
40 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 51.2 102.4 149.6 194.3 229.7
40 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 122.9 182.2 218.4 259.4
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 13.7 20.5 27.3 54.6 81.9 109.2 133.9
50 sand and gravel 110 17.3 26 34.7 69.3 104 138.6 167.5
50 saturated top soil 120 20.8 31.2 41.6 83.2 124.7 163.8 201.6
50 dry clay 125 25.6 38.4 51.2 102.4 153.6 202.1 242.8
50 saturated clay 130 30.7 46.1 61.4 122.9 184.3 234.8 273
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 0.5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 0.5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 1.25 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 1 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
15.1 20.2 23.7 31.6 32.4 34.2 34.9
18.8 23.9 27.5 34.8 36.9 37.7 38.4
22.1 28.4 31.6 39.5 40.8 42.3 43.5
24.7 30.9 34.6 41.1 44.4 46.1 46.1
29.1 34.7 37.7 44.5 47.2 48.6 49.6
16.5 22.7 27 36.9 39.5 43.2 44.8
20.3 27.2 31.9 42 43.5 48.1 50
24.1 32 36.3 47.4 56.9 54.4 55.3
28 35.8 41.1 52.7 59.3 59.3 60.1
32.1 39.8 46.2 56.5 61.6 63 64.2
16.8 23.7 29.6 44.8 49.4 50 54
21.4 29.3 35.5 49.2 56.5 57.9 61.6
25.3 34.4 41.9 55.3 61.6 63.2 67.9
30.4 39.5 46.1 59.3 69.1 72.4 73.7
34.2 45.6 51.4 65 69.3 78.7 78.7
17.1 24.7 30.3 46.1 55.3 63.2 57.9
21.7 30.4 37.7 55 63 69.5 65.2
26.1 36.1 44.2 63.2 71.1 79 75.1
31.3 42 49.4 69.1 79 82.3 82.3
35.9 47.5 58.2 75.3 87.3 89 89.9
17.1 25.2 32.9 54 63.2 73.7 79
21.7 32 40.6 63.7 76 84 86.9
26.1 39.1 48.2 72.7 85.3 94.8 98.8
32.1 46.3 56 82.3 88.9 105.3 107
38.1 52 65 92.4 102.7 116.4 119.8
17.1 25.7 33.6 59.3 73.1 89.5 92.2
21.7 32.6 42 71 86.9 98.5 105
26.1 39.1 50.6 83.7 101.9 110.6 118.5
32.1 46.9 60.9 92.2 108.6 118.5 130
38.5 57.1 68.5 102.7 118.1 130.1 145.5
17.1 25.7 34.2 64.5 88.9 102.7 102
21.7 32.6 43.5 79.7 97.8 127.5 134
26.1 39.1 52.1 94.8 128 145.4 158
32.1 48.1 63.4 108.6 138.3 158 172.8
38.5 57.8 77 128.4 154.1 171.2 188.3
17.1 25.7 34.2 67.2 94.8 118.5 135
21.7 32.6 43.5 84 117.3 141.9 162.9
26.1 39.1 52.1 101.1 137.5 167.5 181.7
32.1 48.1 64.2 121.8 158 184.3 205.7
38.5 57.8 77 136.9 182.3 205.4 231.1
17.1 25.7 34.2 68.5 98.8 123.8 148.1
21.7 32.6 43.5 86.9 121.7 150.6 177.4
26.1 39.1 52.1 102.7 144.6 177 209.4
32.1 48.1 64.2 125.1 172.8 204.1 230.4
38.5 57.8 77 147.2 200.3 236.2 256.8
17.1 25.7 34.2 68.5 100.7 129 154.7
21.7 32.6 43.5 86.9 126 159.3 188.3
26.1 39.1 52.1 104.3 151.7 189.6 221.2
32.1 48.1 64.2 126.7 182.7 217.3 251
38.5 57.8 77 150.6 205.4 256.8 291
17.1 25.7 34.2 68.5 102.7 134.3 164.6
21.7 32.6 43.5 86.9 130.4 168 202.8
26.1 39.1 52.1 104.3 156.4 202.2 241
32.1 48.1 64.2 128.4 187.6 243.6 288
38.5 57.8 77 154.1 228.5 273.9 325.2
17.1 25.7 34.2 68.5 102.7 136.9 167.9
21.7 32.6 43.5 86.9 130.4 173.8 210
26.1 39.1 52.1 104.3 156.4 205.4 252.8
32.1 48.1 64.2 128.4 192.6 253.5 304.5
38.5 57.8 77 154.1 231.1 294.4 342.3
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-5
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 18.9 25.2 29.6 39.4 40.4 42.7 43.5
3 sand and gravel 110 23.5 29.8 34.3 43.3 46 47 47.9
3 saturated top soil 120 27.6 35.5 39.4 49.3 50.8 52.8 54.2
3 dry clay 125 30.8 38.5 43.1 51.3 55.4 57.5 57.5
3 saturated clay 130 36.3 43.2 47 55.5 58.9 60.6 61.9
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 20.5 28.3 33.7 46 49.3 53.8 55.8
4 sand and gravel 110 25.3 33.9 39.7 52.4 54.2 60 62.3
4 saturated top soil 120 30 39.9 45.3 59.1 70.9 67.8 69
4 dry clay 125 34.9 44.6 51.3 65.7 73.9 73.9 74.9
4 saturated clay 130 40 49.6 57.6 70.4 76.8 78.5 80
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 20.9 29.6 36.9 55.8 61.6 62.4 67.3
5 sand and gravel 110 26.6 36.6 44.2 61.4 70.4 72.2 76.7
5 saturated top soil 120 31.5 42.8 52.2 69 76.8 78.8 84.7
5 dry clay 125 38 49.3 57.5 73.9 86.2 90.3 91.8
5 satu rated clay 130 42.7 56.8 64 81.1 86.4 98.2 98.2
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 30.8 37.8 57.5 69 78.8 72.2
6 sand and gravel 110 27.1 37.9 47 68.6 78.6 86.7 81.3
6 saturated top soil 120 32.5 45.1 55.2 78.8 88.7 98.5 93.6
6 dry clay 125 39 52.3 61.6 86.2 98.5 102.6 102.6
6 saturated clay 130 44.8 59.2 72.6 93.9 108.8 111 112
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 31.4 41 67.3 78.8 91.9 98.5
8 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40 50.6 79.5 94.8 104.7 108.4
8 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 60.1 90.6 106.4 118.2 123.1
8 dry clay 125 40 57.7 69.8 102.6 110.8 131.3 133.4
8 saturated clay 130 47.5 64.8 81.1 115.2 128.1 145.1 149.4
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 41.9 73.9 91.1 111.6 114.9
10 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 52.4 88.5 108.4 122.8 130.9
10 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 63 104.4 127.1 137.9 147.8
10 dry clay 125 40 58.5 75.9 114.9 135.4 147.8 162.1
10 saturated clay 130 48 71.2 85.4 128.1 147.3 162.2 181.4
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 80.4 110.8 128.1 127.2
15 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 99.3 121.9 158.9 167
15 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 118.2 159.6 181.2 197
15 dry clay 125 40 60 79 135.4 172.4 197 215.5
15 saturated clay 130 48 72 96 160.1 192.1 213.4 234.8
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 83.7 118.2 147.8 168.3
20 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 104.7 146.3 177 203.2
20 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 126.1 171.4 208.8 226.6
20 dry clay 125 40 60 80 151.9 197 229.8 256.5
20 satu rated clay 130 48 72 96 170.7 227.3 256.1 288.1
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 85.4 123.1 154.3 184.7
25 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 108.4 151.7 187.8 221.2
25 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 128.1 180.3 220.6 261
25 dry clay 125 40 60 80 156 215.5 254.5 287.3
25 saturated clay 130 48 72 96 183.5 249.7 294.5 320.1
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 85.4 125.6 160.9 192.9
30 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 108.4 157.1 198.6 234.8
30 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 130 189.1 236.4 275.8
30 dry clay 125 40 60 80 158 227.8 270.9 312.9
30 saturated clay 130 48 72 96 187.8 256.1 320.1 362.8
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 85.4 128.1 167.5 205.2
40 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 108.4 162.5 209.5 252.8
40 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 130 195 252.2 300.4
40 dry clay 125 40 60 80 160.1 233.9 303.7 359.1
40 saturated clay 130 48 72 96 192.1 284.9 341.5 405.5
50 granu lar w/o cohesion 100 21.3 32 42.7 85.4 128.1 170.7 209.3
50 sand and gravel 110 27.1 40.6 54.2 108.4 162.5 216.7 261.8
50 saturated top soil 120 32.5 48.8 65 130 195 256 1 315.2
50 dry clay 125 40 60 80 160.1 240.1 316 379.6
50 saturated clav 130 48 72 96 192.1 288.1 367.1 426.8
31.8 37.2 49.6 50.8 53.7 54.8
37.5 43.2 54.6 58 59.1 60.2
44.6 49.6 62 64 66.5 68.2
48.4 54.3 64.6 69.8 72.3 72.3
54.4 59.1 69.9 74.2 76.3 77.9
35.7 42.4 57.9 62 67.8 70.3
42.6 50 65.9 68.2 75.5 78.4
50.2 57 74.4 89.3 85.3 86.8
56.2 64.6 82.7 93 93 94.3
62.5 72.5 88.7 96.7 98.9 100.8
37.2 46.5 70.3 77.5 78.5 84.7
46 55.7 77.3 88.7 90.9 96.6
53.9 65.7 86.8 96.7 99.2 106.6
62 72.3 93 108.5 113.7 115.6
71.5 80.6 102.1 108.8 123.6 123.6
38.8 47.5 72.3 86.8 99.2 90.9
47.7 59.1 86.4 98.9 109.1 102.3
56.7 69.4 99.2 111.6 124 117.8
65.9 77.5 108.5 124 129.2 129.2
74.6 91.3 118.2 137 139.7 141.1
39.5 51.7 84.7 99.2 115.7 124
50.3 63.7 100 119.4 131.9 136.4
61.4 75.6 114.1 133.9 148.8 155
72.7 87.8 129.2 139.5 165.3 167.9
81.6 102.1 145.1 161.2 182.7 188.1
40.3 52.7 93 114.7 140.5 144.7
51.2 65.9 111.4 136.4 154.6 164.8
61.4 79.4 131.4 160 173.6 186
73.6 95.6 144.7 170.5 186 204.1
89.7 107.5 161.2 185.4 204.2 228.4
40.3 53.7 101.3 139.5 161.2 160.2
51.2 68.2 125 153.5 200.1 210.3
61.4 81.8 148.8 200.9 228.2 248
75.6 99.5 170.5 217 248 271.3
90.7 120.9 201.5 241.8 268.7 295.5
40.3 53.7 105.4 148.8 186 211.8
51.2 68.2 131.9 184.1 222.8 255.8
