CLYMER YAMAHA

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CLYMER
M395-10
YAMAHA
XV535-1100 VIRAGO • 1981-2003
SERVICE • REPAIR • MAINTENANCE
A PRIMEDIA Publication
CLYMER
YAMAHA
The world's finest publisher of mechanical how-to manuals
PRIMEDIA
Business Directories & Books
P.O. Box 12901, Overland Park, Kansas 66282-2901
Section One:XV700-1100 Virago • 1981-1999
Section Two: XV535 Virago • 1987-2003
Copyright ©2004 PRIMEDIA Business Magazines & Media Inc.
FIRST EDITION
First Printing February, 1986
SECOND EDITION
Revised to include 1985 and 1986 models
First Printing November, 1986
THIRD EDITION
Revised to include 1987 models
First Printing September, 1987
Second Printing April, 1988
Third Printing October, 1988
FOURTH EDITION
Revised by Ed Scott to include 1988-1990 models
First Printing First Printing February, 1991
Second Printing December, 1991
FIFTH EDITION
Revised by Ed Scott to include 1992 models
First Printing November, 1992
SIXTH EDITION
Revised by Ed Scott to include 1987-1993 XV535
models and 1993 XV750 and XVI100 models
First Printing October, 1993
Second Printing Second Printing June, 1994
SEVENTH EDITION
Revised to include 1994-1995 models
First Printing April, 1995
Second Printing March, 1996
EIGHTH EDITION
First Printing June, 1997
Second Printing January, 1998
NINTH EDITION
Revised to include 1998-1999 models
First Printing June, 1999
Second Printing August, 2000
Third Printing September, 2001
Fourth Printing November, 2002
TENTH EDITION
Revised to include 2000-2003 models
First Printing May, 2004
Printed in U.S.A.
CLYMER and colophon are registered trademarks of PRIMED1A Business Magazines & Media Inc.
ISBN: 0-89287-907-6
Library of Congress: 2004092777
MEMBER
MOTORCYCLE
INDUSTRY
COUNCIL, INC.
AUTHOR: Ed Scott.
TECHNICAL PHOTOGRAPHY: Ron Wright and Ed Scott.
TECHNICAL ILLUSTRATIONS: Steve Amos.
WIRING DIAGRAMS: Robert Caldwell.
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT: K& L Supply at www.klsupply.com.
COVER: Mark Clifford Photography, Los Angeles, California.
All rights reserved. Reproduction or use, without express permission, of editorial or pictorial content, in any manner, is prohibited. No
patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the
preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages
resulting from use of the information contained herein. Publication of the servicing information in this manual does not imply approval of
the manufacturers of the products covered.
All instructions and diagrams have been checked for accuracy and ease of application; however, success and safety in working with
tools depend to a great extent upon individual accuracy, skill and caution. For this reason, the publishers are not able to guarantee the
result of any procedure contained herein. Nor can they assume responsibility for any damage to property or injury to persons occasioned from the procedures. Persons engaging in the procedure do so entirely at their own risk.
Chapter One
General Information
Chapter Two
Troubleshooting
Chapter Three
Lubrication, Maintenance and Tune-up
Chapter Four
Engine
Chapter Five
Clutch and Transmission
Chapter Six
Fuel and Exhaust Systems
Chapter Seven
Electrical System
Chapter Eight
Front Suspension and Steering
Chapter Nine
Rear Suspension
Chapter Ten
Brakes
Chapter Eleven
Suspension Adjustment
Index
Wiring Diagrams
CLYMER.
Publisher Shawn Etheridge
EDITORIAL
Managing Editor
James Grooms
Associate Editor
Jason Beaver
Lee Buell
Technical Writers
Jay Bogart
Michael Morlan
George Parise
Mark Rolling
Ed Scott
Ron Wright
Editorial Production Manager
Dylan Goodwin
Senior Production Editor
Greg Araujo
Production Editors
Holly Messinger
Shara Pierceall
Darin Watson
Associate Production Editor
Susan Hartington
Julie Jantzer
Justin Marciniak
Technical Illustrators
Steve Amos
Errol McCarthy
Mitzi McCarthy
Bob Meyer
Mike Rose
MARKETING/SALES AND ADMINISTRATION
Advertising & Promotions Manager
Elda Starke
Advertising & Promotions Coordinators '
Melissa Abbott
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Art Director
Chris Paxton
Sales Managers
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Business Manager
Ron Rogers
Customer Service Manager
Terri Cannon
Customer Service Supervisor
Ed McCarty
Customer Service Representatives
Shawna Davis
Courtney Hollars '",-•
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PRIMEDIA
Business Magazines & Media
P.O. Box 12901, Overland Park, KS 66282-2901 • 800-262-1954 • 913-967-1719
The following books and guides are published by PRIMEDIA Business Directories & Books.
CLYMER.
More information available at primediabooks.com
CLYMER
The XV535 Virago 1987-2003 models
are covered in Section Two of this book.
YAMAHA
Section One:XV700-1100 Virago • 1981-1999
CONTENTS— Section One
XV700-1100 Virago • 1981-1999
QUICK REFERENCE DATA IX
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INFORMATION 1
Operating requirements
Troubleshooting instruments
Emergency troubleshooting
Engine starting
Engine performance
Engine noises
Excessive vibration
Clutch
Transmission
Front suspension and steering
Brake problems
Electrical problems
Ignition system
Lubrication
Maintenance
Drive chain
Tune-up
Manual organization
Service hints
Torque specifications
Safety first
Special tips
Expendable supplies
Parts replacement
Serial numbers
Basic hand tools
Tune-up and troubleshooting tools
Mechanic's tips
CHAPTER TWO
TROUBLESHOOTING 16
CHAPTER THREE
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 20
Routine checks
Maintenance intervals
Tires and wheels
Battery
CHAPTER FOUR
ENGINE 56
Engine principles
Servicing in frame
Engine removal/installation
Cylinder heads and camshafts
Valves and valve components
Rocker arm assemblies
Cylinder
Pistons and piston rings
Oil pump/strainer
Oil pressure relief valve
Oil level switch
Neutral switch
Timing gears
Primary drive gear
Crankcase
Crankshaft and connecting rods
Middle drive gear
Starter gears
Break-in
Clutch
Clutch cable
Drive sprocket
CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 100
Shift mechanism
Transmission
Shift drum and forks
Air cleaner
Carburetors
Coasting enrichener system
Fuel level measurement
Choke cable adjustment
Rejetting carburetors
Throttle cable replacement
Choke cable replacement
CHAPTER SIX
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 116
Fuel shutoff valve
Fuel filter
Fuel pump
Fuel tank
Crankcase breather system
Mixture control valve
Air induction system
Exhaust system
CHAPTER SEVEN
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 145
Charging system
Alternator
Voltage regulator/rectifier
Ignition system
Ignitor unit
Ignition coil
Pickup coil
Spark plugs
Pressure sensor
Starting system
Electrical components
Lighting system
Switches
Computerized monitor system
Fuel pump testing
Fuel warning light system
Horn
Fuses
Front wheel
Front hub
Wheel balance
Wire wheel service
Tire changing
CHAPTER EIGHT
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 190
Tire repairs
Handlebar
Handlebar adjustment
Steering head
Front fork
Rear wheel
Rear hub
Clutch hub
Drive chain assembly
Wheel balancing
CHAPTER NINE
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 216
Tire changing
Final shaft drive unit
Swing arm
Shock absorbers
CHAPTER TEN
BRAKES 233
Front brake disc
Rear drum brake
Rear brake pedal assembly
Bleeding the system
CHAPTER ELEVEN
SUSPENSION ADJUSTMENT 250
Front disc brake
Master cylinder
Front brake pad replacement
Front caliper
Front brake hose replacement
INDEX 255
WIRING DIAGRAMS 257
Front fork Rear shock absorbers
QUICK REFERENCE DATA
XV700-1100
FUSES
Main
XV920J,XV1100
All others
Headlight
Signal
Ignition
Tail
Reserve
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
XV920J
All other models
Amperage
30
20
15
15
10
10
20
30
Not specified.
APPROXIMATE REFILL CAPACITIES
Engine oil
With filter change
Without filter change
Engine rebuild
Front fork
XV700 (1984-1985)
XV700 (1986-1987)
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750 (1988-1994)
XV920 (1981-1982 chain drive)
XV920 (1982-1983 shaft drive)
XV1000,XV1100
Final gear case (if so equipped)
3.3 quarts (3,100 cc)
3.2 quarts (3,000 cc)
3.8 quarts (3,600 cc) *'
13.2 oz. (389 cc)
13.4 oz. (396 cc)
9.4 oz. (278 cc)
13.4 oz. (396 cc)
8.9 oz. (264 cc)
10.2 oz. (303 cc)
12.6 oz. (372 cc)
0.21 qt. (200 cc)
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
Engine oil
40° F and above
40° F and below
Brake fluid
Battery refilling
Fork oil
Cables and pivot points
Fuel
Final gear oil (if so equipped)
All weather
Above 40° F
Below 40° F
Drive chain (if so equipped)
SAE 20W/40, SE-SF
SAE10W/30,SE-SF
DOT 3 or DOT 4
Distilled water
SAE 10
Yamaha chain and cable lube or
SAE 10W/30 motor oil ,
Regular /
/
SAE 80W/90, GL4 /
SA 90, GL4 /
SAE 80, GL4
Shell Aivania 1 or
lithium-base EP2 grease
XI
TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE (COLD)
Load
Up to 1981b. (90 kg)
Front
Rear
198-353 Ib. (90-160 kg)
Front
Rear
353-529 !b. (160-240 kg)
Front
Rear
198-470 Ib. (90-213 kg)
Front
Rear
High-speed riding
Front
Rear
XV700, XV750,
XV1000.XV1100
psi (kg/cm2)
26(1.8)
28 (2.0)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
40 (2.8)


32 (2.3)
36 (2.5)
XV920
psi (kg/cm2)
26(1.8)
28 (2.0)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
REPLACEMENT BULBS
Item
Headlight
Tail/brakelight
Meter light
XV920J
All other models
Indicator lights
1981-1983
1984-on
License light
XV750
XV920J
All other models
Flasher/running light
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV920J
All other models
Wattage
12V60/55W
12V8/27W
12V 2W
12V3.4W
12V3.4W
12V4.0W
12V 8W
12V3.8W
Not specified
12V27W
12V27WX4/8W
Not specified
TUNE-UP
Ignition timing
Valve clearance (cold)
1981-1983
Intake
Exhaust
1984-on
Intake
Exhaust
Spark plug
Type
Gap
Tightening torque
Idle speed
Compression pressure (warm @ sea level)
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
Maximum difference between cylinders:
SPECIFICATIONS
Fixed
0.004 in. (0.10 mm)
0.006 in. (0.15 mm)
0.003-0.005 in. (0.07-0.10 mm)
0.006 in. (0.15 mm)
NGK BP7ES
0.028-0.032 in. (0.7-0.8 mm)
14.5ft.-lb. (20N«m)
950-1,050 rpm
156 psi (11 kg/cm2)
128 psi (9 kg/cm2)
171 psi (12 kg/cm2)
14 psi (1.0 kg/cm2)
XII
INTRODUCTION
This portion of this detailed and comprehensive manual
covers all 1981-1999 Yamaha XV700-XV1100 V-Twins.
Two versions of the Model 920 have been produced,
chain-driven and shaft-driven. The Euro-style, chain-drive
models were offered in 1981 and 1982 and are identified
by an R preceeding the model number. In addition, Yamaha
also offered a shaft-driven Model 920 during 1982. For
1983, however, all 920 models, including all other models
covered in this manual, are shaft-driven.
The expert text contained within this manual gives
complete information on maintenance, tune-up, repair and
overhaul. Hundreds of photos and drawings guide you
through every step. The book includes all you need to
know to keep your Yamaha running right.
Where repairs are practical for the owner/mechanic,
complete procedures are given. Equally important, difficult jobs are pointed out. Such operations are usually more
economically performed by a dealer or independent garage.
A shop manual is a reference. You want to be able to
find information fast. As in all Clymer books, this one is
designed with this in mind. All chapters are thumb tabbed.
Important items are extensively indexed at the rear of the
book. All the most frequently used specifications and
capacities are summarized on the Quick Reference pages
at the front of the book.
Keep the book handy in your tool box and take it with
you on long trips. It will help you to better understand your
Yamaha, lower repair and maintenance costs and generally improve your satisfaction with your bike.
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INFORMATION
This detailed, comprehensive manual covers
Yamaha XV700-1100 models. The expert text gives
complete information on maintenance, tune-up, repair and overhaul. The book includes all you need to
know to keep your Yamaha running right.
A shop manual is a reference. You want to be able
to find information fast. As in all Clymer books, this
one is designed with you in mind. All chapters are
thumb-tabbed. Important items are extensively indexed at the rear of the book. All procedures, tables,
photos, etc., in this manual assume that the reader
may be working on the bike or using this manual for
the first time. All the most frequently used specifications and capacities are summarized in the Quick
Reference Data pages at die front of the book.
Keep the book handy in your tool box. It will help
you to better understand how your Yamaha runs,
lower repair and maintenance costs and generally
improve your satisfaction witli the bike.
Table 1 lists engine serial numbers for 1981-1996
models. Table 2 lists the primary identification numbers for 1997-1999 models. Table 3 lists general
specifications. Tables 1-4 are at the end of this
chapter.
MANUAL ORGANIZATION
All dimensions and capacities are expressed in
English units familiar to U.S. mechanics as well as
in metric units.
This chapter provides general information and
discusses equipment and tools useful both for preventative maintenance and troubleshooting.
Chapter Two provides methods and suggestions
for quick and accurate diagnosis and repair of problems. Troubleshooting procedures discuss typical
symptoms and logical methods to pinpoint the
trouble.
Chapter Three explains all periodic lubrication
and routine maintenance necessary to keep your
Yamaha running well. Chapter Three also includes
recommended tune-up procedures, eliminating the
need to constantly consult chapters on the various
assemblies.
Subsequent chapters describe specific systems
such as the engine, clutch, transmission, fuel, exhaust, suspension, steering and brakes. Each chapter
provides disassembly, repair and assembly procedures in simple step-by-step form. If a repair is
impractical for a home mechanic, it is so indicated.
It is usually faster and less expensive to take such
repairs to a dealer or competent repair shop. Specifications concerning a particular system are included
at the end of the appropriate chapter.
Some of the procedures in this manual specify
special tools. In most cases, the tool is illustrated
either in actual use or alone. Well equipped mechanics may find tiiey can substitute similar tools already
on hand or fabricate their own.
CHAPTER ONE
The terms NOTE, CAUTION and WARNING
have specific meanings in this manual. A NOTE
provides additional information to make a step or
procedure easier or clearer. Disregarding a NOTE
could cause inconvenience, but would not cause
equipment damage or personal injury.
A CAUTION emphasizes areas where
equipment damage could result. Disregarding a
CAUTION could cause permanent mechanical
damage; however, personal injury is unlikely.
A WARNING emphasizes areas where personal
injury or even death could result from negligence.
Mechanical damage may also occur. WARNINGS
are to be taken seriously. In some cases, serious
injury and death have resulted from disregarding
similar warnings.
Throughout this manual keep in mind 2
conventions. "Front" refers to the front of the
Yamaha. The front of any component, such as the
engine, is the end which faces toward the front of
the vehicle. The "left-" and "right-hand" sides refer
to the position of the parts as viewed by a rider
sitting on the seat facing forward. For example, the
throttle control is on the right-hand side and the
clutch lever is on the left-hand side. These rules are
simple, but even experienced mechanics
occasionally become disoriented.
SERVICE HINTS
Most of the service procedures covered are
straightforward and can be performed by anyone
reasonably handy with tools. It is suggested,
however, that you consider your own capabilities
carefully before attempting any operation
involving major disassembly of the engine.
Some operations, for example, require the use of
a press. It would be wiser to have these operations
performed by a shop equipped for such work,
rather than to try to do the job yourself with
makeshift equipment. Other procedures require
precise measurements. Unless you have the skills
and equipment required, it would be better to have
a qualified repair shop make the measurements for
you.
There are many items available that can be used
on your hands before and after working on your
bike. A little preparation prior to getting "all
greased up" will help during clean-up.
Before starting out, work Vaseline, soap or a
product such as Pro-Tek (Figure 1) onto your
forearms, into your hands and under your
fingernails and cuticles. This will make clean-up a
lot easier.
For clean-up, use a waterless hand soap such as
Sta-Lube and then finish up with powered Boraxo
and a fingernail brush.
Repairs go much faster and easier if your
machine is clean before you begin work. There are
many special cleaners, such as Gunk or Bel-Ray
Degreaser (Figure 2), for washing the engine and
related parts. Just follow the manufacturer's
directions on the container for the best results.
Then rinse it away with a heavy spray of water
from a garden hose. Clean all oily or greasy parts
with cleaning solvent as you remove them.
WARNING
Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent.
It presents an extreme fire hazard. Be
sure to work in a well-ventilated area
when using cleaning solvent. Keep afire
extinguisher, rated for gasoline fires,
handy in any case.
Special tools are required for some repair
procedures. These may be purchased at a dealer,
rented from a tool rental shop or fabricated by a
mechanic or machinist (often at considerable
savings).
Much of the labor charges for repairs made by
dealers are for the labor hours involved during the
removal, disassembly, assembly and installation of
other parts in order to reach the defective part. It is
frequently possible to perform the preliminary
operations yourself and then take the defective unit
to the dealer for repair.
Once you have decided to tackle the job yourself,
read the entire section in this manual which
pertains to the job, making sure you have identified
the proper section. Study the illustrations and text
until you have a good idea of what is involved in
completing the job satisfactorily. If special tools or
replacement parts are required, make
arrangements to get them before you start. It is
frustrating and time-consuming to get partly into a
job and then be unable to complete it.
Simple wiring checks can be easily made at
home, but knowledge of electronics is almost a
2
GENERAL INFORMATION 3
necessity for performing tests with complicated
electronic testing gear.
During disassembly keep a few general cautions
in mind. Force is rarely needed to get things apart.
If parts are a tight fit, such as a bearing in a case,
there is usually a tool designed to separate them.
Never use a screwdriver to pry apart parts with
machined surfaces such as crankcase halves. You
will mar the surfaces and end up with leaks.
Make diagrams (or take an instant picture)
wherever similar-appearing parts are found. For
instance, crankcase bolts are often not the same
length. You may think you can remember where
everything came from, but mistakes are costly.
There is also the possibility that you may be
sidetracked and not return to work for days or even
weeks and the carefully laid out parts may get
moved.
Tag all similar internal parts for location and
mark all mating parts for position. Record number
and thickness of any shims as they are removed.
Small parts such as bolts can be identified by
placing them in plastic sandwich bags. Seal and
label them with masking tape.
Wiring should be tagged with masking tape
marked as each wire is removed. Again, do not rely
on memory alone.
Protect finished surfaces from physical damage
or corrosion. Keep gasoline and hydraulic (brake)
fluid off painted surfaces.
Frozen or very tight bolts and screws can often
be loosened by soaking with a penetrating oil, such
as WD-40 or Liquid Wrench, then striking the bolt
head sharply with a hand impact driver. Avoid
heat unless absolutely necessary, since it may melt,
warp or remove the temper from many parts.
No parts, except those assembled with a press fit,
require unusual force during assembly. If a part is
hard to remove or install, find out why before
proceeding.
Cover all openings after removing parts to keep
dirt, small tools, etc., from falling in.
When assembling 2 parts, start all fasteners, then
tighten evenly.
Wiring connections and brake shoes should be
kept clean and free of grease and oil.
When assembling parts, be sure all shims and
washers are installed exactly as they came out.
Whenever a rotating part butts against a
stationary part, look for a shim or washer. Use new
gaskets if there is any doubt about the condition of
the old ones. A thin coat of oil on non-pressure
type gaskets may help them seal more effectively.
Heavy grease can be used to hold small parts in
place if they tend to fall out during assembly.
However, keep grease and oil away from electrical
and brake components.
High spots may be sanded off a piston with
sandpaper, but fine emery cloth and oil will do a
much more professional job.
Carbon can be removed from the head, the
piston crowns and the exhaust ports with a dull
screwdriver. Do not scratch the surface. Wipe off
the surface with a clean cloth when finished.
The carburetors are best cleaned by
disassembling them and soaking the parts in a
commercial carburetor cleaner. Never soak gaskets
and rubber parts in these cleaners. Never use wire
to clean out jets and air passages; they are easily
damaged. Use compressed air to blow out the
carburetor after the float has been removed.
A baby bottle makes a good measuring device
for adding oil to the front forks and final drive. Get
one that is graduated in fluid ounces and cubic
centimeters. After it has been used for this purpose,
do not let a small child drink out of it as there will
always be an oil residue in it.
Take your time and do the job right. Do not
forget that a newly rebuilt engine must be broken
in in the same manner as a new one. Keep the rpm
within the limits given in your owner's manual
when you get back on the road.
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Torque specifications throughout this manual
are given in foot-pounds (ft.-lb.) and Newton
Meters (N«m). Newton meters are being adopted in
place of meter kilograms (mkg) in accordance with
the International Modernized Metric System. Tool
manufacturers now offer torque wrenches
calibrated in Newton meters.
Existing torque wrenches calibrated in meter
kilograms can be used by performing a simple
4 CHAPTER ONE
conversion. All you have to do is move the decimal
point one place to the right; for example, 4.7 mkg =
47 N«m. This conversion is sufficient for use in this
manual even though the exact mathematical conversion is 3.5 mkg = 34.3 N.m.
General torque specifications are listed in the individual chapters. For those components that are not
listed, refer to Table 2 for a general listing of nut and
bolt tightening torques. To use the table, first determine the size of the nut or bolt. Figure 3 and Figure
4 show how this is done.
SAFETY FIRST
Professional mechanics can work for years and
never sustain a serious injury. If you observe a few
rules of common sense and safety, you can enjoy
many safe hours servicing your own machine. If you
ignore these rules you can hurt yourself or damage
the bike.
1. Never use gasoline as a cleaning solvent.
2. Never smoke or use a torch in the vicinity of
flammable liquids, such as cleaning solvent, in open
containers.
3. If welding or brazing is required on the machine,
remove the fuel tank(s) (and any gas-filled shock
absorber) to a safe distance, at least 50 feet away.
4. Use the proper sized wrenches to avoid damage
to nuts and injury to yourself.
5. When loosening a tight or stuck nut, think about
what would happen if the wrench should slip. Be
careful; protect yourself accordingly.
6. Keep your work area clean and uncluttered.
7. Wear safety goggles during all operations involving drilling, grinding or using a cold chisel.
8. Wear safety goggles when using chemicals, such
as solvent, and when using compressed air to clean
and dry parts.
9. Never use worn-out tools.
10. Keep a fire extinguisher handy; be sure it is rated
for gasoline and electrical fires.
SPECIAL TIPS
Because of the extreme demands placed on a bike,
several points should be kept in mind when performing service and repair. The following items are general suggestions that may improve the overall life of
the machine and help avoid costly failures.
1. Use a locking compound, such as Loctite 242, on
all bolts and nuts, even if they are secured with
lockwashers. This type of Loctite does not harden
completely and allows easy removal of the bolt or
nut. A screw or bolt lost from an engine cover or
bearing retainer could easily cause serious and expensive damage before its loss is noticed.
When applying Loctite, use a small amount. If too
much is used, it can work its way down the threads
and stick parts together not meant to be stuck.
2. Use a hammer-driven impact driver to remove
tight screws, particularly engine cover screws. These
tools help prevent the rounding off of screw heads
and ensure a tight installation.
3. When straightening out the "fold-over" type
lockwasher (usually used on the clutch nut), use a
wide-blade chisel such as an old, dull wood chisel.
Such a tool provides better contact on the folded tab,
making straightening out easier.
4. When installing the "fold-over" type lockwasher,
always use a new washer if possible. If a new washer
is not available, always fold over a part of the washer
that has not been previously folded.
Reusing the same fold may cause the washer to
break, resulting in the loss of its locking ability and
a loose piece of metal adrift in the engine.
When folding the washer over, start the fold with
a screwdriver and finish it with a pair of pliers. If a
punch is used to make the fold, the fold may be too
sharp, thereby increasing the chances of the washer
breaking under stress.
These washers are relatively inexpensive and it is
suggested that you keep several of each size in your
tool box for field repairs.
5. When replacing missing or broken fasteners
(nuts, bolts and screws), especially on the engine or
frame components, always use Yamaha replacement
parts. They are specially hardened for each application. The wrong 50-cent bolt could easily cause
serious damage and rider injury.
GENERAL INFORMATION 5
6. When installing gaskets in the engine, always
use Yamaha replacement gaskets without sealer,
unless designated. These gaskets are designed to
swell when they come in contact with oil. Gasket
sealer will prevent the gaskets from swelling as
intended, which can result in oil leaks. These
Yamaha gaskets are cut from material of the
precise thickness needed. Installation of a too thick
or too thin gasket in a critical area could cause
engine damage.
EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES
Certain expendable supplies are required. These
include grease, oil, gasket cement, shop rags and
cleaning solvent (Figure 5). Ask your dealer for the
special locking compounds, silicone lubricants and
lube products which make maintenance simpler
and easier. Cleaning solvent is available at some
service stations.
PARTS REPLACEMENT
Yamaha makes frequent changes during a model
year, some minor, some relatively major. When
you order parts from the dealer or other parts
distributor, always order by engine and frame
number. Write the numbers down and carry them
with you. Compare new parts to old before
purchasing them. If they are not alike, have the
parts manager explain the difference to you.
SERIAL NUMBERS
You must know the model serial number for
registration purposes and when ordering
replacement parts.
The frame serial number and the vehicle
identification number (VIN) are stamped on the
right-hand side of the steering head. The engine
number is located on the lower right-hand side of
the crankcase.
BASIC HAND TOOLS
A number of tools are required to maintain your
Yamaha in top riding condition. You may already
have some around for other work like home or car
repairs. There are also tools made especially for
bike repairs; these you will have to purchase. In
any case, a wide variety of quality tools will make
bike repairs more effective and easier.
Top quality tools are essential; they are also
more economical in the long run. If you are now
starting to build your tool collection, stay away
from the "advertised specials" featured at some
parts houses, discount stores and chain drug stores.
These are usually a poor grade tool that can be sold
cheaply and that is exactly what they are—cheap.
They are usually made of inferior material and are
thick, heavy and clumsy. Their rough finish makes
them difficult to clean and they usually don't last
very long. Also be careful when lending tools to
"friends"—make sure they return tools promptly; if
not, your collection will soon disappear.
Quality tools are made of alloy steel and are heat
treated for greater strength. They are lighter and
better balanced than cheap ones. Their surface is
smooth, making them a pleasure to work with and
easy to clean. The initial cost of good quality tools
may be more but it is cheaper in the long run.
Don't try to buy everything in all sizes in the
beginning; do it a little at a time until you have the
necessary tools.
Keep your tools clean and in a tool box. Keep
them organized with the sockets and related drives
together, the open-end and box wrenches together,
etc. After using a tool, wipe off dirt and grease with
a clean cloth and put the tool in its correct place.
Doing this will save a lot of time you would have
spent trying to find a socket buried in a bunch of
clutch parts.
The following tools are required to perform
virtually any repair job on a bike. Each tool is
6 CHAPTER ONE
described and the recommended size given for starting a tool collection. Table 4 includes all the tools
that should be on hand for simple home repairs or
major overhauls. Additional tools and some duplications may be added as you become more familiar
with the bike. Almost all motorcycles and bikes
(with the exception of the U.S.-built Harley and
some English bikes) use metric-size bolts and nuts.
If you are starting your collection now, buy metric
sizes.
Screwdrivers
The screwdriver is a very basic tool, but if used
improperly it will do more damage than good. The
slot on a screw has a definite dimension and shape.
A screwdriver must be selected to conform with
that shape. Use a small screwdriver for small
screws and a large one for large screws or the screw
head will be damaged.
Two basic types of screwdriver are required to
repair the bike—a common (flat blade) screwdriver
and the Phillips screwdriver.
Screwdrivers are available in sets which often
include an assortment of common and Phillips
blades. If you buy them individually, buy at least
the following:
a. Common screwdriver—5/16X6 in. blade.
b. Common screwdriver—3/8X12 in. blade.
c. Phillips screwdriver—size 2 tip, 6 in. blade.
Use screwdrivers only for driving screws. Never
use a screwdriver for prying or chiseling. Do not
try to remove a Phillips or Allen head screw with a
common screwdriver; you can damage the head so
that the proper tool will be unable to remove it.
Keep screwdrivers in the proper condition and
they will last longer and perform better. Always
keep the tip of a common screwdriver in good
condition. Figure 6 shows how to grind the tip to
the proper shape if it becomes damaged. Note the
parallel sides of the tip.
Pliers
Pliers come in a wide range of types and sizes.
Pliers are useful for cutting, bending and crimping.
They should never be used to cut hardened objects
or to turn bolts or nuts. Figure 7 shows several
pliers useful in bike repairs.
Each type of pliers has a specialized function.
Gas pliers are general purpose pliers used mainly
for holding things and for bending. Locking pliers
are used as pliers or to hold objects very tight like
in a vise. Needlenose pliers are used to hold or
bend small objects. Channel lock pliers can be
adjusted to hold various sizes of objects; the jaws
remain parallel to grip around objects such as pipe
GENERAL INFORMATION 7
or tubing. There are many more types of pliers.
The ones described here are the most commomly
needed for bike repairs.
Box and Open-end Wrenches
Box and open-end wrenches are available in sets
or separately in a variety of sizes. See Figure 8 and
Figure 9. The size number stamped near the end
refers to the distance between 2 parallel flats on the
hex head bolt or nut.
Box wrenches are usually superior to open-end
wrenches. An open-end wrench grips the nut on
only 2 flats. Unless it fits well, it may slip and
round off the points on the nut. The box wrench
grips on all 6 flats. Both 6-point and 12-point
openings are available on box wrenches. The
6-point gives superior holding power; the 12-point
allows a shorter swing.
Combination wrenches which are open on one
side and boxed on the other are also available.
Both ends are the same size.
Adjustable (Crescent) Wrench
An adjustable wrench (also called Crescent
wrench) can be adjusted to fit nearly any nut or
bolt head. See Figure 10. However, it can loosen
and slip, causing damage to the nut and maybe to
your knuckles. Use an adjustable wrench only
when other wrenches are not available.
Crescent wrenches come in sizes ranging from
4-18 in. overall. A 6 or 8 in. wrench is
recommended as an all-purpose wrench.
Socket Wrenches
This type is undoubtedly the fastest, safest and
most convenient to use. See Figure 11. Sockets
which attach to a ratchet handle are available with
6-point or 12-pomt openings and 1/4, 3/8 and 3/4
inch drives. The drive size indicates the size of the
square hole which mates with the ratchet handle.
The 3/8 inch drive is most commonly used for bike
repair.
Torque Wrench
A torque wrench is used with a socket to
measure how tight a nut or bolt is installed. They
come in a wide price range and with either 3/8 or
1/2 in. square drive. The drive size indicates the
size of the square drive which mates with the
socket. Purchase one that measures 0-100 ft.-lb.
(0-140 NTn).
Impact Driver
This tool might have been designed with the
motorcyclist in mind. See Figure 12. It makes
8 CHAPTER ONE
removal of engine and clutch parts easy and
eliminates damage to bolts and screw slots. This
tool is available at most large hardware,
motorcycle or auto parts stores.
Circlip Pliers
Circlip pliers (sometimes referred to as snap ring
pliers) are necessary to remove the circlips used on
the transmission shaft assemblies. See Figure 13.
Hammers
The correct hammer is necessary for bike
repairs. Use only a hammer with a face (or head) of
rubber or plastic or the soft-faced type that is filled
with buckshot. These are sometimes necessary in
engine teardowns. Never use a metal-faced hammer
on the bike as severe damage will result in most
cases. You can always produce the same amount of
force with a soft-faced hammer.
Ignition Gauge
This tool has both flat and wire measuring
gauges and is used to measure spark plug gap. See
Figure 14. This device is available at most auto or
motorcycle supply stores.
Vernier Caliper
This tool is invaluable when reading inside,
outside, depth and step measurements to close
precision in either metric or inch scales. Some
calipers are manufactured with both scales. The
vernier caliper can be purchased from large dealers
or mail order houses. See Figure 15.
Other Special Tools
A few other special tools may be required for
major service. These are described in the
appropriate chapters and are available either from
a Yamaha dealer or other manufacturers as
indicated.
TUNE-UP AND
TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
Multimeter or VOM
This instrument (Figure 16) is invaluable for
electrical system troubleshooting and service. A
few of its functions may be duplicated by
homemade test equipment, but for the serious
mechanic it is a must. Its uses are described in the
applicable sections of this book.
Compression Gauge
An engine with low compression cannot be
properly tuned and will not develop full power. A
compression gauge measures engine compression.
The one shown in Figure 17 has a flexible stem
which enables it to reach cylinders where little
clearance exists between the cylinder head and
frame.
GENERAL INFORMATION 9
Strobe Timing Light
This instrument is necessary for tuning. By
flashing a light at the precise instant the spark plug
fires, the position of the timing mark can be seen.
Under the flashing light marks on the alternator
flywheel line up with the stationary mark on the
crankcase while the engine is running.
Suitable lights range from inexpensive neon bulb
types to powerful xenon strobe lights. See Figure
18. Neon timing lights are difficult to see and must
be used in dimly lit areas. Xenon strobe timing
lights can be used outside in bright sunlight. Both
types work on the Yamaha; use according to the
manufacturer's instructions.
Portable Tachometer
A portable tachometer is necessary for tuning.
See Figure 19. Ignition timing and carburetor
adjustments must be performed at the specified
engine speed. The best instrument for this purpose
is one with a low range of 0-1,000 or 0-2,000 rpm
and a high range of 0-4,000 rpm. Extended range
(0-6,000 or 0-8,000 rpm) instruments lack accuracy
at lower speeds. The instrument should be capable
of detecting changes of 25 rpm on the low range.
MECHANIC'S TIPS
Removing Frozen Nuts and Screws
When a fastener rusts and cannot be removed,
several methods may be used to loosen it. First,
apply penetrating oil such as Liquid Wrench or
WD-40 (available at hardware or auto supply
stores). Apply it liberally and let it penetrate for
10-15 minutes. Rap the fastener several times with
a small hammer; do not hit it hard enough to cause
damage.
For frozen screws, apply penetrating oil as
described, then insert a screwdriver in the slot and
rap the top of the screwdriver with a hammer. This
loosens the rust so the screw can be removed in the
normal way. If the screw head is too chewed up to
use this method, grip the head with locking pliers
and twist the screw out.
Remedying Stripped Threads
Occasionally, threads are stripped through
carelessness or impact damage. Often the threads
can be cleaned up by running a tap (for internal
threads on nuts) or die (for external threads on
bolts) through the threads. See Figure 20. To clean
or repair spark plug threads, a spark plug tap can
be used (Figure 21).
Removing Broken Screws or Bolts
When the head breaks off a screw or bolt, several
methods are available for removing the remaining
portion.
10 CHAPTER ONE
If a large portion of the remainder projects out,
try gripping it with locking pliers. If the projecting
portion is too small, file it to fit a wrench or cut a
slot in it to fit a screwdriver. See Figure 22.
If the head breaks off flush, use a screw extractor.
To do this, centerpunch the exact center of the
remaining porton of the screw or bolt. Drill a small
hole in the screw and tap the extractor into the
hole. Back the screw out with a wrench on the
extractor. See Figure 23.
GENERAL INFORMATION 11
Table 1 ENGINE SERIAL NUMBERS (1981-1996)
Model number
and year
1981
XV750H
XV920RH
1982
XV750J
XV920J
XV920RJ
1983
XV750K
XV750MK
XV920K
XV920MK
1984
XV700L
XV700LC
XV1000L
XV1000LC
1985
XV700N
XV700NC
XV1000N
XV1000NC
1986
XV700SS
XV700SSC
XV700CS
XV700CSC
XV1100S
XV1100SC
1987
XV700ST
XV700STC
XV700CT
XV700CTC
XV1100T
XV1100TC
1988
XV750U
XV750UC
XV1100U
XV1100UC
1989
XV750W
XV750WC
XV1100W
XV1100WC
1990
XV750A
XV750AC
XV1100A
XV1100AC
Engine serial No.
start to end
4X7-000101 to 4X7-200100
5H1-000101 to 5H1-100100
4X7-200101 to 4X7-300100
10L-000101 to *
5H1-100101 to *
4X7-300101 to *
20X-000101 to *
24M-000101 to *
27Y-000101 to *
42W-000101 to *
42X-000101 to *
42G-000101 to *
42H-000101 to *
56E-000101 to *
56F-000101 to *
56V-000101 to *
56W-000101 to *
1RR-000101 to 1RR-010100
1TU-000101 to 1TU-005100
1RM-000101 to 1RM-014100
1RV-000101 to 1RV-015100
1TE-000101 to 1TE-015100
1TA-000101 to 1TA-005100
1RR-010101 to *
1TU-005101 to *
1RM-014101 to *
1RV-005101 to *
1TE-015101 to *
1TA-005101 to *
3AL-000101 to *
3CM-000101 to *
1TE-029101 to *
1TA-007101 to *
3AL-007101 to *
3CM-002101 to *
1TE-035101 to *
1TA-009101 to *
3AL-01301 to *
3CM-005101 to *
1TE-040101 to *
1TA-012101 to *
(continued)
12 CHAPTER ONE
Table 1 ENGINE
Models number
and year
1991
XV750B
XV750BC
XV1100B
XV1100BC
1992
XV750D
XV750DC
XV1100D
XV1100DC
1993
XV750E
XV750EC
XV1100E
XV1100EC
1994
XV750F
XV750FC
XV1100F
XV1100FC
1995
XV750G
XV750GC
XV1100G
XV1100GC
1996
XV700H1 3JLN (except California)
XV750HC1 3JLP (California)
XV1100H 3JKR (except California)
XV1100HC 3JKN (California)
XV1100SH 3JKS (except California)
XV1100SHC 3JKT (California)
* Not specified
SERIAL NUMBER (1981-1996) (continued)
Engine serial No.
start to end
3AL-019101 t o *
3CM-007101 t o *
1TE-043101 t o *
1TA-014101 t o *
3AL-024101 t o *
3CM-008101 t o *
1TE-047101 t o *
1TA-015101 t o *
3AL-029101 t o *
3AL-009101 t o *
1TE-050101 t o *
1TE-016101 t o *
3AL-034101 t o *
3AL-014101 t o *
1TE-054101 t o *
1TE-020101 t o *
3AL-039101 t o *
3CM-015101 t o *
1TE-059101 t o *
1TA-021101 t o *
3AL-047101-on
3CM-017101-on
1TE-064101-on
1TA-022101-on
1TE-069101-on
1TA-024101-on
Table 2 STARTING PRIMARY IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (1997-1999)*
Models number
and year
1997
XV750J
XV1100J
XV1100SJ
1998
XV1100KC
XV1100K
XV1100SKC
XV1100SK
1999
XV1100L
XV1100LC
* The primary identification
Primary identification
number
3AL-000001
1TE-000001
1TE-000001
1TA-026801
1TW-080657
1TA-026931
1TE-082119
1TA-087636
1TA-027421
number is derived from the frame/VIN number.
GENERAL INFORMATION 13
Table 3 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS -A't
Engine type
Bore and stroke
XV700
XV750
XV920
XV1000
XV1100
Displacement
XV700
XV750
XV920
XV1000
XV1100
Compression ratio
XV700
XV750
XV920,XV1000, XV1100
Ignition
Carburetion
Air filter
Fuel type
Fuel tank capacity
XV700 (1984-1985)
Reserve
XV700 (1986-1987)
Reserve
XV750
Reserve
XV920RH, RJ
Reserve
XV920J, K, MK
Reserve
XV1000
Reserve
XV1100
Reserve
Clutch
Transmission
Transmission ratios
1981-1983
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
1984-1985
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
1986-on
XV700, XV750
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Air cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, V-twin
3.16 x 2.72 in. (80.2 x 69.2 mm)
3.27 x 2.72 in. (83 x 69.2 mm)
3.62 x 2.72 in. (92 x 69.2 mm)
3.74 x 2.72 in. (95 x 69.2 mm)
3.74 x 2.95 in. (95 x 75 mm)
42.64 cu. in. (699 cc)
45.64 cu. in. (748 cc)
56.14 cu. in. (920 cc)
59.86 cu. in. (981 cc)
64.86 cu. in. (1,063 cc)
9.0:1
8.7:1
8.3:1
Transistor control ignition (TCI)
2 Hitachi carburetors
Dry type element
Gasoline: regular
3.3 gal. (12.5 I)
0.6 gal. (2.51)
3.9 gal. (14.71)
0.6 gal. (2.5I I)
3.2 gal. (121)
0.7 gal. (2.61)
5.0 gal. (191)
0.8 gal. (3.21)
3.8 gal. (14.5 I)
0.5 gal. (2.01)
3.8 gal. (14.51)
0.79 gal. (3.01)
4.4 gal. (16.8 I)
0.79 gal. (3.01)
Wet, multi-plate
5 speeds, constant mesh
2.35:1
1.67:1
1.29:1
1.03:1
0.9:1
2.35:1
1.67:1
1.29:1
1.03:1
0.85:1
2.35:1
1.67:1
1.29:1
1.03:1
0.85:1
(continued)
14 CHAPTER ONE
Table 3
Transmission ratios (continued)
1986-on (continued)
XV1100
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Final reduction ratio
XV700
XV750
XV920RH, RJ
XV920J, K, MK
XV1000,XV1100
Starting System
Battery
XV700, XV750
XV920,XV1000,XV1100
Charging system
Chassis dimensions
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
XV750 (1981-1983)
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
XV750(1988-on)
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
XV920RH, RJ
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
XV920J, K, MK
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
Basic weight
XV700 (1984-1985)
XV700 (1986-1987)
XV750
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
2.29:1
1.67:1
1.28:1
1.03:1
0.85:1
3.42:1
3.21:1
3.17:1
3.14:1
3.00:1
Electric starter only
12 volt/16 amp hour
12 volt/20 amp hour
AC alternator
88.0 in. (2,235 mm)
33.1 in. (840 mm)
46.1 in. (1,170 mm)
28.1 in. (714 mm)
60.0 in. (1,525 mm)
5.7 in. (145 mm)
87.8 in. (2,230 mm)
33.7 in. (850 mm)
46.7 in. (1,160 mm)
Not specified
60.0 in. (1,525 mm)
5.7 in. (145 mm)
90.0 in. (2,285 mm)
33.1 in. (840 mm)
46.9 in. (1,190 mm)
28.1 in. (714 mm)
60.0 in. (1,525 mm)
5.7 in. (145 mm)
89.0 in. (2,260 mm)
36.6 in. (930 mm)
46.1 in. (1,170 mm)
Not specified
60.6 in. (1,540 mm)
5.5 in. (140 mm)
87.4 in. (2,220 mm)
33.1 in. (840 mm)
47.4 in. (1,205 mm)
29.5 in. (750 mm)
59.8 in. (1,520 mm)
5.7 in. (145 mm)
496 Ib. (225 kg)
505 Ib. (229 kg)
496 Ib. (225 kg)
(continued)
GENERAL INFORMATION 15
Table 3
Basic weight (continued)
XV920RH, RJ
XV920J, K, MK
XV1000
XV1100
Steering head angle
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750, XV920J, K, MK
XV920RH, RJ
Trail
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750, XV920J, K, MK
XV920RH, RJ
Front suspension
Travel
Rear suspension
1981-1983
1984-on
Travel
XV700 (1984-1985)
XV700 (1986-1987)
XV750
XV920RH, RJ
XV920J, K, MK
XV1000.XV1100
Front tire
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750, XV920J, K, MK
XV920RH, RJ
Rear tire
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750, XV920J, K, MK
XV920RH, RJ
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
493 Ib. (224 kg)
496 Ib. (225 kg)
520 Ib. (236 kg)
527 Ib. (239 kg)
32°
29°, 30 minutes
28°, 30 minutes
5.1 in. (129 mm)
5.4 in. (133 mm)
4.96 in. (126 mm)
Telescopic fork
5.9 in. (150 mm)
Monoshock
Dual shock
3.8 in. (97 mm)
2.8 in. (70 mm)
3.94 in. (100 mm)
4.13 in. (105 mm)
Not specified
3.8 in. (97 mm)
100/90-19 57H
3.50H-19-4PR
3.25H-19-4PR
140/90-15 70H
130/90-16 67H
120/90-18 65H
Table 4 GENERAL TIGHTENING TORQUES*
Fastener size
6 mm
8 mm
10 mm
12 mm
14 mm
16 mm
ft.-lb.