61.4 81.8 158.7 215.8 262.9 285.2
75.6 100.8 191.2 248 289.3 322.9
90.7 120.9 214.9 286.1 322.4 362.7
40.3 53.7 107.5 155 194.3 232.5
51.2 68.2 136.4 191 236.4 278.5
61.4 81.8 161.2 226.9 277.8 328.6
75.6 100.8 196.3 271.3 320.3 361.7
90.7 120.9 231.1 314.3 370.8 403
40.3 53.7 107.5 158.1 202.5 242.8
51.2 68.2 136.4 197.8 250.1 295.5
61.4 81.8 163.7 238.1 297.6 347.2
75.6 100.8 198.9 286.8 341 394
90.7 120.9 236.4 322.4 403 456.7
40.3 53.7 107.5 161.2 210.8 258.3
51.2 68.2 136.4 204.6 263.7 318.3
61.4 81.8 163.7 245.5 317.4 378.2
75.6 100.8 201.5 294.5 382.3 452.1
90.7 120.9 241.8 358.7 429.9 510.5
40.3 53.7 107.5 161.2 214.9 263.5
51.2 68.2 136.4 204.6 272.8 329.6
61.4 81.8 163.7 245.5 322.4 396.8
75.6 100.8 201.5 302.3 397.8 477.9
90.7 120.9 241.8 362.7 462.1 537.3
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 0.5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 2 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 1.5 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. B-6
BURIAL DATAAPPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 37.8 44.2 59 60.5 63.9 65.1
3 sand and gravel 110 44.6 51.4 4.9 69 70.3 71.7
3 saturated top soil 120 53.1 59 73.8 76.1 79.1 81.1
3 dry clay 125 57.6 64.5 76.8 83 86 86
3 satu rated clay 130 64.7 70.3 83.1 88.2 90.8 92.7
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 42.4 50.4 68.8 73.7 80.6 83.6
4 sand and gravel 110 50.7 59.5 78.4 81.1 89.8 93.3
4 saturated top soil 120 59.7 67.9 S8.5 106.2 101.5 103.3
4 dry clay 125 66.8 76.8 98.3 110.6 110.6 112.2
4 saturated clay 130 74.3 86.3 105.5 115.1 117.6 119.8
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 44.2 55.3 83.6 92.2 93.4 100.8
5 sand and gravel 110 54.8 66.3 91.9 105.5 108.2 114.9
5 saturated top soil 120 64.2 78.2 103.3 115.1 118 126.9
5 dry clay 125 73.7 86 110.6 129.1 135.2 137.5
5 saturated clay 130 85.1 95.9 121.4 129.4 147 147
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 46.1 56.5 86 103.3 118 108.2
6 sand and gravel 110 56.8 70.3 102.8 117.6 129.8 121.7
6 saturated top soil 120 67.5 82.6 118 132.8 147.5 140.1
6 dry clay 125 78.4 92.2 129.1 147.5 153.6 153.6
6 saturated clay 130 88.7 108.7 140.6 163 166.2 167.8
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 47 61.5 100.8 118 137.7 147.5
8 sand and gravel 110 59.8 75.7 119 142 156.8 162.3
8 saturated top soil 120 73 90 135.7 159.3 177 184.4
8 dry clay 125 86.4 104.5 153.6 165.9 196.7 199.7
8 saturated clay 130 97.1 121.4 172.6 191.8 217.3 223.7
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 62.7 110.6 136.4 167.2 172.1
10 sand and gravel 110 60.8 78.4 132.5 162.3 183.9 196.1
10 saturated top soil 120 73 94.4 156.4 190.3 206.5 221.3
10 dry clay 125 87.6 113.7 172.1 202.8 221.3 242.8
10 saturated clay 130 106.7 127.8 191.8 220.5 242.9 271.6
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 120.5 165.9 191.8 190.5
15 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 148.7 182.5 238 250.1
15 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 177 239 271.4 295
15 dry clay 125 89.9 118.3 202.8 258.1 295 322.7
15 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 239.7 287.6 319.6 351.5
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 125.4 177 221.3 252
20 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 156.8 219 265 304.2
20 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 188.8 256.7 312.7 339.3
20 dry clay 125 89.9 119.8 227.4 295 344.2 384.1
20 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 255.7 340.4 383.5 431.4
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 127.8 184.4 231.1 276.6
25 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 162.3 227.2 281.2 331.3
25 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 191.8 269.9 330.4 390.9
25 dry clay 125 89.9 119.8 233.5 322.7 381 430.2
25 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 274.8 373.9 441 479.4
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 127.8 188.1 240.9 288.9
30 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 162.3 235.3 297.5 351.5
30 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 194.7 283.2 354 413
30 dry clay 125 89.9 119.8 236.6 341.1 405.6 468.6
30 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 281.2 383.5 479.4 543.3
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 127.8 191.8 250.8 307.3
40 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 162.3 243.4 313.7 378.6
40 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 194.7 292.1 377.6 449.9
40 dry clay 125 89.9 119.8 239.7 350.3 454.8 537.8
40 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 287.6 426.6 511.3 607.2
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 47.9 63.9 127.8 191.8 255.7 313.4
50 sand and gravel 110 60.8 81.1 162.3 243.4 324.5 392.1
50 saturated top soil 120 73 97.4 194.7 292.1 383.5 472
50 dry clay 125 89.9 119.8 239.7 359.5 473.2 568.5
50 saturated clay 130 107.9 143.8 287.6 431.4 549.7 639.2
45.4 53.1 70.8 72.6 76.7 78.2
53.5 61.7 77.9 82.7 84.4 86
63.7 70.8 88.5 91.3 94.9 97.4
69.1 77.4 92.2 99.6 103.3 103.3
77.7 84.4 99.7 105.8 108.9 111.2
50.9 60.5 82.6 88.5 96.8 100.3
60.8 71.4 94.1 97.4 107.7 112
71.7 81.4 106.2 127.4 121.8 123.9
80.2 92.2 118 132.8 132.8 134.6
89.2 103.5 126.6 138.1 141.1 143.8
53.1 66.4 100.3 110.6 112.1 121
65.7 79.5 110.3 126.6 129.8 137.9
77 93.8 123.9 138.1 141.6 152.2
88.5 103.3 132.8 154.9 162.3 165
102.1 115.1 145.7 155.3 176.4 176.4
55.3 67.9 103.3 123.9 141.6 129.8
68.1 84.4 123.3 141.2 155.8 146
81 99.1 141.6 159.3 177 168.2
94 110.6 154.9 177 184.4 184.4
106.4 130.4 168.7 195.6 199.4 201.3
56.4 73.8 121 141.6 165.2 177
71.8 90.9 142.8 170.4 188.2 194.7
87.6 108 162.8 191.2 212.4 221.3
103.7 125.4 184.4 199.1 236 239.7
116.5 145.7 207.1 230.1 260.8 268.5
57.5 75.2 132.8 163.7 200.6 206.5
73 94.1 159 194.7 220.7 235.3
87.6 113.3 187.6 228.3 247.8 265.5
105.1 136.4 206.5 243.4 265.5 291.3
128 153.4 230.1 264.6 291.5 326
57.5 76.7 144.6 199.1 230.1 228.6
73 97.4 178.5 219 285.6 300.2
87.6 116.8 212.4 286.7 325.7 354
107.9 142 243.4 309.8 354 387.2
129.4 172.6 287.6 345.2 383.5 421.9
57.5 76.7 150.5 212.4 265.5 302.4
73 97.4 188.2 262.8 318 365.1
87.6 116.8 226.6 308 375.2 407.1
107.9 143.8 272.9 354 413 460.9
129.4 172.6 306.8 408.4 460.2 517.7
57.5 76.7 153.4 221.3 277.3 331.9
73 97.4 194.7 272.6 337.5 397.5
87.6 116.8 230.1 323.9 396.5 469.1
107.9 143.8 280.3 387.2 457.3 516.3
129.4 172.6 329.8 448.7 529.2 575.3
57.5 76.7 153.4 225.7 289.1 346.6
73 97.4 194.7 282.3 357 421.9
87.6 116.8 233.6 339.8 424.8 495.6
107.9 143.8 283.9 409.3 486.8 562.3
129.4 172.6 337.5 460.2 575.3 652
57.5 76.7 153.4 230.1 300.9 368.8
73 97.4 194.7 292.1 376.4 454.3
87.6 116.8 233.6 350.5 453.1 539.9
107.9 143.8 287.6 420.4 545.8 645.3
129.4 172.6 345.2 512 613.6 728.7
57.5 76.7 153.4 230.1 306.8 376.1
73 97.4 194.7 292.1 389.4 470.5
87.6 116.8 233.6 350.5 460.2 566.4
107.9 143.8 287.6 431.4 567.9 682.2
129.4 172.6 345.2 517.7 659.6 767
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 0.75 1 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 3 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 2.5 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-7
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 55.5 64.9 86.6 88.8 93.8 95.6
3 sand and gravel 110 65.5 75.4 95.3 101.2 103.2 105.2
3 saturated top soil 120 77.9 86.6 108.3 111.7 116.0 119.1
3 dry clay 125 84.6 94.7 112.8 121.8 126.3 126.3
3 saturated clay 130 95.0 103.2 122.0 129.5 133.2 136.0
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 62.2 74.0 101.0 108.3 118.4 122.7
4 sand and gravel 110 74.4 87.3 115.1 119.1 131.8 136.9
4 saturated top soil 120 87.7 99.6 129.9 155.9 149.0 151.6
4 dry clay 125 98.1 112.8 144.3 162.4 162.4 164.6
4 saturated clay 130 109.1 126.7 154.8 168.9 172.6 175.9
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 64.9 81.2 122.7 135.3 137.1 147.9
5 sand and gravel 110 80.4 97.2 135.0 154.8 158.8 168.7
5 saturated top soil 120 94.2 114.7 151.6 168.9 173.2 186.2
5 dry clay 125 108.3 126.3 162.4 189.4 198.5 201.8
5 saturated clay 130 124.9 140.7 178.3 190 .0 215.8 215.8
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 67.7 83.0 126.3 151.6 173.2 158.8
6 sand and gravel 110 83.4 103.2 150.8 172.7 190.5 178.6
6 saturated top soil 120 99.0 121.2 173.2 194.9 216.5 205.7
6 dry clay 125 115.0 135.3 189.4 216.5 225.5 225.5
6 saturated clay 130 130.2 159.5 206.4 239.2 243.9 246.3
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 69.0 90.2 147.9 173.2 202.1 216.5
8 sand and gravel 110 87.8 111.1 174.6 208.4 230.2 238.2
8 saturated top soil 120 107.2 132.1 199.2 233.8 259.8 270.6
8 dry clay 125 126.9 153.4 225.5 243.6 288.7 293.2
8 saturated clay 130 142.5 178.3 253.3 281.5 319.0 328.4
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 92.0 162.4 200.3 245.4 252.6
10 sand and gravel 110 89.3 115.1 194.5 238.2 269.9 287.8
10 saturated top soil 120 107.2 138.6 229.5 279.3 303.1 324.8
10 dry clay 125 128.5 166.9 252.6 297.7 324.8 356.3
10 saturated clay 130 156.6 187.6 281.5 323.7 356.5 398.7
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 176.8 243.6 281.5 279.6
15 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 218.3 267.9 349.3 367.1
15 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 259.8 350.7 398.4 433.0
15 dry clay 125 131.9 173.7 297.7 378.9 433.0 473.6
15 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 351.8 422.2 469.1 516.0
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 184.0 259.8 324.8 369.9
20 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 230.2 321.5 389.0 446.5
20 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 277.1 376.7 459.0 498.0
20 dry clay 125 131.9 175.9 333.8 433 .0 505.2 563.8
20 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 375.3 499.6 562.9 633.3
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 187.6 270.6 339.2 405.9
25 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 238.2 333.4 412.8 486.2
25 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 281.5 396.2 485.0 573.7
25 dry clay 125 131.9 175.9 342.8 473.6 559.3 631.5
25 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 403.4 548.8 647.3 703.6
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 187.6 276.0 353.6 424.0
30 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 238.2 345.3 436.6 516.0
30 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 285.8 415.7 519.6 606.2
30 dry clay 125 131.9 175.9 347.3 500.7 595.4 687.8
30 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 412.8 562.9 703.6 797.4
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 187.6 281.5 368.1 451.0
40 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 238.2 357.2 460.4 555.7
40 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 285.8 428.7 554.2 660.3
40 dry clay 125 131.9 175.9 351.8 514.2 667.5 789.3
40 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 422.2 626.2 750.5 891.3
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 70.4 93.8 187.6 281.5 375.3 460.1
50 sand and gravel 110 89.3 119.1 238.2 357.2 476.3 575.5
50 saturated top soil 120 107.2 142.9 285.8 428.7 562.9 692.8
50 dry clay 125 131.9 175.9 351.8 527.7 694.6 834.4
50 saturated clay 130 158.3 211.1 422.2 633.3 806.8 938.2
94.4 125.8 128.9 136.3 138.9
109.6 138.4 147.0 149.9 152.8
125.8 157.3 162.3 168.6 173.0
137.6 163.8 176.9 183.5 183.5
149.9 177.2 188.1 193.5 197.6
107.5 146.8 157.3 171.9 178.2
126.8 167.2 173.0 191.4 198.9
144.7 188.7 226.4 216.4 220.2
163.8 209.7 235.9 235.9 239.2
184.0 224.9 245.3 250.8 255.5
117.9 178.2 196.6 199.2 214.9
141.3 196.0 224.9 230.6 245.0
166.7 220.2 245.3 251.6 270.5
183.5 235.9 275.2 288.3 293.2
204.4 258.9 276.0 313.5 313.5
120.6 183.5 220.2 251.6 230.6
149.9 219.1 250.8 276.8 259.5
176.1 251.6 283.1 314.5 298.8
196.6 275.2 314.5 327.6 327.6
231.7 299.8 347.5 354.3 357.7
131.0 214.9 251.6 293.5 314.5
161.4 253.7 302.7 334.4 346.0
191.8 289.3 339.7 377.4 393.1
222.8 327.6 353.8 419.3 425.9
258.9 368.0 408.8 463.4 477.0
133.7 235.9 290.9 356.4 366.9
167.2 282.5 346.0 392.1 418.0
201.3 333.4 405.7 440.3 471.8
242.4 366.9 432.4 471.8 517.6
272.6 408.9 470.2 517.9 579.2
136.3 256.8 353.8 408.9 406.2
173.0 317.1 389.2 507.4 533.3
207.6 377.4 509.5 578.7 629.0
252.3 432.4 550.4 629.0 688.0
306.6 511.1 613.3 681.4 749.6
136.3 267.3 377.4 471.8 537.3
173.0 334.4 467.0 565.1 648.7
207.6 402.6 547.2 666.7 723.4
255.5 484.9 629.0 733.8 819.0
306.6 545.1 725.7 817.7 919.9
136.3 272.6 393.1 492.7 589.7
173.0 346.0 484.3 599.6 706.3
207.6 408.9 575.5 704.5 833.4
255.5 498.0 688.0 812.5 917.3
306.6 586.0 797.3 940.4 1022.1
136.3 272.6 401.0 513.7 615.9
173.0 346.0 501.6 634.2 749.6
207.6 415.1 603.8 754.8 880.6
255.5 504.5 727.3 864.9 999.2
306.6 599.6 817.7 1022.1 1158.4
136.3 272.6 408.8 534.7 655.2
173.0 346.0 518.9 668.8 807.2
207.6 415.1 622.7 805.1 959.2
255.5 511.1 746.9 969.7 1146.6
306.6 613.3 909.7 1090.3 1294.7
136.3 272.6 408.8 545.1 668.3
173.0 346.0 518.9 691.9 836.0
207.6 415.1 622.7 817.7 1006.4
255.5 511.1 766.6 1009.0 1212.1
306.6 613.3 919.9 1172.0 1362.8
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 0.75 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 6 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 4 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. B-8
BURIAL DATAAPPENDIX B
B
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter = 10 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter = 8 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 118.1 157.4 161.3 170.5 173.8
3 sand and gravel 110 137.1 173.1 184.0 187.6 191.2
3 saturated top soil 120 157.4 196.8 203.0 210.9 216.4
3 dry clay 125 172.2 204.9 221.3 229.5 229.5
3 saturated clay 130 187.6 221.7 235.3 242.1 247.2
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 134.4 183.6 196.8 215.1 223.0
4 sand and gravel 110 158.7 209.2 216.4 239.5 248.9
4 saturated top soil 120 181.0 236.1 283.3 270.7 275.5
4 dry clay 125 204.9 262.3 295.1 295.1 299.2
4 saturated clay 130 230.2 281.4 306.9 313.8 319.7
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 147.6 223.0 245.9 249.2 268.9
5 sand and gravel 110 176.7 245.3 281.4 288.6 306.6
5 saturated top soil 120 208.6 275.5 306.9 314.8 338.4
5 dry clay 125 229.5 295.1 344.3 360.7 366.9
5 saturated clay 130 255.8 324.0 345.3 392.2 392.2
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 150.8 229.5 275.5 314.8 288.6
6 sand and gravel 110 187.6 274.1 313.8 346.3 324.6
6 saturated top soil 120 220.4 314.8 354.2 393.5 373.8
6 dry clay 125 245.9 344.3 393.5 409.9 409.9
6 saturated clay 130 289.9 375.1 434.8 443.3 447.6
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 164.0 268.9 314.8 367.3 393.5
8 sand and gravel 110 202.0 317.4 378.7 418.4 432.9
8 saturated top soil 120 240.0 362.0 425.0 472.2 491.9
8 dry clay 125 278.7 409.9 442.7 524.7 532.9
8 saturated clay 130 324.0 460.4 511.6 579.8 596.8
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 167.2 295.1 364.0 446.0 459.1
10 sand and gravel 110 209.2 353.5 432.8 490.6 523.0
10 saturated top soil 120 251.8 417.1 507.6 550.9 590.3
10 dry clay 125 303.3 459.1 541.1 590.3 647.6
10 saturated clay 130 341.0 511.6 588.3 648.0 724.7
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 321.4 442.7 511.6 508.3
15 sand and gravel 110 216.4 396.8 487.0 634.8 667.3
15 saturated top soil 120 259.7 472.2 637.5 724.0 787.0
15 dry clay 125 315.6 541.1 688.6 787.0 860.8
15 saturated clay 130 383.7 639.4 767.3 852.6 937.8
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 334.5 472.2 590.3 672.2
20 sand and gravel 110 216.4 418.4 584.3 707.0 811.6
20 saturated top soil 120 259.7 503.7 684.7 834.2 905.1
20 dry clay 125 319.7 606.6 787.0 918.2 1024.7
20 saturated clay 130 383.7 682.1 908.0 1023.1 1151.0
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 341.0 491.9 616.5 737.8
25 sand and gravel 110 216.4 432.9 606.0 750.3 883.7
25 saturated top soil 120 259.7 511.6 720.1 881.4 1042.8
25 dry clay 125 319.7 623.0 860.8 1016.5 1147.7
25 saturated clay 130 383.7 733.2 997.5 1176.6 1278.9