4.5
11
22
40
51
94
N.m
6
15
30
55
85
130
'This table lists general torque for standard fasteners with standard ISO pitch threads. Use these specif cations
only if specific values are not provided for a given fastener.
CHAPTER TWO
TROUBLESHOOTING
Diagnosing mechanical problems is relatively
simple if you use orderly procedures and keep a
few basic principles in mind.
The troubleshooting procedures in this chapter
analyze typical symptoms and show logical
methods of isolating causes. These are not the only
methods. There may be several ways to solve a
problem, but only a systematic approach can
guarantee success.
Never assume anything. Do not overlook the
obvious. If you are riding along and the bike
suddenly quits, check the easiest, most accessible
problem spots first. Is there gasoline in the tank?
Has a spark plug wire fallen off?
If nothing obvious turns up in a quick check,
look a little further. Learning to recognize and
describe symptoms will make repairs easier for you
or a mechanic at the shop. Describe problems
accurately and fully. Saying that "it won't run" isn't
the same as saying "it quit at high speed and won't
start" or that "it sat in my garage for 3 months and
then wouldn't start".
Gather as many symptoms as possible to aid in
diagnosis. Note whether the engine lost power
gradually or all at once. Remember that the more
complicated a machine is, the easier it is to
troubleshoot because symptoms point to specific
problems.
TROUBLESHOOTING 17
After the symptoms are defined, areas which
could cause problems are tested and analyzed.
Guessing at the cause of a problem may provide
the solution, but it can easily lead to frustration,
wasted time and a series of expensive, unnecessary
parts replacements.
You do not need fancy equipment or
complicated test gear to determine whether repairs
can be attempted at home. A few simple checks
could save a large repair bill and lost time while the
bike sits in a dealer's service department. On the
other hand, be realistic and do not attempt repairs
beyond your abilities. Service departments tend to
charge heavily for putting together a disassembled
engine that may have been abused. Some won't
even take on such a job—so use common sense and
don't get in over your head.
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
An engine needs 3 things to run properly: correct
fuel-air mixture, compression and a spark at the
correct time. If one or more are missing, the engine
will not run. Four-stroke engine operating
principles are described in Chapter Four.
The electrical system is the weakest link of the 3
basics. More problems result from electrical
breakdowns than from any other source. Keep that
in mind before you begin tampering with
carburetor adjustments and the like.
If a bike has been sitting for any length of time
and refuses to start, check and clean the spark plug
and then look to the gasoline delivery system. This
includes the fuel tank, fuel shutoff valve, fuel line
to the carburetor and the fuel pump and filter on
XV1000 and XVI100 models. Gasoline deposits
may have formed and gummed up the carburetor
jets and air passages. Gasoline tends to lose its
potency after standing for long periods.
Condensation may contaminate the fuel with
water. Drain the old fuel (fuel tank, fuel lines and
carburetors) and try starting with a fresh tankful.
TROUBLESHOOTING INSTRUMENTS
Chapter One lists the instruments needed.
Follow the instrument manufacturers' instructions
for their use.
EMERGENCY TROUBLESHOOTING
When the bike is difficult to start or won't start at
all, it does not help to wear down the battery using
the starter. Check for obvious problems even
before getting out your tools.. Go down the
following list step by step. Do each one; you may
be embarrassed to find your kill switch off, but that
is better than wearing down the battery. If the bike
still will not start, refer to the appropriate
troubleshooting procedure in this chapter.
1. Is there fuel in the tank? Open the filler cap
(Figure 1) and rock the bike. Listen for fuel
sloshing around.
WARNING
Do not use an open flame to check in
the tank. A serious explosion is certain
to result.
2. On models except XV1000 and XVI100, is the
fuel shutoff valve in the ON position. Turn the
valve to the reserve position to be sure you get the
last remaining gas. See Figure 2.
3. On XV1000 and XVI100 models, make sure
the fuel pump switch is on the reserve position (A,
Figure 3). If there is doubt about the fuel pump
operation, refer to Chapter Seven.
4. Make sure the kill switch is not stuck in the
OFF position (B, Figure 3) or that the wire is not
broken and shorting out.
5. Are the spark plug wires (Figure 4) on tight?
Push both spark plugs on and slightly rotate them
to clean the electrical connection between the plug
and the connector.
6. Is the choke (Figure 5) in the right position?
18 CHAPTER TWO
ENGINE STARTING
An engine that refuses to start or is difficult to
start is very frustrating. More often than not, the
problem is very minor and can be found with a
simple and logical troubleshooting approach.
The following items show a beginning point
from which to isolate engine starting problems.
Engine Fails to Start
Perform the following spark test to determine if
the ignition system is operating properly.
1. Remove one of the spark plugs.
2. Connect the spark plug wire and connector to
the spark plug and touch the spark plug base to a
good ground such as the engine cylinder head
(Figure 6). Position the spark plug so you can see
the electrodes.
3. Crank the engine over with the starter. A fat
blue spark should be evident across the spark plug
electrodes.
WARNING
Do not hold the spark plug, wire or
connector or a serious electrical shock
may result. If necessary, use a pair of
insulated pliers to hold the spark plug
or wire. The high voltage generated by
the ignition system could produce
serious or fatal shocks.
4. If the spark is good, check for one or more of
the following possible malfunctions:
a. Obstructed fuel line or fuel filter.
b. Leaking head gasket(s).
c. Low compression.
5. If the spark is not good, check for one or more
of the following:
a. Weak ignition coil(s).
b. Weak TCI module.
c. Loose electrical connections.
d. Dirty electrical connections.
e. Loose or broken ignition coil ground wire.
f. Broken or shorted high tension lead to the
spark plug.
Engine is Difficult to Start
Check for one or more of the following possible
malfunctions:
a. Fouled spark plug(s).
b. Improperly adjusted choke.
c. Contaminated fuel system.
d. Improperly adjusted carburetor.
e. Weak TCI module.
f. Weak ignition coil(s).
g. Poor compression.
Engine Will Not Crank
Check for one or more of the following possible
malfunctions:
a. Blown fuse.
b. Discharged battery.
c. Defective starter motor.
d. Seized piston(s).
e. Seized crankshaft bearings.
f. Broken connecting rod.
g. Locked-up transmission or clutch assembly.
ENGINE PERFORMANCE
In the following check list, it is assumed that the
engine runs, but is not operating at peak
performance. This will serve as a starting point
from which to isolate a performance malfunction.
The possible causes for each malfunction are
listed in a logical sequence and in order of
probability.
Engine Will Not Idle
a. Carburetor incorrectly adjusted.
b. Fouled or improperly gapped spark plug(s).
c. Leaking head gasket(s).
d. Obstructed fuel line or fuel shutoff valve.
e. Obstructed fuel filter on XV1000 and
XVI100 models.
f. Ignition timing incorrect.
g. Valve clearance incorrect.
Engine Misses at High Speed
a. Fouled or improperly gapped spark plugs.
b. Improper carburetor main jet selection.
c. Ignition timing incorrect.
d. Weak ignition coil(s).
e. Obstructed fuel line or fuel shutoff valve.
f. Obstructed fuel filter on XV1000 and XVI100
models.
g. Clogged jets in carburetors.
Engine Overheating
a. Incorrect carburetor adjustment or jet
selection.
TROUBLESHOOTING 19
b. Ignition timing incorrect.
c. Improper spark plug heat range.
d. Damaged or blocked cooling fins.
Smoky Exhaust and Engine Runs Roughly
a. Clogged air filter element.
b. Carburetor adjustment incorrect (mixture too
rich).
c. Choke not operating correctly.
d. Water or other contaminants in fuel.
e. Clogged fuel line.
f. Clogged fuel filter on XV1000 or XVI100
models.
Engine Loses Power
a. Carburetor incorrectly adjusted.
b. Engine overheating.
c. Ignition timing incorrect.
d. Incorrectly gapped spark plugs.
e. Obstructed muffler.
f. Dragging brake(s).
Engine Lacks Acceleration
a. Carburetor mixture too lean.
b. Clogged fuel line.
c. Clogged fuel filter on XV1000 and XVI100
models.
d. Ignition timing incorrect.
e. Improper valve clearance.
f. Dragging brake(s).
ENGINE NOISES
1. Knocking or pinging during acceleration—
Caused by using a lower octane fuel than
recommended. May also be caused by poor fuel.
Pinging can also be caused by a spark plug of the
wrong heat range. Refer to Spark Plug Selection in
Chapter Three.
2. Slapping or rattling noises at low speed or during
acceleration—-May be caused by piston slap
(excessive piston-cylinder wall clearance).
3. Knocking or rapping while decelerating—
Usually caused by excessive rod bearing clearance,
bearing clearance.
4. Persistent knocking and vibration—Usually
caused by worn main bearing(s).
5. Rapid on-off squeal— Compression leak around
cylinder head gasket(s) or spark plugs.
EXCESSIVE VIBRATION
This can be difficult to find without
disassembling the engine. Usually this is caused by
loose engine mounting hardware. High-speed
vibration may be due to a bent axle shaft or loose
or faulty suspension components.
CLUTCH
The three basic clutch troubles are:
a. Clutch noise.
b. Clutch slipping.
c. Improper clutch disengagement.
All clutch troubles, except adjustments, require
partial engine disassembly to identify and cure the
problem. Refer to Chapter Five for procedures.
TRANSMISSION
The basic transmission troubles are:
a. Excessive gear noise.
b. Difficult shifting.
c. Gears pop out of mesh.
d. Incorrect shift lever operation.
Transmission symptoms are sometimes hard to
distinguish from clutch symptoms. Be sure that the
clutch is not causing the trouble before working on
the transmission.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
Poor handling may be caused by improper tire
pressure, a damaged or bent frame or front steering
components, worn wheel bearings or dragging
brakes.
BRAKE PROBLEMS
Sticking disc brakes may be caused by a stuck
piston(s) in a caliper assembly or warped pad
shim(s).
A sticking drum brake may be caused by worn or
weak return springs, dry pivot and cam bushings or
improper adjustment. Grabbing brakes may be
caused by greasy linings which must be replaced.
Brake grab may also be due to an out-of-round
drum. Glazed linings will cause loss of stopping
power.
ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
Rapid failure of bulbs may be caused by
excessive vibration, loose connections that permit
sudden current surges, or the installation of the
wrong type of bulb.
The majority of light and ignition problems are
caused by loose or corroded ground connections.
Check these first prior to replacing a bulb or
electrical component.
IGNITION SYSTEM
All models are equipped with a Transistor Controlled Ignition (TCI) system. This solid state system
uses no contact breaker points or other moving parts.
Because of the solid state design, problems with the
ignition system are relatively few.
Refer to Chapter Seven for ignition system
troubleshooting procedures.
CHAPTER THREE
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP
Your bike can be cared for by two methods:
preventive or corrective maintenance. Because a
motorcycle is subjected to tremendous heat, stress
and vibration (even in normal use), preventive
maintenance prevents costly and unexpected
corrective maintenance. When neglected, any bike
becomes unreliable and actually dangerous to ride.
When properly maintained, the Yamaha XV is one
of the most reliable bikes available and will give
many miles and years of dependable, fast and safe
riding. By maintaining a routine service schedule
as described in this chapter, costly mechanical
problems and unexpected breakdowns can be
prevented.
The procedures presented in this chapter can be
easily performed by anyone with average
mechanical skills. Table 1 presents a factory
recommended maintenance schedule. Tables 1-6
are at the end of the chapter.
ROUTINE CHECKS
The following simple checks should be carried
out at each fuel stop.
Engine Oil Level
Refer to Engine Oil Level Check under
Lubrication in this chapter.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 21
General Inspection
1. Quickly examine the engine for signs of oil or
fuel leakage.
2. Check the tires for imbedded stones. Pry them out
with a small screwdriver.
3. Make sure all lights work.
NOTE
At least check the brake light. It can
burn out anytime. Motorists can not
stop as quickly as you and need all the
warning you can give.
Tire Pressure
Tire pressure must be checked with the tires
cold. Correct tire pressure depends on the load you
are carrying. See Table 2.
Battery
Remove the right-hand side cover and check the
battery electrolyte level. The level must be between
the upper and lower level marks on the case
(Figure 1).
NOTE
On 1984-on models, it is necessary to
remove the battery (Figure 2) to check
the electrolyte level.
For complete details see Battery
Removal/Installation and Electrolyte Level Check
in this chapter.
Lights and Horn
With the engine running, check the following.
1. Pull the front brake lever and check that the
brake light comes on.
2. Push the rear brake pedal and check that the
brake light comes on soon after you have begun
depressing the pedal.
3. With the engine running, check to see that the
headlight and taillight are on.
4. Move the dimmer switch up and down between
the high and low positions and check to see that
both headlight elements are working.
5. Push the turn signal switch to the left position
and the right position and check that all 4 turn
signal lights are working.
6. Push the horn button and note that the horn
blows loudly.
7. If the horn or any light failed to work properly,
refer to Chapter Seven.
MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
The services and intervals shown in Table 1 are
recommended by the factory. Strict adherence to
these recommendations will ensure long life from
your Yamaha. If the bike is run-in an area of high
humidity, the lubrication services must be done
more frequently to prevent possible rust damage.
For convenient maintenance of your motorcycle,
most of the services shown in Table 1 are described
in this chapter. Those procedures which require
more than minor disassembly or adjustment are
covered elsewhere in the appropriate chapter. The
Table of Contents and Index can help you locate a
particular service procedure.
TIRES AND WHEELS
Tire Pressure
Tire pressure should be checked and adjusted to
accommodate rider and luggage weight. A simple,
accurate gauge (Figure 3) can be purchased for a
few dollars and should be carried in your
motorcycle tool kit. The appropriate tire pressures
are shown in Table 2.
NOTE
After checking and adjusting the air
pressure, make sure to reinstall the air
valve cap (Figure 4). The cap prevents
small pebbles or dirt from collecting in
the valve stem, allowing air leakage or
resulting in incorrect tire pressure
readings.
22 CHAPTER THREE
Tire Inspection
Check tire tread for excessive wear, deep cuts,
imbedded objects such as stones, nails, etc. If you
find a nail in a tire, mark its location with a light
crayon before pulling it out. This will help locate
the hole for repair. Refer to Chapter Eight for tire
changing and repair information.
Check local traffic regulations concerning
minimum tread depth. Measure with a tread depth
gauge (Figure 5) or small ruler. Yamaha
recommends replacement when the tread depth is
5/16 in. (0.8 mm) or less. Tread depth indicators
appear across the tire when tread reaches
minimum safe depth. Replace the tire at this point.
Wheel Spoke Tension
On wire wheels, tap each spoke with a wrench.
The higher the pitch of sound it makes, the tighter
the spoke. The lower the sound frequency, the
looser the spoke. A "ping" is good; a "klunk" says
the spoke is loose.
If one or more spokes are loose, tighten them as
described in Chapter Eight.
Rim Inspection
Frequently inspect the wheel rims. If a rim has
been damaged it might have been knocked out of
alignment. Improper wheel alignment can cause
severe vibration and result in an unsafe riding
condition. If the rim portion of an alloy wheel is
damaged the wheel must be replaced as it cannot
be repaired.
BATTERY
CAUTION
If it becomes necessary to remove the
battery breather tube when performing
any of the following procedures, make
sure to route the tube correctly during
installation to prevent acid from
spilling on parts. Refer to the battery
installation label fastened to one of the
side covers (Figure 6).
Removal/Installation and
Electrolyte Level Check
The battery is the heart of the electrical system.
It should be checked and serviced as indicated
(Table 1). The majority of electrical system
troubles can be attributed to neglect of this vital
component.
In order to correctly service the electrolyte level
it is necessary to remove the battery from the
frame. The electrolyte level should be maintained
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 23
between the two marks on the battery case (Figure
1). If the electrolyte level is low, it's a good idea to
completely remove the battery so that it can be
thoroughly cleaned, serviced, and checked.
1. Remove the right-hand side cover.
2A. 1981-1983:
a. Disconnect the negative battery cable from
the battery (A, Figure 7).
b. Disconnect the positive battery cable.
c. Remove the top battery cover (B, Figure 7).
d. Disconnect the battery vent tube (Figure 8).
e. Lift the battery out of the battery box and
remove it.
2B. 1984-on:
a. Disconnect the negative battery cable from
the battery (A, Figure 9).
b. Disconnect the battery vent tube (B, Figure
9).
c. Disconnect the battery hold-down strap (C,
Figure 9) and slide the battery partway out of
the box (Figure 10).
d. Disconnect the positive battery cable.
e. Remove the battery.
WARNING
Protect your eyes, skin and clothing. If
electrolyte gets into your eyes, flush
your eyes thoroughly with clean water
and get prompt medical attention.
CAUTION
Be careful not to spill battery electrolyte
on painted or polished surfaces. The
liquid is highly corrosive and will
damage the finish. If it is spilled, wash
it ojf immediately with soapy water and
thoroughly rinse with clean water.
3. Remove the caps from the battery cells and add
distilled water. Never add electrolyte (acid) to
correct the level. Some models have been equipped
with a long-life type battery that uses a single filling
plug (A, Figure 11). When filling the battery on
these models, each cell will fill automatically. On
all models, fill only to the upper battery level mark.
4. After the level has been corrected and the
battery allowed to stand for a few minutes, check
the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell
with a hydrometer (Figure 12). On models
equipped with the long-life battery, check the
specific gravity through the single fill hole (A,
Figure 11). See Battery Testing in this chapter.
5. After the battery has been refilled, recharged or
replaced, install it by reversing these removal
steps.
Testing
Hydrometer testing is the best way to check
battery condition. Use a hydrometer with
numbered graduations from 1.100 to 1.300 rather
than one with color-coded bands. To use the
hydrometer, squeeze the rubber ball, insert the tip
into the cell and release the ball. Draw enough
electrolyte to float the weighted float inside the
hydrometer. Note the number in line with the
electrolyte surface; this is the specific gravity for
24 CHAPTER THREE
this cell. Return the electrolyte to the cell from which
it came.
The specific gravity of the electrolyte in each
battery cell is an excellent indication of that
cell's condition (Table 3). A fully charged cell
will read 1.260-1.280; a cell in good condition
reads from 1.230-1.250; anything below 1.140
is discharged.
NOTE
Specific gravity varies with
temperature. For each 10° that
electrolyte temperature exceeds 80° F,
add 0.004 to reading indicated on
hydrometer. Subtract 0.004 for each 10°
below 80° F.
If the cells test in the poor range, the battery
requires recharging. The hydrometer is useful for
checking the progress of the charging operation.
Table 3 shows approximate state of charge.
Charging
WARNING
During charging, highly explosive
hydrogen gas is released from the
battery. The battery should be charged
only in a well-ventilated area, and open
flames and cigarettes should be kept
away. Never check the charge of the
battery by arcing across the terminals;
the resulting spark can ignite the
hydrogen gas.
CAUTION
Always remove the battery from the
motorcycle before connecting charging
equipment.
A typical battery charger for motorcycles is
shown in Figure 13.
1. Connect the positive (+) charger lead to the
positive battery terminal and the negative (-)
charger lead to the negative battery terminal.
2. Remove all vent caps from the battery, set the
charger at 12 volts and switch it on. If the output of
the charger is variable, it is best to select a low
setting—1 1/2 to 2 amps.
CAUTION
The electrolyte level must be
maintained at the upper level during
the charging cycle; check and refill as
necessary.
3. After battery has been charged for about 8
hours, turn the charger off, disconnect the leads
and check the specific gravity. It should be within
the limits specified in Table 3. If it is, and remains
stable for one hour, the battery is charged.
4. To ensure good electrical contact, cables must
be clean and tight on the battery's terminals. If the
cable terminals are badly corroded, even after
performing the above cleaning procedures, the
cables should be disconnected, removed from the
bike and cleaned separately with a wire brush and
a baking soda solution. After cleaning, apply a very
thin coating of petroleum jelly (Vaseline) to the
battery terminals before reattaching the cables.
After connecting the cables, apply a light coating to
the connections also—this will delay future
corrosion.
New Battery Installation
When replacing the old battery with a new one,
be sure to charge it completely (specific gravity of
1.260-1.280) before installing it in the bike. Failure
to do so or using the battery with a low electrolyte
level will permanently damage the battery.
Battery Sensor Cleaning
Every 3,000 miles (5,000 km) the battery sensor
(B, Figure 11) on XV920J models should be
removed and cleaned of all corrosion to prevent
microcomputer system malfunction.
LUBRICATION
Refer to Figure 14 for major lubrication points.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 25
L
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ea r w h ee l be ar in g 26 CHAPTER THREE
Engine Oil Level Check
Engine oil level is checked through the inspection
window located at the bottom of the crankcase
cover on the left-hand side (Figure 15).
1. Place the bike on the centerstand. Start the engine
and let it reach normal operating temperature.
2. Stop the engine and allow the oil to settle.
3. The oil level should be between the maximum
and minimum marks on the window (Figure 15). If
necessary, remove the oil fill cap (Figure 16) and
add the recommended oil (Table 4) to raise the oil to
the proper level. Do not overfill.
Engine Oil and Filter Change
The factory-recommended oil and filter change interval
is specified in Table 1. This assumes that the motorcycle
is operated in moderate climates. The time interval is
more important than the mileage interval because combustion acids, formed by gasoline and water vapor, will
contaminate the oil even if the motorcycle is not run for
several months. If a motorcycle is operated under dusty
conditions, the oil will get dirty more quickly and should
be changed more frequently than recommended.
Use only a detergent oil with an API classification of SE or SF. The classification is stamped on
top of the can (Figure 17). Try always to use the
same brand of oil. Use of oil additives is not recommended. Refer to Table 4 for correct viscosity of oil
to use under different temperatures.
To change the engine oil and filter you will need
the following:
a. Drain pan.
b. Funnel.
c: Can opener or pour spout.
d. Wrench or socket to remove drain plug.
e. 4 quarts of oil.
f. Oil filter element.
There are a number of ways to discard the used oil
safely. The easiest way is to pour it from the drain
pan into a gallon plastic bleach, juice or milk container for disposal.
NOTE
Never dispose of motor oil in the trash,
on the ground, or down a storm drain.
Many service stations accept used motor oil and waste haulers provide curbside used motor oil collection. Do not
combine other fluids with motor oil to
be recycled. To locate a recycler, contact the American Petroleum Institute
(API) at www.recycleoil.org.
1. Place the motorcycle on the centerstand.
2. Start the engine and run it until it is at normal operating temperature, then turn it off.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 27
3. Place a dnp pan under the crankcase and
remove the dram plug (Figure 18). Remove the oil
filler cap (Figure 16); this will speed up the flow of
oil
4 Allow the oil to dram for at least 15-20 minutes.
NOTE
Before removing the oil filter cover,
thoroughly clean off all dirt and oil
around it
5 To remove the oil filter, unscrew the bolts
securing the filter cover (Figure 19) to the
crankcase
CAUTION
When removing the bottom oil filter
cover bolt, make sure to completely
unscrew the bolt all the way If the bolt
is pulled out, its threads may damage
the O-nng (Figure 20) in the crankcase
6. Remove the cover and the filter (Figure 21).
Discard the oil filter and clean out the cover and
filter housing with cleaning solvent. Dry parts
thoroughly
7. Inspect the 0-nng in the cover (Figure 22) and
in the crankcase (Figure 20) Replace if necessary.
NOTE ,
Prior to installing the cover, clean off
the mating surface of the
crankcase—do not allow any dirt to
enter the oil system
8 Install the new oil filter.
9 Reinstall the filter cover to the crankcase and
tighten the bolts securely Install the dram plug and
gasket and tighten to 31 ft.-lb (43 N«m).
10 Fill the crankcase with the correct viscosity
(Table 4) and quantity (Table 5) of oil.
11 Screw in the oil fill cap securely.
12 Check the engine oil pressure as described in
this chapter
13 After completing Step 12, start the engine and
allow it to idle. Check for leaks.
14. Turn the engine off and check for correct oil
level (Figure 15), adjust if necessary.
Engine Oil Pressure Check
This procedure should be performed whenever
the engine oil is changed.
1. Slightly loosen an engine oil line union bolt at
one of the cylinders; it does not matter which line
or which cylinder See Figure 23.
2. Start the engine and allow it to idle.
3 Observe the loosened oil line union bolt Oil
should seep from the bolt within one minute of
starting the engine. If oil does not seep out after
28 CHAPTER THREE
one minute, stop the engine and locate the
problem.
4. After completing the oil pressure check, tighten
the oil line union bolt.
Front Fork Oil Change
To gain access to the fork caps, it is necessary to
partially remove the handlebar assembly. The
following procedure requires two persons.
1981-1983 XV750 (except Midnight Virago) and
1981-1982 XV920RH, RJ (chain-driven) models
1. Place the bike on the centerstand and disconnect
the negative battery cable from the battery.
2. Remove the rear view mirrors.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter Six.
4. Except XV920RH and XV920RJ—Using a small
screwdriver, carefully pry the plastic emblem (A,
Figure 24) from the handlebar cover. Remove the
screw under the plastic emblem and remove the
handlebar cover (B, Figure 24).
5. Remove the handlebar clamp bolts and remove
the clamps (Figure 25). Lay the handlebar assembly
aside without disconnecting any cables.
6. Unscrew and remove the plastic cap from the top
of the fork tube.
7. Depress the valve stem (Figure 26) with a small
screwdriver to release all air from the fork tube.
8. Loosen the top fork tube pinch bolt (Figure 26).
9. The spring seat and spring are secured in place
with a wire stopper ring (Figure 27). To remove the
wire stopper ring, have an assistant depress the
spring seat (A, Figure 28) using a suitable punch or
drift. Then pry the wire stopper ring (B, Figure 28)
out of its groove in the fork with a small screwdriver.
When the wire ring is removed, release tension from
the spring seat and remove it together with the fork
spring.
10. Place a suitable drain pan under the fork and
remove the drain screw (Figure 29). Allow the fork
oil to drain for at least 5 minutes.
WARNING
Do not allow the fork oil to come in
contact with any of the brake components.
11. With both of the bike's wheels on the ground,
have an assistant steady the bike. Then push the front
end down and allow it to return. Perform this procedure until all the fork oil is expelled from the fork
tube.
12. Install the drain screw (Figure 29).
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 29
13. Fill the fork tube with the recommended oil (Table 4) in the correct amount (Table 5). Slowly pump
the fork up and down to distribute the oil.
NOTE
Use a baby bottle to measure the correct amount of fork oil. Baby bottles
are incremented in fluid ounces (ft.
oz.) and cubic centimeters (cc).
14. Install the fork spring and spring seat. Have an assistant compress the spring seat and install a new wire
stopper ring. Make sure the wire ring seats fully in its
groove in the fork tube before releasing the spring seat.
15. Repeat Steps 6-14 for the opposite fork tube assembly.
16. Install the handlebar assembly and tighten the
clamp bolts securely.
NOTE
If the handlebar clamps have arrows
stamped on them, the arrows must
face toward the front of the bike.
17. Fill the forks with air as described in Chapter
Eleven.
18. Install all remaining components removed during disassembly.
19. Road test the bike, then check for oil and air
leakage.
XV700,1983 XV750 Midnight Virago, 1988-on
XV750,1983XV920,1983 Midnight Virago,
XVlOOOandXVUOO
NOTE
Late model bikes are not equipped
with drain screw to drain the fork oil.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand and disconnect
the negative battery cable from the battery.
2. Remove the rear view mirrors.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter Six.
4. Remove the handlebar clamps (A, Figure 30).
Lay the handlebar assembly aside without disconnecting any cables.
5. On XV750MK and XV920K and MK, carefully
pry the plastic emblem (A, Figure 24) from the handlebar cover using a small screwdriver. Remove the
screw under the plastic emblem and remove the
handlebar cover (B, Figure 24).
6. Using a small screwdriver, carefully pry the cap
(B, Figure 30) from the top of the fork tube.
7. If so equipped, remove the air valve cap and depress the valve stem (Figure 31) with a small
screwdriver to release all air from the fork tube.
8. Loosen the top fork tube pinch tube bolt (A, Figure 32).
30 CHAPTER THREE
9. On XV750MK and XV920K and MK models,
loosen the fork cap with a wrench and remove it. On
all other models loosen the fork cap (B, Figure 32)
with a 17 mm Allen wrench and remove it.
NOTE
If a 17 mm Allen wrench is not available, use a bolt with a 17 mm head and
locking pliers as shown in Figure 33.
10. Place a suitable drain pan under the fork and
remove the drain screw (Figure 29). Allow the fork
oil to drain for at least 5 minutes.
WARNING
Do not allow the fork oil to come in
contact with any of the brake components.
11. With both of the bike's wheels on the ground,
have an assistant steady the bike. Then push the front
end down and allow it to return. Perform this procedure until all the oil is expelled from the fork tube.
12. Reinstall the drain screw (Figure 29).
13. Fill the fork tube with the recommended oil
(Table 4) in the correct amount (Table 5). Slowly
pump the fork up and down to distribute the oil.
NOTE
Use a baby bottle to measure the correct
amount of fork oil. Baby bottles are
incremented in fluid ounces (fl. oz.) and
cubic centimeters (cc).
14. Install the fork spring and fork cap. Tighten the
fork cap securely.
15. Repeat Steps 6-14 to change the oil in the opposite fork assembly.
16. Install the handlebar assembly and tighten the
clamp bolts securely.
NOTE
If the handlebar clamps have arrows
stamped on them, the arrows must face
toward the front of the bike.
17. On models equipped air-adjustable forks, fill the
forks with air as described in Chapter Eleven. Do not
exceed the maximum recommended air pressure in
the forks.
18. Install all remaining components removed during disassembly.
19. Road test the bike, then check for oil and air
leakage.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 31
XV920J (1982 Shaft-drive)
1. Place the bike on the centerstand and
disconnect the negative battery lead.
2. Remove the rear view mirrors.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
4. Remove the master cylinder. See Chapter Ten.
5. Remove the center handlebar cover.
6. Remove the handlebar assembly as described in
Chapter Eight.
7. Remove the air valve cap from the left fork
tube. Use a screwdriver to depress the valve stem
and release the air pressure from both fork tubes.
See Figure 34.
8. Turn the adjuster cover (Figure 35) to the No. 1
position.
9. Loosen the fork tube cap pinch bolt.
10. Remove the fork tube cap.
CAUTION
The fork tube cap is fitted with a
damper adjustment rod (Figure 36).
When handling the fork cap, make sure
not to bend or damage the rod in any
way as this will cause improper fork
operation.
11. Place a drip pan under the fork and remove the
drain screw (Figure 29). Allow the oil to drain for
at least 5 minutes.
WARNING
Do not allow the fork oil to come in
contact with any of the brake
components.
12. With both of the bike's wheels on the ground,
have an assistant steady the bike. Then push the
front end down and allow it to return. Perform this
procedure until all the oil is expelled from the fork
tube.
13. Install the drain screw.
14. Fill the fork tube with the correct amount
(Table 5) and viscosity (Table 4) of fork oil.
NOTE
In order to measure the correct amount
of fluid, use a baby bottle. These bottles
have measurements in fluid ounces
(oz.) and cubic centimeters (cc)
imprinted on the side.
15. Insert the end of the cap/rod assembly into the
semicircular hole in the top of the damper rod.
Push the fork cap down and screw the cap on.
Tighten to 22 ft.-lb. (30 N-m).
CAUTION
Do not force the cap/rod assembly
during installation or when tightening
the cap or you may damage it. If the
cap/rod is not inserted into the top of
the damper rod correctly, the cap/rod
will protrude too far out of the fork
tube. The cap/rod is inserted into the
damper rod correctly when the cap/rod
sits on the fork tube collar.
16. Repeat Steps 8-15 for the opposite fork.
17. Fill the forks with air as described in Chapter
Eleven.
18. Install and adjust the handlebar position as
described in Chapter Eight.
19. Install all components that were removed.
Final Drive Oil Level Check
Final drive gear oil must be checked when the
engine is cold. If the bike has been run, allow it to
cool down. When checking and changing the final
drive gear oil, do not allow any dirt or foreign
matter to enter the gear case opening.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand on a level
surface.
2. Wipe the area around the filler cap clean and
unscrew the cap (A, Figure 37).
3. The oil level should be at the bottom of the filler
cap hole.
4. If the oil level is low, refill with the correct gear
oil specified in Table 4.
5. Install the filler cap and tighten it securely.
32 CHAPTER THREE
Final Drive Gear Oil Change
The factory-recommended oil change interval is
specified in Table 1.
To drain the oil you will need:
a. Drain pan.
b. Funnel.
c. Adjustable wrench.
d. One quart of gear oil (refer to Table 4).
Discard old oil in the same manner as outlined
under Engine Oil and Filter Change in this chapter.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Place a drain pan under the final drive gear
housing drain plug.
3. Wipe the area around the drain plug clean of all
road dirt and remove the drain plug (B, Figure 37).
Loosen the filler cap (A, Figure 37) as this will
speed up the flow of oil.
4. Allow the oil to drain for at least 10 minutes.
WARNING
Do not allow the oil to come in contact
with any of the brake components or
drip onto the rear tire.
5. Install the drain plug and tighten it securely.
6. Remove the filler cap and refill the case with the
recommended amount (Table 5) and viscosity
(Table 4) of oil.
Control Cables
The control cables should be lubricated at the
intervals specified in Table 1. At this time, they
should also be inspected for fraying, and the cable
sheath should be checked for chafing. The cables
are relatively inexpensive and should be replaced
when found to be faulty.
They can be lubricated with a cable lubricant
and a cable lubricator or with a funnel and oil. The
second method requires more time and the
complete lubrication of the entire cable is less
certain.
NOTE
The main cause of cable breakage or
cable stiffness is improper lubrication.
Maintaining the cables as described
here will assure long service life.
Lubricator method
1. Disconnect the clutch (A, Figure 38) and choke
(B, Figure 38) cables from the left-hand handlebar.
Disconnect the throttle cable from the throttle grip
(Figure 39).
NOTE
It is necessary to remove the screws that
clamp the housing together to gain
access to the throttle cable ends.
2. Attach a lubricator (Figure 40) to the cable
following the manufacturer's instructions.
3. Insert the nozzle of the lubricant can into the
lubricator, press the button on the can and hold it
down until the lubricant begins to flow out of the
other end of the cable.
NOTE
Place a shop cloth at the end of the
cable(s) to catch all excess lubricant
that will flow out.
NOTE
If lubricant does not flow out the end of
the cable, check the entire cable for
fraying, bending or other damage.
4. Remove the lubricator. Reconnect and adjust
the cable(s) as described in this chapter.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 33
Oil method
1. Disconnect the cables as descnbed under
Lubricator Method
2. Make a cone of stiff paper and tape it to the end
of the cable sheath (Figure 41).
3. Hold the cable upright and pour a small amount
of light oil (SAE 10W-30) into the cone. Work the
cable in and out of the sheath for several minutes
to help the oil work its way down to the end of the
cable.
4. Remove the cone. Reconnect and adjust the
cable(s) as descnbed in this chapter.
Swing Arm Bearings
Repack the swing arm bearings every 10,000
miles (16,000 km) with a lithium-base, waterproof
wheel bearing grease Refer to Chapter Nine for
complete details.
Rear Brake Cam Lubrication
Lubricate the brake cam whenever the rear
wheel is removed (if required).
1. Remove the rear wheel as described in Chapter
Nine.
2. Take out the brake backing plate
3. Wipe away the old grease, being careful not to
get any on the brake shoes.
4. Spanngly apply high-temperature grease to the
camming surfaces of the camshaft, the camshaft
groove, the brake shoe pivots and the ends of the
spnngs (Figure 42). Do not get any grease on the
brake shoes.
WARNING
Use only a high-temperature brake
grease Temperatures created by
braking conditions will cause other
types of grease to thin and run onto the
brake shoes, causing loss of rear
braking power
5. Reassemble the rear wheel and install it. See
Chapter Nine.
Speedometer Cable Lubrication
Lubricate the cable every year or whenever
needle operation is erratic.
1 Remove the cable from the instrument cluster
(Figure 43)
2. Pull the cable from the sheath.
3 If the grease is contaminated, thoroughly clean
oif all old grease.
4. Thoroughly coat the cable with a good grade of
multi-purpose grease and reinstall into the sheath.
34 CHAPTER THREE
5. Make sure the cable is correctly seated into the
drive unit.
NOTE
If the cable won't seat into the drive
unit, disconnect the sheath at its lower
connection (Figure 44). Install the cable
end into the drive unit, then reconnect
the sheath.
MAINTENANCE
Maintenance intervals are listed in Table 1.
Drive Chain
(XV920RH, RJ Models)
Inspection/Replacement
The drive chain on these models is completely
enclosed in a special housing (Figure 45).
Procedures commonly used to check drive chain
wear cannot be used on these models. Instead,
Yamaha recommends that the drive chain be
replaced every 30,000 miles (50,000 km) or
whenever abnormal noise or vibration occurs after
adjusting the drive chain. The drive chain should
always be replaced when all of the swing
arm-to-drive chain adjustment is used up. Drive
chain replacement is described in Chapter Nine.
Tension
Check/Adjustment
The drive chain tension should be checked and
adjusted at the intervals specified in Table 1. When
performing this adjustment, keep in mind that
proper chain adjustment requires correct chain free
play and alignment.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand and shift the
transmission to NEUTRAL.
2. Remove the chain inspection cap (Figure 45)
from the chain case.
3. Referring to Figure 46, check the drive chain
tension by pushing the chain up and down. The
tension is correct if the chain link pins do not go
below or above the limit marks on the chain case.
Correct free play is 1/4-7/16 in. (7-10 mm). If
incorrect, proceed to Step 4.
4. Loosen the chain case holding bolts.
5. Remove the rear axle cotter pin. Loosen the
axle nut and the chain adjusting locknuts (Figure
47).
6. Screw the adjusters (Figure 47) either in or out
as required in equal amounts until the free play is
as specified in Step 3.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 35
CAUTION
When performing the adjustment in
Step 6, turn the left- and right-hand
side adjusters the same amount to
maintain correct axle alignment. If
alignment is not maintained, rapid
chain and sprocket wear will result. If
alignment is correct but excessive chain
and/or sprocket wear is experienced,
the swing arm should be checked by a
dealer or specialist for twisting or
damage.
7. Tighten the adjuster locknuts and axle nut securely. Torque the axle nut to 77 ft.-lb. (105 N.m).
NOTE
Always install a new cotter pin—never
reuse an old one.
8. Reinstall the drive chain inspection cap.
9. After adjusting the drive chain, adjust the rear
brake pedal free play as described in this chapter.
Lubrication
Because the drive chain operates in a closed case,
initial lubrication is provided at the factory. It is only
necessary to replace the drive chain lubricant under
the following circumatances:
a. The drive chain is replaced.
b. The drive chain case is disassembled.
To replenish the chain lubricant, remove the
grease filler plug on the chain case and refill with the
correct quantity (Table 5) and type (Table 4) of
grease. Reinstall the filler plug.
Disc Brake Fluid Level
On models without a computerized monitor
system, you must visually check the fluid level in
the reservoir (Figure 48). On models with a
computerized monitor system, the brake fluid level
is automatically monitored by the system. If the
brake fluid is low, the system will warn you by
flashing the BRK light on the instrument panel.
This light will remain on during engine operation
until the brake fluid is brought to the correct level.
If the BRK light should come on, the brake fluid
level is low and should be serviced immediately.
The fluid level in the reservoir should be
maintained above the lower level line (Figure 48).
If necessary, correct the level by adding fresh brake
fluid. Remove the cover screws and cover and lift
the diaphragm out of the housing. Add fluid to
bring the level above the lower- level line. Reinstall
the diaphragm and cover. Tighten the cover
screws.
WARNING
Use brake fluid clearly marked DOT 3
only and specified for disc brakes.
Others may vaporize and cause brake
failure.
CAUTION
Be careful not to spill brake fluid on
painted or plated surfaces as it will
destroy the surface. Wash immediately
with soapy water and thoroughly rinse
it off.
If the brake fluid was so low as to allow air in the
hydraulic system, the brakes will have to be bled.
Refer to Chapter Ten.
Disc Brake Lines and Seals
Check brake lines between the master cylinder
and the brake caliper. If there is any leakage,
tighten the connections and bleed the brakes as
described in Chapter Ten. If this does not stop the
leak or if a line is obviously damaged, cracked or
chafed, replace the line and seals and bleed the
brake. Always replace the brake seals every two
years; replace brake hoses every four years.
36 CHAPTER THREE
Disc Brake Pad Wear
Inspect the brake pads for excessive or uneven
wear, scoring and oil or grease on the friction
surface.
If any of these conditions exist, replace the pads
as described in Chapter Ten.
NOTE
Always replace both pad sets (left and
right sides) at the same time.
XV920RH and RJ
On these models, an inspection window is
installed on the rear of each caliper housing. To
inspect, flip the window cover open and observe
the red wear line on each pad. If the pads are worn
to the red line, they must be replaced.
AH other models
On these models, each brake pad is fitted with a
wear indicator tab (Figure 49). When the brake
pads are new, the tabs are positioned well away
from the brake disc. As the pads wear, the tabs are
brought closer to the brake disc. When the tabs are
very close to contacting the brake disc, the brake
pads must be replaced as a set.
Disc Brake Fluid Change
Every time you remove the reservoir cap a small
amount of dirt and moisture enters the brake fluid.
The same thing happens if a leak occurs or any part
of the hydraulic system is loosened or
disconnected. Dirt can clog the system and cause
unnecessary wear. Water in the fluid vaporizes at
high temperatures, impairing the hydraulic action
and reducing brake performance.
To maintain peak braking performance, change
brake fluid every 10,000 miles (16,000 km) or two
years, whichever comes first. To change brake
fluid, follow the Bleeding the System procedure in
Chapter Ten. Continue adding new fluid to the
master cylinder and bleeding fluid out of the
caliper(s) until the fluid leaving the caliper(s) is
clean and free of contaminants.
WARNING
Use brake fluid clearly marked DOT 3
only. Others may vaporize and cause
brake failure.
Front Brake Lever Adjustment
An adjuster is provided to maintain the front
brake lever free play.
1. Loosen the rubber brake lever shield (Figure 50)
and slide it away from the brake lever pivot.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 37
2. Loosen the adjuster locknut (Figure 51) and
turn the adjuster (Figure 51) to obtain a free play
measurement of 3/16-5/16 in. (5-8 mm). Tighten
the locknut.
NOTE
Free play is the distance the lever
travels from the at-rest position to the
applied position (the point at which the
master cylinder is depressed by the lever
adjuster).
3. Rotate the front wheel and check for brake drag.
Also operate the brake lever several times to make
sure it returns to the at-rest position immediately
after release.