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 341.0 501.7 642.7 770.6
30 sand and gravel 110 216.4 432.9 627.6 793.6 937.8
30 saturated top soil 120 259.7 519.4 755.5 944.4 1101.8
30 dry clay 125 319.7 631.2 910.0 1082.1 1250.2
30 saturated clay 130 383.7 750.3 1023.1 1278.9 1449.4
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 341.0 511.6 669.0 819.8
40 sand and gravel 110 216.4 432.9 649.3 836.8 1010.0
40 saturated top soil 120 259.7 519.4 779.1 1007.4 1200.2
40 dry clay 125 319.7 639.4 934.6 1213.3 1434.6
40 saturated clay 130 383.7 767.3 1138.2 1364.1 1619.9
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 170.5 341.0 511.6 682.1 836.2
50 sand and gravel 110 216.4 432.9 649.3 865.7 1046.1
50 saturated top soil 120 259.7 519.4 779.1 1023.1 1259.2
50 dry clay 125 319.7 639.4 959.2 1262.5 1516.6
50 saturated clay 130 383.7 767.3 1151.0 1466.4 1705.2
196.8 201.7 213.2 217.3
216.5 230.0 234.5 239.0
246.0 253.9 263.7 270.6
256.3 276.8 287.0 287.0
277.2 294.2 302.7 309.1
229.6 246.0 269.0 278.8
261.6 270.6 299.5 311.2
295.2 354.2 338.5 344.4
328.0 369.0 369.0 374.1
351.8 383.8 392.3 399.8
278.8 307.5 311.6 336.2
306.7 351.8 360.8 383.4
344.4 383.8 393.6 423.1
369.0 430.5 451.0 458.7
405.1 431.7 490.4 490.4
287.0 344.4 393.6 360.8
342.8 392.4 433.0 405.9
393.6 442.8 492.0 467.4
430.5 492.0 512.5 512.5
469.0 543.7 554.3 559.7
336.2 393.6 459.2 492.0
396.9 473.6 523.2 541.2
452.6 531.4 590.4 615.0
512.5 553.5 656.0 666.3
575.6 639.6 724.9 746.2
369.0 455.1 557.6 574.0
442.0 541.2 613.4 654.0
521.5 634.7 688.8 738.0
574.0 676.5 738.0 809.8
639.6 735.5 810.2 906.1
401.8 553.5 639.6 635.5
496.1 608.9 793.8 834.4
590.4 797.0 905.3 984.0
676.5 861.0 984.0 1076.3
799.5 959.4 1066.0 1172.6
418.2 590.4 738.0 840.5
523.2 730.6 884.0 1014.8
629.8 856.1 1043.0 1131.6
758.5 984.0 1148.0 1281.3
852.8 1135.3 1279.2 1439.1
426.4 615.0 770.8 922.5
541.2 757.7 938.1 1105.0
639.6 900.4 1102.1 1303.8
779.0 1076.3 1271.0 1435.0
916.8 1247.2 1471.1 1599.0
426.4 627.3 803.6 963.5
541.2 784.7 992.2 1172.6
649.4 944.6 1180.8 1377.6
789.3 1137.8 1353.0 1563.1
938.1 1279.2 1599.0 1812.2
426.4 639.6 836.4 1025.0
541.2 811.8 1046.3 1262.8
649.4 974.2 1259.5 1500.6
799.5 1168.5 1517.0 1793.8
959.4 1423.1 1705.6 2025.4
426.4 639.6 852.8 1045.5
541.2 811.8 1082.4 1307.9
649.4 974.2 1279.2 1574.4
799.5 119.3 1578.5 1896.3
959.4 1439.1 1833.5 2132.0
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-9
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 248 254.2 268.7 273.8
3 sand & gravel 110 272.8 289.8 295.5 301.2
3 saturated top soil 120 310 319.9 332.3 341
3 dry clay 125 322.9 348.7 361.7 361.7
3 saturated clay 130 349.3 370.8 381.5 389.6
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 289.3 310 338.9 351.3
4 sand & gravel 110 329.6 341 377.4 392.1
4 saturated top soil 120 372 446.4 426.6 434
4 dry clay 125 413.3 465 465 471.5
4 saturated clay 130 443.3 483.6 494.3 503.8
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 351.3 387.5 392.7 423.7
5 sand & gravel 110 386.5 443.3 454.7 483.1
5 saturated top soil 120 434 483.6 496 533.2
5 dry clay 125 465 542.5 568.3 578
5 saturated clay 130 510.5 544.1 617.9 617.9
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 361.7 434 496 454.7
6 sand & gravel 110 431.9 494.4 545.6 511.5
6 saturated top soil 120 496 558 620 589
6 dry clay 125 542.5 620 645.8 645.8
6 saturated clay 130 591.1 685.1 698.5 705.3
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 423.7 496 578.7 620
8 sand & gravel 110 500.1 596.7 659.3 682
8 saturated top soil 120 570.4 669.6 744 775
8 dry clay 125 645.8 697.5 826.7 839.6
8 saturated clay 130 725.4 806 913.5 940.3
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 465 573.5 702.7 723.3
10 sand & gravel 110 557 682 772.9 824.1
10 saturated top soil 120 657.2 799.8 868 930
10 dry clay 125 723.3 852.5 930 1020.4
10 saturated clay 130 806 926.9 1020.9 1141.8
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 506.3 697.5 806 800.8
15 sand & gravel 110 625.2 767.2 1000.3 1051.4
15 saturated top soil 120 744 1004.4 1140.8 1240
15 dry clay 125 852.5 1085 1240 1356.3
15 saturated clay 130 1007.5 1209 1343.3 1477.7
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 527 744 930 1059.2
20 sand & gravel 110 659.3 920.7 1113.9 1278.8
20 saturated top soil 120 793.6 1078.8 1314.4 1426
20 dry clay 125 955.8 1240 1446.7 1614.6
20 saturated clay 130 1074.7 1430.7 1612 1813.5
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 537.3 775 971.3 1162.5
25 sand & gravel 110 682 954.8 1182.1 1392.4
25 saturated top soil 120 806 1134.6 1388.8 1643
25 dry clay 125 981.7 1356.2 1601.7 1808.3
25 saturated clay 130 1155.3 1571.7 1853.8 2015
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 537.3 790.5 1012.7 1214.2
30 sand & gravel 110 682 988.9 1250.3 1477.7
30 saturated top soil 120 818.4 1190.4 1488 1736
30 dry clay 125 994.6 1433.7 1705 1969.8
30 saturated clay 130 1182.1 1612 2015 2283.7
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 537.3 806 1054 1291.7
40 sand & gravel 110 682 1023 1318.5 1591.3
40 saturated top soil 120 818.4 1227.6 1587.2 1891
40 dry clay 125 1007.5 1472.5 1911.7 2260.4
40 saturated clay 130 1209 1793.4 2149.3 2552.3
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 537.3 806 1074.7 1317.5
50 sand & gravel 110 682 1023 1364 1648.2
50 saturated top soil 120 818.4 1227.6 1612 1984
50 dry clay 125 1007.5 1511.2 1989.2 2389.6
50 saturated clay 130 1209 1813.5 2310.5 2686.7
279.6 286.6 302.9 308.7 315 322.9 341.3 347.8
307.6 326.8 333.2 339.6 346.5 368.2 375.4 382.6
349.5 360.7 374.7 384.5 393.8 406.4 422.1 433.1
364.1 393.2 407.8 407.8 410.2 443 459.4 459.4
393.8 418 430.1 439.2 443.6 470.9 484.6 494.8
326.2 349.5 382.1 396.1 367.5 393.8 430.5 446.3
371.6 384.5 425.5 442.1 418.7 433.1 479.3 498.1
419.4 503.3 480.9 489.3 472.5 567 541.8 551.3
466 524.3 524.3 531.5 525 590.6 590.6 598.8
499.8 545.2 557.3 567.9 563.1 614.3 627.9 639.8
396.1 436.9 442.7 477.7 446.3 492.2 498.8 538.1
435.7 499.8 512.6 544.6 490.9 563.1 577.5 613.6
489.3 545.2 559.2 601.1 551.3 614.3 630 677.3
524.3 611.6 640.8 651.7 590.6 689.1 721.9 734.2
575.5 613.4 696.7 696.7 648.4 691 784.9 784.9
407.8 489.3 559.2 512.6 459.4 551.3 630 577.5
487 557.5 615.1 576.7 548.6 628 693 649.7
559.2 629.1 699 664.1 630 708.8 787.5 748.1
611.6 699 728.1 728.1 689.1 787.5 820.3 820.3
666.4 772.4 787.5 795.1 750.8 870.2 887.3 895.8
477.7 559.2 652.4 699 538.1 630 735 787.5
563.9 672.8 743.3 768.9 635.3 758 837.4 866.3
643.1 754.9 838.8 873.8 724.5 850.5 945 984.4
728.1 786.4 932 946.6 820.3 885.9 1050 1066.4
817.8 908.7 1029.9 1060.2 921.4 1023.8 1160.3 1194.4
524.3 646.6 792.2 815.5 590.6 728.4 892.5 918.8
627.9 768.9 871.4 929.1 707.4 866.3 981.8 1046.7
740.9 901.7 978.6 1048.5 834.8 1015.9 1102.5 1181.3
815.5 961.1 1048.5 1150.4 918.8 1082.8 1181.3 1296.1
908.7 1045 1151 1287.3 1023.8 1177.3 1296.8 1450.3
570.9 786.4 908.7 902.9 643.1 885.9 1023.8 1017.2
704.8 865 1127.7 1185.4 794.1 974.5 1270.5 1335.5
838.8 1132.4 1286.2 1398 945 1275.8 1449 1575
961.1 1223.3 1398 1529.1 1082.8 1378.1 1575 1722.7
1135.9 1363.1 1514.5 1666 1279.7 1535.6 1706.3 1876.9
594.2 838.8 1048.5 1194.1 669.4 945 1181.3 1345.3
743.3 1038 1255.9 1441.7 837.4 1169.4 1414.9 1624.2
894.7 1216.3 1481.9 1607.7 1008 1370.3 1669.5 1811.3
1077.6 1398 1631 1820.3 1214.1 1575 1837.5 2050.8
1211.6 1612.9 1817.4 2044.6 1365 1817.2 2047.5 2303.4
605.8 873.8 1095.1 1310.6 682.5 984.4 1233.8 1476.6
768.9 1076.5 1332.8 1569.8 866.3 1212.8 1501.5 1768.6
908.7 1279.2 1565.8 1852.4 1023.8 1441.1 1764 2086.9
1106.8 1529.1 1805.8 2038.8 1246.9 1722.7 2034.4 2296.9
1302.5 1772 2090 2271.8 1467.4 1996.3 2354.6 2559.4
605.8 891.2 1141.7 1368.9 682.5 1004.1 1286.3 1542.2
768.9 1114.9 1409.7 1666 866.3 1256.1 1588.1 1876.9
922.7 1342.1 1677.6 1957.2 1039.5 1512 1890 2205
1121.3 1616.4 1922.3 2220.8 1263.3 1821.1 2165.6 2502
1332.8 1817.4 2271.8 2574.7 1501.5 2047.5 2559.4 2900.6
605.8 908.7 1188.3 1456.3 682.5 1023.8 1338.8 1640.6
768.9 1153.4 1486.5 1794.1 866.3 1299.4 1674.8 2021.3
922.7 1384 1789.4 2132 1039.5 1559.3' 2016 2401.9
1135.9 1660.1 2155.3 2548.4 1279.7 1870.3 2428.1 2871.1
1363.1 2021.9 2423.2 2877.6 1535.6 2277.8 2730 3241.9
605.8 908.7 1211.6 1485.4 682.5 1023.8 1365 1673.4
768.9 1153.4 1537.8 1858.2 866.3 1299.4 1732.5 2093.4
922.7 1384 1817.4 2236.8 1039.5 1559.3 2047.5 2520
1135.9 1703.8 2242.6 2694.1 1279.7 1919.5 2526.6 3035.2
1363.1 2044.6 2604.9 3029 1535.6 2303.4 2934.8 3412.5
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
Nominal Piping Diameter =
12 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter =
14 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Diameter =
16 Inches
Width of Trench in Feet
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. B-10
BURIAL DATAAPPENDIX B
B
3 granular w/o cohesion 100 354.4 363.3 383.9 391.3
3 sand and gravel 110 389.8 414.2 422.3 430.4
3 saturated top soil 120 443.0 457.2 474.9 487.3
3 dry clay 125 461.5 498.4 516.8 516.8
3 saturated clay 130 499.1 529.8 545.2 556.7
4 granular w/o cohesion 100 413.5 443.0 484.3 502.1
4 sand and gravel 110 471.1 487.3 539.3 560.4
4 saturated top soil 120 531.6 637.9 609.6 620.2
4 dry clay 125 590.7 664.5 664.5 673.7
4 saturated clay 130 633.5 691.1 706.4 719.9
5 granular w/o cohesion 100 502.1 553.8 561.1 605.4
5 sand and gravel 110 552.3 633.5 649.7 690.3
5 saturated top soil 120 620.2 691.1 708.8 762.0
5 dry clay 125 664.5 775.3 812.2 826.0
5 saturated clay 130 729.5 777.5 883.0 883.0
6 granular w/o cohesion 100 516.8 620.2 708.8 649.7
6 sand and gravel 110 617.2 706.6 779.7 731.0
6 saturated top soil 120 708.8 797.4 886.0 841.7
6 dry clay 125 775.3 886.0 922.9 922.9
6 saturated clay 130 844.7 979.0 998.2 1007.8
8 granular w/o cohesion 100 605.4 708.8 826.9 886.0
8 sand and gravel 110 714.7 852.8 942.1 974.6
8 saturated top soil 120 815.1 956.9 1063.2 1107.5
8 dry clay 125 922.9 996.8 1181.3 1199.8
8 saturated clay 130 1036.6 1151.8 1305.4 1343.8
10 granular w/o cohesion 100 664.5 819.6 1004.1 1033.7
10 sand and gravel 110 795.9 974.6 1104.5 1177.6
10 saturated top soil 120 939.2 1142.9 1240.4 1329.0
10 dry clay 125 1033.7 1218.3 1329.0 1458.2
10 saturated clay 130 1151.8 1324.6 1458.9 1631.7
15 granular w/o cohesion 100 723.6 996.8 1151.8 1144.4
15 sand and gravel 110 893.4 1096.4 1429.4 1502.5
15 saturated top soil 120 1063.2 1435.3 1630.2 1772.0
15 dry clay 125 1218.3 1550.5 1772.0 1938.1
15 saturated clay 130 1439.8 1727.7 1919.7 2111.6
20 granular w/o cohesion 100 753.1 1063.2 1329.0 1513.6
20 sand and gravel 110 942.1 1315.7 1591.8 1827.4
20 saturated top soil 120 1134.1 1541.6 1878.3 2037.8
20 dry clay 125 1365.9 1772.0 2067.3 2307.3
20 saturated clay 130 1535.7 2044.4 2303.6 2591.6
25 granular w/o cohesion 100 767.9 1107.5 1388.1 1661.3
25 sand and gravel 110 974.6 1364.4 1689.3 1989.8
25 saturated top soil 120 1151.8 1621.4 1984.6 2347.9
25 dry clay 125 1402.8 1938.1 2288.8 2584.2
25 saturated clay 130 1650.9 2246.0 2649.1 2879.5
30 granular w/o cohesion 100 767.9 1129.7 1447.1 1735.1
30 sand and gravel 110 974.6 1413.2 1786.8 2111.6
30 saturated top soil 120 1169.5 1701.1 2126.4 2480.8
30 dry clay 125 1421.3 2048.9 2436.5 2814.9
30 saturated clay 130 1689.3 2303.6 2879.5 3263.4
40 granular w/o cohesion 100 767.9 1151.8 1506.2 1845.8
40 sand and gravel 110 974.6 1461.9 1884.2 2274.1
40 saturated top soil 120 1169.5 1754.3 2268.2 2702.3
40 dry clay 125 1439.8 2104.3 2731.8 3230.2
40 saturated clay 130 1727.7 2562.8 3071.5 3647.4
50 granular w/o cohesion 100 767.9 1151.8 1535.7 1882.8
50 sand and gravel 110 974.6 1461.9 1949.2 2355.3
50 saturated top soil 120 1169.5 1754.3 2303.6 2835.2
50 dry clay 125 1439.8 2159.6 2842.6 3414.8
50 saturated clay 130 1727.7 2591.6 3301.8 3839.3
403.6 426.6 434.8 508.4 537.3 547.7
460.3 469.3 478.3 579.7 591.1 602.4
508.0 527.7 541.5 639.8 664.6 682.0
553.8 574.3 574.3 697.5 723.3 723.3
588.7 605.8 618.6 741.5 763.0 779.1
492.2 538.2 557.9 620.0 677.9 702.7
541.5 599.2 622.7 682.0 754.7 784.3
708.8 677.3 689.2 892.8 853.1 868.0
738.4 738.4 748.6 930.0 930.0 942.9
767.9 785.0 799.9 967.2 988.7 1007.5
615.3 623.5 672.7 775.0 785.3 847.3
703.9 722.0 767.1 886.6 909.3 966.2
767.9 787.6 846.7 967.2 992.0 1066.4
861.4 902.5 917.8 1085.0 1136.7 1156.0
863.9 981.2 981.2 1088.1 1235.9 1235.9
689.1 787.6 722.0 868.0 992.0 909.3
785.1 866.4 812.2 988.9 1091.2 1023.0
886.1 984.5 935.3 1116.0 1240.0 1178.0
984.5 1025.5 1025.5 1240.0 1291.7 1291.7
1087.9 1109.2 1119.9 1370.2 1397.1 1410.5
787.6 918.9 984.5 992.0 1157.3 1240.0
947.6 1046.9 1083.0 1193.5 1318.5 1364.0
1063.3 1181.4 1230.6 1339.2 1488.0 1550.0
1107.6 1312.7 1333.2 1395.0 1653.3 1679.2
1279.9 1450.5 1493.2 1612.0 1826.9 1880.7
910.7 1115.8 1148.6 1147.0 1405.3 1446.7
1083.0 1227.3 1308.6 1364.0 1545.9 1648.2
1270.0 1378.3 1476.8 1599.6 1736.0 1860.0
1353.7 1476.8 1620.3 1705.0 1860.0 2040.8
1471.8 1621.1 1813.1 1853.8 2041.9 2283.7
1107.6 1279.9 1271.6 1395.0 1612.0 1601.7
1218.3 1588.3 1669.5 1534.5 2000.5 2102.8
1594.9 1811.5 1969.0 2008.8 2281.6 2480.0
1722.9 1969.0 2153.6 2170.0 2480.0 2712.5
1919.8 2133.1 2346.4 2418.0 2686.7 2955.3
1181.4 1476.8 1681.9 1488.0 1860.0 2118.3
1462.0 1768.8 2030.5 1841.4 2227.9 2557.5
1713.0 2087.1 2264.4 2157.6 2628.8 2852.0
1969.0 2297.2 2563.8 2480.0 2893.3 3229.2
2271.7 2559.7 2879.7 2861.3 3224.0 3627.0
1230.6 1542.4 1845.9 1550.0 1942.7 2325.0
1516.1 1877.1 2211.0 1909.6 2364.3 2784.8
1801.6 2205.3 2608.9 2269.2 2777.6 3286.0
2153.6 2543.3 2871.5 2712.5 3203.3 3616.7
2495.7 2943.7 3199.6 3143.4 3707.6 4030.0
1255.2 1608.0 1928.0 1581.0 2025.3 2428.3
1570.3 1985.4 2346.4 1977.8 2500.7 2955.3
1890.2 2362.8 2756.6 2380.8 2976.0 3472.0
2276.7 2707.4 3127.8 2867.5 3410.0 3939.6
2559.7 3199.6 3626.2 3224.0 4030.0 4567.3
1279.9 1673.7 2051.0 1612.0 2108.0 2583.3
1624.4 2093.7 2526.9 2046.0 2637.1 3182.7
1949.3 2520.3 3002.7 2455.2 3174.4 3782.0
2338.2 3035.5 3589.3 2945.0 3823.3 4520.8
2847.7 3412.9 4052.9 3586.7 4298.7 5104.7
1279.9 1706.5 2092.1 1612.0 2149.3 2635.0
1624.4 2165.9 2617.1 2046.0 2728.0 3296.3
1949.3 2559.7 3150.4 2455.2 3224.0 3968.0
2399.7 3158.6 3794.4 3022.5 3978.3 4779.2
2879.7 3668.9 4266.2 3627.0 4621.1 5373.3
Soil
Depth Soil Type Wgt 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5
Depth (of burial) is in feet; Soil Wgt (weight) is in lbs/ft3; values in the body of the table are in lbs of soil load per linear foot (lbs/linear ft).
Nominal Piping Dia = 18"
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Dia = 20"
Width of Trench in Feet
Nominal Piping Dia = 24"
Width of Trench in Feet
Table B-2. Marston Soil Load Values for Asahi/America Pipe (continued)
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. B-11
BURIAL DATA APPENDIX B
B
E' for Degree of Compaction of Bedding,
(in pounds per square inch)
Slight, Moderate, High,
<85% Proctor, 85%-90% Proctor, >95% Proctor,
Soil type-pipe bedding material Dumped <40% 40%-70% >70%
(Unified Classification System) D umped Relative Density Relative Density
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Fine-grained Soils (LL > 50)b
Soils with medium to high plasticity CH, MH, CH-MH
Fine-grained Soils (LL < 50)
Soils with medium to no plasticity CL, ML, ML-CL, with 50 200 400 1,000
less than 25% coarse-grained particles
Fine-grained Soils (LL < 50)
Soils with medium to no plasticity CL, ML, ML,CL, with
more than 25% coarse-grained particles 100 400 1,000 2,000
Coarse-grained Soils with Fines
GM, GC, SM, SCc contains more than 12% fines
Coarse-grained Soils with Little or No Fines 200 1,000 2,000 3,000
CW, CP, SW, SPc contains less than 12% fines
Crushed Rock 1,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
Accuracy in Terms of Percentage Deflectiond ±2 ±2 ±1 ±0.5
No data available; consult a competent
soils engineer; otherwise use E' = 0
a ASTM Designation D-2487, USBR Designation E-3.
b LL = Liquid limit.
c Or any borderline soil beginning with one of these symbols (i.e., GM-GC, GC-SC).
d For ±1 % accuracy and predicted deflection of 3%, actual deflection would be between 2% and 4%.