4. Reposition the rubber shield.
Rear Brake Shoe Wear
Inspect the rear brake shoes for wear by
depressing the brake pedal and checking the wear
indicator on the brake hub (Figure 52). If the
indicator reaches to the wear limit, replace the
brake shoes as described in Chapter Ten.
Rear Brake Pedal Height Adjustment
The rear brake pedal height should be adjusted
at the intervals specified in Table 1 or anytime the
brake shoes are replaced.
1. Place the motorcycle on the centerstand.
2. Check to be sure the brake pedal is in the at-rest
position.
3. The correct height position below the top of the
foot peg (Figure 53) is 3/4-1 1/4 in. (20-30 mm). To
adjust, proceed to Step 4.
4. Loosen the locknut and turn the adjusting bolt
to achieve the correct height. See Figure 54
(1981-1983) or Figure 55 (1984-on). Tighten the
locknut securely and adjust the free play (described
in this chapter) and brake light (described in
Chapter Seven).
Rear Brake Pedal Free Play
Adjust the brake pedal to the correct height as
described in this chapter. Then turn the adjustment
nut on the end of the brake rod (Figure 56) until
the brake pedal has 3/4-1 1/4 in. (20-30 mm) free
play. Free play is the distance the pedal travels
from the at-rest position to the applied position
when the pedal is depressed lightly.
Rotate the rear wheel and check for brake drag.
Also operate the pedal several times to make sure
it returns to the at-rest position immediately after
release.
Adjust the rear brake light switch as described in
Chapter Seven.
38 CHAPTER THREE
Clutch Adjustment
The clutch cable should be adjusted to maintain
a free play of 3/32-1/8 in. (2-3 mm).
1. At the hand lever, remove or slide back the
clutch lever shield(s). Loosen the locknut (A,
Figure 57) and rotate the adjuster (B, Figure 57) for
free play adjustment (Figure 58).
NOTE
If sufficient free play cannot be
obtained at the hand lever, additional
adjustment can be made at the clutch
mechanism adjuster as described in
Steps 2-5.
2. Completely loosen the clutch cable at the
handlebar.
3. Remove the clutch mechanism adjuster cover
(Figure 59).
NOTE
When turning the adjuster in Step 4,
slight resistance will be offered by an
O-ring installed on the adjuster. Make
sure, to turn the adjuster far enough to
contact the pushrod.
4. Loosen the adjuster locknut and turn the
adjuster clockwise until it lightly seats against the
clutch pushrod. See Figure 60.
5. Back out the adjuster 1/4 turn. Tighten the lock
nut and install the clutch mechanism cover.
CAUTION
Do not operate the clutch hand lever
until the clutch mechanism adjustment
is complete. Failure to observe this
caution could cause the balls in the
clutch mechanism adjuster to
disengage. The adjuster would then
have to be disassembled and the
problem corrected.
6. Readjust the clutch lever free play (see Step 1).
^p LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP
Throttle Operation/Adjustment (1981-1987)
The throttle grip should have 10-15° rotational
play (Figure 61). Make sure there is free play in the
cable so the carburetors will be able to close
completely when the throttle is let off. If
adjustment is necessary, loosen the cable locknut
(Figure 62) and turn the adjuster (Figure 62) in or
out to achieve the proper play. Tighten the locknut.
Check the throttle cable from grip to carburetors.
Make sure it is not kinked or chafed. Replace it if
necessary.
Make sure that the throttle grip rotates
smoothly from fully closed to fully open. Check at
center, full left and full right position of steering.
Throttle Cable Adjustment
(1988-on)
The throttle should have 0.8-0.12 in. (2-3 mm)
of rotational play (Figure 61). Make sure there is
free play in the cables so the carburetors will be
able to close completely when the throttle is let off.
If adjustment is necessary, perform the following.
1. Remove the air cleaner as described in this
chapter.
2. Loosen the front cable locknut (A, Figure 63)
and turn the adjuster (B, Figure 63) in or out to
achieve the proper play. Tighten the locknut (A).
3. Loosen the rear cable locknut (C, Figure 63)
and turn the adjuster (D, Figure 63) in or out to
achieve the proper play. Tighten the locknut (C).
4. If the correct amount of freeplay still cannot
be achieved, loosen the cable adjuster locknut (A,
Figure 64) next to the throttle grip. Turn the
adjuster (B, Figure 64) in or out to achieve the
proper play. Tighten the locknut (A).
5. Make sure all locknuts are tightened securely.
6. Check the throttle cable(s) from grip to
carburetors. Make sure it is not kinked or chafed.
Replace it if necessary.
7. Make sure the throttle grip rotates smoothly
from fully closed to fully open. Check at center,
full left and full right position of steering.
8. Install the air cleaner as described in this
chapter.
Fuel Shutoff Valve/Filter
Refer to Chapter Six for complete details on
removal, cleaning and installation of the fuel
shutoff valve.
I 40 CHAPTER THREE
Fuel Filter (1984-on XV1000 and XV1100)
Fuel filter replacement is described in Chapter
Six.
Fuel and Vacuum Line Inspection
Inspect the condition of the fuel line and vacuum
line for cracks or deterioration; replace if
necessary. Make sure the hose clamps are in place
and holding securely.
Exhaust System
Check for leakage at all fittings. Do not forget the
crossover pipe connections. Tighten all bolts and
nuts; replace any gaskets as necessary. Removal
and installation procedures are described in
Chapter Six.
Air Cleaner Removal/Installation
A clogged air cleaner can decrease the efficiency
and life of the engine. Never run the bike without
the air cleaner installed; even minute particles of
dust can cause severe internal engine wear.
The service intervals specified in Table 1 should
be followed with general use. However, the air
cleaner should be serviced more often if the bike is
ridden in dusty areas.
1981-1983
1. Remove the left-hand side cover.
2. Remove the bolts securing the air filter housing
to the frame (Figure 65). Remove the 2 housing
bolt rods.
3. Remove the air filter housing (Figure 66).
4. Disassemble the air filter cover (A, Figure 67).
5. Remove the air filter (Figure 68).
6. Tap the element lightly to remove most of the
dirt and dust then apply compressed air to the
inside surface of the element.
7. Inspect the element and make sure it is in good
condition. Replace if necessary.
8. Clean the mside of the air box with a shop rag
and cleaning solvent. Remove any foreign matter
that may have passed through a broken cleaner
element.
9. Assemble the air filter housing assembly. When
installing the air filter housing make sure that the
rubber foam gasket (B, Figure 67) seats properly
against the frame.
10. Install all parts previously removed.
1984-on
1. The air filter housing is shown in Figure 69.
Remove the air housing attaching bolts and
disconnect the air filter hose at the frame.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 41
2 Pull the air filter housing outward slightly and
disconnect the 2 hoses at the back of the housing
See Figure 70 and Figure 71
3 Remove the screws from the backside of the
housing and remove the chrome plate and hose
(Figure 72)
4 Remove the air filter (Figure 73)
5 Tap the element lightly to remove most of the
dirt and dust, then apply compressed air to the
inside surface of the element
6 Inspect the element and make sure it is in good
condition Make sure the air filter sealing surface
(Figure 74) is not torn Replace if necessary
7 Clean the inside of the air box with a shop rag
and cleaning solvent Remove any foreign matter
that may have passed through a broken cleaner
element
8 Assemble the air filter housing assembly When
installing the air filter housing make sure that the 2
hoses (Figure 71) are connected to the filter
housing (Figure 70)
Crankcase Breather Hose
Inspect the hose for cracks and deterioration and
make sure that the hose clamps are tight (Figure
75)
42 CHAPTER THREE
Wheel Bearings
The wheel bearings should be cleaned and
repacked at the service intervals specified in Table
1. Refer to Chapter Eight and Chapter Nine for
complete service procedures.
Starter Brushes
The starter brushes should be replaced at the
intervals specified in Table 1. Complete service
procedures are found in Chapter Seven.
Steering Play
The steering head should be checked for
looseness at the intervals specified in Table 1.
1. Prop up the motorcycle so that the front tire
clears the ground.
2. Center the front wheel. Push lightly against the
left handlebar grip to start the wheel turning to the
right, then let go. The wheel should continue
turning under its own momentum until the forks
hit their stop.
3. Center the wheel and push lightly against the
right handlebar grip.
4. If, with a light push in either direction, the front
wheel will turn all the way to the stop, the steering
adjustment is not too tight.
5. Center the front wheel and kneel in front of it.
Grasp the bottom of the 2 front fork slider legs. Try
to pull the forks toward you and then try to push
them toward the engine. If no play is felt, the
steering adjustment is not too loose.
6. If the steering adjustment is too tight or too
loose, adjust it as described in Chapter Eight.
Steering Head Bearings
The steering head bearings should be repacked
every 10,000 miles (16,000 km) as described in
Chapter Eight.
Front Suspension Check
1. Apply the front brake and pump the fork up and
down as vigorously as possible. Check for smooth
operation and check for any oil leaks.
2. Make sure the upper (Figure 76) and lower
(Figure 77 or Figure 78) fork bridge bolts are tight.
3. On XV920J models, refer to Chapter Eight for
handlebar adjustment and service procedures. On
all other models, check the tightness of the 4 Allen
bolts (Figure 79) securing the handlebar.
4. Check that the front axle pinch bolt is tight
(Figure 80).
5. Check that the front axle nut cotter pin is in
place and that the axle nut is tight.
CAUTION
If any of the previously mentioned bolts
and nuts are loose, refer to Chapter
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 43
Eight for correct procedures and torque
specifications
Rear Suspension Check
1 Place the bike on the centerstand.
2 Push hard sideways on the rear wheel to check
for side play m the swing arm bushings or bearings.
3. Check the tightness of the upper and lower
shock absorber mounting nuts and bolts.
4. Check the tightness of the rear brake torque arm
bolts (A, Figure 81).
5. Make sure the rear axle nut is tight and the
cotter pin is still in place. See Figure 82
6. Make sure the rear axle pinch bolt (B, Figure 81)
is tight.
CAUTION
If any of the previously mentioned nuts
or bolts are loose, refer to Chapter Nine
for correct procedures and torque
specifications
Nuts, Bolts and Other Fasteners
Constant vibration can loosen many fasteners on
a motorcycle. Check the tightness of all fasteners,
especially those on:
a. Engine mounting hardware.
b. Engine crankcase covers.
c. Handlebar and front forks.
d. Gearshift lever.
e. Sprocket bolts and nuts (if so equipped).
f. Final drive bolts and nuts (if so equipped).
g. Brake pedal and lever,
h. Exhaust system.
I. Lighting equipment.
TUNE-UP
A complete tune-up restores performance and
power that is lost due to normal wear and
deterioration of engine parts Because engine wear
occurs over a combined period of time and
mileage, the engine tune-up should be performed
at the intervals specified in Table 1. More frequent
tune-ups may be required if the bike is used
primarily in stop-and-go traffic.
Table 6 summarizes tune-up specifications.
Before starting a tune-up procedure, make sure
to first have all new parts on hand.
Because different systems in an engine interact,
the procedures should be done in the following
order.
44 CHAPTER THREE
a. Clean or replace the air cleaner element.
b. Adjust valve clearance.
c. Check engine compression.
d. Check or replace the spark plugs.
e. Check the ignition timing.
f. Synchronize carburetors and set idle speed.
To perform a tune-up on your Yamaha, you will
need the following tools:
a. Spark plug wrench.
b. Socket wrench and assorted sockets.
c. Hat feeler gauge.
d. Compression gauge.
e. Spark plug wire feeler gauge and gapper tool.
f. Ignition timing light.
g. Carburetor synchronization tool (measure
manifold vacuum).
6. Rotate the engine by turning the crankshaft
clockwise. Use a socket on the nut located on the
left-hand end of the crankshaft (Figure 86).
Continue to rotate the crankshaft until the "T"
mark for the rear cylinder (Figure 87) is aligned
with the crankcase cover stationary pointer as
viewed through the window in the crankcase cover.
7. Remove the intake and exhaust valve covers for
both cylinders. See Figure 88.
8. Check that there is free play at both the intake
and exhaust valve rocker arms for the rear
cylinder. See Figure 89. If not, rotate the crankshaft
360°; recheck for free play at both rear cylinder
rocker arms.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 45
Compression Test
At every tune-up, check cylinder compression.
Record the results and compare them at the next
check. A running record will show trends in deterioration so that corrective action can be taken before
complete failure.
The results, when properly interpreted, can
indicate general cylinder, piston ring and valve
condition.
46 CHAPTER THREE
NOTE
The valves must be properly adjusted
before performing a compression test.
1. Warm the engine to normal operating temperature. Ensure that the choke and throttle valves are
completely open.
2. Remove the spark plugs.
3. Connect the compression tester to one cylinder
following manufacturer's instructions (Figure 91).
4. Have an assistant crank the engine over until
there is no further rise in pressure.
5. Remove the tester and record the reading.
6. Repeat Steps 3-5 for the other cylinder.
7. When interpreting the results, actual readings
are not as important as the difference between the
readings. Standard compression pressure, is specified in Table 6. Pressure should not vary from cylinder to cylinder by more than 14 psi (1 kg/cm2).
Greater difference indicate worn or broken rings,
leaky or sticky valves, blown head gasket or a compression of all.
If the compression readings do not differ between
cylinders by more than 10%, the rings and valves
are in good condition.
If a low reading (10% or more) is obtained on one
of the cylinders, it indicates valve or ring trouble.
To determine which, pour about a teaspoon of engine oil through the spark plug hold onto the top of
the piston. Turn the engine over once to distribute
the oil, then take another compression test and record the reading. If the compression increases, the
valves are good but the rings are defective on that
cylinder. If compression does not increase, the
valves require servicing. A valve could be hanging
open but not burned or a piece of carbon could be on
a valve seat.
NOTE
If the compression is low, the egine
cannot be tuned to maximum performance. The engine should be disassembled and inspected.
Spark Plug Selection
Spark plugs are available in varous heat ranges
that are hotter or colder than the spark plugs originally installed at the factory.
Select plugs in a heat range designed for the loads
and temperature conditions under which the engine
will operate. Using incorrect heat ranges can cause
piston seizure, scored cylinder walls or damaged
piston crowns.
In general, use a hotter plug for low speeds, low
loads and low temperatures. Use a colder plug for
high speeds, high engine loads and high
temperatures.
NOTE
In areas where seasonal temperature
variations are great, the factory
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 47
recommends a "two-plug system"—a
cold plug for hard summer riding and a
hot plug for slower winter operation.
The reach (length) of a plug is also important. A
longer than normal plug could interfere with the
valves and pistons causing permanent and severe
damage (Figure 92). The standard spark plugs are
listed in Table 6.
Spark Plug Removal/Cleaning
1. Grasp the spark plug leads (Figure 85) as near to
the plug as possible and pull them off the plugs.
2. Blow away any dirt that has accumulated in the
spark plug wells.
CAUTION
The dirt could fall into the cylinders
when the plugs are removed, causing
serious engine damage.
3. Remove the spark plug with a spark plug
wrench.
NOTE
If plugs are difficult to remove, apply
penetrating oil such as WD-40 or Liquid Wrench around base of plugs and
let it soak in about 10-20 minutes.
4. Inspect spark plug carefully. Look for plugs with
broken center porcelain, excessively eroded electrodes and excessive carbon or oil fouling. Replace
such plugs.
5. If you use a sand-blast type device to clean old
plugs be very careful. While this tyep of cleaning
does a throrough job, the plug must be perfectly
clean of all abrasive cleaning material when done. If
not, it is possible for the cleaning material to fall
into the engine during operation and cause piston-to-cylinder damage.
Spark Plug Gapping and Installing
New plugs should be carefully gapped to ensure a
reliable consistent spark, you msut use a special
spark plug gapping tool with a wij.e gauge.
1. Remove the new plugs from the box. Do not install the terminal nuts that are loose in each box
(Figure 93); they are not used.
2. Insert a wire gauge between the center and the
side electrode of each plug (Figure 94). The correct
gap is found in Table 6. If the gap is correct, you
will feel a slight drag as you pull the wire through. If
there is no drag or the guage won't pass through,
bend the side electrode with the gapping tool (Figure 95) to set the proper gap.
3. Put a small amount of anti-seize compound on
the threads of each spark plug.
4. Screw each spark plug by hand until it seats.
Very little effort is required. If force is necessary,
you have the plug cross-threaded; unscrew it and try
again.
NOTE
If a sparkplug is difficult to install, the
cylinder head threads may be dirty or
slightly dmaaged. To clean the threads,
apply grease to the threads of a spark
plug tap (Figure 96) and screw it carefully into the cylinder head. Turn the
tap slowly until it is completely installed. If the tap connect be installed,
the threads are severly damaged and
the head must be repaired by a specialist or replaced.
48 CHAPTER THREE I
5. Tighten the spark plugs to a torque of 14 ft.lb.
(20 N«m). If you don't have a torque wrench,
tighten an additional 1/4 to 1/2 turn after the gasket
has made contact with the head. If you are reinstalling old, regapped plugs and are reusing the old gasket, only tighten an additional 1/4 turn.
NOTE
Do not overtighten. Besides making
the plug difficult to remove, the excessive torque will squash the gasket and
destroy its sealing ability
6. Install each spark plug wire. Make sure it goes to
the correct spark plug.
Reading Spark Plugs
Much information about engine and spark plug
performance can be determined by careful examination of the spark plugs. This information is more
valid after performing the following steps.
1. Ride the bike a short distance at full throttle in
any gear.
2. Turn off the kill switch before closing the throttle and simultaneously pull in the clutch. Coast and
brake to a stop. Do not downshift transmission with
the engine not running.
3. Remove spark plugs and examine them. Compare them to Figure 97.
a. If the electrodes are white or burned, the plug
is too hot and should be replaced with a colder
one.
b. A too-cold plug will have sooty deposits
ranging in color from dark brown to black.
Replace with a hotter plug and check for
too-rich carburetion or evidence of oil
blow-by at the piston rings.
c. If either plug is found unsatisfactory, replace
them both.
Ignition Timing
Timing is set at the factory on all models and is
not adjustable (the base plate screws have no slots
for adjustment). The following procedure is used to
check ignition timing only.
It is only necessary to check the timing on the rear
cylinder. If it is found correct, the front cylinder will
automatically be correct.
NOTE
Before starting this procedure, check
all electrical connections related to
the ignition system. Make sure all
connections are tight and free of corrosion and that all ground connections are tight.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the timing cover (Figure 83).
3. Connect a portable tachometer following the
manufacturer's instructions. The bike's tach is not
accurate enough in the low rpm range for this adjustment.
4. Connect a timing light to the rear cylinder following the manufacturer's instructions.
CAUTION
When attaching the timing light to the
spark plug wire, do not puncture the
wire or cap with the timing light
probe. This would cause either excessive wire resistance or high-voltage
leakage to ground. In either case, engine misfiring would result.
5. Start the engine and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. Bring the engine speed to
950-1,500 rpm and aim the timing light at the marks
on the timing plate (Figure 98).
6. The stationary pointer should align with the "F"
mark on the timing plate (Figure 87). If not, remove
the alternator cover as described in Chapter Seven
and check the pick-up (A, Figure 99) and stator (B,
Figure 99) assembly screws for tightness. If these
are tight, refer to Chapter Seven for ignition system
troubleshooting. Ignition timing cannot be adjusted
on these models.
Carburetor Idle Mixture
Idle mixture is preset at the factory and it is not to
be reset.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 49
SPARK PLUG CONDITION
NORMAL
• Identified by light tan or gray
deposits on the firing tip.
• Can be cleaned.
GAP BRIDGED
• Identified by deposit buildup closing gap between electrodes
• Caused by oil or carbon fouling. If
deposits are not excessive, the plug
can be cleaned.
OIL FOULED
• Identified by wet black deposits on
the insulator shell bore or electrodes.
• Caused by excessive oil entering
combustion chamber through worn
rings and pistons, excessive clearance
between valve guides and stems, or
worn or loose bearings. Can be
cleaned. If engine is not repaired,
use a hotter plug.
CARBON FOULED
• Identified by black, dry fluffy carbon deposits on insulator tips, exposed shell surfaces and electrodes.
• Caused by too cold a plug, weak
ignition, dirty air cleaner, too rich
a fuel mixture, or excessive idling.
Can be cleaned.
m LEAD FOULED
• Identified by dark gray, black,
yellow, or tan deposits or a fused
glazed coating on the insulator tip.
• Caused by highly leaded gasoline
Can be cleaned.
WORN
• Identified by severely eroded or
worn electrodes.
• Caused by normal wear. Should
be replaced.
FUSED SPOT DEPOSIT
• Identified by melted or spotty deposits resembling bubbles or blisters.
• Caused by sudden acceleration.
Can be cleaned.
OVERHEATING
• Identified by a white or light gray
insulator with small black or gray
brown spots and with bluish-burnt
appearance of electrodes.
Caused by engine overheating,
wrong type of fuel, loose spark plugs,
too hot a plug, or incorrect ignition
timing. Replace the plug.
PREIGNITION
• Identified by melted electrodes and
possibly blistered insulator. Metallic
deposits on insulator indicate engine
damage.
• Caused by wrong type of fuel, incorrect ignition timing or advance, too
hot a plug, burned valves, or engine
overheating. Replace the plug.
50 CHAPTER THREE
Carburetor Synchronization (1981-1987)
A vacuum gauge must be used to synchronize
the carburetors.
NOTE
Prior to synchronizing the carburetors,
the ignition timing must be checked
and the valve clearance properly
adjusted.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand. Start the
engine and let it reach normal operating
temperature. Then turn it off.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
4A. 1981-1983:
a. Loosen the ventilation pipe-to-small air filter
clamps as shown in A, Figure 100.
b. Disconnect the rear cylinder vacuum line at
the intake manifold (B, Figure 100). Connect
one vacuum gauge line at this connection.
c. The front cylinder has two vacuum lines.
Disconnect the smaller diameter line (Figure
101); connect the vacuum gauge line at this
point. Leave the larger vacuum line
connected.
4B. 1984-on XV700:
a. Disconnect the small diameter hose at the
front carburetor joint.
b. Disconnect the rubber cap from the rear
carburetor joint.
c. Connect the vacuum gauge to the front and
rear carburetor joints.
4C. 1984-on XV1000 and XVI100:
a. Remove the mixture control valve cover
(Figure 102).
b. Disconnect the vacuum hose at the mixture
control valve (A, Figure 103).
c. Disconnect the rubber cap from the rear
carburetor joint (B, Figure 103).
d. Connect the vacuum gauge to the mixture
control valve and rear carburetor joint
connections.
5. Place the fuel tank back onto the frame and
reconnect the fuel lines. Raise the rear of the tank
slightly to gain access to the carburetor
synchronizing screw.
6. Turn the fuel petcock lever to the PRI position.
On XV1000 and XVI100 models, no petcock is
used. The fuel valve is electrically operated during
engine operation.
7. Start the engine and allow it to warm up. Idle
the engine at 950-1,050 rpm.
8. The carburetors are synchronized if they have
the same gauge readings. If not, use a carburetor
adjusting wrench with a screwdriver tip to turn the
synchronizing screw (Figure 104) until the gauge
readings are the same.
NOTE
Figure 104 is shown with the carburetor
assembly removed for clarity only.
9. Remove the fuel tank and reconnect all vacuum
lines. Reinstall all parts previously removed.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 51
Carburetor Synchronization
(1988-on)
A vacuum gauge must be used to synchronize
the carburetors.
NOTE
Prior to synchronizing the carburetors,
the ignition timing must be checked
and the valve clearance properly
adjusted.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand. Start the
engine and let it reach normal operating
temperature. Then turn it off.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
4. Remove the frame left-hand side cover.
5. Remove the air filter as described in this
chapter.
6. Disconnect the small diameter hose at the front
carburetor joint.
7. Disconnect the rubber cap from the rear
carburetor joint.
8. Connect the vacuum gauge to the front and rear
carburetor joints.
9. Place the fuel tank back on the frame and
reconnect the fuel lines. Raise the rear of the tank
slightly to gain access to the carburetor
synchronizing screw.
10. Restart the engine and again allow it to warm
up. Idle the engine at 950-1,050 rpm.
11. The carburetors are synchronized if they have
the same gauge readings. If not, use an offset
screwdriver and turn the carburetor synchronizing
screw (Figure 105) until the gauge readings are the
same.
12. Remove the vacuum gauge lines and remove
the fuel tank.
13. Reconnect all items disconnected.
14. Reinstall all parts previously removed.
Carburetor Idle Speed Adjustment
Before starting this adjustment, the air cleaner
must be clean, the carburetors must be
synchronized and the engine must have adequate
compression (see Compression Test in this
chapter). Otherwise this procedure cannot be done
properly.
52 CHAPTER THREE
1. Attach a portable tachometer following the
manufacturer's instructions.
NOTE
The bike's tachometer is not accurate
enough in the low rpm range for this
adjustment.
2. Start the engine and let it warm up to normal
operating temperature.
3. Set the idle speed (Table 6) by turning the front
cylinder's carburetor throttle stop screw in or out
to achieve the proper idle speed. Refer to Figure
106 for 1981-1987 models or Figure 107 for 1988on models.
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 53
Table 1 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE*
Initial 600 miles
(1,000 km) or 1 month
Initial 3,000 miles
(5,000 km) or 7 months
Initial 3,000 miles
(5,000 km) or 6 months;
then every 2,500 miles
(4,000 km) or 6 months
Initial 3,000 miles
(5,000 km) or 7 months;
then every 5,000 miles
(8,000 km) or 12 months
Initial 8,000 miles
(13,000 km) or 18 months;
then every 7,500 miles
(12,000 km) or 18 months
Initial 8,000 miles
(13,000 km) or 18 months;
then every 10,000 miles
(16,000 km) or 24 months
Every 10,000 miles
(16,000 km) or 24 months
* This Yamaha factory maintenance
lubrication intervals. Harder than
• Change engine oil and filter
• Check front and rear brake free play;
adjust if required
• Check front brake pad and rear brake shoe
thickness; replace if required
• Adjust clutch free play
• Lubricate all control cables
• Check drive chain tension and adjust
if necessary**
• Change final gear oil***
• Check, clean and regap spark plugs
• Check exhaust system mounting bolts and gasket
• Check carburetor synchronization;
adjust if required
• Check engine idle speed; adjust if required
• Change engine oil and filter
• Check front and rear brake free play;
adjust if required
• Check front brake pad and rear brake shoe
thickness; replace if required
• Adjust clutch free play
• Lubricate all control cables
• Lubricate clutch and brake lever pivot points
• Lubricate brake and shift lever pivot points
• Lubricate centerstand and side stand pivot points
• Check steering stem bearings for looseness; (.
• adjust if required
• Check front and rear wheel bearings for smooth
rotation; replace if required
• Check battery fluid level and specific gravity
• Check and adjust valve clearance
• Check crankcase ventilation hose for cracks
or damage; replace if required
• Check fuel line and vacuum hoses for cracks
or damage; replace if required
• Clean air filter (replace if damaged)
• Check drive chain tension and adjust
if necessary* *
• Change final gear oil***
• Replace spark plugs
• Replace alternator brushes
• Repack steering stem ball bearing grease
schedule should be used as a guide to general maintenance and
normal use and exposure to mud, water, sand, high humidity, etc.,
will dictate more frequent attention to most maintenance items.
** Chain drive models only.
*** Shaft drive models only.
54 CHAPTER THREE
Load
Up to 198 Ib. (90 kg)
Front
Rear
198-353 Ib. (90-160 kg)
Front
Rear
353-529 ib. (160-240 kg)
Front
Rear
198-470 Ib. (90-213 kg)
Front
Rear
High-speed riding
Front
Rear
Table 2 TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE
XV700, XV750, XV1000
XV1000, XV1100
psi (kg/cm2)
26 psi (1.8)
28 (2.0)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
40 (2.8)


32 (2.3)
36 (2.5)
(COLD)
XV920
psi (kg/cm2)
26 (1.8)
28 (2.0)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
Table 3 BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE
Specific gravity
1.110-1.130
1.140-1.160
1.170-1.190
1.200-1.220
1.230-1.250
1.260-1.280
State of charge
Discharged
Almost discharged
One-quarter charged
One-half charged
Three-quarters charged
Fully charged
Table 4 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
Engine oil
40° F and above
40° F and below
Brake fluid
Battery refilling
Fork oil
Cables and pivot points
Fuel
Final gear oil (if so equipped)
All weather
Above 40° F
Below 40° F
Drive chain (if so equipped)
SAE20W/40, SE-SF
SAE10W/30, SE-SF
DOT 3 or DOT 4
Distilled water
SAE 10
Yamaha chain and cable lube or
SAE 10W/30 motor oil
Regular
SAE 80W/90, GL4
SAE 90, GL4
SAE 80, GL4
Shell Alvania 1 or lithium-base EP2 grease
LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 55
Table 5
Engine oil
With oil filter change
With out oil filter change
Engine rebuild
Front forks
XV700 (1984-1985)
XV700 (1986-1987), XV750 (1988-on)
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750 (1988-on)
XV920 (1981-1982 chain drive)
XV920 (1982-1983 shaft drive)
XV1000, XV1100
Final drive case (if so equipped)
APPROXIMATE REFILL CAPACITIES
3.3 qts. (3,100 CC)
3.2 qts. (3,000 cc)
3.8 qts. (3,600 cc)
13.2 oz. (389 cc)
13.4 oz. (396 cc)
9.4 oz. (278 cc)
13.4 oz. (396 CC)
8.9 oz. (264 cc)
10.2 oz. (303 cc)
12.6oz. (372 cc)
0.21 qt. (200 cc)
Table 6 TUNE
Ignition timing
Valve clearance (cold)
1981-1983
Intake
Exhaust
1984-on
Intake
Exhaust
Spark plug
Type
Gap
Tightening torque
Idle speed
Compression pressure (cold @ sea level)
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
Maximum difference between cylinders
•UP SPECIFICATIONS
Fixed
0.004 in. (0.10 mm)
0.006 in. (0.15 mm)
0.003-0.004 in. (0.07-0.10 mm)
0.005-0.006 in. (0.12-0.15 mm)
NGK BP7ES
0.028-0.032 in. (0.7-0.8 mm)
14.5 ft.-lb. (20 NTH)
950-1,050 rpm
156psi(11 kg/cm*)
128 psi (9 kg/cm2)
171 psi (12 kg/cm*)
14 psi (1.0 kg/cm*)
CHAPTER FOUR
ENGINE
The engine used on all models is a V-twin
air-cooled, 4-stroke design. The cylinders are offset
(to improve rear cylinder cooling) and set at a 75°
angle; the cylinders fire on alternate crankshaft
rotations. Each cylinder is equipped with a single
camshaft and 2 valves. The crankshaft is supported
by 2 main bearings in the vertically split crankcase.
Both engine and transmission share a common
case and the same wet-sump oil supply. The clutch
is a wet-plate type located inside the right
crankcase cover. Refer to Chapter Five for clutch
and transmission service procedures.
This chapter provides complete procedures
information for disassembly, removal, inspection,
service and reassembly of the engine. Service
procedures for all models are virtually the same.
Where differences occur, they are identified.
Table 1 and Table 2 provide complete engine
specifications. Table 3 lists engine tightening
torques for all models.
Tables 1-5 are located at the end of this chapter.
Before starting any work, read the service hints
in Chapter One. You will do a better job with this
information fresh in your mind.
ENGINE PRINCIPLES
Figure 1 explains how the engine works. This
will be helpful when troubleshooting or repairing
the engine.
SERVICING ENGINE IN FRAME
Many components can be serviced while the
engine is mounted in the frame:
a. Gearshift mechanism.
b. Clutch.
c. Carburetors.
d. Starter motor and gears.
e. Alternator and electrical systems.
f. Oil pump.
ENGINE REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
Remove the left- and right-hand side covers and
accessories such as fairings and crash bars.
2. Remove the battery from the frame as
described in Chapter Three.
3. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
4. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter
Three.
5. Disconnect the spark plug wires.
ENGINE 57
58 CHAPTER FOUR
6. Remove the air filter assembly bolts and
remove the air filter assembly. See Figure 2
(1981-1983) or Figure 3 (1984-on).
7. Remove the exhaust system as described in
Chapter Six.
8. Loosen the clutch cable at the hand grip. Then
remove the clutch adjuster cover (Figure 4) and
disconnect the clutch cable (Figure 5).
9. Disconnect the carburetor assembly as
described in Chapter Six.
10. Disconnect the crankcase breather hose.
11. On 1984 and later models, remove the mixture
control valve case (Figure 6).
12. Disconnect the alternator wiring at the
electrical connector.
13. Remove the clutch assembly as described in
Chapter Five.
14. Remove the shift lever and the left-hand rear
crankcase cover.
15. Remove the gearshift mechanism as described
in Chapter Five.
16. Remove the starter motor idler gears and shaft
as described in this chapter. Then remove the
starter motor attachment bolts and pull the starter
motor out of the crankcase.
17. Remove the bolt attaching the ground wire to
the engine. Position the wire back and out of the
way.
18. Remove the alternator assembly as described
in Chapter Seven.
NOTE
When performing Step 19A, have an
assistant apply the rear brake to keep
the shaft from turning.
19A. Shaft-drive models: Pull back the rubber boot
and remove the bolts (Figure 7) securing the drive
shaft coupling.
19B. Chain-drive models: Disconnect and remove
the drive chain as described in Chapter Nine.
ENGINE 59
20. Examine the engine to make sure everything
has been disconnected and positioned out of the
way.
21. Place wooden blocks (Figure 8) under the
crankcase to support the engine once the mounting
bolts are removed.
22. Loosen, but do not remove, all engine
mounting bolts and nuts.
23. Remove the front engine mount bolts, nuts
and brackets (Figure 9).
NOTE
Rubber dampers are used on some
engine mounts. Note their position for
reassembly.
24. Withdraw the rear engine mount through bolt
(Figure 10).
25. Have an assistant help you slide the engine
forward (Figure 11) and remove it.
26. While the engine is removed for service, check
all of the frame engine mounts for cracks or other
damage. If any cracks are detected, take the chassis
assembly to a dealer or frame specialist for further
examination.
27. Install by reversing the removal steps; note the
following.
28. After the engine is positioned correctly, install
the rear through-bolt (Figure 10). Install the upper
front bolts, plates and nuts. Start the nuts but do
not tighten.
30. On shaft-drive models, install 4 new drive
shaft bolts and tighten them evenly in two stages to
specifications (Table 4). Reattach the rubber boot.
31. Tighten the front and rear top motor mount
bolts to specifications (Table 5).
32. Fill the crankcase with the recommended type
and quantity of engine oil. Refer to Chapter Three.
33. Start the engine and check for leaks.
60
CHAPTER FOUR
CYLINDER HEADS
AND CAMSHAFTS
This section describes removal, inspection and
installation procedures for the cylinder head and
camshaft components. Valves and valve
components are described under a separate
heading.
Removal
1. Remove the engine from the frame as described
in this chapter.
2A. Rear cylinder: Rotate the engine by turning the
crankshaft clockwise. Use a socket on the nut located
on the left-hand end of the crankshaft until the "T"
mark for the rear cylinder (Figure 87, Chapter
Three) is aligned with the crankcase cover stationary
pointer as viewed through the window in the crankcase cover.
2B. Front cylinder. Turn the crankshaft
approximately 285° clockwise to align the flywheel
"I" mark with the stationary pointer.
NOTE
Do not remove the rotor from the
left-hand side of the engine (Figure 12)
as it will he used during camshaft
installation.
3. Remove the bolts secunng the cam chain
tensioner (Figure 13) and remove the tensioner.
ENGINE 61
4 Disconnect the oil delivery lines (Figure 14) at
both cylinders Store the oil lines in a safe place to
prevent damage
5 Remove the valve adjustment cover and loosen
the valve adjustment nuts (A, Figure 15)
6 Remove the cam sprocket covers (B, Figure 15)
7 Remove the camshaft sprocket bolt (A, Figure
16)
8 Remove the oil baffle plate (at the rear cylinder
only) See B, Figure 16
9 Attach a length of safety wire to the cam chan
then let the chain drop
NOTE
Before removing the cam sprocket in
Step 10, note the position of the dowel
pin between the camshaft and and cam
sprocket Remove the camshaft
sprocket carefully so that the dowel pin
does not pull out of the camshaft and
fall into the crankcase cavity
10 Remove the camshaft sprocket (Figure 17) by
pulling it off the camshaft Remove the camshaft
dowel pin
11 Loosen all cylinder head nuts (Figure 18) 1/2
turn in the sequence shown in Figure 19 After all
the nuts have been loosened, remove the nuts and
washers
12 Remove the rear frame engine mounts (Figure
20) from the rear cylinder head
13 Loosen the head by tapping around the
penmeter with a rubber or plastic mallet
CAUTION
Remember, the cooling fins are fragile
and may be damaged if tapped on too
hard Never use a metal hammer
14 Remove the cylinder head (Figure 21) by
pulling straight up and off the cylinder studs Place
a clean shop rag into the cam chain opening in the
cylinder to prevent the entry of foreign matter
62 CHAPTER FOUR
NOTE
After removing the cylinder head, check
the top and bottom mating surfaces for
any indications of leakage. Also check
the head and base gaskets for signs of
leakage. A blown gasket could indicate
possible cylinder head warpage or other
damage.
NOTE
Do not remove the rubber sleeves from
the front cylinder studs (Figure 22).
15. See Figure 23. Remove the bolt (A) securing
the retaining plate (B) in the cylinder head and
remove the plate. Then remove the bushing
(Figure 24) and camshaft (Figure 25).
16. Repeat Steps 2-15 for the opposite cylinder head.
Camshaft Inspection
1. Check the inside and outside camshaft bushing
surfaces for pitting or chatter marks (Figure 26).
Replace if required. If the camshaft bushing is
severely worn, check the cylinder head for wear
where the bushing rides. The surface should be
smooth with no visible wear marks. Replace the
cylinder head if this surface is worn.
2. Check cam lobes (Figure 27) for wear. The lobes
should not be scored and the edges should be
square. Slight damage may be removed with a
silicon carbide oilstone. Use No. 100-120 grit
initially, then polish with a No. 280-320 grit.
3. Even if the cam lobe surfaces appear
satisfactory, with no visible signs of wear, they
must be measured with a micrometer as shown in
Figure 28. Replace the shaft(s) if worn beyond the
service limit (measurements less than those given
in Table 1 or Table 2).
4. Place the camshaft on a set of V-blocks and
check its runout with a dial indicator. Replace the
camshaft if runout exceeds specifications in Table
1 or Table 2.
5. Inspect the camshaft sprockets (A, Figure 29) and
camshaft drive sprockets (B, Figure 29) for wear;
replace if necessary.
ENGINE 63
Cylinder Head Inspection
1. Remove all traces of gasket from head and
cylinder mating surfaces. Do not scratch the gasket
surface.
2. Without removing valves, remove all carbon
deposits from the combustion chambers (Figure
30) with a wire brush. A blunt screwdriver or chisel
may be used if care is taken not to damage the
head, valves and spark plug threads.
CAUTION
If the combustion chambers are cleaned
while the valves are removed, make
sure to keep the scraper or wire brush
away from the valve seats to prevent
damaging the seat surfaces A damaged
or even slightly scratched valve seat will
cause poor valve seating.
3. Examine the spark plug threads in the cylinder
head for damage. If damage is minor or if the
threads are dirty or clogged with carbon, use a
spark plug thread tap (Figure 31) to clean the
threads following the manufacturer's instructions
If thread damage is severe, refer further service to a
dealer or competent machine shop.
4. After all carbon is removed from combustion
chamber and valve ports and the spark plug thread
holes are repaired, clean the entire head in solvent.
5. Clean away all carbon on the piston crowns Do
not remove the carbon ridge at the top of the
cylinder bore.
6. Check for cracks in the combustion chamber
and exhaust ports. A cracked head must be
replaced.
7. After the head has been thoroughly cleaned,
place a straightedge across the gasket surface at
several points (Figure 32). Measure warp by
inserting a feeler gauge between the straightedge
and cylinder head at each location. Maximum
allowable warpage is 0.010 in. (0.25 mm). If
warpage exceeds this limit, the cylinder head must
be replaced.
64 CHAPTER FOUR
8 Inspect the valves and valve guides as descnbed
in this chapter
Installation
1 Loosen the valve adjusters (Figure 33).
2 Apply engine assembly oil to all camshaft
beanng surfaces (Figure 34) and carefully install
the shaft into the cylinder head so that the pin on
the end of the camshaft aligns with the cylinder
head timing mark (Figure 35)
3 Apply assembly oil to the camshaft bushing
surfaces and install it in the cylinder head so that
the cut-out portion in the front of the bushing is
flush with the cylinder See Figure 24
4. Install the bushing retaining plate (B, Figure 23)
and bolt (A, Figure 23) Tighten the bolt to 14 ft.-lb
(20 N.m).
5 Install a new head gasket.
6 Slide the safety wire attached to the cam chain
up through the cylinder head chain cavity and
install the cylinder head
NOTE
Make sure the front cam chain is
secured in the cylinder head cam chain
guide slot
7 Make sure the rubber covers are installed on the
front cylinder head studs (Figure 22). Lightly oil all
cylinder head stud threads
8. Install the engine mount brackets on the rear
cylinder head (Figure 20).
9 Install the cylinder head nuts and bolts. The
taller nuts fit onto the front cylinder head studs; the
shorter nuts fit on the rear cylinder head studs. See
Figure 36 (front) and Figure 37 (rear).
10 Tighten all nuts and bolts in the sequence
shown in Figure 19 to the specifications in Table 3
11. Repeat Steps 1-10 for the opposite cylinder.
NOTE
Steps 12-17 describe camshaft timing
procedures for the rear cylinder Pull up
on the rear cylinder cam chain when
performing Step 12 to prevent it from
binding the timing gears
ENGINE 65
12. Remove the rotor timing covers. Turn the
crankshaft clockwise with a socket on the rotor nut
(Figure 38) to align the "T" mark on the flywheel
with the stationary pointer (Figure 39). The rear
cylinder is now at TDC (top dead center).
13. Lift up on the cam chain and engage the cam
chain sprocket with the chain. There should be no
slack in the front run of the chain. If there is,
reposition the sprocket in the cam chain. Then lift
up the sprocket and chain and place the sprocket
onto the end of the camshaft so that the sprocket
hole fits onto the pin in the end of the camshaft. At
this point, the timing mark on the cylinder head
should be aligned with the hole in the camshaft
sprocket. See Figure 40. Check the front run of the
cam chain; it must be taut when the cam chain
sprocket is installed on the end of the cam. If not,
remove the sprocket and reinstall.
14. When the cam chain timing for the rear
cylinder is correct as described in Step 13, proceed
to Step 15.
15. Install the oil baffle onto the rear cylinder
camshaft. Install the camshaft securing bolt and
tighten to specifications (Table 3).
16. From a sheet of steel 0.039 in. (1 mm) thick,
cut a plate to the dimensions ,in Figure 41. This
plate is necessary to adjust the rear cylinder cam
chain tension.
17. Adjust the rear cylinder cam chain tension as
follows:
a. Remove the rubber plug from the end of the
tensioner body.
b. Hold the tensioner in your hand as shown in
Figure 42 and insert a small screwdriver into
the end of the tensioner body. Tighten the
inner spring with the screwdriver while at the
same time pushing the tension rod into the
tensioner housing (Figure 43).
c. Continue to tighten the tensioner spring until
it is completely tight. Still holding the tension
rod, remove the screwdriver and install the
steel plate (fabricated in Step 16) into the slot
in the end of the tensioner body (Figure 43).
66 CHAPTER FOUR
d. Install the cam chain tensioner into the rear
cylinder using a new gasket. Install the
tensioner bolts and tighten to specifications
(Table 3).
e. Remove the tensioner plate and reinstall the
rubber plug. Store the tensioner plate for
reuse.