Note: Values applicable only for fills less than 50 ft (15m). Table does not include any safety factor. For use in predicting initial deflections only,
appropriate Deflection Lag Factor must be applied for long-term deflections. If bedding falls on the borderline between two compaction categories,
select lower E' value or average the two values. Percentage Proctor based on laboratory maximum dry density from test standards using about
12,500 ft-lb/cu ft (598,000 J/m3) (ASTM D-698, AASHO T-99, USBR Designation E-1 1). 1 psi = 6.9 kN/M2.
Source: “Soil Reaction for Buried Flexible Pipe” by Amster K. Howard, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado. Reprinted with permission
from American Society of Civil Engineers’ Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. January 1977, PP. 33-43.
Table B-3. Average Values of Modulus of Soil Reaction, E' (for initial flexible pipe deflection)
Table B-4. Values of Bedding Constant, K
Bedding Angle (degrees) K
0 0.110
30 0.108
45 0.105
60 0.102
90 0.096
120 0.090
180 0.083
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. B-12
APPENDIX B
B
This page intentionally left blank.
C
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-1
Appendix C
CONVERSION
TABLES
Contents
General Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-2
Volumetric Flow Rate Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-8
Pressure Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-9
Viscosity Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-10
Force Conversion Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-10
Heat Transfer Coefficient Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . .C-11
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient Conversion Table . . . . C-11
Various Values of the Ideal Gas Law Constant . . . . . . . C-11
C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Acres 43,560 Square feet
Acres 4074 Square meters
Acres 0.001563 Square miles
Acre-feet 1233 Cubic meters
Ampere-hours (absolute) 3600 Coulombs (absolute)
Angstrom units 3.937 x 10-9 Inches
Angstrom units 1 x 10-10 Meters
Angstrom units 1 x 10-4 Microns
Atmospheres 760 Millimeters of mercury at 32° F
Atmospheres 1.0133 x 106 Dynes per square centimeter
Atmospheres 101,325 Newtons per square meter
Atmospheres 33.90 Feet of water at 39.1° F
Atmospheres 1033.3 Grams per square centimeter
Atmospheres 29.921 Inches of mercury at 32° F
Atmospheres 2116.3 Pounds per square foot
Atmospheres 14.696 Pounds per square inch
Bags (cement) 94 Pounds (cement)
Barrels (cement) 376 Pounds (cement)
Barrels (oil) 0.15899 Cubic meters
Barrels (oil) 42 Gallons
Barrels (U.S. liquid) 0.11924 Cubic meters
Barrels (U.S. liquid) 31.5 Gallons
Barrels per day 0.02917 Gallons per minute
Bars 0.9869 Atmospheres
Bars 1 x 105 Newtons per square meter
Bars 14.504 Pounds per square inch
Bars 0.98 Kilogram force per square centimeter
Board feet 1112 Cubic feet
Boiler horsepower 33,480 Btu per hour
Boiler horsepower 9.803 Kilowatts
Btu 252 Calories (gram)
Btu 0.55556 Centigrade heat units (chu or pcu)
Btu 777.9 Foot-pounds
Btu 3.929 x 10-4 Horsepower-hours
Btu 1055.1 Joules
Btu 10.41 Liter-atmospheres
Btu 6.88 x 10-5 Pounds carbon to CO2
Btu 0.001036 Pounds water evaporated from and at 212° F
Btu 0.3676 Cubic foot-atmospheres
Btu 2.930 x 10-4 Kilowatt-hours
Btu per cu ft 37,260 Joules per cubic meter
Btu per hour 0.29307 Wafts
Btu per min 0.02357 Horsepower
Btu per lb 2326 Joules per kilogram
Btu per lb per ° F 1 Calories per gram per degree centigrade
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLESAPPENDIX C
App. C-2
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-3
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLES APPENDIX C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Btu per lb per ° F 4186.8 Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin
Btu per sec 1054.4 Watts
Btu per sq ft per hour 3.1546 Joules per square meter per second
Btu per sq ft per min 0.1758 Kilowatts per square foot
Btu per sq ft per sec for a temp 1.2405 Calories, gram (15° C), per sq cm per sec
gradient of 1° F per in for a temperature gradient of 1° C per cm
Btu (60° F) per° F 453.6 Calories per degree centigrade
Bushels (U.S. dry) 1.2444 Cubic feet
Bushels (U.S. dry) 0.03524 Cubic meters
Calories, gram 3.968 x 10-3 Btu
Calories, gram 3.087 Foot-pounds
Calories, gram 4.1868 Joules
Calories, gram 4.130 x 10-2 Liter-atmospheres
Calories, gram 1.5591 x 10-6 Horsepower-hours
Calories, gram, per gram per °C 4186.8 Joules per kilogram per degree Kelvin
Calories, kilogram 0.0011626 Kilowatt-hours
Calories, kilogram per sec 4.185 Kilowatts
Candle power (spherical) 12.556 Lumens
Carats (metric) 0.2 Grams
Centigrade heat units 1.8 Btu
Centimeters 1 x 108 Angstrom units
Centimeters 0.03281 Feet
Centimeters 0.3937 Inches
Centimeters 0.01 Meters
Centimeters 10,000 Microns
Cm of mercury at 0° C 0.013158 Atmospheres
Cm of mercury at 0° C 0.4460 Feet of water at 39.1° F
Cm of mercury at 0° C 1333.2 Newtons per square meter
Cm of mercury at 0° C 27.845 Pounds per square foot
Cm of mercury at 0° C 0.19337 Pounds per square inch
Cm per sec 1.9685 Feet per minute
Cm of water at 4° C 98.064 Newtons per square meter
Centistokes I x 10-6 Square meters per second
Circular mils 5.067 x 10-6 Square centimeters
Circular mils 7.854 x 10-7 Square inches
Circular mils 0.7854 Square mils
Cords 128 Cubic feet
Cubic cm 3.532 x 10-5 Cubic feet
Cubic cm 2.6417 x 10-4 Gallons
Cubic cm 0.03381 Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Cubic cm 0.0010567 Quarts (U.S. fluid)
Cubic feet 0.8036 Bushels (U.S.)
Cubic feet 28,317 Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet 0.0005787 Cubic inches
Cubic feet 0.028317 Cubic meters
C
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. C-4
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLESAPPENDIX C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Cubic feet 0.03704 Cubic yards
Cubic feet 7.481 Gallons
Cubic feet 28.316 Liters
Cubic foot-atmospheres 2116.3 Foot-pounds
Cubic foot-atmospheres 28.316 Liter-atmospheres
Cubic feet of water (60° F) 62.37 Pounds
Cubic feet per min 472.0 Cubic centimeters per second
Cubic feet per min 0.1247 Gallons per second
Cubic feet per sec 448.8 Gallons per minute
Cubic feet per sec 0.64632 Million gallons per day
Cubic inches 1.6387 x 10-5 Cubic meters
Cubic yards 0.76456 Cubic meters
Curies 2.2 x 1012 Disintegrations per minute
Curies 1.1 x 1012 Coulombs per minute
Degrees 0.017453 Radians
Drams (apothecaries or troy) 3.888 Grams
Drams (avoir dupois) 1.7719 Grams
Dynes 1 x 10-5 Newtons
Ergs 1 x 10-7 Joules
Faradays 96,500 Coulombs (abs)
Fathoms 6 Feet
Feet 0.3048 Meters
Feet per min 0.5080 Centimeters per second
Feet per min 0.011364 Miles per hour
Feet per (sec)2 0.3048 Meters per (sec)2
Feet of water at 39.2° F 2989 Newtons per square meter
Foot-poundals 3.995 x 10-5 Btu
Foot-poundals 0.04214 Joules
Foot-poundals 4.159 x 10-4 Liter-atmospheres
Foot-pounds 0.0012856 Btu
Foot-pounds 0.3239 Calories, gram
Foot-pounds 32.174 Foot-poundals
Foot-pounds 5.051 x 10-7 Horsepower-hours
Foot-pounds 3.766 x 10-7 Kilowatt-hours
Foot-pounds 0.013381 Liter-atmospheres
Foot-pounds force 1.3558 Joules
Foot-pounds per sec 0.0018182 Horsepower
Foot-pounds per sec 0.0013558 Kilowatts
Furlongs 0.125 Miles
Gallons (U.S. liquid) 0.03175 Barrels (U.S. liquid)
Gallons 0.003785 Cubic meters
Gallons 0.13368 Cubic feet
Gallons 0.8327 Gallons (Imperial)
Gallons 3.785 Liters
Gallons 128 Ounces (U.S. fluid)
C
C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Gallons per min 8.021 Cubic feet per hour
Gallons per min 0.002228 Cubic feet per second
Gallons per min 227.1 Liters per hour
Gallons per min 3.785 Liters per minute
Grains 0.06480 Grams
Grains 1/7000 Pounds
Grains per cu ft 2.2884 Grams per cubic meter
Grains per gallon 17.118 Parts per million
Grams 0.5644 Drams (avoir dupois)
Grams 0.2572 Drams (troy)
Grams 15.432 Grains
Grams 0.001 Kilograms
Grams 0.0022046 Pounds (avoir dupois)
Grams 0.002679 Pounds (troy)
Grams per cu cm 62.43 Pounds per cubic foot
Grams per cu cm 8.345 Pounds per gallon
Grams per liter 58.42 Grains per gallon
Grams per liter 0.0624 Pounds per cubic foot
Grams per sq cm 2.0482 Pounds per square foot
Grams per sq cm 0.014223 Pounds per square inch
Hectares 2.471 Acres
Hectares 10,000 Square meters
Horsepower (British) 42.42 Btu per minute
Horsepower (British) 2545 Btu per hour
Horsepower (British) 33,000 Foot-pounds per minute
Horsepower (British) 550 Foot-pounds per second
Horsepower (British) 745.7 Wafts
Horsepower (British) 1.0139 Horsepower (metric)
Horsepower (British) 0.175 Pounds carbon to CO2 per hour
Horsepower (British) 2.64 Pounds water evaporated per hour at 212° F
Horsepower (metric) 542.47 Foot-pounds per second
Horsepower (metric) 7.5 Kilogram-meters per second
Hours (mean solar) 3600 Seconds
Inches 0.0254 Meters
Inches of mercury at 60° F 13.61968 Inches of water
Inches of mercury at 60° F 3376.9 Newtons per square meter
Inches of water at 60° F 248.84 Newtons per square meter
Joules (absolute) 9.480 x 10-4 Btu (mean)
Joules (absolute) 0.2389 Calories, gram (mean)
Joules (absolute) 0.3485 Cubic foot-atmospheres
Joules (absolute) 0.7376 Foot-pounds
Joules (absolute) 2.7778 x 10-7 Kilowatt-hours
Joules (absolute) 0.009869 Liter-atmospheres
Kilocalories 4186.8 Joules
Kilograms 2.2046 Pounds (avoir dupois)
APPENDIX C
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-5
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLES
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. C-6
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLESAPPENDIX C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Kilograms force 9.807 Newtons
Kilograms per sq cm 14.223 Pounds per square inch
Kilograms per sq cm 1.02 Bars
Kilowatt-hours 3414 Btu
Kilowatt-hours 2.6552 x 106 Foot-pounds
Kilowatts 1.3410 Horsepower
Knots (international) 0.5144 Meters per second
Knots (nautical mph) 1.1516 Miles per hour
Lamberts 2.054 Candles per square inch
Liter-atmospheres 0.03532 Cubic foot-atmospheres
Liter-atmospheres 74.74 Foot-pounds
Liters 0.03532 Cubic feet
Liters 0.001 Cubic meters
Liters 0.26418 Gallons
Lumens 0.001496 Watts
Micromicrons 1 x 10-6 Microns
Microns 1 x 104 Angstrom units
Microns 1 x 10-6 Meters
Miles (nautical) 6080 Feet
Miles (nautical) 1.1516 Miles (U.S. statute)
Miles 5280 Feet
Miles 1609.3 Meters
Miles per hour 1.4667 Feet per second
Miles per hour 0.4470 Meters per second
Milliliters 1 Cubic centimeters
Millimeters 0.001 Meters
Millimeters of Hg at 0° C 133.32 Newtons per square meter
Millimicrons 0.001 Microns
Mils 0.001 Inches
Mils 2.54 x 10-5 Meters
Minims (U.S.) 0.06161 Cubic centimeters
Minutes (angle) 2.909 x 10-4 Radians
Minutes (mean solar) 60 Seconds
Newtons 0.10197 Kilograms
Newtons 0.22481 Pounds force
N/m2 0.10197 Kilogram force per square meter
N/mm2 10.1968 Kilogram force per square cm
Ounces (avoir dupois) 0.02835 Kilograms
Ounces (avoir dupois) 0.9115 ounces (troy)
Ounces (U.S. fluid) 2.957 x 10-5 Cubic meters
Ounces (troy) 1.000 Ounces (apothecaries')
Pints (U.S. liquid) 4.732 x 10-4 Cubic meters
Poundals 0.13826 Newtons
Pounds (avoir dupois) 7000 Grains
Pounds (avoir dupois) 0.45359 Kilograms
C
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-7
GENERAL CONVERSION TABLES APPENDIX C
To Convert From Multiply By To Obtain
Pounds (avoir dupois) 1.2153 Pounds (troy)
Pounds per cu ft 0.016018 Grams per cubic centimeter
Pounds per cu ft 16.018 Kilograms per cubic meter
Pounds per sq ft 4.725 x 10-4 Atmospheres
Pounds per sq ft 4.882 Kilograms per square meter
Pounds per sq in 0.06805 Atmospheres
Pounds per sq in 0.07031 Kilograms per square cm
Pounds per sq in 6894.8 Newtons per square meter
Pounds force 4.4482 Newtons
Pounds force per sq ft 47.88 Newtons per square meter
Pounds water evaporated
from and at 212° F 0.379 Horsepower-hours
Pound-centigrade units (pcu) 1.8 Btu
Quarts (U.S. liquid) 9.464 x 10-4 Cubic meters
Radians 57.30 Degrees
Revolutions per min 0.10472 Radians per second
Seconds (angle) 4.848 x 10-6 Radians
Slugs 1 Gee pounds
Slugs 14.594 Kilograms
Slugs 32.17 Pounds
Square cm 0.0010764 Square feet
Square feet 0-.0929 Square meters
Square feet per hr 2.581 x 10-5 Square meters per sec
Square inches 6.452 Square centimeters
Square inches 6.452 x 10-4 Square meters
Square inches 645.2 Square millimeters
Square yards 0.8361 Square meters
Stokes 1 x 10-4 Square meters per sec
Tons (long) 1016 Kilograms
Tons (long) 2240 Pounds
Tons (metric) 1000 Kilograms
Tons (metric) 2204.6 Pounds
Tons (metric) 1.1023 Tons (short)
Tons (short) 907.18 Kilograms
Tons (short) 2000 Pounds
Tons (refrigeration) 12,000 Btu per hour
Tons (British shipping) 42.00 Cubic feet
Tons (U.S. shipping) 40.00 Cubic feet
Torr (mm mercury, 0° C) 133.32 Newtons per square meter
Wafts 3.413 Btu per hour
Wafts 1 Joules per second
Wafts 0.10197 Kilogram-meters per sec
Waft-hours 3600 Joules
Yards 0.9144 Meters
C
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. C-8
CONVERSION TABLESAPPENDIX C
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CONVERSION TABLE
Multiply by Table Values to Convert to These Units
C
To Convert
From: m3/s dm3/s ft3/d ft3/hr ft3/min ft3/s
m3/s 1 103 3.05119 x 106 1.2713 x 105 2.1189 x 103 3.5315 x 101
dm3/s 10-3 1 3.05119 x 103 1.2713 x 102 2.1189 3.5315 x 10-2
ft3/d 3.277 x 10-7 3.277413 x 10-4 1 4.1667 x 10-2 6.9444 x 10-4 1.15741 x 10-5
ft3/hr 7.866 x 10-6 7.865791 x 10-3 24 1 1.6667 x 10-2 2.7778 x 10-4
ft3/min 4.719 x 10-4 4.719474 x 10-1 1.4400 x 103 60 1 1.6667 x 10-4
ft3/s 2.832 x 10-2 2.831685 x 101 8.6400 x 104 3600 60 1
U.K. gal/hr 1.263 x 10-6 1.262803 x 10-3 2.6717 1.1132 x 10-1 1.8554 x 10-3 3.0923 x 10-5
U.S. gal/hr 1.052 x 10-6 1.051503 x 10-3 3.20856 1.3369 x 10-1 2.2282 x 10-3 3.7136 x 10-5
U.K. gal/min 7.577 x 10-5 7.576820 x 10-2 1.6030 x 102 6.6793 1.1132 x 10-1 1.8554 x 10-3
U.S. gal/min 6.309 x 10-5 6.309020 x 10-2 1.9253 x 102 8.0220 1.337 x 10-1 2.228 x 10-3
bbl/d 1.840 x 10-6 1.840131 x 10-3 5.615 2.3396 x 10-1 3.899 x 10-3 6.499 x 10-5
bbl/hr 4.416 x 10-5 4.416314 x 10-2 1.3476 x 102 5.615 9.358 x 10-2 1.5597 x 10-3
To Convert U.K. U.S. U.K. U.S.