NOTE
Step 18 and Step 19 describe camshaft
timing procedures for the front cylinder.
18. Pull up on the chain and rotate the crankshaft
clockwise with a socket on the rotor nut to align the
"I" mark on the flywheel with the stationary
pointer (Figure 39). The front cylinder is now at
TDC (top dead center).
19. Repeat Steps 13-15 to install and align the
front cylinder camshaft.
20. Install the front cam chain tensioner as
described in Step 17, using a new gasket. Install the
tensioner bolts and tighten to specifications (Table
3).
21. Check the camshaft timing as follows:
a. Rear cylinder: Turn the crankshaft clockwise
with a socket on the rotor nut to align the "T"
mark on the flywheel with the stationary
pointer (Figure 39). The timing mark on the
rear cylinder camshaft sprocket must be
aligned with the cylinder head timing mark
(Figure 40).
b. Front cylinder: Turn the crankshaft clockwise
and align the "I" mark on the flywheel with
the stationary pointer (Figure 39). The timing
mark on the front cylinder camshaft sprocket
must be aligned with the cylinder head timing
mark (Figure 40).
ENGINE 67
c If there is any binding while rotating the
crankshaft, stop Determine the cause before
proceeding If one or both cams are misaligned
when the crankcase timing mark is aligned
correctly, disassemble and reassemble until all
alignments are correct This alignment is
absolutely necessary for correct valve timing
and to prevent expensive damage to the
pistons and valve train
22 Install the oil pipes
23 Reinstall the engine as described in this
chapter
24 Adjust the valves as described in Chapter
Three
25 Start the engine and check for leaks
VALVES AND
VALVE COMPONENTS
Removal
Refer to Figure 44 for this procedure
1 Remove the cylinder head as described in this
chapter
2 Install a valve spring compressor squarely over
the valve retainer with other end of tool placed
against valve head (Figure 45)
3 Tighten valve spring compressor until the split
valve keepers separate Lift out split keepers with
needlenose pliers
4 Gradually loosen valve spring compressor and
remove from head Lift off upper spring seat
CAUTION
Remove any burrs from the valve stem
grooves before removing the valve
(Figure 46) Otherwise the valve guides
will be damaged
5 Remove the inner and outer spnngs and valve
6 Remove the oil seal (Figure 47)
7 Remove the lower spring seat (Figure 48)
CAUTION
All component parts of each valve
assembly must be kept together (Figure
49) Do not mix with like components
from other valves or excessive wear may
result
8 Repeat Steps 2-7 to remove remaining valve(s)
Inspection
1 Clean valves with a wire brush and solvent
2 Inspect the contact surface of each valve for
burning (Figure 50) Minor roughness and pitting
can be removed by lapping the valve as described
in this chapter Excessive unevenness on the
contact surface is an indication that the valve is not
serviceable The contact surface of the valve may
68 CHAPTER FOUR
be ground by a specialist, but it is best to replace a
burned or damaged valve with a new one.
3. Inspect the valve stems for wear and roughness
and measure the vertical runout of the valve stem
as shown in Figure 51. The runout should not
exceed specifications (Table 1 or Table 2).
4. Measure valve stems for wear using a
micrometer (Figure 52). Compare with
specifications in Table 1 or Table 2.
5. Remove all carbon and varnish from the valve
guides with a stiff spiral wire brush.
NOTE
Step 6 requires special measuring
equipment. If you do not have the
required measuring devices, proceed to
Step 8.
6. Measure each valve guide at top, center and
bottom with a small hole gauge. Compare
measurements with specifications in Table 1 or
Table 2.
7. Subtract the measurement made in Step 4 from
the measurement made in Step 6. The difference is
the valve guide-to-valve stem clearance. See
specifications in Table 1 or Table 2 for correct
clearance. Replace any guide or valve that is not
within tolerance. Valve guide replacement is
described in this chapter.
8. Insert each valve in its guide. Hold the valve
just slightly off its seat and rock it sideways. If it
rocks more than slightly, the guide is probably
worn and should be replaced. As a final check, take
the head to a dealer and have the valve guides
measured.
9. Measure the valve spring heights with a vernier
caliper (Figure 53). All should be of the length
specified in Table 1 or Table 2 with no bends or
other distortion. Replace defective springs.
10. Measure the tilt of all valve springs as shown
in Figure 54. Compare with specifications in Table
1 or Table 2.
11. Check the valve spring retainer and valve
keepers. If they are in good condition, they may be
reused.
12. Inspect valve seats (Figure 55). If worn or
burned, they must be reconditioned. This should
be performed by your dealer or local machine
shop, although the procedure is described in this
chapter. Seats and valves in near-perfect condition
can be reconditioned by lapping with fine
carborundum paste. Lapping, however, is always
inferior to precision grinding.
Installation
1. Coat the valve stems with molybdenum
disulfide paste and insert into cylinder head.
ENGINE 69
2. Install the lower spring seat (Figure 48) and a
new seal (Figure 56).
NOTE
Oil seals should be replaced whenever a
valve is removed or replaced.
3. Install valve springs with the narrow pitch end
(end with coils closest together) facing the cylinder
head (Figure 57).
4. Install the upper spring seat.
5. Push down on the upper spring seat with the
valve spring compressor and install valve keepers.
After releasing tension from compressor, examine
valve keepers to make sure they are seated
correctly.
6. Repeat Steps 1-5 for remaining valve(s).
Valve Guide Replacement
When guides are worn so that there is excessive
stem-to-guide clearance or valve tipping, they
must be replaced. Replace all, even if only one is
worn. This job should only be done by a dealer or
qualified specialist as special tools are required.
Valve Seat Reconditioning
This job is best left to your dealer or local
machine shop. They have the special equipment
and knowledge for this exacting job. You can still
save considerable money by removing the cylinder
head and taking just the head to the shop.
Valve Lapping
Valve lapping is a simple operation which can
restore the valve seal without machining if the
amount of wear or distortion is not too great.
1. Smear a light coating of fine grade valve lapping
compound on seating surface of valve.
2. Insert the valve into the head.
3. Wet the suction cup of the lapping stick and
stick it onto the head of the valve. Lap the valve to
the seat by spinning the lapping stick in both
directions. Every 5 to 10 seconds, rotate the valve
180° in the valve seat; continue lapping until the
contact surfaces of the valve and'the valve seat are
a uniform gray. Stop as soon as they are, to avoid
removing too much material.
4. Thoroughly clean the valves and cylinder head
in solvent to remove all grinding compound. Any
compound left on the valves or the cylinder head
will end up in the engine and will cause excessive
wear and damage.
5. After the lapping has been completed and the
valve assemblies have been reinstalled into the
head, the valve seal should be tested. Check the
seal of each valve by pouring solvent into each of
the intake and exhaust ports. There should be no
leakage past the seat. If leakage occurs, the
combustion chamber will appear wet. If fluid leaks
past any of the seats, disassemble that valve
assembly and repeat the lapping procedure until
there is no leakage.
ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
The rocker arms are identical (same Yamaha
part No.) but they will develop different wear
patterns during use. It is recommended that all
parts be marked during removal so that they can be
assembled in their original position.
Removal/Inspection Installation
1. Remove the cylinder head(s) as described in
this chapter.
70 CHAPTER FOUR
2. Remove the rocker arm bolts (Figure 58).
3. Thread a M6X1.00 threaded bolt into the end
of one rocker arm shaft and remove the shaft and
rocker arm. If the shaft is difficult to remove, use a
special knock puller as shown in Figure 59. Repeat
for the opposite rocker arm shaft.
NOTE
The knock puller used in Step 3 (Figure
60) can be easily fabricated from a long
bolt with M6X1.00 threads and a
heavy piece of round metal stock with a
hole drilled through it.
4. Wash all parts in cleaning solvent and
thoroughly dry.
5. Inspect the rocker arm pad where it rides on the
cam lobe and where the adjuster ndes on the valve
stem. If the pad is scratched or unevenly worn,
inspect the cam lobe for scoring, chipping or flat
spots. Replace the rocker arm if defective. Replace
the adjusting screw if worn.
6. Measure the inside diameter of the rocker arm
bore (A, Figure 61) with an inside micrometer and
check against dimensions in Table 1 or Table 2.
Replace if worn to the service limit or less.
7. Inspect the rocker arm shaft for wear or scoring.
Measure the outside diameter (B, Figure 61) with a
micrometer and check against dimensions in Table
1 or Table 2. Replace if worn to the service limit or
greater.
8. Coat the rocker arm shaft and rocker arm bore
with assembly oil.
9. Position the rocker arm in the cylinder and
install the rocker arm shaft through the rocker arm
with the threaded hole facing out. Install the rocker
arm shaft bolt and tighten to specifications (Table
3).
CAUTION
If the rocker arm shaft is installed in
the wrong direction, it cannot be
removed
CYLINDER
Removal
1. Remove the cylinder heads as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the head gasket.
3. Loosen the cylinder by tapping around the
perimeter with a rubber or plastic mallet.
4. Pull the cylinder straight up (Figure 62) and off
the piston and cylinder studs.
ENGINE 71
NOTE
Be sure to keep the cam chain wired up
to prevent it from falling into the lower
crankcase
5 Stuff clean shop rags into the crankcase opening
to prevent objects from falling into the crankcase.
6. Repeat Steps 2-5 for the opposite cylinder.
Inspection
1. Wash the cylinder bore in solvent to remove
any oil and carbon particles. The bore must be
cleaned thoroughly before attempting any
measurement or incorrect readings may be
obtained
2 Measure the cylinder bores with a cylinder
gauge (Figure 63) or inside micrometer at the
points shown in Figure 64
3. Measure in 2 axes—in line with the piston pm
and at 90° to the pin If the taper or out-of-round is
greater than specifications (Table 1 or Table 2), the
cylinders must be rebored to the next oversize and
new pistons and rings installed Rebore both
cylinders even if only one is worn.
NOTE
The new pistons should be obtained
first before the cylinders are bored so
that the pistons can be measured, each
cylinder must be bored to match the
piston that will be used in it
Piston-to-cyhnder clearance is specified
in Table 1 and Table 2
4. If the cyhnder(s) are not worn past the service
limits, check the bore carefully for scratches or
gouges The bore still may require boring and
reconditioning.
5 If the cylinders require rebormg, remove all
dowel pins and O-nngs from the cylinders before
leaving them with the dealer or machine shop.
NOTE
After having the cylinders rebored, wash
them thoroughly in hot soapy water
This is the best way to clean the
cylinder of all fine grit material left
from the bore job After washing the
cylinder, run a clean white cloth
through the bore, it should show no
traces of dirt or other debris If the rag
is dirty, the cylinder is not clean and
must be rewashed After the cylinder is
thoroughly cleaned, dry and then
lubricate the cylinder walls with clean
engine oil to prevent the cylinder liners
from rusting
6. Check the 2 cylinder O-nngs. See Figure 65 and
Figure 66. Replace the O-nngs if worn or damaged.
I
72 CHAPTER FOUR
Installation
1. If the base gasket is stuck to the bottom of the
cylinder it should be removed and the cylinder
surface cleaned thoroughly.
2. Check that the top cylinder surface is clean of
all old gasket material.
3. Install the 2 locating dowels onto the cylinder
head.
4. Install a new cylinder base gasket to the
crankcase. Make sure all holes align.
5. Install a piston holding fixture under the piston.
6. Carefully install the cylinder onto the cylinder
studs (Figure 62) and slide it down over the piston.
Lubricate cylinder bore and piston liberally with
engine oil prior to installation.
NOTE
Once the cylinder is placed over the
studs, run the cam chain and wire up
through the cylinder.
7. Compress each ring as it enters the cylinder
with your fingers or by using aircraft type hose
clamps of appropriate diameter.
CAUTION
Don't tighten the clamp any more than
necessary to compress the rings. If the
rings can't slip through easily, the
clamp may gouge the rings.
8. Remove the piston holding fixture and push the
cylinder all the way down.
9. Repeat Steps 1-8 for the opposite cylinder.
10. Install the cylinder heads and camshafts as
described in this chapter.
PISTONS AND PISTON RINGS
Piston
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the cylinder heads and cylinders as
described in this chapter.
2. Stuff the crankcase with clean shop rags to
prevent objects from falling into the crankcase.
3. Lightly mark the piston with an "F" (front) or
"R" (rear) so they will be installed into the correct
cylinder.
4. Remove the piston rings as described in this
chapter.
5. Before removing the piston, hold the rod tightly
and rock piston as shown in Figure 67. Any
rocking motion (do not confuse with the normal
sliding motion) indicates wear on the piston pin,
rod bushing, pin bore or, more likely, a
combination of all three. Mark the piston and pin
so that they will be reassembled into the same set.
6. Remove the circlips from the piston pin bores
(Figure 68).
7. Heat the piston and pin with a small butane
torch. The pin will probably drop right out. If it
doesn't, heat the piston to about 140° F (60° C), i.e.,
until it is too warm to touch, but not excessively
hot. If the pin is still difficult to push out, use a
homemade tool as shown in Figure 69.
8. Inspect the piston as described in this chapter.
9. Coat the connecting rod bushing, piston pin and
piston with assembly oil.
10. Place the piston over the connecting rod. If
you are installing old parts, make sure the piston is
installed on the correct rod as marked during
removal. The "EX" on the front piston should face
to the front of the engine and the "EX" on the rear
piston should face to the rear of the engine.
11. Insert the piston pin and tap it with a plastic
mallet until it starts into the connecting rod
bushing. Hold the rod so that the lower end does
not take any shock. If the pin does not slide easily,
heat the piston as described during removal or use
the home made tool (Figure 69) but eliminate the
piece of pipe. Drive the pin in until it is centered in
the piston.
12. Install new circlips in the piston bores.
ENGINE 73
13. Install rings as described in this chapter.
14. Repeat Steps 1-13 for the opposite piston.
Piston Inspection
1. Carefully clean the carbon from the piston
crown with a soft scraper. Do not remove or
damage the carbon ridge around the circumference
of the piston above the top ring. If the pistons,
rings and cylinders are found to be dimensionally
correct and can be reused, removal of the carbon
ring from the top of the piston or the carbon ridge;
from the cylinders will promote excessive oil
consumption.
CAUTION
Do not wire brush piston skirts.
2. Examine each ring groove for burrs, dented
edges and wide wear. Pay particular attention to
the top compression ring groove, as it usually
wears more than the others.
3. Measure piston-to-cylmder clearance as
described under Piston Clearance Measurement in
this chapter.
4. If damage or wear indicates piston replacement is
necessary, select a new piston as described under
Piston Clearance Measurement in this chapter.
Piston Clearance Measurement
1. Make sure the piston and cylinder walls are
clean and dry.
2. Measure the inside diameter,of the cylinder at a
point 1/2 in. (13 mm) from the upper edge with a
bore gauge.
3. Measure the outside diameter of the piston at
the specified height from the lower edge of the
piston (Table 1 or Table 2) 90° to piston pin axis
(Figure 70).
4. Subtract the piston diameter from the bore
diameter; the difference is piston-to-cylinder
clearance. Compare to specifications in Table 1 or
Table 2. If clearance is excessive, the piston should
be replaced and the cylinder rebored. Purchase the
new piston first; measure its diameter and add the
specified clearance to determine the proper
cylinder bore diameter.
Piston Ring
Removal/Installation
WARNING
The edges of all piston rings are very
sharp. Be careful when handling them
to avoid cut fingers.
1. Measure the side clearance of each ring in its
groove with a flat feeler gauge (Figure 71) and
compare with the specifications listed in Table 1 or
Table 2. If the clearance is greater than specified,
the rings must be replaced. If the clearance is still
excessive with the new rings, the piston must be
replaced.
74 CHAPTER FOUR
2. Remove the old rings with a ring expander tool
or by spreading the ring ends with your thumbs
and lifting the rings up evenly (Figure 72).
3. Using a broken piston ring, remove all carbon
from the piston ring grooves.
4. Inspect grooves' carefully for burrs, nicks or
broken or cracked lands. Replace piston if
necessary.
5. Check end gap of each ring. To check ring, insert
the ring into the bottom of the cylinder bore and
square it with the cylinder wall by tapping with the
piston crown. The ring should be pushed into the
cylinder about 5/8 in. (15 mm). Insert a feeler gauge
as shown in Figure 73. Compare gap with Table 1
or Table 2. Replace ring if gap is too large. If the gap
on the new ring is smaller than specified, hold a
small file in a vise, grip the ends of the ring with your
fingers and enlarge the gap.
NOTE
The oil control ring expander spacer is
unmeasurable. If the oil control ring
rails show wear, all 3 parts of the oil
control ring should be replaced as a set.
6. Roll each ring around its piston groove as
shown in Figure 74 to check for binding. Minor
binding may be cleaned up with a fine-cut file.
ENGINE 75
7. Check the oil control holes in the piston (Figure
75) for carbon or oil sludge buildup. Clean the
holes with a small diameter drill bit.
8. Install the piston rings in the order shown in
Figure 76.
NOTE
Install all rings with the manufacturer's
markings facing up.
9. Install the piston rings—first the bottom, then
the middle, then the top ring—by carefully
spreading the ends with your thumbs and slipping
the rings over the top of the piston. Remember that
the piston rings must be installed with the marks
on them facing toward the top of the piston or there
is the possibility of oil pumping past the rings.
10. Make sure the rings are seated completely in
their grooves all the way around the piston and
that the end gaps are distributed around the piston
as shown in Figure 76. It is important that the ring
gaps are not aligned with each other when installed
to prevent compression pressure from escaping.
11. If installing oversize compression rings, check
the number to make sure the correct rings are being
installed. The ring numbers should be the same as
the piston oversize number.
12. If new rings are installed, 'measure the side
clearance of each ring (Figure 71) in its groove and
compare to dimensions in Table 1 or Table 2.
OIL PUMP/STRAINER
Removal/Installation
The oil pump on all models can be removed
with the engine mounted in the frame; this
procedure is shown with the engine removed for
clarity.
1. Remove the rotor as described in Chapter
Seven.
2. Remove the oil pump cover (Figure 77).
3. Remove the oil pump sprocket bolt (A, Figure
78) and slide the sprocket (B, Figure 78) off of the
oil pump. Lift the sprocket up and remove it and
the drive chain.
4. Remove the bolts securing the oil pump
housing (Figure 79) to the crankcase and remove it.
5. Remove the Allen bolts securing the oil line
(Figure 80) and remove it.
6. Remove the 4 O-rings and dowel pin from the
left-hand crankcase. See Figure 81 and Figure 82.
7. Remove the oil pump drive sprocket with a
universal type puller. See Figure 83.
76 CHAPTER FOUR I
NOTE
The oil pump drive sprocket is
damaged during removal a new
spiocket must be installed during
reassembly
8 Inspect all parts as described in this chapter
9 Installation is the reverse of these steps, note the
following
a Position a new oil pump drive sprocket onto
the crankshaft Install the sprocket by driving
it into place with a piece of pipe as shown in
Figure 84
b Tighten the oil pump housing bolts and the
oil pump driven sprocket bolts to 7 2 ft -lb (10
N-rn)
c Install the oil pump cover and push the cover
chain guide (if so equipped) toward the front
of the engine while tightening the cover bolts
(Figure 85) This will take up slack in the drive
chain
ENGINE 77
Disassembly/Inspection/Assembly
This procedure describes disassembly and
inspection of the oil pump assembly. If any part is
worn or damaged, the entire pump assembly must
be replaced.
1. Inspect the outer housing for cracks.
2. Remove the bolt (Figure 86) securing the oil
pump case. Separate the strainer cover (Figure 87)
from the main housing.
3. Remove the outer (Figure 88) and inner (Figure
89) rotors from the top housing.
4 Remove the rotor pin (Figure 90) and remove
the inner housing cover (Figure 91)
5 Remove the 2 inner housing alignment pins
(Figure 92)
6. Remove the outer (Figure 93) and inner (Figure
94) rotors from the main housing.
7. Remove the rotor pin (Figure 95).
8 Clean all parts in solvent and thoroughly dry
with compressed air.
9. Assemble the 2 rotor assemblies as shown in
Figure 96. Replace the oil pump assembly if the
rotors appear worn or damaged in any way. If not,
proceed to Step 10.
78 CHAPTER FOUR
t 10. Install the outer rotors in their respective
housings and check the clearance between the
housing and the rotor (Figure 97) with a flat feeler
gauge. The clearance should be within the
specifications in Table 1 or Table 2. If the
clearance is greater, replace the oil pump.
11. Check the strainer screen (Figure 98) for
tearing or other damage; replace the oil pump
assembly if the strainer is damaged.
12. Check the pump shaft (Figure 99) for wear or
damage.
NOTE
Proceed with Step 13 only when the
above inspection and measurement
steps have been completed and all parts
are known to be good.
13. Coat all parts (Figure 100) with fresh engine oil
prior to assembly.
14. Assemble the main housing as follows:
a. Install the pin (Figure 95) through the pin
hole in the pump shaft.
b. Align the slot in the inner rotor with the pin
and install the inner rotor onto the main
housing (Figure 94).
c. Install the outer rotor (Figure 93).
d. Install the 2 outer housing alignment pins
(Figure 92).
15. Assemble the inner housing as follows:
a. Install the inner housing (Figure 91).
b. Install the pin (Figure 90) through the pin
hole in the pump shaft.
c. Align the slot in the inner rotor with the pin
and install the inner rotor into the inner
housing (Figure 89).
d. Install the outer rotor (Figure 88).
16. Install the oil strainer cover onto the inner
housing (Figure 87). Install and tighten the oil
pump housing attachment screw (Figure 86).
OIL PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
Removal/Installation
1. Disassemble the crankcase as described in this
chapter.
2. The oil pressure relief valve is located at the
front of the right-hand crankcase. See Figure 101.
Remove it by pulling it straight out of its mounting
hole. If the valve is tight, twist it slightly while
attempting to pull it out.
3. If disassembly of the valve is required, remove
the cotter pin securing the unit and pull the spring
and end caps out of the valve housing. Discard the
O-ring on the outside of the valve housing.
ENGINE
4. Clean all parts in solvent. Inspect all parts for
damage or wear. If any part requires replacement
the entire oil pressure relief valve must be
replaced.
5. Lubricate all parts with clean engine oil.
Assemble the valve in the reverse order of
removal. Secure the spring and end caps with a
new cotter pin.
NOTE
Measure the length of the new cotter
pin and compare it to the old one. The
new cotter pin must be cut to the same
length to ensure correct installation.
6. Install the new cotter pin and bend it tightly
against the valve housing.
7. Insert the relief valve into the crankcase. Make
sure the O-ring does not slide off the valve during
installation.
8. Assemble the crankcase as described in this
chapter.
OIL LINES
Two oil lines feed engine oil from the main
engine oil gallery to the cylinder heads. These lines
should be inspected once a month to ensure they
have not been damaged. , Removal/Installation
1. Put the bike on the centerstand.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
3. Remove the oil line union bolt and washers at
the front and rear cylinders (Figure 102).
4. Remove the union bolt where both oil lines
meet at the right-hand side of the engine (Figure
103).
5. Carefully pull the oil line rubber dampers out of
the cylinders and remove both oil lines.
6. Inspect the oil lines (Figure 104) for any dents
or cracks and replace as required. Do not attempt
to repair a damaged oil line.
7. Clean the oil lines in solvent and allow to dry
before installation.
8. Clean the union bolts and copper washers
(Figure 104) in solvent. Replace any washer that
appears flattened.
9. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note the
following:
a. Align the oil lines carefully in position. The
longer oil line goes to the front cylinder.
b. Install a union bolt with a copper washer on
both sides of the oil line connection. Install the
bolts finger-tight at this time. The copper
washers with the 3 inside tabs fit onto the
longest union bolt.
80 CHAPTER FOUR
c. Wedge each oil line rubber damper between
two cylinder fins.
d. Tighten the union bolts to 14.5 ft.-lb. (20
N«m).
e. Once the pipes are installed, check their
routing carefully.
f. After a brief road test, stop the bike and check
the pipes for any signs of leakage. Correct any
problems before further operation.
OIL LEVEL SWITCH
The oil level switch and lamp are designed to alert
the rider should the crankcase oil level become low.
The oil level switch is located directly below the oil
filter housing. The switch can be replaced with the
engine in the frame.
Testing
1. Disconnect the oil level switch wire at its bullet
or molded connector. Refer to the appropriate wiring
diagram at the end of the manual for the wire color
code.
2. Connect the oil level switch wire to a good engine
ground. Use a suitable jumper lead if necessary. Turn
the key switch ON and observe the oil level warning
light. If the light comes on, check the engine oil
level.
3. If the oil level is low, add the recommended oil
as necessary, then repeat this test. If the oil level is
correct (but light comes on), replace the oil level
switch as described in this chapter.
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the front cylinder exhaust pipe as
described in Chapter Six.
3. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter
Three.
4. Disconnect the oil level switch electrical
connector.
5. Remove the oil level switch cover (Figure 105)
and pull the oil level switch out of the crankcase
(Figure 106).
6. Discard the O-ring on the switch.
7. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note the
following:
a. Install a new O-ring on the switch. Coat the
O-ring with clean engine oil prior to
installation.
b. Make sure the area around the switch
mounting position is clean of all dirt and other
debris.
c. Refill the engine with oil as described in
Chapter Three.
ENGINE
NEUTRAL SWITCH
The neutral switch is located underneath the
shift lever on the left-hand side of the engine. The
neutral switch can be replaced with the engine in
the frame. Performance testing of the switch is
covered in Chapter Seven.
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the left-hand footrest bar on 1984
models.
3 Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter
Three.
4. Slide back the rubber cover and disconnect the
electrical connector at the neutral switch (Figure
107).
5. Remove the neutral switch by unscrewing it
with a socket.
6. Remove and discard the gasket on the switch
(Figure 108).
7. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note the
following:
a. Install a new gasket on the switch.
b. Make sure the area around the switch
mounting position is clean of all dirt and other
debris.
c. Tighten the neutral switch to 14.5 ft -lb (20
N«m).
d. Refill the engine with oil as described in
Chapter Three.
TIMING GEARS
The timing gear for each cylinder is an assembly
composed of three gears. The timing gear (front
gear) is spring-loaded (A, Figure 109) and attached
to the intermediate gear (middle gear). See B,
Figure 109. The cam chain drive gear (C, Figure
109) is machined on the backside of the
intermediate gear. During this procedure, the gears
will be referred to as the timing gear assembly.
When aligning the gears, the timing gear (A, Figure
109) will be called out separately.
Removal
The procedure for removing the timing gears is
the same for the front and rear cylinders. Mark the
individual gears and shafts with an "F" and "R"
before removal. See Figure 110. Note that there are
separate installation procedures for the front and
rear gears.
1. Remove the engine as described in this chapter.
2. Remove the cylinders as described in this
chapter.
3. Remove the timing gear shaft bolt and stopper
plate (Figure 111).
4. Withdraw the timing gear shaft (Figure 112) and
remove the timing gear assembly (A, Figure 113)
and chain (B, Figure 113) through the top of the
crankcase.
5. To remove either chain tensioner, loosen the
tensioner bolt locknut (A, Figure 114) and remove
the chain tensioner (B, Figure 114) through the top
of the crankcase.
6. Repeat for the opposite cylinder.
Inspection
1. Wash all parts in solvent and thoroughly dry.
82 CHAPTER FOUR
2. Check the gear teeth (A, Figure 115) for wear;
replace if necessary.
3. Check the shaft (Figure 112) for wear or scoring.
The shaft surface should show no appreciable wear
marks. Replace the shaft if necessary. If the shaft is
worn, inspect the shaft bore in the crankcase for
wear also.
4. Check the timing chains (Figure 116) for wear;
replace if necessary. If a timing chain is worn,
check the chain drive gear on the backside of the
intermediate gear (B, Figure 115) and the camshaft
sprocket. If any one of the three parts (chain, gear
or sprocket) is worn, replace all three as a set.
5. Check the chain tensioner pad (Figure 116) and
bolt for excessive wear. Replace both parts if
necessary.
ENGINE 83
Installation
Front cylinder
1. Remove the clutch assembly if you have not
previously done so.
2. Install the camshaft chain tensioner assembly
into the crankcase and tighten the securing bolt.
See Figure 114.
3. Install the timing chain on the cam chain drive
gear (B, Figure 115).
4. Insert the timing gear/timing chain assembly
into the crankcase. Do not engage the gear
assembly with the crankshaft.
5. See Figure 117. Insert a punch through the
timing gear alignment hole.
6. Pry the timing gear with the punch so that its
teeth align with the teeth on the intermediate gear
(B, Figure 109). Then remove the punch.
7. After aligning the gear teeth, lower the timing
gear assembly so that it engages with the crankshaft
drive gear (Figure 118). The timing mark on the
timing gear must align with the timing mark on the
cam chain drive gear (Figure 119).
8. Install the timing gear shaft (Figure 120). Secure
it with the stopper plate and bolt.
Rear cylinder
1. Install the camshaft chain tensioner assembly into
the crankcase and tighten the securing bolt. See
Figure 114.
2. See Figure 121. Hold the chain already installed
and rotate the crankshaft so that the flywheel
timing hole aligns with the timing gear shaft hole.
3. Install the timing chain on the cam chain drive
gear (Figure 122).
4. Align the timing mark on the timing gear
assembly (Figure 123) with the timing gear shaft
hole and insert the timing gear/timing chain
assembly into the crankcase. Do not engage the
gear assembly with the flywheel.
5. See Figure 124. Insert a punch through the
timing gear alignment hole.
84 CHAPTER FOUR
6. Pry the timing gear with the punch so that its
teeth align with the teeth on the intermediate gear
(B, Figure 109).
7. After aligning the gear teeth, lower the timing
gear assembly so that it engages with the flywheel
drive gear. The timing mark on the timing gear
must align with the timing hole on the flywheel.
8. Install the timing gear shaft. Secure it with the
stopper plate and bolt.
Both cylinders
1. Reinstall the cylinders and engine as described
in this chapter.
PRIMARY DRIVE GEAR
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the engine as described in this chapter.
2. Pry the lockwasher tab away from the primary
drive gear nut.
3. Place a copper or lead washer between the cam
chain drive and intermediate gears (Figure 125) to
lock the gears while you loosen the primary drive
gear nut (Figure 126).
4. Remove the front cylinder as described in this
chapter.
5. Remove the front cylinder timing gear assembly
as described in this chapter.
6. Remove the primary drive gear nut (Figure 127)
and lockwasher (Figure 128).
7. Remove the washer (Figure 129) and remove
the cam chain drive/primary drive gear assembly
(Figure 130).
8. Remove the Woodruff key (Figure 131).
9. Disassemble the cam chain drive and primary
drive gears (Figure 132) by pulling them apart.
Remove the 6 springs and 6 pins from the primary
drive gear slots (Figure 133).
10. Inspect the cam chain drive and primary drive
gears; replace them if necessary.
11. Check the springs and pins for wear or
damage; replace them as a set if any one is worn or
damaged.
ENGINE 85
12. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note
the following.
13. Install 2 pins and 2 springs in each slot in the
primary drive gear (Figure 133). Push both spnngs
in each slot as far away from each other as possible.
14 Align the drive dogs on the backside of the
cam chain dnve gear with the slots in the primary
dnve gear and install the dnve gear. The dot on the
cam chain dnve gear should align with the dot on
the pnmary dnve gear. See Figure 134.
15. Make sure the Woodruff key (Figure 131) is
installed on the crankshaft.
16. Tighten the pnmary dnve gear nut to
specifications (Table 3).
CRANKCASE
Service to the lower end requires that the
crankcase assembly be removed from the
motorcycle frame and disassembled (split).
Disassembly
1. Remove the engine as descnbed in this chapter.
Remove all extenor assemblies from the
crankcase. Set the engine on the workbench
2 Remove the shift fork-guide bar stopper plate
(Figure 135) from the nght-hand crankcase.
86 CHAPTER FOUR
3. Remove the neutral switch from the left-hand
crankcase.
4. Loosen by 1/2 turn all numbered bolts (No.
1-14) in the left-hand crankcase half (Figure 136).
Work in sequence, starting with the highest
number first. The numbers are stamped into the
case next to each bolt hole.
5. Turn the crankcase around.
6. Loosen by 1/2 turn all numbered bolts (No.
15-19) in the right-hand crankcase. Work in
sequence, starting with the highest number first
(Figure 136). After loosening all bolts, remove
them from the left- and right-hand crankcase
halves.
NOTE
Bolt No. 15 uses a copper washer. Do
not lose it.
7. Carefully tap around the perimeter of the
crankcase with a plastic mallet (do not use a metal
hammer) to help separate the 2 case halves.
8. As you separate the crankcase halves, the
transmission and crankshaft assemblies should
stay in the left-hand crankcase. Check the
right-hand crankcase to make sure no transmission
shims are stuck to the bearings. If found, reinstall
them immediately in their original position.
9. Remove the red O-ring (Figure 137).
10. Remove the black O-ring and dowel pin
(Figure 138) located underneath the crankshaft.
11. Remove the 3 dowel pins. See Figure 139 and
Figure 140.
12A. Chain-drive models: Remove the middle
driven gear assembly from the crankcase.
12B. Shaft-drive models: Remove the middle
driven gear (Figure 141). Removal of the drive
shaft assembly is not required unless it is damaged
or the left-hand crankcase requires replacement. If
necessary, take the crankcase half to a dealer and
have it removed. Special tools and procedures are
required.
13. Remove the transmission, shift forks and shift
drum assemblies from the left-hand crankcase half
as described in Chapter Five.
14. Remove the crankshaft assembly as described
in this chapter.
Inspection
1. Thoroughly clean the inside and outside of both
crankcase halves with cleaning solvent. Dry with
compressed air. Make sure there is no solvent
residue left in the cases as it will contaminate the
new engine oil. Lubricate the bearings with oil to
prevent rust formation.
2. Make sure all oil passages are clean; blow them
out with compressed air.
ENGINE
3. Check the crankcases for cracks or other
damage. Inspect the mating surfaces of both
halves. They must be free of gouges, burrs or any
damage that could cause an oil leak.
4. Make sure the cylinder studs are not bent and
the threads are m good condition. Make sure they
are screwed into the crankcase tightly. Do not
remove the covers from the cylinder studs.
5 Inspect the crankcase bearings as described in
this chapter.
6A Chain-drive models: Inspect the middle driven
gear assembly for wear or damage. If the unit
requires disassembly for parts replacement or
further inspection, refer all service to a dealer as a
press is required to compress and remove the
spring unit.
WARNING
Do not attempt to disassemble the
middle driven gear assembly without
the use of a suitable press Serious
injuries may result from the use of
improper tools and service techniques
6B Shaft-drive models' Inspect the middle driven
gear for wear or damage
Crankcase Bearings
Inspection/Replacement •
1 After cleaning the crankcase halves in cleaning
solvent and drying with compressed air, lubricate
the bearings with engine oil.
2. Rotate the bearing inner race and check for play
or roughness. Replace the bearing if it is noisy or if
it does not spin smoothly.
3 To remove crankcase bearings,
a. Heat the crankcase to approximately 200-260°
F (95-125° C) in an oven or on a hot plate. Do
not heat the crankcase with a torch as this type
of localized heating may warp the case
b Wearing a pair of work gloves for protection,
remove the case from the oven and place it on
wood blocks for support. Drive out the
beanng with a suitable size drift placed on the
outside bearing race. A large socket works well
for bearing removal
NOTE
The main bearings are installed in a
steel sleeve that is part of the crankcase
(Figure 142) When attempting to
remove these bearings, the sleeve should
also be supported with wood blocks on
the opposite side to prevent its being
driven out with the bearing
4. Before installing new bearings, clean the bearing
housing and oil passages with solvent. Dry
thoroughly with compressed air.
88 CHAPTER FOUR
5. Install new crankcase bearings by reversing the
removal steps, noting the following:
a. The two crankshaft bearings are not
interchangeable. The left-hand bearing has a
groove in the outer race; the right-hand
bearing does not.
b. Installation of the bearings is made easier by
first placing the bearings in a freezer for
approximately 30 minutes. Then reheat the
crankcase half and install the bearing by
driving it squarely into position. If the bearing
cocks in its bore, remove it and reinstall. It
may be necessary to refreeze the bearing and
reheat the case half.
c. Lubricate the bearing races with clean engine
oil after installation.
Assembly
1. Prior to installation, coat all parts with
assembly oil or engine oil.
2. Install the middle drive gear assembly as
described in this chapter (if removed).
3. Install the crankshaft as described in this
chapter.
4. Place the left-hand crankcase on wood blocks as
shown in Figure 143.
5. Install the shift drum, shift forks and
transmission assemblies as described in Chapter
Five.
6. Install the 2 O-rings in the left-hand crankcase
as follows:
a. Red O-ring (Figure 137).
b. Black O-ring (Figure 138) and small dowel
pin.
7. Install the 3 crankcase half locating dowel pins.
See Figure 139 and Figure 140.
8. Clean the crankcase mating surfaces of both
halves with contact cleaner.
9. Make sure the case half sealing surfaces are
perfectly clean and dry.
10. Apply a light coat of Yamabond No. 4 liquid
gasket sealer (Figure 144) to the sealing surfaces of
each half. Make the coating as thin as possible.
NOTE
Always use the correct type of gasket
sealer—avoid thick and hard-setting
materials.
11. Align the right-hand crankcase bearings with
the left-hand assembly. Join both halves and tap
together lightly with a plastic mallet—do not use a
metal hammer as it will damage the case.
12. Apply oil to the threads of all bolts. Install all
bolts in both crankcase halves and tighten in two
stages to a final torque as follows:
a. 6 mm bolts-7.2 ft.-lb. (10 N»m).
b. 10 mm bolts-28 ft.-lb. (39 N-m).
Tighten bolts in the correct sequence. See Figure
136. The torque pattern is indicated by the bolt
number next to the bolt hole.
NOTE
Bolt No. 15 uses a copper washer.
13. Install all engine assemblies that were
removed.
14. Install the engine as described in this chapter.
CRANKSHAFT AND
CONNECTING RODS
Removal/Installation
1. Disassemble the crankcase as described in this
chapter.
ENGINE 89
"Y" on each rod faces the tapered end of the
crankshaft (Figure 146). Apply molybdenum
disulfide grease to the threads of the connecting
rods. Install the caps and tighten the cap nuts
evenly, in a couple of steps, to 35 ft.-lb. (48 N«m).
CAUTION
On the final tightening sequence, if a
torque of 31 ft.-lb. (43 N»m) is reached,
do not stop tightening until the final
torque value is achieved. If the
tightening is interrupted between 31-34
ft.-lb. (43-48 N'm), loosen the nut to
less than 31 ft.-lb. (43 N-m) and tighten
to the final torque value in one step.
10. Install the crankshaft in the left-hand
crankcase bearing using the Yamaha crankshaft
installation puller (TLU-90900-57-01) and puller
adapter No. 10 (TLU-90900-69-00). See Figure
147. When installing the crankshaft, align the front
and rear connecting rods with their respective
cylinder position (Figure 148). Continue to check
this alignment until the crankshaft is completely
installed.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to install the crankshaft
without using the special tools described
in Step 10. Do not knock the crankshaft
into position with a hammer as this
may force the crankshaft out of
alignment. If you do not have the
special tools, have a Yamaha dealer
install the crankshaft for you.
Connecting Rod Inspection
1. Check each rod for obvious damage such as
cracks and burns.
2. Check the piston pin bushing for wear or
scoring.
3. Take the rods to a machine shop and have them
checked for twisting and bending.
2. Remove the transmission assemblies as
described in Chapter Five.
3. Remove the middle driven gear as described
under Crankcase Disassembly in this chapter.
4. Remove the oil pump drive sprocket as
described under Oil Pump in this chapter.
NOTE
The oil pump drive sprocket will be
damaged during removal; a new
sprocket must be installed during
reassembly.
5. Remove the crankshaft from the left-hand
crankcase bearing with a universal type puller as
shown in Figure 145.
6. Remove the connecting rod cap bolts and
separate the rods from the crankshaft. Mark each
rod cap and bearing insert so that they can be
reinstalled in their original position.
7. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following.
8. Install the bearing inserts into each connecting
rod and cap. Make sure they are locked in place
correctly.
CAUTION
If the old bearings are reused, be sure
they are installed in their exact original
positions.
9. Lubncate the bearings and crankpins with
assembly oil and install the rods so that the letter
90 CHAPTER FOUR
4. Examine the bearing inserts (Figure 149) for
wear, scoring or burning. They are reusable if in
good condition. Make a note of the bearing size (if
any) stamped on the back of the insert if the
bearing is to be replaced; a previous owner may
have used undersize bearings.
5. Remove the connecting rod bearing bolts and
check them for cracks or twisting. Replace any
bolts as required.
6. Check bearing clearance as described in this
chapter.
Connecting Rod Bearing
Clearance Measurement
CAUTION
If the old bearings are to be reused, be
sure that they are installed in their
exact original location.
1. Wipe bearing inserts and crankpins clean.
Install bearing inserts in rod and cap (Figure 150).
2. Place a piece of Plastigage on one crankpin
parallel to the crankshaft.
3. Install rod and cap. Tighten nuts to 35 ft.-lb. (48
N«m).
CAUTION
Do not rotate crankshaft while
Plastigage is in place.
4. Remove rod cap.
5. Measure width of flattened Plastigage according
to the manufacturer's instructions (Figure 151).
Measure at both ends of the strip. A difference of
0.001 in. (0.025 mm) or more indicates a tapered
crankpin; the crankshaft must be reground or
replaced.
6. If the crankpin taper is within tolerance,
measure the bearing clearance with the same strip
of Plastigage. Correct bearing clearance is specified
in Table 1 and Table 2. Remove Plastigage strips.
7. If the bearing clearance is greater than specified,
use the following steps for new bearing selection.
8. The connecting rods and caps are marked "4" or
"5" (Figure 152).
9. The crankshaft is marked on the left-hand
counterbalancer with a set of 2 numbers (Figure
153). The numbers relate to the crankshaft
connecting rod journals, reading from left to right.
10. To select the proper bearing insert number,
subtract the crankshaft connecting rod journal
number (Step 9) from the connecting rod and cap
number (Step 8). For example, if the connecting
rod and cap number is 4 and the crankshaft
connecting rod journal is 2, 4 - 2 = 2. The new
bearing insert should be coded 2.
11. After new bearings have been installed,
recheck clearance with Plastigage. If the clearance
is out of specifications, either the connecting rod or
the crankshaft is worn beyond the service limit.
Refer the engine to a dealer or qualified specialist.
Crankshaft Inspection
1. Clean crankshaft thoroughly with solvent.
Clean oil holes with rifle cleaning brushes; flush
thoroughly and dry with compressed air. Lightly
oil all journal surfaces immediately to prevent rust.
2. If the surface on all journals is satisfactory, take
the crankshaft to your dealer or local machine
shop. They can check out-of-roundness, taper and
wear on the journals. They can also check
crankshaft alignment and inspect for cracks. Check
against measurements given in Table 1 or Table 2.
3. Inspect the cam chain and primary chain drive
sprockets. If they are worn or damaged, the
crankshaft will have to be replaced. Also inspect
the condition of both chains; replace if necessary.
MIDDLE DRIVE GEAR
Because special tools and procedures are
required, refer all service to a qualified Yamaha
specialist.
STARTER GEARS
Removal/Installation
1981-1983 XV750 and XV920; 1984-1985 XV700)
Refer to Figure 154 for this procedure.
1. Remove the left side crankcase cover.
2. Remove the circlip and remove the starter
motor drive gear and spring clip.
ENGINE 91
3. Remove the idler gear shaft and remove the
following parts in order:
a. Idler wheel.
b. Spring.
c. Idler gear No. 2 and spring clip.
d. Idler gear No. 1.
e. Washer.
4. Inspect the teeth on the starter driven gear and
on the idler gear. Look for chipped or missing
teeth. Check for uneven or excessive wear on the
gear faces. Replace if necessary.
5. Installation is the reverse of these steps.
Removal/Installation
1986-1987 XV700; 1988-on XV750;
XV1000 and XV1100)
Refer to Figure 155.
1. Disconnect the electrical starter cable at the
starter.
2. Remove the drive lever cover and its gasket.
3. Remove the left side crankcase cover.
4. Loosen the drive lever collar screw.
5. Referring to Figure 155, remove the following
in order:
a. Starter gear shaft and O-ring.
b. Starter wheel.
c. Spring.
d. Idler gear.
e. Drive lever shaft.
f. Idler gear.
g. Spacer.
6. Remove the circlip. Then remove the starter
clutch and circlip.
7. At the crankcase cover, remove the drive lever
screw and the solenoid securing nut.
8. Remove the solenoid screws and pull the
solenoid out of the crankcase cover. Remove the
solenoid gasket.
9. Remove the drive lever collar, then remove the
drive lever and spring.
10. Inspect the teeth on the starter driven gear and
on the idler gear. Look for chipped or missing
teeth. Check for uneven or excessive wear on the
gear faces. Replace if necessary.
11. Installation is the reverse of these steps.
BREAK-IN
Following cylinder servicing (boring, honing,
new rings, etc.) and major lower end work, the
engine should be broken in just as if it were new.
The performance and service life of the engine
depends greatly on a careful and sensible break-in.
For the first 500 miles, no more than one-third
throttle should be used and speed should be varied
as much as possible within the one-third throttle
limit. Prolonged, steady running at one speed, no
matter how moderate, is to be avoided, as is hard
acceleration.
Following the 500-mile service, increasingly
more throttle can be used but full throttle should
not be used until the motorcycle has covered at
least 1,000 miles and then it should be limited to
short bursts until 1,500 miles have been logged.
During the break-in period, oil consumption will
be higher than normal. It is therefore important to
frequently check and correct the oil level. At no time,
during break-in or later, should the oil level be
allowed to drop below the bottom line on the inspection window; if the oil level is low, the oil will
become overheated resulting in insufficient lubrication and increased wear.
500-mile Service
It is essential that the oil and filter be changed
after the first 500 miles. In addition, it is a good
idea to change the oil and filter at the completion
of break-in (about 1,500 miles) to ensure that all of
the particles produced during break-in are
removed from the lubrication system. The small
added expense may be considered a smart
investment that will pay off in increased engine
life.
92 CHAPTER FOUR
STARTER GEARS
(1984-1985 XV700;
1981-1983 XV750; XV920)
1. Starter motor gear
2. Circlip
3. Clip
4. Bushing
5. Idler shaft
6. Idler wheel
7. Spring
8. Idler gear No. 2
9. Clip
10. Idler gear No. 1
11. Washer
12. Bushing
STARTER GEARS
(1986-1987 XV700;
1988-ON XV750;
XV1000;XV1100)
1. Bushing
2. Idler shaft
3. Idler wheel
4. Starter motor spring
5. Idler gear No. 2
6. Idler gear No. 1
7. Washer
8. Bushing
9. Circlip
10. Starter clutch
11. Drive lever screw
12. Drive lever
13. Drive lever collar screw
14. Drive lever collar
15. Oil seal
16. Drive lever
17. Spring
18. Nut
19. Gasket
ENGINE 93
Table 1
Item
General
Type
Number of cylinders
Bore and stroke
XV700
XV750
Displacement
XV700
XV750
Compression ratio
XV700
XV750
Cylinders
Warp limit
Bore
XV700
XV750
Taper
Out-of-round
Piston/cylinder clearance
XV700
XV750
Pistons
Diameter
XV700
XV750
Measuring point
XV700
XV750
Piston rings
Number per piston
Compression
Oil control
Ring end gap
Top and second
XV700
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750 (1988-on)
Oil (side rail)
XV700
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750 (1988-on)
Ring side clearance
XV700
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS (XV700 AND XV750)
Specifications Wear limit
In. (mm) In. (mm)
4-stroke, air-cooled, V-twin
2
3.16 x 2.72 (80.2 x 69.2)
3.268 x 2.72 (83.0 x 69.2)
42.65 cu. in. (699 cc)
45.64 cu. in. (748 cc)
9.0:1
8.7:1
Aluminum alloy with cast iron liners
0.001 (0.03)
3.157(80.2)
3.268 (83.0)
— 0.002 (0.05)
— 0.0004(0.01)
0.0016-0.0024
(0.040-0.060)
0.0016-0.0024
(0.040-0.060)
3.155-3.157
(80.155-80.157)
3.266-3.267
(82.95-82.97)
0.354 (9.0)
0.374 (9.5)
2
1
0.008-0.016
(0.2-0.4)
0.012-0.020
(0.3-0.5)
0.008-0.016
(0.2-0.4)
0.008-0.027
(0.2-0.7)
0.012-0.035
(0.3-0.9)
0.012-0.020
(0.3-0.5)
(continued)
94 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 1 ENGINE
Item
Top
Second
XV750
Top and second
Oil control
XV700, XV750
Crankshaft
Runout
Connecting rod
bearing clearance
Connecting rod
big-end side clearance
Camshaft
Runout
Bearing clearance
XV700
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750(1988-on)
Lobe height
Intake
Exhaust
Lobe width
XV700
Intake
Exhaust
XV750 (all)
Cam cap inside
diameter
Cam journal outside
diameter
Rocker arms and shafts
XV700
Shaft clearance
Rocker arm inside
diameter
Rocker arm shaft
outside diameter
SPECIFICATIONS (XV700,
Specifications
in. (mm)
0.0016-0.0031
(0.04-0.08)
0.0012-0.0028
(0.03-0.07)
0.0016-0.0031
(0.04-0.08)
0-0.0015(0.04)

0.0012-0.0021
(0.030-0.054)
0.0146-0.0187
(0.370-0.474)

0.0008-0.0024
(0.020-0.061)
0.0008-0.0021
(0.020-0.054)
0.0008-0.0024
(0.020-0.061)
1.5421
(39.17)
1.5433
(39.20)
1.2689
(32.23)
1.2701
(32.26)
1.2598
(32.00)
0.9843-0.9851
(25.000-25.021)
0.9827-0.9835
(24.96-24.98)
0.0003-0.0013
(0.009-0.033)
0.5512-0.5518
(14.000-14.018)
0.5505-0.5508
(13.985-13.991)
(continued)
XV750) (continued)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
0.0008 (0.02)
0.001 (0.03)

1.5362
(39.02)
1.5374
(39.05)
1.2539
(31.85)
ENGINE
Table 1 ENGINE
Item
XV750
Shaft clearance
Rocker arm inside
diameter
Rocker arm shaft
outside diameter
Valves
Valve stem outer diameter
Intake
Exhaust
Valve guide inner
diameter
Stem-to-guide clearance
Intake
Exhaust
Valve seat width
Valve face width
Valve stem runout
(maximum)
Margin thickness
Head diameter
Intake
Exhaust
Valve springs
Outer free length
Inner free length
Oil pump
Tip clearance
Side clearance
SPECIFICATIONS (XV700,
Specifications
in. (mm)
0.0004-0.0017
(0.010-0.043)
0.5512-0.5518
(14.000-14.018)
0.5502-0.5508
(13.975-13.991)
0.3140-0.3145
(7.975-7.990)
0.3133-0.3140
(7.960-7.975)
0.3150-0.3160
(8.0-8.012)
0.0004-0.0015
(0.010-0.037)
0.0010-0.0020
(0.025-0.052)
0.051 ±0.0039
(1.3 +0.01)
0.083
(2.1)

0.051 +0.0079
(1.3 +0.2)
1.693-1.701
(43.00-43.02)
1.457-1.465
(37.00-37.02)
1.756
(44.6)
1.783
(45.3)
0.0012-0.0035
(0.03-0.09)
0.0012-0.0031
(0.03-0.08)
XV750) (continued)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.533
(14.05)
0.549
(13.95)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.08
(2.0)
, • •
0.0012
(0.03)
0.028
(0.7)
96 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 2 ENGINE
Item
General
Type
Number of cylinders
Bore and stroke
XV920
XV1000
XV1100
Displacement
XV920
XV1000
XV1100
Compression ratio
Cylinders
Warp limit
Bore
XV920
XV1000, XV1100
Taper
Out-of-round
Piston/cylinder clearance
Pistons
Diameter
XV920
XV1000, XV1100
Measuring point
Piston rings
Number per piston
Compression
Oil control
Ring end gap
XV920
Top and second
XV1000, XV1100
Top
Second
XV1000
XV1100
Oil (side rail)
XV920RH, RJ, XV1000
XV920J, K, MK
XV1100
Ring side clearance
Top
Second
Crankshaft
Runout
Connecting rod side
clearance
Connecting rod oil clearance
Camshaft
Runout
Oil clearance
XV920
XV1000, XV1100
SPECIFICATIONS (XV920, XV1000 AND XV1100)
Specifications
in. (mm)
4-stroke, air-cooled, V-twin
2
3.62X2.72 in. (92.0X69.2 mm)
3.74X2.72 in. (95.0X69.2 mm)
3.74X2.95 in. (95.0X75.0 mm)
56.14 cu. in. (920 cc)
59.86 cu. in. (981 cc)
64.86 cu. in. (1,063 cc)
8.3:1
Wear limit
in. (mm)
Aluminum alloy with cast iron liners
0.001 (0.03)
3.661 (92.0)
3.74 (95.0)
0.0018-0.0026 (0.045-0.065)
3.622 (92.0)
3.738 (94.965)
0.575 (14.6)
2
1
0.008-0.016 (0.2-0.4)
0.012-0.020 (0.3-0.5)
0.008-0.016 (0.2-0.4)
0.012-0.018 (0.3-0.45)
0.012-0.035(0.3-0.9)
0.012-0.024(0.3-0.6)
0.008-0.0276 (0.2-0.7)
0.0016-0.0031 (0.04-0.08)
0.0012-0.0028 (0.03-0.07)

0.0146-0.0187 (0.370-0.474)
0.0012-0.0021 (0.030-0.054)

0.0008-0.0021 (0.020-0.054)
0.0008-0.0024 (0.020-0.061)
0.002 (0.05)
0.0004 (0.01)
0.0008 (0.02)
0.001 (0.03)
(continued)
ENGINE 97
Table 2 ENGINE
Item
Lobe height
Intake
Exhaust
Lobe width
XV920 (all)
XV1000, XV1100
Intake
Exhaust
Cam cap inside diameter
XV920
Front cylinder
Rear cylinder
XV1000, XV1100
Camshaft outside diameter
XV920
Front cylinder
Rear cylinder
XV1000
XV1100
Rocker arms and shafts
XV920
Shaft clearance
Rocker arm inside
diameter
Rocker arm shaft
diameter
XV1000, XV1100
Shaft clearance
Rocker arm inside
diameter
Rocker arm shaft
outside diameter
Valves
Valve stem outer diameter
Intake
Exhaust
Valve guide inner
diameter
Intake and exhaust
Stem-to-guide
clearance
Intake
Exhaust
Valve seat width
Intake & exhaust
Valve face width
Intake & exhaust
Valve stem run-out
maximum
SPECIFICATIONS (XV920, XV1000
Specifications
in. (mm)
1.5421 (39.17)
1.5433 (39.20)
1.2598 (32.00)
1.2665 (32.17)
1.2705 (32.27)
0.9448-0.9456 (23.997-24.018)
0.9843-0.9851 (25.000-25.021)
0.09843-0.9851 (25.000-25.021)
0.9440-0.9435 (23.98-23.96)
0.9835-0.9830 (24.98-24.97)
0.9440-0.9432 (23.98-23.95)
0.9826-0.9834 (24.96-24.98)
0.004-0.0017
(0.010-0.043)
0.5512-0.5518
(14.000-14.018)
0.5502-0.5508
(13.975-13.990)
0.0003-0.0013 (0.009-0.033)
0.5512-0.5518 (14.000-14.018)
0.5505-0.5508 (13.985-13.991)
0.3140-0.3145 (7.975-7.990)
0.3133-0.3140 (7.960-7.975)
0.3150-0.3160 (8.0-8.012)
0.0004-0.0015
(0.010-0.037)
0.0010-0.0020
(0.025-0.052)
0.051 ±0.0039
(1.3 ±0.01)
0.083 (2.1)
(0.03)
AND XV1100) (continued)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
1.5362 (39.02)
1.5374 (39.05)
1.2539 (31.85)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.533
(14.05)
0.549
(13.95)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.0039
(0.1)
0.08
(2.0)
0.0012
(continued)
98 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 2 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS (XV920, XV1000
Item
Margin thickness
Intake & exhaust
Head diameter
XV920RH, RJ
Intake
Exhaust
XV920J, K, MK;
XV1000; XV1100
Intake
Exhaust
Valve springs (XV920, XV1000)
Outer free length
Intake & exhaust
Inner free length
Intake & exhaust
Valve springs (XV1100)
Outer free length
Intake & exhaust
Inner free length
Intake & exhaust
Oil pump
Tip clearance
Side clearance
Specifications
in. (mm)
0.051 ±0.0079
(1.3 ±0.2)
1.693-1.701 (43.00-43.02)
1.457-1.465 (37.00-37.02)
1.850-1.858 (47.00-47.20)
1.540-1.548 (39.00-39.02)
1.756 (44.6)
1.783 (45.3)
1.789 (45.33)
1.708 (43.39)
0.0012-0.0035 (0.03-0.09)
0.0012-0.0031 (0.03-0.08)
AND XV1100) (continued)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
0.028
(0.7)
Table 3 ENGINE
Cylinder nut (XV750 & XV920)
No. 1
No. 2
Cylinder nut (XV700, XV1000 and XV1100)
Cylinder head nut
XV750, XV920
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
Cylinder head bolt
Cam sprocket cover
Cam sprocket
Camshaft bushing
Rocker arm cover
Rocker arm shaft
Rocker arm shaft/oil delivery pipe
Oil delivery pipe
Valve adjuster locknut
Cam chain tensioner bolt
Cylinder bolt
Cam chain guide (rear)
Bolt
Nut
Starter motor
Timing gear shaft stopper plate
TIGHTENING TORQUES
ft.-lb.
36
36
29
25 "
14
7
40
14
7
27
14
14
19
7
7
6
9
7
7
N'lTI
50
64
50
40
35
20
10
55
20
10
38
20
20
27
10
10
8
12
10
10
(continued)
ENGINE 99
Table 3
Flywheel nut
1981-1983
1984-on
Primary drive gear
XV750
XV700, XV920, XV1000, XV1100
Clutch boss
Crankshaft end cover
Oil pump cover
Oil pump sprocket
Oil pump
Neutral switch
Shift fork guide bar sprocket
Crankcase bolts
M10
M6
Connecting rod nut
Engine drain plug
Oil level switch
ENGINE TIGHTENING TORQUES
ft.-lb.
112
125
50
80
50
9
7
9
7
14
5
28
7
35
31
7
(continued)
N*m
155
175
70
110
70
12
10
12
10
20
7
39
10
48
43
10
Table 4 SHAFT DRIVE UNIT TIGHTENING TORQUES
Drive shaft nut
Bearing housing (XV750,
Bolt
Nut
Bearing housing (XV700,
Bolt
Oil drain screw
Bearing retainer*
' Left-hand threads.
ft.-lb.
80
XV920)
16
16
XV1000, XV1100)
18
16
80
N«m
110
23
23
25
23
110
Table
I tem
All engine mount fasteners
XV750, XV920RH, RJ
XV920J, K, MK
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
Front engine mount bracket
All others
5 ENGINE
ft.-lb.
39
50
46
40
MOUNT TIGHTENING TORQUES
N*m
54
70
64
55
CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION
CLUTCH
The clutch on the Yamaha XV is a wet
multi-plate type which operates immersed in the
engine oil.
All clutch parts can be removed with the engine
in the frame. Refer to Table 1 or Table 2 for specifications on all clutch components and Table 3 for
all tightening torques. Tables 1-3 are found at the
end of the chapter.
Removal
This procedure is shown with the engine
partially disassembled. Engine disassembly is not
necessary for clutch removal. Refer to Figure 1A or
Figure IB.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter
Three.
3. Loosen and slide the cover away from the clutch
lever adjustment nut at the handlebar and slacken
the clutch cable (Figure 2).
4. Remove the clutch adjuster cover (Figure 3).
5. Loosen the clutch adjuster locknut and turn the
adjuster (Figure 4) counterclockwise 2-3 turns.
6. See Figure 5. Remove the following from the
right-hand side.
a. Rear brake pedal (A).
b. Footpeg assembly (B). '
c. Left-hand footrest bar, if so equipped.
7. Remove the Allen bolts securing the right-hand
side cover (Figure 6) in place and remove it.
8A. All models except XVI100: Perform the
following:
a. Remove the 6 pressure plate screws (Figure 7)
and springs (Figure 8).
b. Remove the pressure plate (Figure 9).
c. Remove the clutch plate (Figure 10) and
friction disc (Figure 11). Continue until all
plates are removed. Stack plates in order.
d. Remove the washer (Figure 12), clutch
release bearing (Figure 13) and outer pushrod
(Figure 14).
8B. XV7/00.-Perform the following:
a. Remove the plate washer screws (1, Figure
IB).
b. Remove the plate washer (2, Figure IB) and
the clutch spring (3, Figure IB).
c. Remove the spring seat (4, Figure IB).
d. Remove the clutch pressure plate (5, Figure
IB).
e. Remove the washer (6, Figure IB), clutch
release bearing (7, Figure IB) and pushrod (8,
Figure IB).
9. Straighten out the locking tab on the clutch nut
and remove the clutch nut (Figure 15).
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 101
1. Screw
2. Washer
3. Spring
4. Pressure plate
5. Washer
6. Bearing
7. Pushrod
8. Nut
9. Lockwasher
10. Clutch plate
11. Friction plate
12. Ring
13. Clutch plate
14. Spring
15. Seat plate
16. Clutch boss
17. Washer
18. Clutch housing
19. Long pushrod
CLUTCH
(EXCEPT XV1100)
1. Screw
2. Plate Washer
3. Clutch spring
4. Spring seat
5. Pressure plate
6. Washer
7. Bearing
8. Pushrod
9. Nut
10. Lockwasher
11. Clutch plate
12. Friction disc
13. Ring
14. Clutch plate
15. Spring
16. Seat plate
17. Clutch boss
18. Washer
19. Clutch housing
20. Long pushrod
CLUTCH
(XV1100)
102 CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 103
104 CHAPTER FIVE
NOTE
To keep the clutch housing from
turning, use the "Grabbit" special tool
available from Joe Bolger Products,
Inc., Bane, MA 01005. See Figure 16.
10. Remove the clutch boss (Figure 17).
11. Remove the washer (Figure 18) and clutch
housing (Figure 19).
12. Remove the pushrod (Figure 20).
Inspection
1. Clean all clutch parts in a petroleum-based
solvent such as kerosene, and thoroughly dry with
compressed air.
2A. All models except XV1100: Measure the free
length of each clutch spring as shown in Figure 21.
Replace any springs that are too short (Table 1).
2B. 1986-on XV1100: Perform the following.
a. Inspect the clutch spring (3, Figure IB) for
bends or cracks. Replace if necessary.
b. Measure the clutch spring height with a
vernier caliper (Figure 22A). Replace the
clutch spring if the minimum height is too
short (Table 2).
c. Place the clutch spring on a flat surface, such
as a piece of glass, and measure its flatness
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 105
with a feeler gauge (Figure 22B). Replace the
clutch spring if the warpage exceeds the
standard limit in Table 2.
d. Inspect the spring seat (4, Figure IB) for wear,
bending or damage. Replace if necessary.
3. Measure the thickness of each friction disc at
several places around the disc as shown in Figure
23. See Table 1 or Table 2. Replace all friction
discs if any one is found too thin. Do not replace
only 1 or 2 discs.
4. Check the clutch metal plates for warpage as
shown in Figure 24. If any plate is warped more
than specified (Table 1 or Table 2) replace the
entire set of plates. Do not replace only 1 or 2
plates.
5. Check the teeth on the clutch housing. Replace
if necessary.
6. Inspect the clutch hub outer housing (Figure 25)
and the clutch boss assembly (Figure 26) for cracks
or galling in the grooves where the clutch friction
disc tabs slide. They must be smooth for
chatter-free clutch operation.
7. Inspect the shaft splines (Figure 27) in the
clutch boss assembly. If damage is slight, remove
any small burrs with a fine-cut file; if damage is
severe, replace the assembly.
NOTE
The clutch boss is a subassembly with a
built-in damper located inside the first
clutch plate. A circlip (Figure 28) holds
the assembly together. Do not
disassemble this unit unless there is
severe clutch chatter.
8. Inspect the clutch release bearing (Figure 29).
Replace all 3 parts if damaged.
9. Inspect the long pushrod (Figure 30) by rolling
it on a flat surface, such as a piece of glass. Any
clicking noise detected indicates that the rod is
bent and should be replaced.
10. Inspect the clutch nut, lockwasher and washer
for wear or damage (Figure 31). Replace as
necessary.
106 CHAPTER FIVE
11. Inspect the pressure plate (Figure 32) for signs
of wear or damage; replace if necessary.
Installation
1. Coat all parts with clean engine oil.
2. Install the long pushrod (Figure 20). Insert the
rod's shorter end into the shaft first.
3. Install the clutch housing (Figure 19). Make
sure it meshes properly with the primary drive
gear.
NOTE
While installing the dutch housing,
slightly rotate it back and forth until the
gears mesh properly. Push it on until it
bottoms.
4. Install the thrust washer (Figure 18).
5. Install the clutch boss (Figure 17).
6. Install the lockwasher (Figure 33). Make sure
the locking taps on the lockwasher are inserted into
the slots in the pressure plate.
7. Install the clutch nut (Figure 15) and tighten to
specifications (Table 3) using a torque wrench and
holding tool to keep the clutch hub from turning.
See Figure 16. Bend up the lockwasher against one
side of the nut.
8. Install the short pushrod into the transmission
mainshaft (Figure 14). Then install the bearing
(Figure 13) and washer (Figure 12) onto the end of
the pushrod.
9. Install the friction discs (Figure 11) and clutch
plates (Figure 10). Refer to Figure 1A or Figure IB
for plate installation order.
10A. All models except XV1100: Perform the
following:
a. Install the pressure plate (Figure 9).
b. Install the springs (Figure 8) and bolts (Figure
7) and tighten in a crisscross pattern to 5.8
ft.-lb. (8 N«m).
10B. XVI100: Perform the following.
a. Mesh the pressure plate splines (5, Figure IB)
with the clutch boss splines (17, Figure IB)
and install the pressure plate.
b. Install the spring seat (4, Figure IB) and the
clutch spring (3, Figure IB).
c. Install the plate washer (2, Figure IB) and
bolts. Tighten the bolts to 7.2 ft.-lb. (10 N«m)
in a crisscross pattern.
11. Install the clutch cover (Figure 6) with a new
gasket. Tighten the cover screws securely.
12. Continue installation by reversing Steps 1-5.
13. Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter
Three.
14. Refill the crankcase with the recommended
type and quantity of engine oil. Refer to Chapter
Three.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 107
CLUTCH CABLE
Replacement
In time, the cable will stretch to the point where it
can no longer be adjusted and will have to be replaced.
! Remove the seat.
2 Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
• Loosen and slide the cover away from the clutch
Ieer adjustment nut at the handlebar. Then loosen
the adjustment nut (Figure 34) and remove the
cable from the hand lever.
4. Remove the clutch cable adjuster cover (Figure
35).
5. Loosen the clutch cable adjuster locknut and
turn the adjuster counterclockwise 2-3 turns. See
Figure 36.
6. Disconnect the clutch cable at the adjuster
(Figure 37). Pull the cable out of the engine.
NOTE
Prior to removing the cable, make a
drawing of the cable routing through
the frame. It is very easy to forget how it
was, once it has been removed. Replace
it exactly as it was, avoiding any sharp
turns.
7. Remove the cable from the frame and replace
with a new one. Make sure the cable fits into the
cable clamp on the left-hand side (Figure 38).
8. Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter Three.
DRIVE SPROCKET
(CHAIN-DRIVE MODELS)
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the shift lever and left side cover.
3. Remove the rear axle nut cotter pin and loosen
the axle nut.
4. Loosen the drive chain adjusters (Figure 39) to
allow slack in the drive chain.
5. Have an assistant apply the rear brake to keep
the drive sprocket from turning. Remove the
sprocket bolts.
6. Move the rear wheel slightly forward and
remove the drive chain from the sprocket. Remove
the drive sprocket from the engine.
7. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note the
following:
a. Tighten the drive sprocket bolts to 7.2 ft.-lb.
(10 N-rn).
b. Adjust the drive chain as described in
Chapter Three.
Inspection
Inspect the teeth of the sprocket. If the teeth are
visibly worn (Figure 40), replace the sprocket with
a new one.
If the sprocket requires replacement, the drive
chain and rear sprocket are probably worn also.
Refer to Chapter Nine.
SHIFT MECHANISM
Refer to Figure 41 for this procedure.
I 108 CHAPTER FIVE
Removal/Inspection/Installation
1 Remove the shift lever and the left-hand foot
peg See Figure 42
2 On 1984 models, remove the left-hand footrest
bar (Figure 43)
3 Loosen the clutch cable adjuster at the
handlebar (Figure 34)
4 Dram the engine oil as described in Chapter
Three
5 Remove the Allen bolts securing the left-hand
crankcase cover and remove it
6 Disengage the shift lever from the shift drum
and remove it from the crankcase (Figure 44)
7 Disassemble the shift shaft by performing the
following
a Remove the washers from both ends of the
shift shaft assembly See Figure 45
b Remove the circlip and slide the stopper lever
assembly (Figure 46) off the shaft,
c. Remove the washer (Figure 47) and circlip
(Figure 48) and disconnect the return spring
(Figure 49).
SHIFTER ASSEMBLY
1. Washer
2. Circlip
3. Spring
4. Stopper lever assembly
5. Washer
6. Spring
7. Spacer
8. Shift shaft assembly
9. Circlip
10. Washer
11. Spring
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 109
8. Examine the shift shaft assembly spindle for
damage. If the spindle is bent or damaged in any
way, it must be replaced.
9. Assemble the shift shaft assembly in the order
shown in Figure 41. Install the washers on both
ends of the shift shaft (Figure 45).
10. Insert the end of the spindle into the engine
crankcase opening.
11. Pull the shift lever down (Figure 44) and install
the shift mechanism all the way. Figure 50 shows
the installed assembly.
12. Reverse Steps 1-5 to complete installation.
Refill the engine with the correct type and quantity
of oil as described in Chapter Three.
TRANSMISSION
The crankcase must be disassembled as
described in Chapter Four to gam access to the
transmission components.
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figure 51 for this procedure.
1. Perform Steps 1-12 of Crankcase Disassembly
in Chapter Four.
2. Slide off the middle gear (Figure 52) and first
gear (Figure 53) from the drive axle.
3. Remove the shift fork guide bar (Figure 54).
4. Remove the drive axle fourth gear and the No.
3 shift fork. See Figure 55.
Ill) CHAPTER FIVE
TRANSMISSION
1. Middle driven gear (shaft-drive models)
2. Middle drive gear
3. Drive axle 1st gear
4. Drive axle 4th gear
5. Circlip
6. Washer
7. Drive axle 3rd gear
8. Drive axle
9. Drive axle 2nd gear
10. Washer
11. Circlip
12. Drive axle 5th gear
13. Main shaft
14. Main shaft 4th gear
15. Washer
16. Circlip
17. Main shaft 2nd/3rd gear
18. Main shaft 5th gear
19. Washer
20. Circlip
5. Remove the No. 2 shift fork (Figure 56).
6. Remove the main shaft and drive axle shaft at
the same time. See Figure 57.
7. Remove the No. 1 shift fork and the drive axle
fifth gear. See Figure 58.
8. Remove the shift drum (Figure 59).
9. Inspect the transmission assembly as described
in this chapter.
NOTE
Prior to installing any components,
coat all bearing surfaces with assembly
oil.
10. Install the shift drum into the left-hand
crankcase (Figure 59).
NOTE
When installing the shift forks, the
number on each shift fork (Figure 60)
must face toward the left-hand
crankcase.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 111
112 CHAPTER FIVE
11. Insert the No. 1 shift fork into the drive axle
fifth gear (Figure 61). Then install the shift
fork/gear assembly into the left-hand side
crankcase, making sure to center the gear over the
crankcase bearing. See Figure 62.
12. Position the No. 1 shift fork so that its pin
seats in the shift drum groove (Figure 62).
13. Install the drive axle and main shaft
assemblies into the left-hand crankcase at the same
time (Figure 57).
14. Install the No. 2 shift fork onto the
second/third combination drive axle gear (Figure
56). Position the No. 2 shift fork so its pin seats in
the shift drum groove.
15. Insert the No. 3 shift fork into the drive axle
fourth gear (Figure 63). Then slide the shift
fork/gear combination onto the drive axle.
Position the No. 3 shift fork so its pin seats in the
shift drum groove. See Figure 55.
16. Install the shift fork guide bar so it goes
through all 3 shift forks and seats properly in the
guide bar boss in the crankcase. See Figure 54.
17. Install the drive axle first gear (Figure 53) and
middle gear (Figure 52).
18. Assemble the crankcase as described in
Chapter Four.
Main Shaft Disassembly/Assembly
Refer to Figure 51 for this procedure.
NOTE
During disassembly, place all parts in a
container such as an egg carton to keep
the gears in order.
1. Remove the circlip and washer (Figure 64).
2. Remove fifth gear (Figure 65).
3. Remove second/third gear combination (Figure
66).
4. Remove the circlip and washer and slide off
fourth gear (Figure 67).
L LUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 113
5. Inspect the main shaft assembly as described in
this chapter.
6. Assemble by reversing these removal steps.
Refer to Figure 51 and Figure 68 for correct
placement of the gears. Make sure that all circlips
are seated correctly in the main shaft grooves.
7. Make sure each gear engages properly with the
adjoining gear where applicable.
Drive Axle Disassembly/Assembly
Refer to Figure 51 for this procedure.
NOTE
During disassembly, place all parts in a
container such as an egg carton to keep
the gears in order.
NOTE
Some gears were removed from the
drive axle during transmission
removal. Inspect these gears as
described later in this chapter.
1. Remove the circlip and washer (Figure 69).
2. Slide off fourth gear (Figure 70).
3. Remove the circlip and washer and slide off
second gear (Figure 71).
3. Inspect the drive axle assembly as described in
this chapter.
4. Assemble by reversing these removal steps.
Refer to Figure 51 and Figure 72 for correct
placement of the gears. Make sure that all circlips
are seated correctly in the drive axle grooves.
5. Make sure each gear engages properly with the
adjoining gear where applicable.
Inspection
1. Clean all parts in cleaning solvent and
thoroughly dry.
2. Inspect the gears visually for cracks, chips,
broken teeth and burnt teeth. Check the lugs
114 CHAPTER FIVE
(Figure 73) on ends of gears to make sure they are
not rounded off. If lugs are rounded off, check the
shift forks as described in this chapter. More than
likely, one or more of the shift forks is bent.
NOTE
Defective gears should be replaced. It is
a good idea to replace the mating gear
even though it may not show as much
wear or damage. Remember that
accelerated wear to new parts is
normally caused by contact from worn
parts.
3. Inspect all free-wheeling gear bearing surfaces
for wear, discoloration and galling. Inspect the
mating shaft bearing surface also. If there is any
metal flaking or other visible damage, replace both
parts.
4. Inspect the main shaft (Figure 74) and drive
axle (Figure 75) shaft splines for wear or
discoloration. Check the mating gear internal
splines (Figure 76) also. If no damage is apparent,
install each sliding gear on its respective shaft and
work the gear back and forth to make sure the gear
operates smoothly.
5. Check all circlips and washers. Replace any
circlips that may have been damaged during
operation or removal as well as any washers that
show wear.
6. If some of the transmission components were
damaged, make sure to remove the shift drum and
shift forks as described in this chapter and inspect
all components carefully.
SHIFT DRUM AND FORKS
Removal/Installation
Remove and install the shift forks and shift
drum as described under Transmission
Removal/Installation in this chapter.
Inspection
1. Inspect each shift fork for signs of wear or
cracking (Figure 77). Examine the shift fork at the
point where it contacts the slider gear. This surface
should be smooth with no signs of wear or damage.
Make sure the forks slide smoothly on the shaft
(Figure 78). Make sure the shaft is not bent. This
can be checked by removing the shift forks from
the shaft and rolling the shaft on a piece of glass.
Any clicking noise detected indicates that the shaft
is bent.
2. Check grooves in the shift drum (Figure 79) for
wear or roughness.
3. Check the shift drum bearing (Figure 80). Make
sure it operates smoothly with no signs of wear or
damage.
4. Check the cam pin followers in each shift
fork. They should fit snugly but not too tightly.
Check the end that rides in the shift drum for wear
or burrs. Replace as necessary.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 115
Table 1 CLUTCH SPECIFICATIONS (XV700, XV750, XV920, XVI000)
Hern
Friction plate (8 pcs)
Clutch plate (7 pcs)
Warp limit
Clutch spring free length (5 pcs)
Pushrod bend limit
Standard
in. (mm)
0.12(3.0)
0.063(1.6)
0.001 (0.04)
1.62(41.2)
Minimum
In. (mm)
0.11 (2.8)
1.58(40.2)
0.02 (0.5)
Table 2 CLUTCH SPECIFICATIONS (XV1100)
Item
Friction plate (8 pcs)
Clutch plate (7 pcs)
Warp limit
Pushrod bend limit
Clutch spring height
Warp limit
Standard
in. (mm)
0.12 (3.0)
0.079 (2.0)
0.001 (0.04)
Minimum
in. (mm)
0.11 (2.8)
0.02 (0.5)
0.256 (6.5)
0.004 (0.1)
Table 3 CLUTCH TIGHTENING TORQUES
Clutch hub
Shift fork guide bar screw
Neutral switch
Clutch push screw
ft.-lb.
50.5
5
14.5
9
N«m
70
7
20
12
CHAPTER SIX
FUEL, EXHAUST AND EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS
The fuel system consists of the fuel tank(s),
shutoff valve with fuel filter, two Hitachi constant
velocity carburetors, fuel pump (XV1000 and
XVI100) and an air cleaner.
The exhaust system consists of two exhaust
pipes, a crossover pipe and two mufflers.
Some models are equipped with emission
control systems to comply with state and Federal
regulations. These systems are discussed in this
chapter.
Information about fuel grade and engine and
carburetor adjustments that would affect the
emission control system is found behind either the
left-hand or right-hand side cover (Figure 1). This
information must be observed to ensure that your
motorcycle will comply with Federal and state
regulations.
This chapter includes service procedures for all
parts of the fuel, exhaust and emission control
systems. Table 1 and Table 2 are at the end of the
chapter.
AIR CLEANER
The air cleaner must be cleaned frequently.
Refer to Chapter Three for specific procedures and
service intervals.
CARBURETORS
Basic Principles
An understanding of the function of each of the
carburetor components and their relationship to
one another is a valuable aid for pinpointing a
source of carburetor trouble.
The carburetor's purpose is to supply and
atomize fuel and to mix it in correct proportions
with the air that is drawn in through the air intake.
At the primary throttle opening (idle), a small
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 117
amount of fuel is siphoned through the pilot jet by
the incoming air. As the throttle is opened further,
the air stream begins to siphon fuel through the
main jet and needle jet. The tapered needle
increases the effective flow capacity of the needle
jet because, as it is lifted, the needle occupies less
area of the jet. In addition, the amount of cutaway
in the leading edge of the throttle valve (or
vacuum cylinder) aids in controlling the fuel-air
mixture during the partial throttle openings.
At full throttle, the carburetor venturi is fully
open and the needle is lifted far enough to permit
the mainjet to flow at full capacity.
Service
If poor engine perfomace and/or hesitation is observed, remove and clean the carburetors.
If after servicing the carburetors and making adjustments as described in this chapter the motorcycle does not perform correctly (and assuming that
other factors affecting performance are correct,
such as ignition timing and condition, valve adjustment, ect), the motorcycle should be check by a
dealer or a qualified performance tuning specialist. v;
Standard carburetor specifications are in Table 1 |*
at the end of this chapter. j,
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the fuel tank as described in this chapter.
2. 1984-on: Remove the mixture control valve/air
induction system as described in this chapter.
3. XVI000: Refer to Coasting"Enricher System
(Vacuum Line Routing) in this chapter and disconnect the vacuum lines before removing the carburetor. Tag all hoses so that they can be reconnected
correctly during installation.
4. Lift the carburetor cable lever on the right-hand
carburetor and disconnect the throttle cable (Figure
2). Lift the carburetor cable lever on the left-hand carburetor and disconnect the choke cable (Figure 3).
5. Label and disconnect all vacuum air lines at the
carburetors.
6. Use a small hose to drain the carburetor float
bowls.
7. Remove the left-and right-hand intake hoses at
the carburetors. See Figure 4.
8. Loosen the intake manifold clamp screws (Figure
5) and slide the clamps away from the carburetors.
9. Loosen the front inner manifold bolt located between the intake of the rear cylinder carburetor and
the front intake manifold. This bolt can be reached
with an open end wrench from the left side by
reaching over the top of the intake of the rear cylinder carburetor.
10. Remove the carburetors from the rubber intake
manifolds. If the carburetors have never been removed or the intake manifold rubber has hardened
this can be difficult. Grasp the carburetors and rotate them clockwise. Once they are loose lower
them carefully onto the cylinder fins.
118 CHAPTER SIX
CARBURETOR (1981-1987)
1. Cover
2. Plunger
3. Rod
4. Spring
5. Washer
6. Washer
7. Housing
8. Screw
9. Washer
10. Spring
11. Throttle screw
12. Starter lever
13. Bushing
14. Spring
15. O-ring
16. Pilot screw
17. Screw
18. Washer
19. Brace
20. Rod
21. Washer
22. Roller
23. Washer
24. Clip
25. Clip
26. Washer
27. Connecting rod
28. Washer
29. Clip
30. Screw
31. Washer
32. Brace
33. Cover
34. Needle cap
35. Spring
36. Jet needle
37. Spring
38. Diaphragm assembly
39. Screw
40. Washer
41. Starter lever
42. Main nozzle
43. Synchronizing screw
44. Spring
45. Spring
46. Washer
47. Screw
48. Pilot jet
49. Washer
50. Needle valve assembly
51. Nut
52. Throttle screw (do not adjust)
53. Washer
54. Main jet
55. Pivot pin
56. Float
57. Gasket
58. Float bowl
59. Drain screw
60. Washer
61. Screw
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 119
11. Remove the outer bolt that secures the front cylinder intake manifold and slide the intake manifold out.
12. Loosen the rear inner manifold bolt located between the intake of the front cylinder carburetor and
the rear intake manifold. This bolt can be reached
with an open end wrench from the right side by
reaching over the intake of the front cylinder carburetor.
13. Remove the outer bolt that secures the rear cylinder intake manifold and slide the intake manifold out.
Account for each manifold O-ring.
14. Remove the carburetors from the right side by
rotating them slightly as they come out.
15. While the carburetors are removed, examine
the intake manifolds, O-nngs, and the intake hoses
for any cracks or damage that would allow unfiltered air to enter the engine. Replace any worn or
damaged parts.
16. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following:
a. Prior to installing the carburetor assembly,
coat the inside surfaces of both intake manifolds with silicon based lubricant. This will
make it easier to install the carburetor throats
into the manifolds.
b. Be sure the throttle and chpke cables are correctly positioned in the frame-not twisted or
kinked and without any sharp bends. Tighten
the locknuts securely.
17. Adjust the throttle cable as described in the
Chapter Three.
18. Adjust the choke cable as described in this
chapter.
Disassembly/Cleaning/Inspection/
Assembly (1981-1987)
Refer to Figure 6 for this procedure.
It is recommended that only one careburetor be
disassembled and cleaned at one time. This will prevent mixing of parts.
All components that require cleaning can be removed from the carburetor body without removing
the carburetors from the mounting plates. Do not separate the carburetors as misalignment will occur on assembly. If one carburetor body must be replaced, have
a dealer or qualified specialist do the job.
When cleaning the carburetor assembly, do not
turn the pilot adjustment screw.
1. Remove the diaphragm cover (Figure 7) and
pull out the spring (Figure 8) and diaphragm (Figure 9).
2. Remove the 4 screws securing the float bowl
(Figure 10) and remove it and its gasket.
120 CHAPTER SIX
i 3. Remove the float pivot pm (Figure 11) and
remove the float together with the needle valve
(Figure 12)
4 Remove the needle seat and gasket (Figure 13).
5. Remove the main jet and washer (Figure 14).
6. Remove the main nozzle (Figure 15).
NOTE
Further disassembly is neither
necessary nor recommended If the
throttle or choke shafts are damaged,
take the carburetor body to a dealer for
replacement.
7. Clean all parts, except rubber or plastic parts
and gaskets, in a good grade of carburetor cleaner.
This solution is available at most automotive or
motorcycle supply stores in a small, resealable tank
with a dip basket. If it is tightly sealed when not in
use, the solution will last for several cleanings.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions for correct
soaking time (usually about 1/2 hour).
8. Remove all parts from the cleaner and blow dry
with compressed air. Blow out the jets with
compressed air. Do not use a piece of wire to clean
them as minor gouges in a jet can alter the flow rate
and upset the air-fuel mixture.
9. If the floats are suspected of leaking, put them
in a small container of a non-caustic solution and
push them down. If the floats sink or if bubbles
appear (indicating a leak), the floats must be
replaced.
10 Check the needle seat 0-nng. If it appears
cracked or worn, replace it.
11. Check the float needle (Figure 16) and seat
contact areas closely Both contact surfaces should
appear smooth without any gouging or other
apparent damage. Replace both needle and seat as
a set if any one part is worn or damaged.
12. Repeat Steps 1-11 for the other carburetor. Do
not mix the parts—keep them separate.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 121
13. Assemble by reversing these disassembly
steps, note the following:
a. After installing the main nozzle, make sure it
seats in the carburetor housing correctly (Figure 17).
b. When installing the diaphragm, make sure to
position the tab on the diaphragm (Figure 18)
correctly into the recess in the carburetor
body.
c. After installing the carburetor, check the fuel
level as described in this chapter.
Dsassembly/Cleaning/Inspection/
Assembly (1988-on)
Refer to Figure 19 for this procedure.
It is recommended that only one carburetor be
disassembled and cleaned at one time. This will
prevent mixing of parts.
All components that require cleaning can be
removed from the carburetor body without
removing the carburetor from the mounting plates.
Do not separate the carburetors as misalignment
will occur on assembly. If one carburetor body
must be replaced, have a dealer or qualified
specialist do the job.
CAUTION
When cleaning the carburetor
assembly, do not turn the pilot
adjustment screw as it has been preset
at the factory; changing the basic
setting will actually detune the
carburetor. Carburetor adjustments
which can be performed by the amateur
mechanic are described in Chapter
Three.
1. Remove the diaphragm cover (Figure 20) and
pull out the spring (A, Figure 21) and diaphragm
(B, Figure 21).
2. Remove the screws securing the float bowl
(Figure 22) and remove it and its gasket.
3. Remove the float pivot pin1 (Figure 23) and
remove the float along with the needle valve.
4. Remove the needle seat and gasket.
5. Remove the main jet (A, Figure 24) and washer
(B, Figure 24).