From: gal/hr gal/hr gal/min gal/min bbl/d bbl/hr
m3/s 7.9189 x 105 9.5102 x 105 1.3198 x 104 1.5850 x 104 5.4344 x 105 2.2643 x 104
dm3/s 7.9189 x 102 9.5102 x 102 1.3198 x 101 1.5850 x 101 5.4344 x 102 2.2643 x 101
ft3/d 3.7429 x 10-1 3.1167 x 10-1 6.2383 x 10-3 5.1940 x 10-3 1.781 x 10-1 7.421 x 10-3
ft3/hr 8.9831 7.48 1.4972 x 10-1 1.2466 x 10-1 4.274 1.781 x 10-1
ft3/min 5.3897 x 102 4.488 x 102 8.983 7.48 2.565 x 102 1.069 x 101
ft3/s 3.234 x 104 2.693 x 104 5.3897 x 102 4.488 x 102 1.539 x 104 6.411 x 102
U.K. gal/hr 1 8.327 x 10-1 1.667 x 10-2 1.3878 x 10-2 4.758 x 10-1 1.983 x 10-2
U.S. gal/hr 1.20094 1 2.00157 x 10-2 1.667 x 10-2 5.714 x 10-1 2.381 x 10-2
U.K. gal/min 60 4.9961 x 101 1 8.3268 x 10-1 2.855 x 101 1.189
U.S. gal/min 7.2056 x 101 60 1.20094 1 3.428 x 101 1.429
bbl/d 2.1017 1.750 3.503 x 10-2 2.917 x 10-2 1 4.1667 x 10-2
bbl/hr 5.044 x 101 42 8.407 x 10-1 7.000 x 10-1 24 1
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-9
CONVERSION TABLES
C
To Convert g/cm-s2 kg/m-s2 lbm/ft-s2
From: (dyne/cm2) (N/m2) (poundal/ft2) lbf/ft2
g/cm-s-2 (dyne/cm2) 1 10-1 6.7197 x 10-2 2.0886 x 10-3
kg/m-s2 (N/m2) 10 1 6.7197 x 10-1 2.0886 x 10-2
lbm /ft-s2 (poundal/ft2) 1.4882 x 101 1.4882 1 3.1081 x 10-2
lbf/ft2 4.7880 x 102 4.7880 x 101 32.1740 1
lbf/in2 6.8947 x 104 6.8947 x 103 4.6330 x 103 144
Atmospheres (atm) 1.0133 x 105 1.0133 x 105 6.8087 x 104 2.1162 x 103
mm Hg 1.332 x 103 1.332 x 102 8.9588 x 101 2.7845
in. Hg 3.3864 x 104 3.3864 x 103 2.2756 x 103 7.0727 x 101
bar 103 102 6.720 x 104 2.088 x 103
Pa 10-2 10-3 6.720 x 10-1 2.089 x 10-2
kPa 10 1 6.720 x 102 2.089 x 101
To Convert lbf/in2 Atmospheres
From: (psi) (atm) mm Hg in. Hg
g/cm-s-2 (dyne/cm2) 1.4504 x 10-5 9.8692 x 10-7 7.5006 x 10-4 2.9530 x 10-5
kg/m-s2 (N/m2) 1.4504 x 10-4 9.8692 x 10-6 7.5006 x 10-3 2.9530 x 10-5
lbm /ft-s2 (poundal/ft2) 2.1584 x 10-4 1.4687 x 10-5 1.1162 x 10-2 2.9530 x 10-4
lbf/ft2 6.9444 x 10-3 4.7254 x 10-4 3.5913 x 10-1 1.4139 x 10-2
lbf/in2 1 6.8046 x 10-2 5.1715 x 101 2.0360
Atmospheres (atm) 14.696 1 760 29.921
mm Hg 1.9337 x 10-2 1.3158 x 10-3 1 3.9370 x 10-2
in. Hg 4.9116 x 10-1 3.3421 x 10-2 25.400 1
bar 1.450 x 10-3 9.869 x 10-1 7.5006 x 102 2.953 x 101
Pa 1.450 x 10-4 9.869 x 10-6 7.5006 x 10-3 2.953 x 10-4
kPa 1.450 x 10-3 9.869 x 10-3 7.5006 2.953 x 10-1
To Convert
From: bar Pa kPa
g/cm-s-2 (dyne/cm2) 10-3 102 10-1
kg/m-s2 (N/m2) 10-2 1.000-3 1.000
lbm /ft-s2 (poundal/ft2) 1.488 x 10-5 1.488 1.488 x 10-3
lbf/ft2 4.78803 x 10-4 4.78803 x 101 4.78803 x 10-2
lbf/in2 6.89476 x 102 6.89476 x 103 6.89476
Atmospheres (atm) 1.01325 1.01325 x 105 1.01325 X 102
mm Hg 1.33322 x 10-3 1.33322 x 102 1 .33322 x 10-1
in. Hg 3.38638 x 10-2 3.38638 x 103 3.38638
bar 1 105 100
Pa 10-5 1 10-3
kPa 10-2 103 1
APPENDIX C
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CONVERSION TABLE
Multiply by Table Values to Convert to These Units
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/AApp. C-10
C
C
To Convert g-cm-1-s-1
From: (poise) kg-m-1-s-1 lbm-ft-1-s-1 lbf-s-ft-2 lbf-s-in-2
g-cm-1-s-1 (poise) 1 10-1 6.7197 x 10-2 2.0886 x 10-3 1.4504 x 10-5
kg-m-1-s-1 10 1 6.7197 x 10-1 2.0886 x 10-2 1.4504 x 10-4
lbm-ft-1-s-1 1.4882 x 101 1.4882 1 3.1081 x 10-2 2.1584 x 10-4
lbf-s-ft-2 4.7880 x 102 4.7880 x 101 32.1740 1 6.9444 x 10-3
lbf-s-in-2 6.895 x 104 6.895 x 103 4.633 x 103 144 1
centipoise 10-2 10-3 6.7197 x 10-4 2.0886 x 10-5 1.4503 x 10-7
lbm-ft-1-hr-1 4.1338 x 10-3 4.1338 x 10-4 2.7778 x 10-4 8.6336 x 10-6 5.995 x 10-2
kgf-s-m-2 9.806 x 101 9.806 6.589 2.048 x 10-1 1.4223 x 10-3
mPa-s 10-2 10-3 6.719 x 10-4 2.089 x 10-5 1.4504 x 10-7
To Convert
From: centipoise lbm-ft-1-hr-1 kgf-s-m-2 mPa-s
g-cm-1-s-1 (poise) 102 2.4191 x 102 1.0198 x 10-2 102
kg-m-1-s-1 103 2.4191 x 103 1.020 x 10-1 103
lbm-ft-1-s-1 1.4882 x 103 3600 1.518 x 10-1 1.4882 x 103
lbf-s-ft-2 4.7880 x 104 1.1583 x 105 4.883 4.78803 x 104
lbf-s-in-2 6.895 x 106 1.668 x 101 7.0309 x 102 6.89476 x 106
centipoise 1 2.4191 1.0198 x 10-4 1
lbm-ft-1-hr-1 4.1338 x 10-1 1 4.216 x 10-5 4.1338 x 10-1
kgf-s-m-2 2 9.806 x 103 2.372 x 104 1 9.80665 x 103
mPa-s 1 2.419 1.0197 x 10-4 1
APPENDIX C ONVERSION TABLES
VISCOSITY CONVERSION TABLE
Multiply by Table Values to Convert to These Units
To Convert g-cm-s-2 kg-m-s-2 lbm-ft-s-2 U.K. U.S.
From: (dyne) (N) (poundal) lbf ton f ton f
g-cm-s-2 (dyne) 1 10-5 7.2330 x 10-5 2.2481 x 10-6 1.004 x 10-3 1.124 x 10-3
kg-m-s-2 (N) 105 1 7.2330 2.2481 x 10-1 100.4 112.4
lbm-ft-s-2 (poundal) 1.3826 x 104 1.3826 x 10-1 1 3.1081 x 10-2 1.388 x 101 1.554 x 101
lbf 4.4482 x 105 4.4482 32.1740 1 4.464 x 102 5.00 x 102
U.K. ton f 9.964 x 102 9.964 x 10-3 7.207 x 10-2 2.240 x 10-3 1 1.120
U.S. ton f 8.896 x 102 8.896 x 10-3 6.435 x 10-2 2.000 x 10-3 0.8929 1
FORCE CONVERSION TABLE
Multiply by Table Values to Convert to These Units
P.O. Box 653 • 35 Green Street, Malden, MA 02148 • Tel: (800) 343-3618, (781) 321-5409
Fax: (800) 426-7058 • Internet: http://www.asahi-america.com • Email: asahi@asahi-america.com
ASAHI/AMERICA
Rev. EDG–02/A App. C-11
CONVERSION TABLES
C
APPENDIX C
pcu/(hr) (ft2) (° C) 1 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F)
kg-cal/(hr) (m2) (° C) 0.2048 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F)
g-cal/(sec) (cm2) (° C) 7380 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F)
watts/(cm2) (° C) 1760 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F)
watts/(in2) (° F) 490 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) .1 pcu/(hr) (ft2) (° C)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 4.88 kg-cal/(hr) (m2) (° C)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 0.0001355 g-cal/(sec) (cm2) (° C)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 0.000568 watts/(cm2) (° C)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 0.00204 watts/(in2) (° F)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 0.000394 hp/(ft2) (° F)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F) 5.678 joules/(sec) (m2) (° C)
kg-cal/(hr) (m2) (° C) 1.163 joules/(sec) (m2) (° C)
watts/(m2) (° C) 1.0 joules/(sec) (m2) (° C)
To Convert From: Multiply By To Obtain
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT CONVERSION TABLE
Rankine — — lb-moles Btu 1.9872
— — lb-moles hp-hr 0.0007805
— — lb-moles kw-hr 0.0005819
atm ft3 lb-moles atm-ft3 0.7302
in. Hg ft3 lb-moles in. Hg-ft3 21.85
mm. Hg ft3 lb-moles mm. Hg-ft3 555.0
lb/in2abs ft3 lb-moles (lb) (ft3)/in2 10.73
lb/ft2abs ft3 lb-moles ft-lb 1545.0
Kelvin — — g-moles calories 1.9872
— — g-moles joules (abs) 8.3144
— — g-moles joules (int) 8.3130
atm cm3 g-moles atm-cm3 82.057
atm liters g-moles atm-liters 0.08205
mm Hg liters g-moles mm Hg-liters 62.361
bar liters g-moles bar-liters 0.08314
kg/cm2 liters g-moles kg/(cm2) (liters) 0.08478
atm ft3 lb-moles atm-ft3 1.314
mm Hg ft3 lb-moles mm Hg-ft3 998.9
— — lb-moles chu or pcu 1.9872
Temperature Pressure Volume Weight Energy
Scale Units Units Units Units R
VARIOUS VALUES OF THE IDEAL GAS LAW CONSTANT
g-cal/(sec) (cm2) (° C/cm) 2903.0 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F/in)
watts/(cm2) (° C/cm) 694.0 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F/in)
g-cal/(sec) (cm2) (° C/cm) 0.8064 Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F/in)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F/ft) 1.731 joules/(sec) (m) (° C)
Btu/(hr) (ft2) (° F/ft) 1.163 joules/(sec) (m) (° C)
To Convert From: Multiply By To Obtain
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT CONVERSION TABLE
• Chemical Processing
• Petrochemical
• Mining
• Pulp and Paper
• Plating
• Pharmaceutical
• Food
• Semiconductor Processing
• Municipal & Industrial Water
• Wastewater Treatment
• Aquariums
• Landfill Recovery
• Ultra Pure Water
• Theme Parks
• Cruise Ship Construction
• Solar Panel Manufacturing
• Ethanol Production
• Railroad Yard Switching Systems
HIGH PURITY PIPING SYSTEMS
• Purad® Ultra - High Purity PVDF
• PolyPure® - Natural PP
• PP-Pure® - Pigmented PP
• Purflon® - PFA
INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEMS
• Chem Proline® - PE
• Proline® - Industrial PP
• Super Proline® - Chem Grade PVDF
• Ultra Proline® - Halar® (E-CFTE)
AIR AND GAS HANDLING PIPING SYSTEMS
• Air-Pro® - Compressed Air
• PureVent® - PVDF Duct System
• ProVent® - PP Duct System
SINGLE WALL PIPING SYSTEMS
DOUBLE CONTAINED PIPING SYSTEMS
• Duo-Pro® - Engineered PP, PVDF & Halar® (E-CTFE)
• Chem Prolok™ - PE
• Poly-Flo® - PP and HDPE
• Pro-Lock® - PVC and CPVC
• Fluid-Lok® - HDPE
DOUBLE WALL PIPING SYSTEMS
PRODUCTS OFFERED:
OTHER PRODUCTS
• Asahi Thermoplastic Valves and Actuators
• Dymatrix™ - Specialized Wet Process Valves
• Frank Series Regulators - PVDF, PP, Halar® (E-CTFE)
• EM-Tecknik™ - Tubing System
• Polytetra™ - Heaters and Heat Exchangers
MARKETS SERVED
35 Green St., Malden, MA 02148
Tel: 800-343-3618; 781-321-5409
Direct Sales:
Fax: 800-426-7058
www.asahi-america.com
asahi@asahi-america.com
East (800) 232-7244
Central (800) 442-7244
West (800) 282-7244

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