6. Remove the main nozzle (C, Figure 24).
7. Remove the pilot jet (D, Figure 24).
8. Remove the screws securing the coasting enrichener cover. Remove the cover, outer spring, diaphragm, holder, pushrod and inner spring (Figure
25).
NOTE
Further disassembly is neither
necessary nor recommended. If the
throttle shaft is damaged, take the
carburetor body to a dealer for
replacement.
9. Clean all parts, except rubber or plastic parts
and gaskets, in a good grade of carburetor cleaner.
This solution is available at most automotive or
motorcycle supply stores in a small, resealable tank
with a dip basket. If it is kept tightly sealed when
not in use, the solution will last for several
cleanings. Follow the manufacturer's instructions
for correct soak time (usually 1/2 hour).
10. Remove all parts from the cleaner and blow
dry with compressed air. Blow out the jets with
122 CHAPTER SIX
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 123
CARBURETOR (1988-ON)
1. Screw
2. Cable clamp
3. Brace
4. Top cover
5. Spring
6. Clip
7. Jet needle
8. Ring
9. Seal
10. Diaphragm assembly
11. Main nozzle
12. Pilot air jet No. 1
13. Bracket
14. Tab
15. Clamp
16. Lockwasher
17. Screw
18. Coasting enrichener assembly
19. Washer
20. Main jet
21. Pilot jet
22. Float
23. Gasket
24. Float bowl
25. Drain screw
26. Washer
27. Needle valve assembly
28. Lockwasher
29. Washer
30. Throttle shaft
31. Spring
32. Throttle wheel
33. Lockwasher
34. Nut
35. Spring
36. Plug
37. Gasket
38. Spring '*
39. Nut
40. Lockwasher
41. Rod
42. Spring
43. Starter plunger
44. Spring
45. Nut
46. Pilot screw
47. Tube
48. Tube
49. Elbow fitting
124 CHAPTER SIX
compressed air. Do not use a piece of wire to clean
them as minor gouges in a jet can alter the flow
rate and upset the air-fuel mixture.
11. If the floats are suspected of leaking, put them
in a small container of a non-caustic solution and
push them down. If the float sinks or if bubbles
appear (indicating a leak), the float(s) must be
replaced.
12. Check the needle seat O-ring. If it appears
cracked or worn, replace it.
13. Check the float needle seat (Figure 16) and
seat contact areas closely. Both contact surfaces
should appear smooth without any gouges or other
apparent damage. Replace both the needle and seat
as a set if any one part is worn or damaged.
14. Repeat Steps 1-13 for the other carburetor. Do
not mix the parts—keep them separate.
15. Assemble by reversing these disassembly steps;
note the following:
a. After installing the main nozzle, make sure it
seats in the carburetor housing correctly.
b. When installing the diaphragm, make sure to
position the tab on the diaphragm (Figure 26)
correctly into the recess in the carburetor
body.
c. After installing the carburetor, check fuel level
as described in this chapter.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 125
COASTING ENRICHENER SYSTEM
1986-ON XV1100 AND 1988-ON XV750
Refer to Figure 27 for 1986-1987 XV1100 models or Figure 28 for 1988-on XV750 and XV1100
models.
The carburetors on these models are equipped
with a coasting enrichener system. When the throttle
is opened, air is forced to the pilot jet through passages A and B. When the throttle is off, vacuum at
the carburetor joint increases and actuates the enrichener diaphragm which shuts off the air through
passage B. This action increases the fuel mixture at
the pilot outlet and reduces afterburning.
Refer to Figure 29 for 1986-1987 XVI100 models for this procedure. On 1988-onmodels, the coasting enrichener assembly is incorporated into the
carburetor body and is not a separate unit that can be
removed as an assembly.
1. Remove the carburetor as described in this chapter.
2A. On 1986-1987 XV1100 models, perform the
following:
a. Remove the screws securing the coasting enrichener system to the carburetor housing and
remove it.
b. Remove the O-ring.
2B. On 1988-on models, remove the screws securing
the coasting enrichener cover. Remove the cover,
outer spring, diaphragm, holder, pushrod and inner
spring (Figure 25).
3. Inspect the enrichener diaphragm for tears or other
damage. Replace the coasting enrichener system if
necessary.
4. On 1986-1987 XV1100 models, check the O-ring
for wear or damage. Replace if necessary.
5. Install by reversing these steps. Adjust the throttle
cables as described in Chapter Three.
Coasting Enrichener System '
Vacuum Line Routing
Refer to Figure 30 for 1986-1987 XV1100 models
or Figure 31 for 1988-on XV750 and XV1100
models.
Refer to these illustrations when removing or
installing the carburetor or when reconnecting the
carburetor vacuum lines.
126 CHAPTER SIX
COASTING ENRICHENER SYSTEM
(1986-1987 XV1100)
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 127
FUEL LEVEL MEASUREMENT
The bike must be exactly level for this
measurement to be accurate. Place pieces of wood
r shims under either side of the centerstand or
place a suitable size jack under the engine and
position the bike so the carburetor assembly is
eel from side to side.
Use either the Yamaha special level gauge (part
No. 90890-01312-00, Figure 32) or a piece of clear
nyl tubing with an inside diameter of 0.24 in. (6
mm). The tubing should be long enough to reach
from one side of the carburetor assembly to the
other.
WARNING
Before starting any procedure involving
gasoline, have a class B fire
extinguisher rated for gasoline or
chemical fires within reach. Do not
smoke, allow anyone to smoke or work
where there are open flames. The work
area must be well-ventilated.
COASTING ENRICHENER SYSTEM
(1988-ON XV750 AND XV1100)
128 CHAPTER SIX
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
VACUUM LINE ROUTING
(1986-1987 XV1100)
To the coasting
enrichener
1. The hose clamp arms must face downwards.
2. The arrow on the T-connection must face
towards the pressure sensor.
3. The hose clamp arms must face towards the
front of the bike.
4. The hose clamp arms must face to the inside.
5. The hose clamp arms must face to the outside.
6. The tab on the hose must fit into the square
hole.
7. The white mark must face towards the air-cut
valve.
8. The connector arrow must face towards the
air-cut valve.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 129
1. The hose clamp arms must face inside.
2. The hose clamp arms must face toward the
front of the bike.
3. To pressure sensor.
4. The hose clamp arms must face downward.
5. The arrow on the T-connection must face
toward the pressure sensor.
6. The tab on the hose must fit into the square
hole.
7. The white mark must face toward the air-cut
valve.
8. The connector arrow must face toward the aircut valve.
130 CHAPTER SIX
1. Turn the fuel shutoff valve to the ON or RES
position. On XV1000 and XVI100 models, turn the
handlebar fuel switch to ON.
2. Start with the front carburetor. Place a small container under the carburetor to catch any fuel that may
drip from the float bowl.
3. Insert the level gauge adapter and hose into the
carburetor. Figure 33 shows the level gauge adapter
holes for each carburetor.
4. Loosen the float bowl drain screw (Figure 34).
When the screw is loosened fuel will flow into the
tube. Make sure to hold the loose end up or the fuel
will flow out of the tube.
5. Start the engine and let it run for 2-3 minutes. This
is necessary to make sure the fuel level is at the
normal operating level in the float bowl.
6. Hold the loose end of the tube up against the front
carburetor body next to the throttle stop screw (Figure 35). Check the fuel level in the tube. It should
be within the specification in Table 2 from the float
bowl parting line.
7. Tighten the drain screw (Figure 34) and hold both
ends of the tube at the same height so fuel will not
drain out. Remove the tube from the carburetor float
bowl nozzle. Immediately wipe up any spilled fuel
on the engine.
WARNING
Do not let any fuel spill on the hot exhaust system.
8. Repeat Steps 2-7 for the rear carburetor. Record
the measurement.
9. If the fuel level is incorrect, remove and partially
disassemble the carburetor assembly. Adjust the
float as follows.
10. Adjust the float tang on the affected carburetor(s).
Adjust by carefully bending the tang on the float arm
(Figure 36). Bend the float tang upward very slightly
to lower the fuel level; bend the float tang downward to
raise the fuel level. If the float level is set too high, the
result will be a rich air-fuel mixture. If it is set too low,
the mixture will be too lean.
A. Throttle stop screw
B. Nozzle
C. Fuel level gauge
D. Float bowl
11. Install the carburetor assembly and repeat this
procedure until both fuel levels are correct.
CAUTION
The floats on both carburetors must be
adjusted to the correct position (Table
2) to maintain the same air-fuel mixture
to each cylinder.
CHOKE CABLE ADJUSTMENT
1. Operate the choke lever (Figure 37) and check for
smooth operation of the cable and choke mechanism.
2. Slide the lever all the way to the closed position
Then pull the choke arm (Figure 38) at the carburetor to make sure it is at the end of its travel. If you
can move the choke arm an additional amount, it
must be adjusted as follows.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 131
3 Loosen the choke cable clamping screw (Figure
38) and move the cable sheath up until the choke
lever is fully closed. Hold the choke lever in this
position and tighten the cable clamping screw
(Figure 38).
4 Slide the choke lever all the way to the fully
open position.
5 If proper adjustment cannot be achieved using
this procedure, the cable has stretched and must be
replaced. Refer to Choke Cable Replacement in
this chapter.
REJETTING CARBURETORS
Do not try to solve a poor running engine
problem by rejetting the carburetors if all of the
following conditions hold true.
1 The engine has held a good tune m the past with
the standard jetting.
2. The engine has not been modified (this includes
the addition of accessory exhaust systems).
3 The motorcycle is being operated in the same
geographical region under the same general
climatic conditions as in the past.
4. The motorcycle was and is being ndden at
average highway speeds.
If those conditions all hold true, the chances are
that the problem is due to a malfunction in the
carburetor or in another component that needs to
be adjusted or repaired. Changing carburetor jet
size probably won't solve the problem. Rejetting
the carburetors may be necessary if any of the
following conditions hold true.
1 A non-standard type of air filter element is
being used.
2. A non-standard exhaust system is installed on
the motorcycle.
3. Any of the top end components in the engine
(pistons, cam, valves, compression ratio, etc.) have
been modified.
NOTE
When installing accessory engine
equipment, manufacturers often
enclose guidelines on rejetting the
carburetors.
4. The motorcycle is in use at considerably higher
or lower elevations or in a considerably hotter or
colder climate than in the past.
5. The motorcycle is being operated at
considerably higher speeds than before and
changing to colder spark plugs does not solve the
problem.
6. Someone has previously changed the carburetor
jetting.
7 The motorcycle has never held a satisfactory
engine tune.
NOTE
If it is necessary to rejet the carburetors,
check with a dealer or motorcycle
performance tuner for
recommendations as to the size of jets
to install for your specific situation
132 CHAPTER SIX
THROTTLE CABLE REPLACEMENT
The 1981-1987 models are equipped with one
throttle cable. The 1988-on models have 2 cables.
1. Remove the seat and fuel tank.
2. Loosen the throttle cable adjustment screw (A,
Figure 39). Then remove the screws (B, Figure
39) securing the upper and lower right-hand
switch/throttle housing together.
3. Separate the housing from the handlebar and
disengage the throttle cable(s) from the throttle
grip.
4. On 1988-on models, remove the air cleaner as
described in Chapter Three.
5A. On 1981-1987 models, at the carburetor, hold
the lever up with one hand and disengage the cable
end (Figure 40). Slip the cable out through the
carburetor bracket.
5B. On 1988-on models, at the carburetor, perform
the following:
a. Mark each throttle cable as "front" or "rear"
cable so the new ones will be installed in the
correct position.
b. Loosen the front cable locknut (A, Figure 41)
and turn the adjuster (B, Figure 41) all the way
toward the cable sheath.
c. Loosen the rear cable locknut (C, Figure 41)
and turn the adjuster (D, Figure 41) all the way
toward the cable sheath.
d. Rotate the throttle wheel and disengage the
throttle cables from the throttle wheel and
cable bracket.
NOTE
The piece of string attached in the next
step will be used to pull the new throttle
cable (s) back through the frame so it
will be routed in exactly the same
position as the old cable.
6. Tie a piece of heavy string or cord to the end
of the throttle cable at the carburetor. Wrap this
end with masking or duct tape. Do not use an
excessive amount of tape as it must be pulled
through the frame during removal. Tie the other
end of the string to the frame.
7. At the throttle grip end of the cable, carefully
pull the cable (and attached string) out through the
frame. Make sure the attached string follows the
same path as the cable through the frame.
8. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
old cable.
9. Lubricate the new cable as described in Chapter
Three.
10. Tie the string to the new throttle cable and wrap
it with tape.
11. Carefully pull the string back through the frame,
routing the new cable through the same path as the
old cable.
12. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
cable and the frame.
13. On 1988-on models, repeat Steps 6-12 for the
other throttle cable.
14A. On 1981-1987 models, slip the cable in
through the carburetor bracket. Hold the lever up
with one hand and engage the cable end (Figure
40).
14B. On 1988-on models, at the carburetor,
perform the following:
a. Note the marks made prior to removal on each
throttle cable ("front" or "rear").
b. Install the end of the cable into the correct slot
in the throttle wheel and bracket.
c. Temporarily tighten the locknut on each
throttle cable to hold the throttle cables in
place.
15. Attach the throttle cable(s) to the throttle grip
and assemble the housing onto the handlebar.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 133
16. Install the screws (B, Figure 39) securing the
upper and lower right-hand switch/throttle housing
together.
17. Operate the throttle grip and make sure the
carburetor linkage is operating correctly and with
no binding. If operation is incorrect or there is
binding, carefully check that the cable(s) is
attached correctly and there are no tight bends in
the cable.
18. On 1988-on models, install the air cleaner as
described in Chapter Three.
19. Install the fuel tank and seat.
20. Adjust the throttle cable(s) as described in
Chapter Three.
21. Place the motorcycle on the centerstand. Have
an assistant push down on the rear end to raise the
front wheel off the ground. Start the engine and
let it idle. Turn the handlebar from side-to-side and
do not operate the throttle. If the engine speed
increases as the handlebar assembly is turned, the
throttle cable is routed incorrectly. Shut the engine
off, remove the seat and fuel tank and recheck the
cable(s) routing.
WARNING
Do not ride the bike until the cable (s)
routing is correct.
21. Test ride the bike slowly at first and make sure
the throttle is operating correctly.
CHOKE CABLE REPLACEMENT
1. Remove the seat and fuel tank.
2. Remove the screw securing the choke lever at
the handlebar (Figure 42). Then slip the lever and
cable out of the left-hand switch housing.
3. Loosen the choke cable clamp screw and
remove the cable end from the choke lever (Figure
38).
NOTE
The piece of string attached in the next
step will be used to pull the new choke
cable back through the frame so it will
be routed in the exact same position.
4. Tie a piece of heavy string or cord to the end of
the choke cable at the carburetor. Wrap this end
with masking or duct tape. Tie the other end of the
string to the frame.
5. At the grip end of the cable, carefully pull the
cable (and attached string) out through the frame
loop, past the electrical harness and from behind
the headlight housing. Make sure the attached
string follows the same path as the cable through
the frame and behind the headlight.
6. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
old cable.
7. Tie the string to the new choke cable and wrap
it with tape.
8. Carefully pull the string back through the frame,
routing the new cable through the same path as the
old cable.
9. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
cable and the frame.
10. Lubricate the new cable as described in
Chapter Three.
11. Attach the new cable to the choke linkage and
tighten the choke cable clamp screw (Figure 38).
134 CHAPTER SIX
12. Attach the new cable to the choke lever. Then
install the choke lever and cable on the left-hand
switch housing.
13. Operate the choke lever and make sure the
carburetor choke linkage is operating correctly and
with no binding. If operation is incorrect or there is
binding carefully check that the cable is attached
correctly and that there are no tight bends in the
cable.
14. Adjust the the choke cable as described in this
chapter.
15. Install the fuel tank and seat.
FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE
(EXCEPT XV1000 and XV1100)
Troubleshooting
There are 3 positions on the shutoff valve
(Figure 43).
a. ON: Fuel flows when the engine is running but
stops when the engine is not running.
b. RES (reserve): Fuel flows when the engine is
running but stops when the engine is not running. The RES position should only be used
when there is not enough fuel in the tank to
operate in the ON position. If the engine runs
out of fuel when in the ON position, turn to
PRI (prime) to allow fuel to flow to the carburetors. Then start the engine and turn the shutoff valve to RES. Refill the tank as soon as
possible, then switch back to ON.
c. PRI (prime): In the position, fuel flows
whether the engine is running or not. The PRI
position should be used only when the fuel
tank is empty. First, fill the tank with fresh
gasoline. Then turn the shutoff valve to the
PRI position to allow the carburetors to fill
with fuel. Start the engine and turn the shutoff
valve to ON.
FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE
(EXCEPT XV1000 AND XV1100) 1. Housing
2. O-ring
3. Gasket
4. O-ring
5. Lever
6. Spring
7. Plate
8. Screw
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 135
CAUTION
Never leave the shutoff valve in the PRI
position.
While there is no OFF position on the valve, fuel
will not flow through the valve in the ON or RES
position without engine vacuum to open the valve.
If there is fuel in the tank but it will not flow in
the ON or RES position, check the vacuum line
(Figure 44) from the shutoff valve to the rear
carburetor intake manifold. If this line is not
connected properly or is leaking, the fuel shutoff
valve cannot operate properly.
Removal/Cleaning/Installation
The fuel filter removes particles which might
otherwise enter the carburetors and cause the float
needle to remain in the open position.
Refer to Figure 45 for this procedure.
1. Remove the fuel tank as described in this
chapter.
2. Set the fuel tank on a protective pad or blanket
and position it so fuel will not spill out when the
shutofF valve is removed.
3. Remove the screws securing the shutoff valve to
the tank. Remove the valve and gasket.
4. Clean the filter with a medium soft toothbrush
and carefully blow out with compressed air.
5. If the valve has been leaking, remove the screws
securing the lever fitting plate and disassemble the
valve assembly. Inspect all components for cracks
or corrosion on all sealing surfaces. Inspect the
O-ring; replace any part if its condition is doubtful.
6. Reassemble and install the valve. Turn the tank
to the position in which it sits on the bike. Check
the area around the valve carefully to make sure no
fuel is leaking.
7. Install the fuel tank and seat.
FUEL FILTER
(XV1000 and XV1100)
These models have a separate fuel filter that
cannot be cleaned. If dirty, a new filter must be
installed.
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the seat.
2. Remove the right-hand side cover (Figure 46).
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
4. Remove the fuel filter cover (Figure 47).
5. Disconnect the flexible fuel lines from the fuel
filter (Figure 48). Plug the ends of the fuel lines
with golf tees.
6. Install by reversing these removal steps. The
arrow stamped on the fuel filter must point toward
the fuel pump.
7. After installation is complete, thoroughly check
for fuel leaks.
FUEL PUMP
(XV1000 and XVI100)
Fuel pump performance testing is covered in
Chapter Seven.
136 CHAPTER SIX
Removal/Installation
1 Remove the right-hand side cover (Figure 46)
2 Disconnect the negative battery cable
3 Remove the fuel pump chrome cover (Figure
49)
4 Remove the fuel filter cover (Figure 47)
5 Disconnect the fuel pump electrical connector
(Figure 50)
6 See Figure 51 Disconnect the fuel inlet (A) and
outlet (B) flexible fuel lines from the fuel pump
Plug the ends of the fuel lines with golf tees to
prevent fuel leakage
7 Remove the fuel pump from the frame
8 Install by reversing these removal steps
9 After installation is complete, thoroughly check
for fuel leaks
FUEL TANK
(EXCEPT XV1000 AND XVI100)
Removal/Installation
1 Place the bike on the centerstand
2 Disconnect the battery negative lead
3 Remove the clip or rear bolts securing the fuel
tank
4. Turn the fuel shutoff valve to the ON or RES
position (Figure 43) Lift up the rear of the tank and
disconnect the fuel and vacuum lines at the shutoff
valve On 1984 and later models sold in California,
disconnect the carbon canister hose at the back of the
tank
5 Pull the tank to the rear and remove it
NOTE
Whenever removing the tank, make
sure to store it in a safe place away
from open flame or objects that could
fall and damage the tank
6 Install by reversing these removal steps
FUEL TANK
(XV1000 AND XV1100)
This procedure describes removal and
installation of the main and sub-fuel tanks
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 137
Removal/Installation
Remove the seat.
Remove the left- and right-hand side covers.
Disconnect the negative battery cable.
- Remove the main fuel tank bolt (Figure 52).
5. On California models, lift up the rear of the
main tank and disconnect the carbon canister hose.
6. Remove the sub-fuel tank attaching bolt (Figure
53) and lift the tank away from the bike.
7. Remove the fuel line from the lower fitting on
the sub-fuel tank (Figure 54). Attach a piece of
fuel line to the fitting on the sub-fuel tank and place
the loose end in a clean sealable metal container
(suitable for gasoline storage). Drain both the main
and sub-fuel tanks. If the fuel is kept clean it can
be reused. Open the fuel filler cap to speed up the
flow of fuel.
8. Lift the main fuel tank up slightly. Then loosen
the clamps on the fuel and vent lines and remove
both lines from the main fuel tank.
9. To remove the sub-fuel tank (if necessary),
loosen the clamps on the fuel and vent lines
(Figure 55) and disconnect both lines from the subfuel tank.
10. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following.
11. Spray a small amount of WD-40 (or
equivalent) onto the inside ends of the fuel and
vent lines. This will make installation of the lines a
little easier. Make sure they are completely
installed onto the fittings on the main fuel tank.
Tighten the clamps securely.
12. Check for fuel leaks.
CRANKCASE BREATHER SYSTEM
To comply with air pollution standards, the
crankcase breather system (Figure 56) draws
138 CHAPTER SIX
blowby gases from the crankcase and recirculates
them into the fuel-air mixture and thus into the
engine to be burned.
Inspection
Make sure all hose clamps are tight. Check all
hoses for deterioration and replace as necessary.
MIXTURE CONTROL VALVE
(1981-1983 XV750;
1984 AND 1985 XV700)
Inspection/Replacement
1. Remove the fuel tank as described in this
chapter.
2A. XV700—Remove the mixture control valve
cover.
2B. XV750—Remove the left-side engine mounting bracket cover.
3. Start the engine.
4. Place a piece of paper on the mixture control
valve intake side (Figure 57). Increase the engine
speed to approximately 5,000 rpm. The paper
should be drawn toward the mixture control valve.
5. If the mixture control valve did not operate
correctly in Step 4, inspect the vacuum lines (A,
Figure 58) for deterioration. Replace if necessary.
If the lines are okay, replace the mixture control
valve (B, Figure 58).
6. Reinstall the fuel tank.
MIXTURE CONTROL VALVE AND
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
(1988-ON XV750,1984-ON XV1000 AND XV1100)
1. Remove the mixture control valve cover (Figure
59).
2. Start the engine.
3. Place a piece of paper on the mixture control
valve intake side (Figure 60). Increase the engine
speed to approximately 5,000 rpm. The paper
should be drawn toward the mixture control valve.
4. If the mixture control valve did not operate
correctly in Step 3, inspect the vacuum lines (A,
Figure 61) for deterioration. Replace if necessary.
If both lines are okay, replace the mixture control
valve (B, Figure 61).
5. Reinstall mixture control valve cover.
Air Induction System
Inspection
1. Remove the mixture control valve cover (Figure
59.)
2. Start the engine.
3. Place a piece of paper on the intake side of the
air induction air filter (Figure 62). Increase the
engine speed to approximately 5,000 rpm, then
quickly close the throttle.
4. Repeat Step 3 two or three times. The paper
should be drawn to the air induction valve when
the throttle is closed.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 139
5. If the air induction valve did not operate
correctly in Step 4, perform the following steps.
6. Referring to Figure 62, remove the following:
a. Hose (A).
b. Hose (B).
c. Reed valve case (C).
7. Remove the screws securing the reed valve case
and separate it.
8. Remove the reed valve assembly. Measure the
height of the reed valve as shown in Figure 63. The
correct height is 0.3 in. (7.7 mm). Replace the reed
valve assembly if necessary.
9. Remove the air filter cover (A, Figure 64) and
remove the air filter. Clean the air filter by blowing
it with compressed air.
10. Reinstall all parts removed in Steps 6-9 and
retest the air induction valve. If the valve still
doesn't perform as described, replace it.
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the mixture control valve cover (Figure
59).
2. Label and disconnect all vacuum hoses and
tubes.
3. Remove the screws (B, Figure 64) securing the
mixture control valve/air induction system
assembly to the bike and remove it.
4. Installation is the reverse of these steps.
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Removal/Installation (1981-1983)
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2A. On all models except XV920RH and RJ (chaindrive), remove the muffler as follows:
a. Loosen the rear cylinder exhaust pipe clamp
at the muffler (Figure 65).
b. Loosen the front cylinder exhaust pipe clamp
at the muffler (Figure 66).
c. Remove the rear muffler bolts and footpegs
(Figure 67) and remove the muffler assembly.
2B. See Figure 68. Remove the left- and right-hand
mufflers on XV920RH and RJ models as follows:
a. Loosen the exhaust pipe clamp bolts at the
front and rear cylinder mufflers.
b. Loosen the muffler mounting bolts at the rear
of the mufflers and and remove the mufflers.
3. Remove the Allen bolts securing the front exhaust
pipe flange at the front cylinder head (Figure 69)
and remove the exhaust pipe and gasket. Repeat for
the rear cylinder exhaust pipe (Figure 70).
140 CHAPTER SIX
4. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following.
5. Install a new gasket into each exhaust port in
the cylinder head. In addition, check the gaskets
between the exhaust pipes and mufflers. Replace
any gasket as required.
6. Install all parts and secure fasteners finger-tight
only. Then tighten the exhaust flange bolts securely
and work back to the mufflers. This will minimize
exhaust leak at the cylinder heads. Tighten all bolts
securely.
Removal/Installation (1984-on)
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the muffler as follows:
a. Loosen the rear cylinder exhuast pipe clamp
at the muffler.
b. Loosen the front cylinder exhaust pipe clamp
at the muffler (Figure 71).
c. Remove the rear muffler bolts and footpegs
(Figure 72) and remove the muffler assembly.
3. Remove the Allen bolts securing the front
exhaust pipe flange at the front cylinder head
(Figure 73) and remove the exhaust pipe and
gasket. Repeat for the rear cylinder exhaust pipe.
4. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following.
5. Install a new gasket into each exhaust port in
the cylinder head. In addition, check the gaskets
between the exhaust pipes and mufflers. Replace
any gasket as required.
6. Install all parts and secure fasteners finger-tight
only. Then tighten the exhaust flange bolts securely
and work back to the mufflers. This will minimize
exhaust leak age at the cylinder heads. Tighten all
bolts securely.
Exhaust System Care
The appearance of the exhaust system greatly
enhances any motorcycle. More importantly, the
exhaust system is a vital key to the motorcycle's
operation and performance. As the owner, you
should periodically inspect, clean and polish the
exhaust system. Special chemical cleaners and
preservatives compounded for exhaust systems are
available at most motorcycle shops.
Severe dents which cause flow restrictions
require the replacement of the damaged part.
Problems occurring within the exhaust pipes are
usually due to rust from the collection of water in
the pipe. Periodically, or whenever the exhaust
pipes are removed, turn the pipes to drain any
trapped water.
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 141
EXHAUST SYSTEM
(XV920RH, RJ)
1. Nut
2. Exhaust pipe
3. Clamp
4. Gasket
5. Screw
6. Washer
7. Gasket
8. Band
9. Nut
10. Bolt
11. Bracket
12. Muffler
13. Exhaust pipe
14. Nut
15. Bracket
16. Muffler
17. Stopper
18. Washer
142 CHAPTER SIX
FUEL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 143
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
Main jet
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Main air jet
Jet needle
Both
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Idle speed (rpm)
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
Main jet
Main air jet
Jet needle
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Idle speed (rpm)
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. Mark
Main jet
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Main air jet
Jet needle
Both
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Idle speed (rpm)
Table 1
XV700
Hitachi
HSC40
42X-00
128
132
50
Y-32


42
190
Preset
40
950-1,050
XV750U-on
Mikuni
BST40
3AL01
122.5
80
5DL12
40
60
Preset
35
950-1,050
XV920RH, RJ
Hitachi
HSC40
5H1-00
126
124
50
Y-22


41
180
Preset
40
950-1,050
CARBURETOR SPECIFICATIONS
XV750H, J, K, NIK
Hitachi
HSC40
4X7-00
128
132
50

Y-23
Y-22
41
185
Preset
40
950-1,050
XV750UC-on
Mikuni
BST40
3CM00
122.5
80
5DL12
40
60
Preset
35
950-1,050
SV920J, K, MK
Hitachi
HSC40
10L-00
126
128
50

Y-25
Y-24
41
195
Preset
40
950-1,050
(continued)
* *
XV1000
Hitachi
HSC40
42H-00
124
132
50

Y-34
Y-32
40
190
Preset
40
950-1,050
144 CHAPTER SIX
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
Main jet
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Main air jet
Jet needle
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Idle speed (rpm)
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
Main jet
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Needle jet
Jet needle
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
No. 1
No. 2
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Idle speed (rpm)
Table 1 CARBURETOR
XV1100S, T
Hitachi
HSC40
1TE
122
128
50
Y-33
Y-33
40
100
Preset
40
950-1,050
XV1100U-on
Mikuni
BST40
3CF00
122.5
125
Y-4
5DL8
5DL8
40
60
140
Preset
35
950-1,050
SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
XV1100SC, TC
Hitachi
HSC40
1TF
122
128
50
Y-33
Y-33
40
100
Preset
40
950-1,050
XV1100UC-on
Mikuni
BST40
3CG00
122.5
125
Y-4
5DL8
5DL8
40
60
140
Preset
35
950-1,050
Year
1981-1983
No. 1 carburetor (left)
No. 2 carburetor (right)
1984-1987
1988-on
Table 2 FUEL
in.
0.04 ±0.04
0.08 ±0.04
0 +0.04
0.06-0.10
LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS
mm 1.0 ±1.0
2.0 ±1.0
0 ±1.0
1.5-2.5
CHAPTER SEVEN
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The electrical system includes the following:
a. Charging system.
b. Ignition system.
c. Starting system.
d. Lighting system.
e. Directional signal system.
f. Horn.
This chapter discusses each system in detail.
Refer to Chapter Three for routine ignition system
maintenance. Electrical system specifications are in
Table 1. Tables 1-4 are at the end of the chapter.
CHARGING SYSTEM
The charging system consists of the battery,
alternator and a solid state rectifier/voltage
regulator. See Figure 1 (1981-1983) or Figure 2
(1984-on).
The alternator generates an alternating current
(AC) which the rectifier converts to direct current
(DC). The regulator maintains the voltage to the
battery and load (lights, ignition, etc.) at a constant
voltage regardless of variations in engine speed and
load.
Testing
Whenever the charging system is suspected of
trouble, make sure the battery is fully charged
before going any further. Clean and test the battery
as described in Chapter Three. If the battery is in
good condition, test the charging system as follows.
1A. On 1981-1983 models, remove the right-hand
side cover.
IB. On 1984-on models, perform the following:
a. Remove the right hand side cover.
b. Remove the battery case cover (Figure 3).
c. Disconnect the negative battery cable (Figure
4). Slide the battery out of its box slightly and
disconnect the positive battery cable.
d. Sit the battery on a wooden box placed next
to the motorcycle.
e. Reconnect the battery cables.
2. Connect a 0-15 DC voltmeter to the battery as
shown in Figure 5. Connect the positive voltmeter
terminal to the positive battery terminal and the
negative voltmeter terminal to ground.
NOTE
Do not disconnect either the positive or
negative battery cables; they are to
remain in the circuit as is.
3. Start the engine and accelerate to approximately
2,000 rpm. Voltage should read 14.5 ±0.5 volts on
XV750 and XV920 models or 14.8 ±0.5 volts on all
other models.
4. If charging voltage is lower than specified, check
the alternator and voltage regulator/rectifier. It is
less likely that the charging voltage is too high;
146 CHAPTER SEVEN
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 147
however, in that case the regulator is probably
faulty. Test the separate charging system
components as described in this chapter.
ALTERNATOR
An alternator is a form of electrical generator in
which a magnetized field called a rotor revolves
within a set of stationary coils called a stator. As
the rotor revolves, alternating current is induced in
the stator. The current is then rectified and used to
operate the electrical accessories on the motorcycle
and for charging the battery.
Stator Checks
1. Remove the left-hand side cover. On 1981-1983
models, remove the tool kit and the tool kit holder.
2. Disconnect the alternator connector (white
wires).
3. Using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance
between the alternator terminals (Figure 6). Figure
7 shows the alternator/coil assembly removed.
However, it is not necessary to remove the
assembly to perform this test. Set the ohmmeter to
ohms x 1. Check each white wire against the other
white wires. The reading should be 0.5 ohm.
4. If the reading is not close to specification, check
the electrical wires to and within the terminals. If
they are okay, then there is an open or short in the
coils and the stator must be replaced.
5. Next, connect the ohmmeter between a good
engine ground and alternately to each white wire. No
continuity should be noted between ground and any
148 CHAPTER SEVEN
wire. If continuity is present, the alternator stator or
alternator wire(s) is shorted to ground. Repair the
shorted wire(s) or replace the alternator assembly.
Stator Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on its centerstand.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
3. Disconnect the stator coil wires.
4A. On 1981-1983 models, remove the shift lever
and the left-hand foot peg assembly. See Figure 8.
4B. On 1984-on models, remove the left-hand side
engine brace, gear shift and foot peg assembly
(Figure 9).
5. Remove the clutch adjuster cover and disconnect
the clutch cable at the engine (B, Figure 10).
6. Disconnect the neutral indicator switch wire
(Figure 11).
7. Carefully pull the wire harness from the frame
and remove the wires from the frame. Note the
path of the wire harness during removal; it must be
routed the same during installation.
8. Remove the Allen screws securing the alternator
cover/coil assembly (A, Figure 10).
9. Remove the alternator cover/coil assembly and
electrical cables. Figure 12 shows the cover/coil
assembly.
10. Remove the screws securing the stator (Figure
13) and remove the stator from the engine.
11. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following.
12. Make sure the electrical wire harness is routed
through the frame exactly as before.
13. Clean all wire connectors with electrical
contact cleaner.
Inspection
1. Inspect the alternator cover/coil assembly for
wear or cracking.
2. Check the electrical wires on the stator for any
opens or poor connections. Also check the stator's
insulating material for cracking. If the stator
appears damaged in any way, test the assembly as
described under Stator Testing in this chapter.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
149
Rotor Removal/Installation
1 Remove the alternator cover as described under
Stator Removal/Installation in this chapter
2 Place a strap wrench (Figure 14) on the rotor to
keep it from turning Then remove the nut (Figure
15) and washer securing the rotor
NOTE
When the rotor is removed in Step 3
six springs and six pins may fall out
from the cam chain drive gear
positioned behind the rotor Store these
components in a plastic bag
3 Install the Yamaha rotor puller (Part No
TLU-90901-05-20) or a similar puller, onto the
rotor as shown in Figure 16 Make sure to thread
the bolts completely into the rotor threads Use a
wrench on the puller and tap on the end of it with
a brass mallet until the rotor disengages Remove
the puller and rotor
4 Remove the cam chain drive gear (A, Figure 17)
from the rotor (B Figure 17) if attached Remove
the pins and springs from the rotor (Figure 18)
5 Remove the Woodruff key from the crankshaft
if necessary
6 Installation is the reverse of these steps note the
following
7 Install the Woodruff key in the crankshaft
8 The three slots machined in the back of the
rotor each house two springs and two pins To
assemble, install a single pm m each spring and
install them into the rotor See Figure 18
9 On the backside of the rotor, push the two
springs in each individual slot as far apart as
possible Then align the punch mark on the cam
chain dnve gear with the mark on the rotor (Figure
19) and install the drive gear into the rotor Dunng
installation it is necessary to push the drive dogs
on the backside of the drive gear between the
springs in each slot in the rotor (Figure 20)
CAUTION
Carefully inspect the rotor for small
bolts, washers or other metal "trash"
that may have been picked up by the
magnets These small metal bits can
cause severe damage to the alternator
stator assembly
10 Turn the crankshaft to align the crankshaft
Woodruff key with the timing mark on the rear
cylinder intermediate gear Then install the rotor,
making sure to align the keyway in the rotor with
the Woodruff key Check that the rotor timing hole
aligns with the timing gear shaft hole as shown in
Figure 21 If the alignment is incorrect, remove the
rotor and repeat this procedure
150 CHAPTER SEVEN
NOTE
If the rotor is being installed with the
timing gears removed, refer to Timing
Gears, Chapter Eight, for further information on timing gear installation.
11. Install the rotor washer and nut. Place a strap
wrench on the rotor and tighten the nut to 112 ft.-lb.
(151 N.m).
12. Reconnect the clutch cable and adjust it as
described in Chapter Three.
Rotor Testing
The flywheel is a permanently magnetized and
cannot be tested except by replacement with a
flywheel known to be good. A flywheel can lose
magnetism from old age or a sharp blow. If
defective, the flywheel must be replaced; it cannot
be remagnetized.
VOLTAGE REGULATOR/RECTIFIER
Varying engine speeds and electrical system
loads affect alternator output. The voltage
regulator controls alternator output by varying the
field current through the rotor windings. Before
making any voltage regulator test, be sure that the
battery is in good condition and is at or near full
charge. See Chapter Three for battery testing.
Testing
1. Disconnect the battery negative cable from the
battery.
2. Remove the left-hand side cover and disconnect
the regulator/rectifier terminal connector. The
regulator/rectifier assembly is shown in Figure 22.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 151
CAUTION
If the rectifier is subjected to
overcharging it can be damaged. Be
careful not to short-circuit or
f incorrectly connect the battery positive
and negative leads. Never directly
connect the rectifier to the battery for a
continuity check.
3. Measure the resistance between each of the
following terminals with an ohmmeter (Figure 23).
Record each of the measurements:
a. D and A.
b. D and B.
c. DandC.
d. A and E.
e. B and E.
f. CandE.
NOTE
Depending on the internal polarity of
the ohmmeter, the actual readings obtained may be the exact opposite of
those specified in Figure 23. However,
the readings must be very high (no continuity) with the meter connected one
way and very low (continuity) when the
leads are reversed.
4. Reverse the ohmmeter leads, then repeat Step 3.
Each set of measurements must be high with the
ohmmeter connected one way and low with the
ohmmeter leads reversed. It is not possible to
specify exact ohmmeter readings, but each set of
measurements should differ by a factor of not less
than 10.
5. Even if only one of the elements is defective, the
entire unit must be replaced; it cannot be serviced.
IGNITION SYSTEM
All XV models are equipped with a fully
transistorized ignition system. This solid state
system, unlike breaker point systems, provides a
longer life for components and delivers a more
efficient spark throughout the entire speed range of
the engine. Ignition timing and advance are
maintained without adjustment. Ignition timing
procedures given in Chapter Three can be used to
determine if the ignition system is operating
properly.
Figure 24, Figure 25 and Figure 26 are diagrams
of the ignition circuit.
When the crankshaft-driven reluctor passes one
of the pick-up coils, a pulse is generated within the
pick-up coil. This pulse (electrical current) flows to
RECTIFIER CHECK
E. Black
POCKET TESTER CONNECTING POINTS
Positive
D
A
D
B
D
C
A
E
B
E
C
E
Negative
A
D
B
D
C
D
E
A
E
B
E
C
Correct test
results
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
152 CHAPTER SEVEN
1. Ignitor unit
2. Ignition coil
3. Ignition coil
4. Pickup coil
5. Pickup coil
6. Fuse box
7. Engine stop switch
8. Battery
9. Main switch
10. Sidestand relay
11. Starting circuit cut-off relay
12. Sidestand switch
13. Clutch switch
14. Neutral switch
IGNITION CIRCUIT
(1981-1983 EXCEPT XV920J)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 153
1.
M
ai n s w itc
h 2.
Ig ni tio
n f u se 3.
I
gn iti
on s w itc
h 4.
B
at te ry 5.
S
id es ta nd r el ay 6.
Ig ni to r un it 7.
I
gn iti
on c oi l 8.
R
ec ti fi er /r eg u la to r 9.
A
lte
rn at o r 10
.
P
ic ku p c o ils
11
.
S
p ar kp lu g s IG
N
IT
IO
N
C
IR
C
U
IT
(X
V
92
0J
)
154 CHAPTER SEVEN
I
IG
N
IT
IO
N
C
IR
C
U
IT
(1
98
4-
O
N
)
1.
I
g n it o ru n it 2.
P
re ss u re s en so r (X
V
10
00
a nd X
V
11
00
)
3.
P
ic ku p c o il (1
98
4-
19
90
)
4.
P
ic ku p c o il (1
99
1-
o n )
5.
Ig n iti
o n c o il 6.
S
p ar kp lu g s 7.
S
id es ta n d r el ay 8.
E
ng in e st o p s w it ch 9.
Ig n iti
o n fu se 10
.
M
ai n s w itc
h 11
.
M
ai n f u se 12
.
B
at te ry ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 155
the switching and distributing circuits in the ignitor
unit. The ignitor unit then stops the flow of current
from the battery through the ignition coil primary
winding. The magnetic field that has built up in the
coils collapses. When this happens, a very high
oltage is induced in the secondary winding of the
ignition coil. This voltage is sufficient to jump the
gap at the spark plug of one cylinder, causing the
plug to fire. The same sequence of events happens
to the other cylinder when the reluctor passes by
the other pick-up coil.
The ignitor unit is also controlled by the
sidestand relay and switch. When the sidestand is
down, the ignition control unit is grounded
through the sidestand relay. The engine cannot be
started when the sidestand is down unless the
transmission is in NEUTRAL. The sidestand relay
and sidestand switch are covered separately in this
chapter as they are also a part of the starting
system.
Precautions
Certain measures must be taken to protect the
transistorized ignition system. Instantaneous
damage to the semiconductors in the system will
occur if the following precautions are not observed.
1. Never connect the battery backwards. If the
battery polarity is wrong, damage will occur to the
voltage regulator, alternator and ignitor unit.
2. Do not disconnect the battery while the engine
is running. A voltage surge will occur which will
damage the voltage regulator and possibly burn out
the lights.
3. Keep all connections between the various units
clean and tight. Be sure that the wiring connectors
are pushed together firmly.
4. Do not substitute another type of ignition coil
or battery.
5. Each unit is mounted on a rubber vibration
isolator. Always be sure that the isolators are in
place when replacing any units.
Troubleshooting
Problems with the electronic ignition system are
usually limited to the production of a weak spark
or no spark at all. Test procedures for
troubleshooting the ignition system are described
in the diagnostic chart in Figure 27.
Before beginning actual troubleshooting read the
entire test procedure (Figure 27). When required,
the diagnostic chart will refer you to a certain
chapter and procedure for service information.
Basic ignition system and spark plug
troubleshooting information can be found in
Chapter Two and Chapter Three.
**'
IGNITOR UNIT
Replacement
1A. 1981-1983 models—Remove the seat and fuel
tank.
IB. 1984-on models—Remove the seat, left-side
cover and the luggage box. On XV1000 and
XVI100 models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in Chapter Six.
2. Disconnect the electrical wire connectors at the
ignitor unit. Then remove the screws securing the
ignitor unit and remove it. See Figure 28 (19811983) or Figure 29 (1984-on).
3. Install by reversing these removal steps. Before
connecting the electrical wire connectors at the
ignitor unit, make sure the connectors are clean of
any dirt or moisture.
Testing
The ignitor unit should be tested by a mechanic
familiar with the Yamaha transistorized ignition.
Improper testing of a good unit can damage it.
IGNITION COIL
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on its centerstand.
156 CHAPTER SEVEN
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS*
Ignition spark present.
The ignition system is
providing spark. If all other
systems are good the engine
should run. Refer to Ignition
Timing in Chapter Three.
Switch condition normal.
Perform TEST 4.
Readings correct.
I
Perform TEST 5.
Readings correct.
TEST 1: Isolate the problem to the
ignition system by following the
troubleshooting procedures in
this chapter.
TEST 2: Refer to Engine
Starting in Chapter Two and
perfrom the ignition spark
test.
TEST 3: Check the following
switches as described in this
chapter: (1) neutral; (2)
clutch; (3) sidestand; (4) ignition; (5) engine stop switch.
TEST 4: Measure the ignition
coil primary and secondary
resistance as described in
this chapter.
TEST 5: Measure the pickup
coil resistance as described
in this chapter.
If the ignition system is still inoperative,
carefully recheck all components, including
wiring and connections. If all components are
good, consider the IC igniter unit defective by
process of elimination.
'Consider any test results carefully before replacing a component that tests only slightly out of specification,
especially resistance. A number of variables can affect test results dramatically. Most motorcycle dealerships and parts suppliers will not accept the return of any electrical part. If you cannot determine the exact
cause of any electrical system malfunction, have a Yamaha dealership retest that specific system to verify
test results.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 157
No spark or weak spark.
Check for poor contact at
the spark plug caps and all
ignition connectors. Repair
any that are damaged and
recheck for spark. If a no
spark condition exists,
perform Test 3. If the spark
is weak, perform Test 4.
Switch condition abnormal.
I
Replace and retest.
Readings incorrect.
Replace the ignition coil and
retest.
Readings incorrect.
Replace the pickup coil and
retest.
158 CHAPTER SEVEN
2. Disconnect the battery negative lead.
3A. 1981-1983 models:
a. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
b. Remove the screw securing the left-side engine mounting bracket cover (at front cylinder). Lift the cover up to disengage it from the
frame. Remove the cover, then repeat this
procedure on the right-side engine mounting
bracket cover. The front mounting bracket
cover is secured by the left- and right-side
covers and can now be removed.
c. Without disconnecting any vacuum hoses, remove the mixture control valve (Figure 30)
from its mounting bracket on the left side of
the engine.
d. Disconnect the spark plug leads (A, Figure
31) and the coil primary wires at the electrical
connectors.
e. Remove the 2 nuts (B, Figure 31) securing
each coil to the frame and remove the coils
(Figure 32).
3B. 1984-on models:
a. Disconnect the spark plug leads (A, Figure 31)
and the coil primary wires at the electrical
connector.
b. On XV1000 and XVI100 models, disconnect
the pressure sensor from the top of the ignition
coil cover.
c. Remove the ignition coil cover screws. Then
remove the cover (Figure 33) and the ignition
coils.
NOTE
The ignition coils on 1984 and later
models have dampers installed on the
backside of each coil. Do not lose then
during removal.
4. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following. Make sure to correctly connect the
primary electncal wires to the coils and the spark
plug leads to the correct spark plug.
Testing
NOTE
Resistance tests can only detect open or
shorted windings in the ignition coil.
Replace the coil if resistance is not as
specified. If, however, the coil resistance is within specifications, and the
coil is still suspected as being defective,
the coil should be tested using a Yamaha
Electro Tester part No. 90890-03021-00
or a suitable magneto analyzer.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 159
The ignition coil is a transformer which develops
the high voltage necessary to jump the spark plug
gap The only maintenance required is that of keeping the electrical connections clean and tight and
occasionally checking to ensure the coil is mounted
securely.
To check coil primary and secondary winding
resistance, proceed as follows1
1 Disconnect the coil primary wires. Disconnect the
spark plug leads from the spark plugs
2 Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R x 1 scale. To check
primary winding resistance, connect the meter between the coil primary wires (Figure 34)
3. Next, calibrate the ohmmeter on the R xlOO scale
To check secondary wmdmg resistance, connect the
meter between the orange or gray primary wire and
the spark plug terminal (Figure 35) If secondary
resistance is higher than specification, be sure to
check the spark plug cap resistance before replacing
the coil. Remove the spark plug cap from the spark
plug lead by turning it counterclockwise while pull-1
ing it away from the lead I
I
NOTE
If checking secondary winding resistance with the sparkplug lead removed,
be sure to factor in the sparkplug cap
resistance Sparkplug cap resistance is
5000 ohms on all models and is added
into coil secondary resistance specifications
4 Compare the results in Step 2 and Step 3 with the
specifications in Table 1. Replace the ignition coil(s)
if not within specification
5 Inspect the spark plug leads for cracked insulation
or other damage. The spark plug leads are available
for replacement on 1981-1983 models On 1984-on
models, the ignition coil must be replaced if the
spark plug lead is damaged or defective.
PICKUP COIL
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the alternator cover as described in this
chapter
NOTE
Figure 36 shows the early (prior to
1991) 4-wire pickup coil assembly On
1991-on models, a new 2-wire pickup
coil is used The early and late coils are
similar, however, and are located in the
same place
160 CHAPTER SEVEN
2. Remove the screws securing the pickup coil assembly (Figure 36) and remove it.
3. Installation is the reverse of these steps. Install the
alternator cover as described in this chapter.
4. Check the ignition timing. Refer to Chapter Three.
NOTE
The ignition timing is not adjustable. If
the timing is incorrect when checked by
the procedures given in Chapter Three,
refer to Ignition System Troubleshooting in this chapter
Testing
1. On 1981-1983 models, remove the seat and fuel
tank. On 1984-on models, remove the seat, left-side
cover and luggage box. On XV1000 and XV1100
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in
Chapter Six.
NOTE
On 1981-1990 models, the pickup coil
has a 4-wire connector. On 1991-on
models, the pickup coil has a 2-wire
connector.
2. Disconnect the pickup coil connector from the
ignitor assembly. See Figure 28 (1981-1983) or
Figure 29 (1984-on).
3A. 1981-1990 models—Connect an ohmmeter between the brown and green (No. 1 cylinder) pickup
coil wires in the 4-wire connector. Figure 37 shows
the connector with the alternator cover and pickup
coil removed. Note the reading, then connect the
meter between the red and blue wires (No. 2 cylinder). Note the reading and compare with the specifications in Table 1.
3B. 1991-on models—Connect the ohmmeter between the gray and black pickup coil wires in the
2-wire connector. Note the reading and compare
with the specifications in Table 1.
4. If resistance is not within specification, replace
the pickup coil assembly as described in this chapter.
SPARK PLUGS
The spark plugs recommended by the factory are
usually the most suitable for your machine. If
riding conditions are mild, it may be advisable to
go to spark plugs one step hotter than normal
(Figure 38).
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 161
PRESSURE SENSOR TESTING
(XV1000 AND XV1100)
Unusually severe riding conditions may require
slightly colder plugs. See Chapter Two and Chapter
Three for details.
PRESSURE SENSOR
(XV1000 and XVI100)
A pressure sensor is installed in the ignition
circuit (Figure 26) to control the ignition timing
advance.
Testing/Replacement
1. Disconnect the intake tube and remove the
pressure sensor from the ignition coil cover (Figure
39).
2. Check that the pressure intake tube is clear of all
obstructions before starting Step 3.
3. Connect a 12 volt battery and voltmeter to the
pressure sensor as shown in Figure 40. The output
voltage should be 3 ± 0.03 volts.
4. If the pressure sensor failed the test in Step 3,
replace it with a new unit.
5. Install the pressure sensor by reversing Step 1.
Make sure the intake tube is attached securely to
the pressure sensor.
STARTING SYSTEM
The starting system on 1981-1983 models, consists of the starter motor, starter solenoid, starter
circuit cutoff relay, starter cutout relay, sidestand
relay, sidestand switch, neutral switch, starter button
and related wiring.
On 1984-on models, the starting system consists
of the starter motor, starter relay, starter safety unit
(relay assembly), solenoid switch (XV1000),
sidestand relay (except 1991-on), sidestand switch,
neutral switch, starter button and related wiring.
The starting system is shown in Figures 41-45.
When the starter button is pressed, it engages the
solenoid switch which closes the circuit. Electric
current then flows from the battery to the starter
motor.
CAUTION
Do not operate the starter for more than
5 seconds at a time to prevent overheating the starter motor. Allow it to cool for
approximately 10 seconds, then resume
cranking.
When the engine stop switch and the main switch
are turned ON, the engine can only be started if the
transmission is in NEUTRAL, or if the clutch lever
is pulled in (transmission in gear) and the sidestand
is up.
If the above conditions are not met, the starting
circuit is disabled and the starter will not operate.
162 CHAPTER SEVEN
STARTING CIRCUIT
(1981-1983 EXCEPT XV920J)
1. Main fuse
2. Battery
3. Tachometer control unit
4. Fuse box
5. Main switch
6. Engine stop switch
7. Starter relay
8. Starter cutout relay
9. Clutch switch
10. Starting circuit cutoff relay
11. Starter
12. Starter switch
13. Sidestand switch
14. Neutral switch
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 163
STARTING CIRCUIT
(XV920J)
1. Main switch
2. Ignition fuse
3. Engine stop switch
4. Main fuse
5. Starter circuit cutoff relay
6. Clutch switch
7. Sidestand relay
8. Battery
9. Starter cutout relay
10. Sidestand switch
11. Sidestand relay
12. Starter
13. Starter switch
164 CHAPTER SEVEN
8.
S
ta rt er r el ay 9.
B
at te ry 10
.
S
ta rt er s w itc
h 11
.
S
id es ta nd s w itc
h 12
.
S
ta rt er 13
.
N
eu tr al s w itc
h 14
.
R
el ay a ss em bl y 1.
M
ai n s w itc
h 2.
Ig ni tio
n f u se 3.
E
ng in e st o p s w itc
h 4.
T
ac h o m et er 5.
M
ai n f u se 6.
C
lu tc h s w itc
h 7.
S
id es ta n d r el ay S
T
A
R
T
IN
G
C
IR
C
U
IT
(1
98
4-
19
85
X
V
7
0
0
)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 165
S
TA
R
TI
N
G
C
IR
C
U
IT
19
86
-1
98
7
X
V
7
0
0
;
19
88
-1
99
0
X
V
7
5
0
;
X
V
10
00
;
19
86
-1
99
0
X
V
11
00
)
8.
S
o le n o id s w itc
h 9.
B
at te ry 10
. S
ta rt er s w itc
h 11
. S
id es ta n d s w it ch 12
. S
ta rt er 13
. N
eu tr al s w itc
h 14
. R
el ay a ss em b ly 1.
M
ai n s w itc
h 2.
Ig n iti
o n f u se 3.
E
n g in e s to p s w itc
h 4.
M
ai n f u se 5.
S
ta rt er r el ay 6.
C
lu tc h s w it ch 7.
S
id es ta n d s w itc
h 166 CHAPTER SEVEN
S
TA
R
TI
N
G
C
IR
C
U
IT
(1
99
1
-O
N
X
V
75
0;
X
V
11
00
)
9.
S
ta rt er s w itc
h 10
.
S
id es ta n d s w itc
h 11
.
S
ta rt er 12
.
N
eu tr al s w it ch 13
.
R
el ay a ss em bl y 14
.
D
io de a ss em b ly 15
.
Ig ni to r as se m b ly 1.
M
ai n s w it ch 2.
Ig ni tio
n f u se 3.
E
ng in e s to p s w itc
h 4.
M
ai n f u se 5.
S
ta rt er r el ay 6.
C
lu tc h s w itc
h 7.
S
o le n o id s w itc
h 8.
B
at te ry ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The starter gears are covered in Chapter Four.
Table 2, at the end of the chapter, lists possible
starter problems, probable causes and the most common remedies
Starter Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2 Make sure the ignition switch is in the OFF
position
3 Disconnect the negative lead from the battery
4 On 1986-on models, remove the dnve lever cover
(Figure 46).
5. Pull back on the rubber boot and disconnect the
electrical wire (Figure 47)
6. Remove the starter gears as described in Chapter
Four.
7. Remove the bolts securing the starter to the crankcase and remove the starter (Figure 48)
8. Installation is the reverse of these steps, noting the
following.
9. Inspect the starter O-rmg and replace if damaged
Grease the starter O-nng (Figure 49) and insert the
starter mto the crankcase. Do not damge the O-nng
during installation
10. Tighten the starter motor bolts to 7.2 ft.-lb. (10
N.m).
11. Install the starter motor gear (with circhp attached) onto the end of the starter motor. Position the
circhp into the channel in the crankcase.
Starter Disassembly/Inspection/Assembly
Starter overhaul is best left to an expert. This
section will tell you if repairs are necessary.
Refer to Figure 50 (1981-1982 models) or Figure
51 (1983-on models) as appropriate during this procedure.
1. Remove the starter motor case screws and separate the case.
2. Clean all grease, dirt and carbon dust from the
armature, case and end covers.
NOTE
Do not immerse brushes or the wire
windings in solvent or the insulation
might be damaged Wipe the windings
with a cloth slightly moistened with solvent and dry thoroughly
3. Pull back the brush springs and remove the
brushes from their guides. Measure the length of
168 CHAPTER SEVEN
STARTER MOTOR
(1981-1982 MODELS)
1. Bolt
2. End cover
3. Thrust washer
4. O-ring
5. Screw
6. Brush
7. Brush holder assembly
8. Housing
9. Armature shaft
10. Thrust washer
11. O-ring
12. Gasket
13. Front bracket assembly
14. O-ring
15. Snap ring
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 169
STARTER MOTOR
(1983-ON MODELS)
1. Bolt
2. End cover
3. Washer
4. O-ring
5. Screw
6. Brush
7. Brush holder assembly
8. Housing
9. Armature
10. Washer
11. O-ring
12. Gasket
13. Front bracket assembly
14. O-ring
170 CHAPTER SEVEN
each brush with a vernier caliper (Figure 52). If they
are worn to less than 0.33 in. (8.5 mm), replace them.
4. Check spring tension. Replace springs if their
condition is in doubt.
5. Inspect the commutator. The mica in a good
commutator is below the surface of the copper bars
(Figure 53). A worn commutator is indicated by the
copper and mica being level with each other. A worn
commutator can be undercut, but it requires a specialist. Take the job to a dealer or electrical shop.
6. Inspect the commutator bars for discoloration.
Pairs of discolored bars indicate grounded armature
coils.
7. Use an ohmmeter to check continuity between
commutator bars (Figure 54). There should be continuity between pairs of bars. Also check for continuity between commutator bars and the shaft
(Figure 55). There should be no continuity and if the
test indicates continuity, a short is indicated. If the
armature fails either of these tests, the starter should
be replaced.
8. Inspect the field coil by checking continuity from
the cable terminal to the motor case with an ohmmeter; there should be no continuity. Also check from
the cable terminal to each brush wire; there should
be continuity. If the unit fails either of these tests, the
starter motor assembly must be replaced.
9. Check the armature front and rear bearings. If
worn or damaged, replace the starter motor assembly.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
171
10. Assembly is the reverse of disassembly, noting
the following. When the armature is inserted through
the case, make sure each of the 2 brushes contact the
commutator evenly. Then attach the cable terminal
to the end cover and install the end cover.
Starter Relay Removal/Installation
1984-1985 XV700; 1981-1983 XV750; XV920
1. Remove the right-hand side cover.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery.
3. Disconnect the positive battery cable and the
solenoid-to-starter motor cable from the solenoid.
See Figure 56.
4. Disconnect the blue/white and red (XV700) or
red/white and blue/white (XV750 and XV920) wires
from the solenoid.
5. Remove the solenoid from its rubber holder (Figure 56).
6. Reverse Steps 1-5 to install the solenoid. Make
sure all electrical connections are clean and tight.
Starter Solenoid Removal/Installation
1986-1987 XV700; 1988-on XV750; XV1000-
XV1100
1. Remove the right-hand side cover.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery.
3. Remove the starter drive lever cover (Figure 46)
and gasket.
4. Disconnect the starter cable (Figure 47, typical)
from the starter motor.
5. Remove the drive lever collar screw (A, Figure
57).
6. Remove the drive lever pivot screw (B, Figure
57).
7. Remove the 2 solenoid mounting nuts (C, Figure *
57).
8. Remove the 2 screws securing the solenoid cover
to the crankcase cover. Remove the solenoid cover,
solenoid and gasket.
9. Reverse Steps 1-8 to install the solenoid while
noting the following. Tighten the solenoid mounting
nuts (C, Figure 57) to 71 in.-lb. (8 N.m). Install a
new solenoid gasket. Apply a suitable thread-locking compound to the threads of the drive lever pivot
screw (B, Figure 57). Tighten the screw to 88 in -lb
(10 N.m).
Troubleshooting (1981-1983 XV750 and XV920)
The starter circuit cutoff relay, starter cutout relay
and sidestand relay are located under the seat in
various positions. See Figure 58. Therefore, the
172 CHAPTER SEVEN
relays are identified by markings, relay color code,
number of wires and wire color in the following
troubleshooting sections.
Starting circuit cutoff relay test
The starting circuit cutoff relay prevents current
flow to the starting motor unless the transmission is
in NEUTRAL, or the clutch lever is depressed
(transmission in gear) and the sidestand is in the UP
position.
On early models the relay is marked 4H7; on later
models the relay is marked 12R. The relay has no
color code and is connected to 4 wires: 2 red/white,
1 sky blue and 1 black/yellow.
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Remove the starting circuit cutoff relay from its
rubber holder, then disconnect the relay connector.
4. Check the resistance of the relay coil by connecting an ohmmeter between the terminals shown in
Figure 59. The resistance should be 100 ohms.
5. Next, connect an ohmmeter and a 12-volt battery
to the relay as shown in Figure 60. With the battery
connected, the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohms.
With the battery disconnected the ohmmeter should
indicate infinity.
NOTE
The resistance specified in Step 6 (9.5
ohms) is based on the use of a Yamaha
Pocket Tester part No. 90890-03112.
The actual resistance measured may
vary between ohmmeters from different
manufacturers.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 173
6. Next, connect the ohmmeter between the relay
terminals shown in Figure 61. Resistance should be
9.5 ohms.
7. Replace the starting circuit cutoff relay if it failed
any test (Steps 4-6).
Starter cutout relay test
The starter cutout relay prevents damage to the
starter motor and gears by disabling the starting
circuit after the engine starts. After the engine starts,
a signal from the tachometer control unit causes the
starter cutout relay to switch OFF, preventing current flow to the starter motor.
The starter cutout relay and the sidestand relay are
both color-coded blue and marked 4U8, so the starter
cutout relay must be identified by the connecting
wires. The starter cutout relay is connected to a plug
which has 2 red/white wires, 1 white/yellow wire
and 1 black wire. Refer to the following for removing and testing the starter cutout relay.
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Remove the starter cutout relay from its rubber
holder, then disconnect the relay connector.
4. Measure the resistance of the relay coil windings
by connecting an ohmmeter between the relay terminals shown in Figure 62, The resistance should
be 100 ohms.
5. Next, connect an ohmmeter and a 12-volt battery
to the relay as shown in Figure 63. With the battery
connected, the ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
With the battery disconnected, the ohmmeter should
indicate zero ohms.
6. Replace the starter cutout relay if it failed any test
(Steps 4 and 5).
Sidestand relay test
The sidestand relay and the starter cutout relay are
both color-coded blue and marked 4U8, so the
sidestand relay must be identified by the connecting
wires. The sidestand relay is connected to a plug
which has 1 black/white wire, 1 red/white wire, 1
blue/yellow wire and 1 black, wire. Refer to the
following for removing and testing the sidestand
relay.
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Remove the sidestand relay from its rubber holder,
then disconnect the relay connector.
4. Connect the ohmmeter to the black and blue/yellow terminals. When the sidestand is up, the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohms. When the
sidestand is down, the reading should be infinity.
5. Next, measure the resistance between the terminals shown in Figure 64. The resistance should be
100 ohms.
6. Connect the ohmmeter and a 12-volt battery to the
sidestand relay as shown in Figure 65. With the
battery connected, the ohmmeter should indicate
infinity. With the battery disconnected, the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohms.
7. Replace the sidestand relay if it fails any test
(Steps 4-6).
Starter relay test
1. Disconnect the starter motor cable from the relay.
See Figure 56.
2. Connect a voltmeter between a good engine
ground and the starter motor terminal of the relay.
174 CHAPTER SEVEN
3. Turn the main switch ON, the stop switch to RUN
and shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.
4. Push the starter button. The relay should "click"
and the voltmeter should indicate battery voltage. If
not, first make sure the starter cutout relay and
starting circuit cutoff relay are operating properly as
outlined in this chapter. If so, replace the starter
relay.
Diode test
1. Remove the seat.
2. Disconnect the diode block (Figure 66) from the
wiring harness.
3. Check each diode and resistor in the diode block
with an ohmmeter. Referring to Figure 67, check the
diode between the indicated wires. Replace the diode if it fails any test.
Neutral switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the left side cover.
3. Remove the luggage box, if so equipped.
5. Disconnect the blue neutral switch wire at its
connector.
6. Connect an ohmmeter between a good engine
ground and the blue neutral switch wire.
TESTER CONNECTING POINTS
Positive Negative
Correct test
results
Black/red
Blue/white
Green
Sky blue
Yellow
White
White/green
Green
Green
Blue/white
Yellow
Sky blue
White/green
White
8.2 ohms
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
Continuity
Infinity
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 175
2. Remove the headlight assembly as described in
this chapter.
3. Locate the black/yellow and blue/yellow 2-wire
connector inside the headlight shell. Disconnect the
clutch switch at the 2-wire connector.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the black/yellow
and blue/yellow wires (switch side).
5. With the clutch lever pulled in, the ohmmeter
should indicate zero ohm. With the lever out, the
ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
Starter switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the headlight assembly as described in
this chapter.
3A. XV920—Locate the red/white and black/white
2-wire connector located inside the headlight shell.
Disconnect the starter switch at the 2-wire connector.
3B. XV750—Locate the blue/white starter switch
connector inside the headlight shell. Disconnect the
switch.
4A. XV920—Connect an ohmmeter between the
red/white and black/white wires in the switch side
of the connector.
4B. XV750—Connect an ohmmeter between a good
engine ground and the blue/white wire in the switch
side of the connector.
5. Push the starter button while noting the ohmmeter.
Zero ohm should be noted. Release the button and
note the meter. The ohmmeter should indicate infinity. If not, replace the starter switch.
Troubleshooting
(XV700; 1988-on XV750; XV1000; XV1100)
Relay assembly (starter safety unit) test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand and remove the seat.
2. Remove the relay assembly (Figure 68) from its
mounting bracket. Disconnect the relay from the
wiring harness.
3. Connect a 12-volt battery and ohmmeter to the
relay as shown in Figure 69.
a. With the battery connected, the ohmmeter
should indicate zero ohm.
b. With the battery disconnected, the ohmmeter
should indicate ipfinity.
4. Replace the relay assembly if the test results are
not as specified.
7. Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL. The ohmmeter should indicate zero ohm. Next, shift into
FIRST gear. The ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
8. Replace the neutral switch if it does not perform
as specified.
Sidestand switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand. Remove
the seat and left side cover.
2. Remove the luggage box on models so equipped.
3. Disconnect the sidestand switch connector. The
connector contains 2 wires—black and blue/yellow.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the sidestand
switch wires. With the sidestand in the up position,
the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohm. With the
sidestand down, the ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
5. Replace the sidestand switch if it does not perform
as specified. Reverse Steps 1 and 3 to complete
assembly.
Clutch switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
176 CHAPTER SEVEN I
Sidestand relay test (except 1991-on models)
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand, then
remove the seat and left side cover.
2. Disconnect and remove the sidestand relay (A,
Figure 70).
3. Connect a 12-volt battery and ohmmeter to the
relay as shown in Figure 71.
a. With the battery connected, the ohmmeter
should indicate infinity.
b. With the battery disconnected, the ohmmeter
should indicate zero ohm.
DIODE TESTING
TESTER CONNECTING POINTS
Positive Negative
Correct test
results
Green
Blue/white
Yellow
Sky blue
White/green
White
Green
Blue/white
Green
Sky blue
Yellow
White
White/green
Black/red
0 ohms1
Infinite2
0 ohms1
Infinite2
0 ohms1
Infinite2
8.2 ohms
1. Scale ohms X1000.
2. Scale ohmsX1.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 177
4. Replace the sidestand relay if the test results are
not as specified.
8. Replace the neutral switch if it does not perform
as specified.
Diode test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand and remove the seat.
2. Disconnect and remove the diode assembly (B,
Figure 70).
3. Measure the resistance at each of the wire connections as indicated in Figure 72. Record each reading.
4. Replace the diode assembly if all test results are
not as specified in Figure 72.
Neutral switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the left side cover.
3. On XV1000 and XVI100 models, unfasten the
sub-fuel tank and set it aside without disconnecting
any fuel hoses. See Chapter Six.
4. Remove the luggage box on XV700 and XV750
models.
5. Disconnect the blue neutral switch wire at its
connector. The neutral switch is located where
shown in Figure 73.
6. Connect an ohmmeter between a good engine
ground and the blue neutral switch wire.
7. Shift the transmission into NEUTRAL. The ohmmeter should indicate zero ohm. Next, shift into
FIRST gear. The ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
Sidestand switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand. Remove
the seat and left side cover.
2. On XV700 and XV750 models, remove the luggage box. On XV1000 and XVI100 models, remove
the sub-fuel tank as described in Chapter Six. It is
not necessary to disconnect the fuel hoses from the
sub-fuel tank.
3. Disconnect the sidestand switch connector. The
connector contains 2 wires—black and blue/yellow.
The sidestand switch is located where shown in
Figure 74.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the sidestand
switch wires. With the sidestand in the up position,
the ohmmeter should indicate zero ohm. With the
sidestand down, the ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
5. Replace the sidestand switch (Figure 74) if it does
not perform as specified. Reverse Steps 1 and 2 to
complete assembly.
Clutch switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the headlight assembly as described in
this chapter.
3. Locate the black/yellow and blue/yellow 2-wire
connector inside the headlight shell. Disconnect the
clutch switch at the 2-wire connector.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the black/yellow
and blue/yellow wires in the switch side of the
connector.
5. With the clutch lever pulled in, the ohmmeter
should indicate zero ohm. With the lever out, the
ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
Starter switch test
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the headlight assembly as described in
this chapter.
3. Locate the blue/white and black 2-wire connector
located inside the headlight shell. Disconnect the
starter switch at the 2-wire connector.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the blue/white and
black wires in the switch side of the connector.
5. Push the starter button while noting the ohmmeter.
Zero ohm should be noted. Release the button and
note the meter. The ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
178 CHAPTER SEVEN
Starter relay test (1984-1985 XV700 models)
NOTE
The following test procedure assumes
that all other starter system components
are functioning properly. If necessary,
test other components as described in
this chapter before failing the starter
relay.
Figure 75 shows a typical starter relay installation
on 1984-1985 XV700 models. These models are not
equipped with a starter solenoid.
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand and remove the right side cover.
2. Remove the relay mounting fasteners.
3. Disconnect the starter motor cable from the relay.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the 2 large relay
terminals.
5. Turn the main switch ON, the stop switch to RUN
and shift the transmission into NEUTRAL.
6. Push the starter button while noting the ohmmeter.
The relay should "click" and the ohmmeter should
indicate zero ohm. If not, continue at Step 7.
7. Disconnect the blue/white wire and battery cable
from the relay. Check the resistance between the
blue/white wire terminal and the battery side terminal. If the resistance exceeds 1 ohm, replace the
relay.
Starter relay test (1986-1987 XV700; 1988-on
XV750; XV1000; XVUOO)
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand and remove the seat.
2. Remove the relay (Figure 76) from its mounting
bracket. Disconnect and remove the relay.
3. Connect a 12-volt battery and ohmmeter to the
relay as shown in Figure 77.
4. With the battery connected, the ohmmeter should
indicate zero ohm. With the battery disconnected,
the ohmmeter should indicate infinity.
5. Replace the starter relay if it does not perform as
specified.
Starter solenoid test (1986-1987 XV700; 1988-on
XV750; XV1000; XVUOO)
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Remove the seat and right side cover.
3. Disconnect the positive battery cable and starter
motor cable from the solenoid.
4. Connect an ohmmeter between the positive battery terminal and starter motor cable terminal on the
solenoid. Then, connect a suitable jumper lead to the
positive battery terminal and red wire connector at
the main fuse.
5. Turn the main switch ON, the stop switch to RUN
and shift the transmission into NEUTRAL.
6. Push the starter button while noting the ohmmeter.
The solenoid should "click" and the ohmmeter
should indicate zero ohm. If not, continue at Step 7.
7. Disconnect the black solenoid wire. Check the
resistance between the black wire terminal on the
solenoid and a good ground. If resistance exceeds 1
ohm, replace the solenoid.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 179
LIGHTING SYSTEM
The lighting system consists of the headlight,
taillight/brakelight combination, directional
signals, warning lights and speedometer and
tachometer illumination lights. If a light doesn't
work, check the bulb. If the bulb is good, check all
Headlight Replacement
WARNING
If the headlight has just burned out or
been turned off it will be hot! Don't
touch the bulb until it cools off.
1. Remove the mounting screws (A, Figure 78) on
each side of the headlight housing.
2. Pull the trim bezel and headlight unit out and
disconnect the electrical connector from the bulb.
3. Remove the bulb cover (Figure 79).
CAUTION
During the next step, do not touch the
bulb glass with your fingers because
traces of oil on the bulb will drastically
reduce the life of the bulb. Clean any
traces of oil from the bulb with a cloth
moistened in alcohol or lacquer
thinner.
4. Turn the bulb holder counterclockwise and remove the bulb.
5. Install by reversing these steps.
6. Adjust the headlight as described under
Headlight Adjustment.
Headlight Adjustment
Adjust the headlight horizontally and vertically
according to the Department of Motor Vehicles
regulations in your area.
1. Horizontal adjustment—Turn the screw clockwise to move the beam to the left and counterclockwise to move the beam to the right. See B, Figure
79 (1981-1983) or A, Figure 80 (1984-on).
2. Vertical adjustment—On 1981-1983 models,
loosen the screw (Figure 81) and turn the headlight
shell up or down to adjust the beam. On 1984-on
models, turn the screw clockwise to move the beam
up and counterclockwise to move the beam down
(Figure 80).
Headlight Relay Testing
(1981-1983 Except XV920 Shaft Drive)
1. Place the motorcycle on the centerstand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Disconnect the headlight relay connector. It contains 4 wires—1 black, 1 white, 1 red/yellow and 1
blue/black. The relay is marked 3H5 and is color
coded yellow.
180 CHAPTER SEVEN
4. Set the ohmmeter scale to read ohms xl 0. Measure
the resistance between the terminals shown in Figure 82. It should read 100 ohms.
5. Connect an ohmmeter and 12-volt battery to the
headlight relay switch as shown in Figure 83. Set
the ohmmeter to read ohms xl. Results should be as
follows:
a. Battery connected: 0 ohms.
b. Battery disconnected: Infinity.
6. Set the ohmmeter scale to read ohms xl. Measure
the resistance between the terminals shown in Figure 84. It should be 9.5 ohms. Now switch the
ohmmeter leads and retest. The reading should be
infinite.
7. If the headlight relay fails any of the tests in Steps
4-6, pull it out of its holder and insert a new one.
Taillight Replacement
All models are equipped with 2 double-filament
bulbs in the taillight/brakelight assembly for safety.
Remove the screws securing the lens (Figure 85)
and take the lens off. Wash the inside and outside of
the lens with a mild detergent, rinse thoroughly and
wipe dry. Wipe off the reflective base surrounding
the bulbs with a soft cloth. Replace the bulbs (Figure
86) and install the lens; do not overtighten the screws
or the lens may crack.
Directional Signal Light Replacement
Remove the 2 screws securing the lens (Figure
87) and take the lens off. Wash the inside and outside
with a mild detergent. Replace the bulb (Figure 88).
Install the lens; do not overtighten the screws or the
lens may crack.
Speedometer and Tachometer
Illumination Bulb Replacement
XV920J
Refer to Computerized Monitor System in this
chapter.
All other models
1. Disconnect the speedometer cable (Figure 89).
2. Remove the bolts securing the
speedometer/tachometer brace and pull it away
from the steering head.
3. Remove the outside cover to gain access to the
blown bulb.
4. Remove the bulb from the connector and install
a new one.
5. Installation is the reverse of these steps.
SWITCHES
Front Brake Light
Switch Replacement
Pull the protective cap back from the switch.
Disconnect the switch and the electrical connectors.
See Figure 90. Install the new switch, connect the
wires and install the protective cap.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 181
Rear Brake Light
Switch Replacement
1. Remove the right-hand side cover.
2. Unhook the spring from the brake arm.
3. Unscrew the switch housing and locknut from the
right-hand side. See Figure 91 (1981-1983) or Figure 92 (1984-on).
4. Disconnect the electncal wires.
5. Reverse Steps 1-4 to install. Adjust the switch
as described m this chapter
182 CHAPTER SEVEN
Rear Brake Light
Switch Adjustment
1. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position.
2. Depress the brake pedal. Brake light should
come on just as the brake begins to work.
3. To make the light come on earlier or later, hold
the switch body and turn the adjusting nut as
required.
Sidestand Switch Replacement
With the bike resting on the centerstand and the
sidestand up, remove the sidestand switch screws
(Figure 93). Then disconnect the switch electrical
connector and remove the switch. Reverse to install.
Flasher Relay Replacement
Remove the seat. Disconnect the flasher relay
(Figure 94) and replace it with a new unit.
COMPUTERIZED MONITOR
SYSTEM (XV920J)
This system monitors 7 separate functions on
the XV920. If one of these fails, the system
provides a continuous warning until the problem is
located and repaired.
Service
Because the monitor system is computerized, all
service and repair should be entrusted to a
qualified specialist. For example, improper
handling of the gold plated wire connector units
could damage the microcomputer or electrical
components. When performing service on your
XV920J observe the following general cautions:
a. When replacing bulbs, use only bulbs of the
correct wattage. Do not replace a burned-out
bulb with one of too high or too low wattage
just to get by. Incorrect wattage bulbs will
damage the computer system. Table 3 lists
correct bulb sizes.
b. When washing your bike, cover the
computerized monitor system tightly with a
plastic cover to prevent water from entering
the unit.
c. Do not place any type of magnetic object near
the display panel. Be careful if using magnetic
screwdrivers to service other components.
d. Do not install any type of accessory lighting
equipment anywhere on the bike.
e. Treat the computerized monitor system as a
precision instrument. Never subject the
system to any types of hard knocks or shock.
FUEL PUMP TESTING
(XV1000 AND XV1100)
The fuel pump system consists of a fuel pump,
fuel pump controller and fuel reserve switch (Figure
95). Fuel pump removal and installation are described in Chapter Six. Observe the following conditions when troubleshooting the fuel pump system.
1. Check all connections to make sure they are
tight and free of corrosion.
2. Check the battery to make sure it is fully
charged. Fuel pump troubleshooting is divided
into 3 separate test procedures, depending on the
problem experienced.
a. Test 1: Fuel pump fails to operate after engine
is started.
b. Test 2: Fuel pump fails to operate for
5-second intervals when the carburetor fuel
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 183
level is low (main and engine stop switch
turned to ON and fuel switch turned to RES).
c. Test 3: After fuel warning light comes on, fuel
pump does not stop after 30 seconds.
Testl
1. Start engine and check voltage at the fuel pump
light blue wire (Figure 96). Interpret results as follows:
a. More than 11 volts: Check fuel pump as
described under Fuel Pump Function Test in
this chapter. If fuel pump is damaged, replace
it.
b. Less than 11 volts: Have a dealer check the
rear cylinder ignition coil spark gap. If gap is
correct, proceed to Step 2. If gap is incorrect,
proceed to Step 3.
2. Check the fuel pump controller (Figure 97)
ground lead with an ohmmeter. Reading should be
0 ohms. Interpret results as follows:
FUEL PUMP CIRCUIT
(XV1000 AND XV1100)
1. Main switch
2. Ignition fuse
3. Engine stop switch
4. Reserve switch
5. Main fuse
6. Fuel pump controller
7. Battery
8. Fuel pump
184 CHAPTER SEVEN
a. Ground reading correct: Check the fuel pump
controller as described later in this chapter.
Replace controller if damaged.
b. Ground reading incorrect: Repair connector
or replace controller unit.
3. Check the voltage at the red/white igniter unit
connector wire. Reading should be 12 volts.
Interpret results as follows:
a. Reading incorrect: Check the wiring for
breaks or bad connections.
b. Reading correct: Check the igniter unit as
described in this chapter under Ignition
System Troubleshooting.
c. Check the main fuse as described in this
chapter. Repair or replace the damaged part.
d. Have a dealer check the stop/main switch
assembly. Repair or replace as required.
Test 2
1. Turn the main engine switch ON (do not start
the engine). Measure the voltage at the fuel pump
blue/black wire. Interpret results as follows:
a. 11 volts or less: Perform Step 2.
b. More than 11 volts: Perform Step 3.
2. Measure the voltage at the pump controller
red/white wire. Interpret results as follows:
a. 12 volts: Check the fuel pump controller
ground lead with an ohmmeter. Reading
should be 0 ohms. If reading is correct, check
the fuel pump controller as described in this
chapter. Replace controller if damaged. If
reading is incorrect, repair connector or
replace controller unit.
b. No voltage: Check the engine stop/main
switch and main fuse as described in this
chapter. Repair or replace the damaged part.
3. Turn the fuel reserve switch to RES and
measure the voltage at the fuel pump blue/black
wire. Interpret results as follows:
a. 11 volts or more: Check fuel pump as
described in this chapter.
b. Less than 11 volts: Perform Step 2.
Test 3
1. Start the engine and ground the fuel sender
green wire. After approximately 30 seconds, check
the voltage at the fuel pump controller blue/black
wire. Interpret results as follows:
a. 11 volts or more: Check the resistance at the
fuel sender green and black wires with an
ohmmeter set on ohms X100. Resistance
should be 1,100 ±200 ohms. If resistance is
correct, proceed to Step 2. If resistance is
incorrect, replace the fuel sender unit.
b. No voltage: Check all fuel pump electrical
connectors. If okay, check the fuel pump as
described in this chapter.
2. Check the fuel pump controller ground lead
with an ohmmeter. Connect the ohmmeter
positive lead to the wire and the negative lead to
ground. Reading should be 0 ohms. Interpret
results as follows:
a. Ground reading correct: Check the fuel pump
controller as described in this chapter. Replace
controller if damaged.
b. Ground reading incorrect: Repair connector
or replace controller unit.
Fuel Pump Test
Remove the fuel pump as described in Chapter
Six. Connect a 12-volt battery to the fuel pump as
shown in Figure 98. If the fuel pump is good, it will
vibrate slightly. If not, replace it.
FUEL PUMP CONTROLLER TESTING
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 185
Fuel Pump Controller
Testing/Replacement
1. Remove the seat.
2. Disconnect the fuel pump controller electrical
connector (Figure 96) and remove the controller.
3. Use an ohmmeter to check for resistance at each
of the test terminals. See Figure 99 and Figure 100.
4. If the fuel pump controller fails any test in Step
3, it must be replaced.
5. Install by reversing these removal steps.
Fuel Reserve Switch
1. Remove the headlight as described in this
chapter.
2. Disconnect the fuel reserve switch electrical
connector. It contains 2 wires: red/white and
red/green.
3. Set an ohmmeter on RX1. Connect the
ohmmeter's positive lead to the red/white wire and
the negative lead to the red/green wire.
4. Interpret results as follows:
a. With the fuel reserve switch turned to RES,
the reading should be 0 ohms.
b. With the fuel reserve switch turned to ON,
the reading should be infinity.
5. If the fuel reserve switch failed either of the tests
in Step 4, the right-hand switch assembly (Figure
101) should be replaced.
FUEL WARNING LIGHT SYSTEM
(XV700, 1988-ON XV750, XV1000
AND XV1100)
Troubleshooting
The fuel gauge warning light (mounted on the
tachometer dial) will light when the fuel level is
low. If the fuel warning light comes on and the fuel
level is okay or if the light does not operate
correctly, perform the following.
1. Check the fuel warning light bulb; replace if
necessary. If the bulb is okay, proceed to Step 2.
NOTE
The fuel sender tested in Step 2 is
mounted on the fuel tank.
2. Using a voltmeter, check the voltage at the fuel
sender connector. The fuel sender connector uses 2
wires (green and black). The voltage should be 12
volts. If the voltage is incorrect, check the fuel
sender as described in this chapter. If the voltage is
correct, check the following:
a. Fuses.
b. Battery (Chapter Three).
c. Have a Yamaha dealer check the main switch
assembly.
Fuel Sender Troubleshooting
1. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
WARNING
Drain the gasoline in a container
approved for gasoline storage.
WARNING
Perform Step 2 away from all open
flames.
2. Remove the fuel sender mounting bolts and
remove the sender from the fuel tank.
3. Place the fuel sender on a workbench so that it
sits in its installed position. Attach an ohmmeter to
the fuel sender electrical connector. Switch the
ohmmeter to RX100.
4. Raise the fuel sender weight to the following
height:
a. XV700 and XV750: 1.65 in. (42 mm).
b. XV1000 and XV1100: 0.86 in. (22 mm).
With the weight positioned at the correct height,
the ohmmeter should read 1.1 ±0.2 K ohms at 68°
F. If the reading is incorrect, replace the fuel
sender.
5. Reverse to install the fuel sender. Use a new
gasket during installation. Then fill the tank
partway and check for leaks.
186 CHAPTER SEVEN
LIGHTING SYSTEM
Fuel Warning Light Troubleshooting
(1986-1987 XV700, 1988-on XV750 and
XV1100)
The fuel gauge warning light (Figure 102) will
come on when the fuel level drops below 0.7 gal.
(XV700) or 0.8 gal. (XVI100). If the fuel warning
light comes on and the fuel level is okay or if the
light does not operate correctly, perform the
following.
1. Check the fuel warning light bulb. Replace if
necessary. If the bulb is okay, proceed to Step 2.
2. Turn the main switch to ON and the engine
stop switch to RUN. Then push the starter button.
The fuel warning light bulb should light. If the light
is on, proceed to Step 3. If the light did not come
on, check the following.
a. Diode—see Diode Testing in this chapter.
b. Main fuse—see Fuses in this chapter.
c. Battery—see Chapter Three.
d. Have a Yamaha dealer check the main
switch.
3. Check the fuel sender electrical connections.
The fuel sender is mounted on the fuel tank. If the
connections are tight and correct, the fuel sender
may be faulty. Check it as described in this
chapter.
HORN
Removal/Installation
1. Disconnect the horn electrical connector.
2. Remove the bolts securing the horn.
3. Installation is the reverse of these steps.
Testing
1. Disconnect horn wires from harness.
2. Connect horn wires to 12-volt battery. If the
horn is good, it will sound. If it doesn't, replace it.
FUSES
Whenever a fuse blows, find out the reason for
the failure before replacing the fuse. Usually, the
trouble is a short circuit in the wiring. This may be
caused by worn-through insulation or a
disconnected wire shorting to ground. Fuse ratings
are listed in Table 4.
CAUTION
Never substitute metalfoil or wire for a
fuse. Never use a higher amperage fuse
than specified. An overload could result
in fire and complete loss of the bike.
There are 5 fuses used on the XV models. The
main fuse is located underneath the seat and the
remaining 4 are located in the fuse panel.
If the main fuse blows, raise the seat and separate
the rubber fuse holder. Remove the fuse and replace
it with one of the same amperage. See Figure 103
(1981-1983) or Figure 104 (1984-on).
On 1981-1983 models, the remaining fuses are
located on the lower steering crown. Remove the
cover and replace the blown fuse (Figure 105).
On 1984-on models, the remaining fuses are located underneath the indicator light panel. Remove
the panel (Figure 106) and replace the blown fuse.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 187
Tables are on the following pages.
188 CHAPTER SEVEN
Table 1 ELECTRICAL
System voltage
Pickup coil resistance
Prior to 1991
1991-on
Ignition coil resistance
1981-1983
Primary windings
Secondary windings
1984-on
Primary windings
Secondary windings
Spark plug cap resistance
Charging voltage
1981-1983
1984-on
Armature coil resistance
Starter brush wear limit
All resistance specifications are ±15% at 68° F (20° C).
SPECIFICATIONS*
12
155 ohms
202 ohms
2.7 ohms
8,500 ohms
4.2 ohms
13,200 ohms
5,000 ohms
14-15 volts @ 2,000 rpm
14 volts @ 5,000 rpm
0.5 ohm
0.22 in. (5.5 mm)
Symptom
Starter does
not start
Starter action
is weak
Table 2 STARTER
Probable cause
Low battery
Worn brushes
Defective relay
Defective switch
Defective wiring
connection
Internal short circuit
Low battery
Pitted relay contacts
Worn brushes
Defective connection
Short circuit in commutator
Starter runs continuouslyStuck relay
Starter turns; does
not turn engine
Defective starter clutch
TROUBLESHOOTING
Remedy
Recharge battery
Replace brushes
Repair or replace •
Repair or replace
Repair wire or repair
connection
Repair or replace defective
component
Recharge battery
Clean or replace
Replace brushes
Clean and tighten
Replace armature
Replace relay
Replace starter clutch
Table 3 REPLACEMENT BULBS
Item
Headlight
Tail/brakelight
Meter light
1982 XV920 (shaft drive)
All other models
Indicator lights
1981-1983
1984-1985
1986-on
Wattage
12V 60/55W
12V 8/27W
12V 2W
12V3.4W
12V 3.4W
12V4.0W
12V 3.0W
(continued)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 189
Table 3 REPLACEMENT BULBS (continued)
License light
XV750
1982 XV920 (shaft drive)
All other models
Flasher/running light
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
1982 XV920 (shaft drive)
All other models
*Not specified.
12V 8W
12V3.8W
*
12V 27W
12V27WX4/8W
*
Table 4 FUSES
Main
1982 XV920 (shaft drive)
All others
Headlight
Signal
Ignition
Tail
Amperage
30
20
15
15
10
10
CHAPTER EIGHT
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING
This chapter discusses service operations on
suspension components, steering, wheels and
related items. Specifications (Table 1) and
tightening torques (Table 2) are at the end of the
chapter.
FRONT WHEEL
Removal/Installation
1. Place a wooden block under the crankcase to lift
the front wheel off the ground.
NOTE
If the front wheel can be raised enough
to provide sufficient clearance to
remove the wheel, removal of the front
fender is not required. However, if
removal of the front fender is necessary,
perform Step 2 and Step 4.
2. Disconnect the brake hose(s) at the front fender
(Figure 1).
3. Disconnect the speedometer cable (Figure 2) at
the front wheel and pull it through the front fender
bracket.
4. Remove the bolts securing the fender to the fork
tubes and carefully pull the fender out (Figure 3).
5. Remove the cotter pin and axle nut (Figure 4).
Discard the cotter pin.
6. Loosen the axle pinch bolt(s). See Figure 5.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 191
NOTE
It is not necessary to completely remove
the axle pinch bolt(s).
7. Push the axle out with a dnft or screwdriver and
remove it from the right (shaft-drive) or left
(chain-drive) side. See Figure 6.
8. Pull the wheel forward to disengage the brake
disc(s) from the cahper(s). Then turn the cahper(s)
outward to provide clearance for the wheel and
remove it.
9. Remove the spacer from the seal in the
left-hand or right-hand side of the wheel. See
Figure 7.
10. Remove the speedometer drive from the seal
in the left-hand or right-hand side of the wheel
(Figure 8).
11. Remove the wheel.
CAUTION
Do not set the wheel down on the disc
surface as it may be scratched or
warped. Either lean the wheel against a
wall or place it on a couple of wood
blocks.
NOTE
Insert a piece of wood in the cahper(s)
in place of the disc (Figure 9). That
way, if the brake lever is inadvertently
squeezed, the piston will not be forced
out of the cylinder. If this does happen,
the cahper(s) might have to be
disassembled to reseat the piston and
the system will have to be bled. By using
the wood, bleeding the brake is not
necessary when installing the wheel.
12. While servicing the wheel assembly, install the
spacer, speedometer drive gear, washer and nut on
the axle to prevent their loss.
Inspection
1. Remove any corrosion on the front axle with a
piece of fine emery cloth.
192 CHAPTER EIGHT
2. Measure the radial runout of the wheel rim with
a dial indicator as shown in Figure 10. If runout
exceeds 0.08 in. (2.0 mm), check the wheel
bearings. If the wheel bearings are okay, examine
the wheel rim. The stock Yamaha aluminum wheel
cannot be serviced, but must be replaced if
damaged. On spoked wheels, refer to Wheels in
this chapter for information on spoke tightening
and wheel truing.
3. Check the rims for cracks or damage as
described in this chapter.
Installation
1. Lightly grease the lips of both front wheel seals
(Figure 11) and the seal in the speedometer gear
case.
2. Insert the spacer in the left-hand or right-hand
side seal (Figure 12).
3. Insert the speedometer gear case into the wheel.
Make sure the notches in the gear case (Figure 13)
align with the speedometer drive dogs (Figure 14).
4. Carefully insert the disc(s) between the brake
pads when installing the wheel.
5. Make sure the locating slot in the speedometer
gear case is aligned with the boss on the fork tube
(Figure 15).
6. Insert the axle. Then install the washer and axle
nut and tighten the nut to specifications (Table 2).
7. Apply the front brake and compress the front
forks several times to make sure the axle is
installed correctly without binding the forks. Then
tighten the axle pinch bolt(s) to specifications
(Table 2).
8. Install a new axle cotter pin.
WARNING
Never reuse a cotter pin on the axle
shaft; always install a new one.
9. After the wheel is installed, completely rotate it
and apply the brake several times to make sure the
wheel rotates freely.
10. Install the front fender (if removed), making
sure to secure the brake hose clamp(s). See Figure
1.
11. Install the speedometer cable.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 193
NOTE
Rotate the wheel slowly when inserting
the cable so that it will engage properly.
FRONT HUB
Refer to Figure 16, Figure 17 or Figure 18 for
this procedure.
Disassembly
1. Remove the front wheel as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the spacer (Figure 12) and
speedometer drive gear.
3. Remove the wheel cover (Figure 19), if so
equipped.
4. Remove the right-hand (Figure 20) and
left-hand oil seals.
5. Remove the speedometer gear case retainer and
dog (Figure 14).
6. Remove the wheel bearings, spacer and spacer
flange. Tap the bearing out with a soft aluminum
or brass drift.
CAUTION
Tap only on the outer bearing race. The
bearing will be damaged if struck on
the inner race
Inspection
1. Clean bearings thoroughly m solvent and dry
with compressed air.
6. Cover
7. Rim
8. Weight
9. Air valve
10. Spacer
11. Bearing
12. Clutch meter
13. Clutch retainer
14. Oil seal
15. Speedometer
drive gear housing
16. Washer
17. Cotter pin
18. Nut
FRONT WHEEL
(1981-1983 SHAFT-DRIVE)
1. Axle
2. Spacer
3. Oil seal
4. Bearing
5. Spacer
194 CHAPTER EIGHT
FRONT WHEEL
(1981-1983 CHAIN-DRIVE)
1. Cotter pin
2. Nut
3. Washer
4. Spacer
5. Oil seal
6. Bearing
7. Spacer
8. Rim
9. Weight
10. Air valve
11. Spacer
12. Bearing
13. Clutch meter
14. Clutch retainer
15. Oil seal
16. Speedometer drive
gear housing
17. Axle
FRONT WHEEL
(1984-ON)
1. Axle
2. Spacer
3. Oil seal
4. Bearing
5. Spacer
6. Spokes (spoked wheels only)
7. Hub (spoked wheels only)
8. Rim (spoked wheels only)
9. Speedometer gear unit
10. Washer
11. Cotter pin
12. Nut
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 195
WARNING
Do not spin the bearing with the air jet
while drying. Hold the inner race with
your hand. Because the air jet can spin
the bearing race at higher speeds than it
was designed for, the,-bearing may
disintegrate and possibly cause severe
injuries.
2. Clean the inside and outside of the hub with
solvent. Dry with compressed air.
3. Turn each bearing by hand (Figure 21), making
sure it turns smoothly. Check balls for evidence of
wear, pitting or excessive heat (bluish tint).
Replace bearings if necessary; always replace as a
complete set.
4. Check the axle for wear and straightness. Use
V-blocks and a dial indicator as shown in Figure
22. If the runout is 0.008 in. (0.2 mm) or greater,
the axle must be replaced.
Assembly
NOTE
If installing sealed bearings, it is not
necessary to grease the bearings as
described in Step 1. Instead, proceed to
Step 2.
1. Pack the bearings thoroughly with multipurpose
grease. Work the grease between the balls
thoroughly.
2. Pack the wheel hub and axle spacer with
multipurpose grease.
3. Install the right-hand wheel bearing and the
spacer. Install the spacer flange and install the
left-hand bearing.
196 CHAPTER EIGHT
CAUTION
Tap the bearings squarely into place
and tap on the outer race only. Use a
socket (Figure 23) that matches the
outer race diameter. Do not tap on the
inner race or the bearing might be
damaged. Be sure that the bearings are
completely seated.
NOTE
Install the wheel bearings with the
sealed side facing outward.
4. Install the left-hand oil seal.
5. Install the speedometer gear case dog, retainer
and oil seal in the hub.
6. Lubricate the oil seal lips with grease.
7. Disassemble the speedometer gear case and
lubricate the gears and sliding faces with a
lightweight lithium soap base grease. Reassemble
the gear case.
8. Install the front wheel as described in this
chapter.
WHEEL BALANCE
An unbalanced wheel results in unsafe riding
conditions. Depending on the degree of unbalance
and the speed of the motorcycle, the rider may
experience anything from a mild vibration to a
violent shimmy and loss of control.
On aluminum wheels, weights are attached to
the rim (Figure 24). On spoke wheels, weights are
clamped to the spokes (Figure 25). Weights for
both aluminum and spoke wheels can be
purchased from most motorcycle dealers or
motorcycle supply stores.
NOTE
Be sure to balance the wheel with the
brake discs attached as they also affect
the balance.
Before attempting to balance the wheels, check
to be sure that the wheel bearings are in good
condition and properly lubricated. The wheel must
rotate freely.
1. Remove the wheel as described in this chapter
or in Chapter Nine.
2. Mount the wheel on a fixture such as the one
shown in Figure 26 so it can rotate freely.
3. Give the wheel a spin and let it coast to a stop.
Mark the tire at the lowest point.
4. Spin the wheel several more times. If the wheel
keeps coming to rest at the same point, it is out of
balance.
5. Tape a test weight to the upper (or light) side of
the wheel.
6. Experiment with different weights until the
wheel, when spun, comes to rest at a different
position each time.
7. Remove the test weight and install the correct
size weight. See Figure 24 or Figure 27.
WIRE WHEEL SERVICE
Spoke Inspection and
Replacement
Wire wheel spokes loosen with use and should be
checked periodically. The "tuning fork" method
for checking spoke tightness is simple and works
well. Tap the center of each spoke with a spoke
wrench (Figure 28) or the shank of a screwdriver
and listen for a tone. A tightened spoke will emit a
clear, ringing tone and a loose spoke will sound flat
or dull. All the spokes in a correctly tightened
wheel will emit tones of similar pitch but not
necessarily the same precise tone. The tension of
the spokes does not determine wheel balance.
Bent, stripped or broken spokes should be
replaced as soon as they are detected, as they can
destroy an expensive hub.
Unscrew the nipple from the spoke and depress
the nipple into the rim far enough to free the end of
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 197
the spoke; take care not to push the nipple all the
way in. Remove the damaged spoke from the hub
and use it to match a new spoke of identical length.
If necessary, trim the new spoke (at the threaded
end) to match the original and dress the end of the
threads with a thread die. Install the new spoke in
the hub and screw on the nipple; tighten it until the
spoke's tone is similar to the tone of the other
spokes in the wheel. Periodically check the new
spoke; it will stretch and must be retightened
several times before it takes a final set.
Spoke Adjustment
If all spokes appear loose, tighten all on one side
of the hub, then tighten all on the other side.
One-half to one turn should be sufficient; do not
overtighten.
After tightening the spokes, check rim runout to
be sure you haven't pulled the rim out of shape.
One way to check rim runout is to mount a dial
indicator on the front fork or swing arm so that it
bears against the rim.
If you don't have a dial indicator, improvise one
as shown in Figure 29. Adjust the position of the
bolt until it just clears the rim. Rotate the rim and
note whether the clearance increases or decreases.
Mark the tire with chalk or light crayon at areas
that produce significantly large or small clearances.
Clearance must not change by more than 2 mm
(0.08 in.).
To pull the rim out, tighten spokes which
terminate on the same side of the hub and loosen
spokes which terminate on the opposite side of the
hub (Figure 30). In most cases, only a slight
amount of adjustment is necessary to true a rim.
After adjustment, rotate the rim and make sure
another area has not been pulled out of true.
Continue adjustment and checking until runout is
less than 2.0 mm (0.08 in.).
Rim Replacement
The rim can be bent by hitting rocks, curbs,
potholes, etc. A bent rim should be replaced
198 CHAPTER EIGHT
1. Bracket to fit fender brace
2. Wheel rim
3. Nuts
4. Bolt
immediately. A bent or dented wheel creates very
dangerous handling characteristics.
If the spokes are not bent or damaged also, they
may be reused. This procedures describes how to
replace the rim without removing the spokes.
1. Remove the tire as described in this chapter.
2. Securely fasten the spokes together with wire,
string or tape at each point where they cross.
3. Place the replacement rim on top of the old rim
and align the nipple holes of both rims. This is to
make sure the replacement rim is the correct one.
When the rims are aligned correctly, mark one
spoke and its corresponding nipple hole on the new
rim.
4. Remove the nipples from the spokes using a
spoke wrench. If they are coated with dirt or rust,
clean them in solvent and allow to dry. Then check
the nipples for signs of cracking or other damage.
Spoke nipples in this condition can strip when the
wheel is later trued. Replace nipples as necessary.
5. Lift the hub and spokes out of the old rim,
making sure not to knock the spokes out of
alignment.
6. Position the hub and spokes into the new rim,
making sure to align the marks made in Step 3.
Then insert the spokes into the rim until they are
all in place.
7. Place a drop of oil onto the threaded end of each
spoke and install the nipples. Thread the nipples
halfway onto the spokes (before they make contact
with the rim).
8. Lift the wheel and stand it up on the
workbench. Check the hub to make sure it is
centered in the rim. If not, reposition it by hand.
9. With the hub centered in the rim, thread the
nipples until they just seat against the rim. True the
wheel as described in this chapter.
Seating Spokes
When spokes loosen or when installing new
spokes, the head of the spoke should be checked
for proper seating in the hub. If it is not seated
correctly, it can loosen further and may cause
severe damage to the hub. If one or more spokes
require reseating, hit the head of the spoke with a
punch. True the wheel as described in this chapter.
NOTE
To prevent the punch from damaging
the chrome on the spoke head, apply
strips of tape to the end of the punch
before using it.
TIRE CHANGING
The wheels used on all models can easily be
damaged during tire removal. Special care must be
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 199
taken with tire irons to avoid scratches and gouges
to the outer rim surface. Insert scraps of leather
between the tire iron and the rim to protect the rim
from damage.
The stock cast wheels are designed for use with
either tubeless or tube-type tires. Spoked wheels
are designed for tube-type tires only. Tire removal
and installation are basically the same for tube and
tubeless tires; where differences occur they are
noted. Tire repair is different and is covered in
separate procedures.
When removing a tubeless tire, take care not to
damage the tire beads, inner liner of the tire or the
wheel rim flange. Use Yamaha tire levers or
flat-handled tire irons with rounded ends.
Removal
1. Remove the valve core to deflate the tire.
2. Press the entire bead on both sides of the tire
into the center of the rim.
3. Lubricate the beads with soapy water.
4. Insert the tire iron under the bead next to the
valve (Figure 31). Force the bead on the opposite
side of the tire into the center of the rim and pry
the bead over the rim with the tire iron.
NOTE
Insert scraps of leather between the tire
irons and the nm to protect the rim
from damage.
5. Insert a second tire iron next to the first to hold
the bead over the rim. Then work around the tire
with the first tool prying the bead over the rim
(Figure 32). On tube-type tires, be careful not to
pinch the inner tube with the tools.
6. On tube-type tires, use your thumb to push the
valve from its hole in the rim to the inside of the
tire. Carefully pull the tube out of the tire and lay it
aside.
NOTE
Step 7 is required only if it is necessary
to completely remove the tire from the
rim, such as for tire replacement or
tubeless tire repair.
7. Turn the wheel over. Insert a tire tool between
the second bead and the same side of the rim that
the first bead was pried over (Figure 33). Force the
bead on the opposite side from the tool into the
center of the rim. Pry the second bead off the rim,
working around the wheel with 2 tire irons as with
the first.
8. On tubeless tires, inspect the rubber O-ring
where the valve stem seats against the inner surface
of the wheel. Replace it if it's starting to deteriorate
or has lost its resiliency. This is a common cause of
air loss.
Installation
1. Carefully inspect the tire for any damage,
especially inside.
2. A new tire may have balancing rubbers inside.
These are not patches and should not be disturbed.
A colored spot near the bead indicates a lighter
point on the tire. This spot should be placed next
to the valve stem (Figure 34). In addition, most
tires have directional arrows on the side of the tire
that indicate which direction the tire should rotate.
Make sure to install the tire accordingly.
200 CHAPTER EIGHT
3. On tube-type tires, inflate the tube just enough
to round it out. Too much air will make
installation difficult. Place the tube inside the tire.
4. Lubricate both beads of the tire with soapy
water.
5. Place the backside of the tire into the center of
the rim. On tube-type tires, insert the valve stem
through the stem hole in the wheel. The lower bead
should go into the center of the rim and the upper
bead outside. Work around the tire in both
directions (Figure 35). Use a tire iron for the last
few inches of bead (Figure 36).
6. Press the upper bead into the rim opposite the
valve (Figure 37). Pry the bead into the rim on
both sides of the initial point with a tire tool,
working around the rim to the valve.
7. On tube-type tires, wiggle the valve to be sure
the tube is not trapped under the bead. Set the
valve stem squarely in its hole before screwing on
the valve nut to hold it against the rim.
8. Check the bead on both sides of the tire for an
even fit around the rim.
9. On tube-type tires, innate the tire slowly to seat
the beads in the rim. It may be necessary to bounce
the tire to complete the seating.
10. On tubeless tires place an inflatable band
around the circumference of the tire. Slowly inflate
the band until the tire beads are pressed against the
rim. Inflate the tire enough to seat it, deflate the
band and remove it.
WARNING
Never exceed 56 psi (4.0 kg/cm2)
inflation pressure as the tire could burst
causing severe injury. Never stand
directly over the tire while inflating it.
11. Inflate the tire to the required pressure
(Chapter Three). Tighten the valve stem locks and
screw on the cover cap.
12. Balance the wheel assembly as described in
this chapter.
TIRE REPAIRS
Tubeless Tires
Patching a tubeless tire on the road is very
difficult. If both beads are still in place against the
rim, a can of pressurized tire sealant may inflate
the tire and seal the hole. The beads must be
against the wheel for this method to work. Another
solution is to carry a spare inner tube that can be
temporarily installed and inflated. This will enable
you to get to a service station where the tire can be
correctly repaired. Be sure that the tube is designed
for use with a tubeless tire.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 201
The motorcycle tire industry recommends that
tubeless tires be patched from the inside.
Therefore, do not patch the tire with an external
type plug. If you find an external patch on a tire, it
is recommended that it be patch-reinforced from
the inside.
Due to the variations of material supplied with
different tubeless tire repair kits, follow the
instructions and recommendations supplied with
the repair kit.
Tube-type Tires
Every rider will eventually experience trouble
with a tire or tube. Repairs and replacement are
fairly simple and every rider should know the
techniques.
Patching a motorcycle tube is only a temporary
fix. A motorcycle tire flexes so much that the patch
could rub right off. However, a patched tube
should get you far enough to buy a new tube.
Due to the variations of material supplied with
different tube-type tire repair kits, follow the
instructions and recommendations supplied with
the repair kit.
HANDLEBAR
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand. Remove the
rear view mirrors (A, Figure 38).
2. Disconnect the brake fluid level warning wire at
the master cylinder (if so equipped). Remove the 2
bolts (B, Figure 38) securing the master cylinder
and lay it on the fuel tank. It is not necessary to
disconnect the hydraulic brake line.
CAUTION
Cover the fuel tank with a heavy cloth
or plastic tarp to protect it from
accidental spilling of brake fluid. Wash
any spilled brake fluid off any painted
or plated surface immediately, as it will
destroy the finish. Use soapy water and
rinse thoroughly.
3. Slide back the clutch adjuster cover. Then
slacken the clutch cable and disconnect it at the
hand lever (Figure 39).
4. Disconnect the choke cable (A, Figure 40).
5. Separate the 2 halves of the left-hand switch
assembly (B, Figure 40).
6. Separate the 2 halves of the start switch
assembly (Figure 41). Disconnect the throttle cable
from the twist grip.
7. Remove the cover (Figure 42), then remove the
screw (A, Figure 43) and remove the handlebar
cover (B, Figure 43), if so equipped.
202 CHAPTER EIGHT
HANDLEBAR ASSEMBLY
(1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
1. Right handlebar
2. Right handle
3. Handle pinch bolt
4. Washer
5. Handlebar stopper bolt
6. Plug
7. Handle pinch bolt
8. Plug
9. Handlebar stopper bolt
10. Washer
11. Left handle
12. Left handlebar
13. Bolt
14. Lead holder
15. Washer plate
HANDLEBAR ASSEMBLY (1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
1. Clutch lever
2. Handlebar stopper bolt
3. Cap
4. Handle stopper bolt
5. Handle pinch bolt
6. Crown
7. Handlebar pinch bolt
8. Cover
9. Brake lever
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 203
STEERING
ASSEMBLY
(1981-1983)
1. Steering stem bolt
2. Upper steering clamp
3. Ring nut
4. Ring nut
5. Cover
6. Bearing race
7. Ball bearings
8. Bearing race
9. Steering seal
10. Steering stem
8. Remove the clamps securing electrical cables to
the handlebar.
9A. 1982 XV920 shaft drive .Referring to Figure 44
and Figure 45, perform the following:
a. Remove the bolt cap and bolt.
b. Loosen the pinch bolt and remove the
handlebar assembly.
c. Repeat for the opposite side.
9B. All other models: Remove the 4 handlebar
clamp Allen bolts (Figure 46) and remove the
handlebar.
10. Install by reversing these steps; note the
following:
a. Tighten all fasteners to the specifications in
Table 2.
b. Make sure the "UP" mark on the master
cylinder clamp (Figure 47) faces up.
c. On 1982 XV920 shaft drive models, adjust the
handlebar as described in this chapter.
HANDLEBAR ADJUSTMENT
(1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
Refer to Figure 44 and Figure 45 for this
procedure.
WARNING-
Never attempt to adjust the handlebar
more than one notch from the standard
position (there are 3 adjustment
positions each for vertical and
horizontal adjustment). Always adjust
both sides to the same position. Failure
to observe these precautions will cause
an uneven steering condition and
possible loss of steering control.
Vertical Adjustment
1. Remove the handlebar cover.
2. Remove the handlebar stopper and pinch bolts.
3. Rotate the grip bar either up or down one notch
from standard position to adjust. After adjustment,
tighten the handlebar stopper and pinch bolts to
specifications in Table 2.
4. Repeat for the opposite side.
Horizontal Adjustment
1. Remove the handlebar cover.
2. Remove the handlebar bolt cap and stopper
bolt. Then loosen the pinch bolt.
3. Pull the handlebar up to disengage it from the
handle crown and turn one notch either forward or
backward from standard position to adjust.
4. Reinstall the handlebar and tighten all bolts to
specifications in Table 2.
5. Repeat for the opposite side.
204 CHAPTER EIGHT
STEERING HEAD
Refer to Figure 48 and Figure 49 for this
procedure.
Disassembly
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
3. Remove the front wheel as described in this
chapter.
4. Disconnect the speedometer cable (Figure 50).
5. Remove the headlight as described in Chapter
Seven.
6A. On 1981-1983 models, remove the front fuse
box cover (Figure 51). Then unplug the fuse box
assembly and remove it from the lower steering
crown (Figure 52).
6B. On 1984-on models, remove the front cover
(Figure 53).
7. Disconnect and remove the horns.
STEERING ASSEMBLY
(1984-ON)
1. Steering nut
2. Upper steering clamp
3. Washer
4. Ring nut
5. Washer
6. Ring nut
7. Bearing cover
8. Bearings
9. Steering stem
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 205
8. Remove the master cylinder and brake line clamp
bolts (Figure 54) at the steering head. Do not disconnect the hoses or it will be necessary to bleed the
brake system.
9. Remove the front turn indicators and the
headlight shell (Figure 55).
10. Remove the handlebar as described in this
chapter.
11. Remove the bolts securing the computer
monitor system (XV920J) or the speedometer/
tachometer unit (all other models) and lay it over
the fuel tank. See Figure 56.
NOTE
Be very careful when handling the
computer monitor system; it is easily
damaged Refer to Computer Monitor
System in Chapter Seven for further
information.
12. Loosen the upper and lower fork clamp bolts
and remove the forks as described in this chapter.
13. See Figure 57. Remove the steering stem bolt
(A) and loosen the pinch bolt (B). Then remove the
upper fork bridge (C).
14. Remove the washer on 1984-on models.
15. Remove the adjusting nuts with a spanner
wrench (Figure 58) or use an easily improvised unit ]
(Figure 59). On 1984-on models, a washer is
installed between the 2 adjusting nuts.
16. Remove the upper bearing cover.
17A. 1981-1983: Pull the steering stem out of the
frame (Figure 60). On these models, upper and
lower bearings are loose ball bearings so be ready
to catch them as they fall out. Remove all bearings
that are held in the steering head by grease.
NOTE
On 1981-1983 models, there are total
of 38 ball bearings used: 19 in the top
and 19 in the bottom. The bearings
should not be intermixed because if
worn or damaged, they must be
replaced in sets. However, balls in both
sets are the same size.
17B. 1984-on: Pull the steering stem out of the
frame. Remove the upper bearing from the frame
tube and slide the lower bearing off of the steering
stem.
206 CHAPTER EIGHT
Inspection
1. Clean the bearing races in the steering head and
all bearings with solvent.
2. Check for broken welds on the frame around
the steering head. If any are found, have them
repaired by a competent frame shop or welding
service familiar with motorcycle frame repair.
3A. 1981-1983: Check the balls for pitting,
scratches or discoloration indicating wear or
corrosion. Replace the bearing if damage is visible.
3B. 1984-on: Check the bearings for pitting,
scratches, or discoloration indicating wear or
corrosion. Replace them in sets if any are bad.
4. Check the upper and lower races in the steering
head for pitting, galling and corrosion. If any of
these conditions exist, replace the races as
described in this chapter.
5. Check steering stem for cracks and check its
race for damage or wear. Replace if necessary.
Bearing Race Replacement
The headset and steering stem bearing races are
pressed into place. Because they are easily bent, do
not remove them unless they are worn and require
replacement. Take old races to the dealer to ensure
exact replacement.
To remove a headset race, insert a hardwood
stick into the head tube and carefully tap the race
out from the inside (Figure 61). Tap all around the
race so that neither the race nor the head tube are
bent. To install a race, fit it into the end of the head
tube. Tap it slowly and squarely with a block of
wood (Figure 62).
Assembly
Refer to Figure 48 or Figure 49 for this
procedure.
1. Make sure the steering head bearing races are
properly seated.
2A. 1981-1983:
a. Apply a coat of wheel bearing grease to the
lower bearing race cone on the steering stem
and fit 19 ball bearings around it.
b. Apply a coat of wheel bearing grease to the
upper bearing race cone and fit 19 ball
bearings around it (Figure 63).
2B. 1984-on:
a. Lubricate the bearings thoroughly with wheel
bearing grease.
b. Slide the lower bearing onto the steering
stem.
c. Place the upper bearing into the upper bearing
race cone.
3. Insert the steering stem into the head tube. Hold
it firmly in place.
4. Install the upper bearing race (1981-1983) and
upper bearing cover (all models).
5A. 1981-1983:
a. Install the lower adjusting nut and tighten it
to approximately 18 ft.-lb. (25 N»m). Then
loosen it 1/4 turn.
b. Holding the lower adjusting nut with a
wrench, install the upper adjusting nut and
tighten it securely.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 207
5B. 1984-on:
a. Install the lower adjusting nut and tighten it
to 36 ft.-lb. (50 Nvn).
b. Loosen the lower adjusting nut completely.
Then retighten it to 2.2 ft.-lb. (3 N»m).
c. Install the washer.
d. Install the upper ring nut. Tighten it
finger-tight.
e. Install the washer.
6. Continue assembly by reversing Removal Steps
1-13. Tightening torques are in Table 2.
7. After the total assembly is completed, check the
stem for looseness or binding; readjust if necessary.
Steering Stem Adjustment
If play develops in the steering system, it may
only require adjustment. However, don't take a
chance on it. Disassemble the stem as described
under Steering Head Assembly in this chapter.
Inspect the parts and replace any that are damaged,
then reassemble as described in this chapter.
FRONT FORK
The Yamaha front suspension consists of 2
spring-controlled, hydraulically dampened
telescopic forks. Before suspecting major trouble,
drain the front fork oil and refill with the proper
type and quantity; refer to Chapter Three. If you
still have trouble, such as poor damping, a
tendency to bottom or top out or leakage around
the rubber seals, follow the service procedures in
this section.
To simplify fork service and to prevent the
mixing of parts, the legs should be removed,
serviced and installed individually.
Removal/Installation
1. Place the motorcycle on the centerstand.
2. Remove the front wheel as described in this
chapter.
3. Remove the brake caliper(s) as described in
Chapter Ten.
NOTE
Insert a piece of wood in the caliper(s)
(Figure 64) in place of the disc. That
way, if the brake lever is inadvertently
squeezed, the piston will not be forced
out of the caliper. If it does happen, the
caliper might have to be disassembled
to reseat the piston. By using the wood,
bleeding the brake is not necessary
when installing the wheel.
4. Remove the top rubber cap (Figure 65).
5. Remove the air valve cap (Figure 66) and
depress the valve to release fork air pressure.
208 CHAPTER EIGHT
Repeat on opposite fork. On models equipped with
an air line connecting both fork tubes, only one air
valve is used.
6. 1982-1983 XV920 shaft drive, XV1000 and
XV 1100.Disconnect the air line at one fork tube air
joint bracket (Figure 67).
7. Loosen the pinch bolts (Figure 68) on the upper
fork bridge bolts.
NOTE
Step 8 describes how to loosen the fork
cap while the forks are still held in the
triple clamps.
8A. 1981-1983 XV750 and 1981-1982 XV920 chain
drive /The spring seat and spring are held inposition
bya wire ring (Figure 69). To remove the wire ring,
have an assistant depress the spring seat (A, Figure
70) with a suitable size drift while you pry the wire
ring (B, Figure 70) out of its groove in the fork with
a small screwdriver. When the wire ring is removed,
slowly release tension from the spring seat and remove it together with the fork spring.
8B. XV700,1983 XV920 (except Midnight Virago),
XV1000 and XV1100 :Loosen the fork cap with a 17
mm Allen wrench.
NOTE
An alternative to using a 17 mm Allen
wrench is to use a 17 mm bolt head; hold
the bolt with locking pliers as shown in
Figure 71.
8C. 1983 XV750 and XV920 Midnight Virago:
Loosen the fork tube cap and remove it.
8D. XV920 shaft drive:
a. Turn the adjuster cover (Figure 72) to the No.
1 position (Figure 72).
b. Loosen the fork tube cap pinch bolt (Figure
72).
c. Remove the fork tube cap.
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 209
CAUTION
The fork tube cap is fitted with a damper
adjustment rod (Figure 74). When handling the fork cap, make sure not to bend
or damage the rod in any way as this will
cause improper fork operation.
9. On 1984-on models, remove the lower fork bridge
cover (Figure 75).
10. Loosen the lower fork bridge bolts. See Figure
76 or Figure 77.
11 A. XV700, XV750 and 1981-1982 XV920 chain
drive—Remove the fork tube. It may be necessary
to slightly rotate the tube while removing it.
11B. 1983 XV920 and XV920 Midnight Virago,
XVlOOOandXVllOO:
a. Withdraw the fork tube 3-4 inches.
b. Remove the rubber spacer and air joint
bracket.
c. Remove the fork tube. On XV920 Midnight
models, remove the O-rings and fork tube
cover as the fork tube is withdrawn.
11C. 1982 XV920 shaft drive:
a. Withdraw the fork tube 3-4 inches.
b. Remove the rubber spacer and the air joint
bracket. Then, pry the ring clip out of the fork
tube (Figure 78) and slide.the clip up and off
the fork tube. Remove the fork tube.
12. Repeat for the opposite side.
13. Install by reversing these removal steps, noting
the following.
210 CHAPTER EIGHT
14. On models so equipped, examine the air joint
bracket, rubber spacer, O-rings and clip for any wear
or damage. Replace as necessary.
15. Tighten the fasteners to specification (Table 2).
16. XV750 and 1981-1982 XV920 chain drive—
Install the fork spring and spring seat. Have an
assistant compress the spring seat and install a new
wire stopper ring. Make sure the wire ring seats fully
in the groove in the fork tube before releasing the
spring seat.
17. 1982 XV920 shaft drive—Insert the end of the
cap/rod assembly into the semicircular hole in the
top of the damper rod. Push the fork cap down and
screw the cap on. Tighten to 22 ft.-lb. (30 N.m).
CAUTION
Do not force the cap/rod assembly
during installation or when tightening
the cap or you may damage it. If the
cap/rod is not inserted into the top of
the damper rod correctly, the cap/rod
will protrude too far out of the fork
tube. The cap/rod is inserted into the
damper rod correctly when the cap/rod
sits on the fork tube collar.
18. If it is necessary to bleed the brake caliper(s),
refer to Chapter Ten.
Disassembly
Refer to Figures 79-82 for this procedure.
1. The fork cap was loosened during the removal
procedure. Remove the fork cap.
2. Remove the fork spring.
3. Pour the oil out and discard it. Pump the fork
several times by hand to expel most of the
remaining oil.
FRONT FORK (XV700; 1988-ON
XV750; 1983 XV920 AND XV920 MID-
NIGHT VIRAGO; XVI000; XV1100)
1. Cap
2. Bolt
3. O-ring
4. Spacer
5. Spring seat
6. Spring
7. Damper rod
8. Upper fork tube
9. Taper spindle
10. Cover
11. Dust seal (1984-on)
12. Circlip
13. Fork seal
14. Washer (1984-on)
15. Bushing guide (1984-on)
16. Lower fork tube
17. Bolt
18. Rubber spacer (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight
Virago; XV1000; XV1100)
19. Air joint bracket (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight
Virago; XV1000; XV1100)
20. Ring clip (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight Virago;
XV1000;XV1100)
21. O-ring (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight Virago;
XV1000;XV1100)
22. Air valve (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight Virago;
XV1000;XV1100)
23. Cap (1983 XV920, XV920 Midnight Virago;
XV1000;XV1100)
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 211
FRONT FORK
(1981-1983 XV750)
1. Cap
2. Air valve
3. O-ring
4. Ring clip
5. Fork cap
6. O-ring
7. Spring
8. Damper rod
9. Upper fork tube
10. Taper spindle
11. Dust seal
12. Spring clip
13. Oil seal
14. Lower fork tube
15. Bolt
FRONT FORK
(1981-1982 XV920 CHAIN DRIVE)
1. Gasket
2. Guide
3. Spacer
4. Cap
5. Air valve
6. O-ring
7. Bolt
8. O-ring
9. Spring
10. Damper rod
11. Upper fork tube
12. Taper spindle
13. Dust seal
14. Clip
15. Oil seal
16. Lower fork tube
17. Screw
212 CHAPTER EIGHT
NOTE
Further disassembly of the XV700,
1988-on XV750, 1982 XV920 shaft
drive, XV1000 and XV1100 front forks
is not recommended. Further disassembly requires special tools as well as
access to a torch to head the slider for
complete removal of all parts. During
assembly, special tools are also required to seat the seals and metal slides.
Because the operation of the front forks
is critical to steering and safety, refer
further service to a dealer or qualified
specialist.
4. Remove the rubber boot from the notch in the
lower fork tube and slide it off of the upper fork
tube.
5. Clamp the slider in a vise with soft jaws.
6. Remove the Allen bolt (Figure 83) at the
bottom of the slider and pull the fork tube out of
the slider.
7. Remove the oil lock piece (Figure 84), the
damper rod and rebound spring (Figure 85).
8. Remove the snap ring from the groove in the
lower fork tube.
9. Remove the oil seal by prying it out with a
flat-blade screwdriver. Remove the oil seal slowly
to prevent damage to the fork tube.
Inspection
1. Thoroughly clean all parts in solvent and dry
them.
2. Check upper fork tube exterior for scratches and
straightness. If bent or scratched, it should be
replaced.
3. Check the lower fork tube for dents or exterior
damage that may cause the upper fork tube to hang
up during riding conditions. Replace if necessary.
4. Carefully check the damper rod and the piston
ring (Figure 86) for wear or damage.
5. Check the damper rod for straightness. Figure
87 shows one method. The rod should be replaced
if the runout is 0.008 in. (0.2 mm) or greater.
6. Measure the uncompressed length of the fork
spring. Replace the spring if it is too short. See
Table 1 for specifications.
7. Check the O-ring on the fork cap. Replace if
worn or damaged.
8. Any parts that are worn or damaged should be
replaced. Simply cleaning and reinstalling
unserviceable components will not improve
performance of the front suspension.
1. O-ring
2. Air joint
3. O-ring
4. Air hose
5. Air joint bolt
6. O-ring
7. Air joint bracket
8. O-ring
9. Air valve
10. Cap
11. Rubber spacer
12. Ring
13. Cap/adjusting
rod assembly
14. Spring
15. Piston ring
16. Damper rod
17. Rebound spring
18. Inner fork tube
19. Bushing
20. Taper spindle
21. Dust cover
22. Circlip
23. Fork seal
24. Washer
25. Bushing
26. Lower fork tube
27. Drain bolt
28. Bolt
FRONT FORK
(1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 213
Assembly
NOTE
For XV700, 1982 XV920 shaft drive,
XV1000 andXVUOO models, begin reassembly with Step 5.
1. Install the oil seal and snap ring in the lower
fork tube.
NOTE
Make sure the seal seats squarely and
fully in the bores of the tube.
2. Install the rebound spring onto the damper rod.
Insert the damper rod into the fork tube (Figure
85) and install the oil lock piece (Figure 84).
3. Apply a light coat of oil to the outside of the
fork tube and install it into the lower fork tube
(Figure 88). Apply Loctite Lock N' Seal to the
threads of the Allen bolt and install it (Figure 89).
4. Slide the rubber boot into place on the lower
fork tube.
5. Fill fork tube with fresh fork oil. Carefully fill
each fork tube as listed in Table 1.
NOTE
To measure the correct amount of fluid,
use a plastic baby bottle. These have
measurements in fluid ounces (oz.) and
cubic centimeters (cc) on the side.
6. Insert the spring with the small coil diameter
facing down toward the axle.
7. Install the fork tube and cap as described in this
chapter.
8. Pressurize the fork as described in Chapter
Eleven.
214 CHAPTER EIGHT
Table 1 FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING SPECIFCATIONS
Steering head
Type
1981-1983
1984-on
Number of balls in steering head (1981-1983)
Upper
Lower
Size of steering balls
Front fork
Fron fork travel
Spring free length
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV750(1988-on)
XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (1982 shaft drive)
XV920(1983)
Oil weight
Air pressure
Front wheel runout
Front fork oil capacity
XV700 (1984-1985)
XV700 (1986-1987), XV750 (1988-on)
XV750
XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (1982-1983 shaft drive)
XV1000,XV1100
Ball bearing
Tapered roller bearing
19
19
1/4 in.
5.91 in. (150 mm)
20.2 in. (513 mm)
25.0 in. (635 mm)
20.2 in. (513 mm)
22.7 in. (577.5 mm)
24.6 in. (624.7 mm)
Not specified
SAE10W
See Chapter Eleven
0.079 in. (2 mm)
13.7 oz. (405 cc)
13.4 oz. (396 cc)
9.4 oz. (278 cc)
8.9 oz. (264 cc)
10.2 ox. (303 cc)
13.1 oz.(372cc)
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 215
Table 2
Item
Front axle
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
XV750, XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
Front axle pinch bolt/nut
Steering crown and steering stem
1981-1983
M8
M14
Steering crown and steering stem
1984-on
M22
Steering crown and front forks
Upper
Lower
1981-1983
1984-on
FRONT SUSPENSION
ft.-lb.
75
77
80
14
bolts
14
39
nut
80
14
14
17
TIGHTENING TORQUES
N«m
105
107
110
20
20
54
110
20
20
23
CHAPTER NINE
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE
This chapter includes repair and replacement
procedures for the rear wheel, chain-drive and
shaft-drive units and rear suspension components.
Specifications (Table 1) and tightening torques
(Table 2) are at the end of the chapter.
REAR WHEEL
Refer to Figure 1 (chain-drive) or Figure 2
(shaft/drive) for this procedure.
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand so that the
rear wheel clears the ground.
2. Chain-drive models: Remove the rear fender
bolts and raise the fender away from the wheel.
3. Remove the cotter pin and nut securing the
brake rod. Unscrew the rear brake adjusting nut
(Figure 3) and disconnect the brake rod.
NOTE
Install the spring, nut and cotter pin
back onto the brake rod to prevent their
loss (Figure 4).
4. Remove the cotter pin and nut securing the
brake torque rod and disconnect it (Figure 5).
5. Remove the cotter pin and loosen the rear axle
nut (Figure 6). Discard the cotter pin; never reuse a
cotter pin.
6. Loosen the axle pinch bolt (Figure 7) on
shaft-drive models.
7. Withdraw the axle from the right-hand side.
Note the spacer between the brake hub and swing
arm. See Figure 8.
8A. Chain-drive models: Slide the wheel to the
right to disengage it from the drive chain case and
remove the wheel (Figure 9).
8B. Shaft-drive models: Slide the wheel to the right
to disengage it from the hub drive splines and
remove the wheel (Figure 10). Remove the spacer
(Figure 11).
9. If the wheel is going to be off for any length of
time or if it is to be taken to a shop for repair,
install the chain adjusters (if so equipped) and axle
spacers on the axle along with the axle nut to
prevent losing any parts.
10. Install by reversing these removal steps, noting
the following:
a. Chain-drive models: Make sure that the rear
wheel hub clutch damper fits into the drive
chain clutch hub.
b. Shaft-drive models: Make sure that the wheel
hub splines (Figure 12) engage with the final
drive (Figure 13).
c. Prior to tightening the axle nut, install the
brake torque link (Figure 5) and tighten the
nut to specifications in Table 2.
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 217
REAR WHEEL
(CHAIN-DRIVE MODELS)
1. Axle
2. Cotter pin
3. Chain adjuster
4. Nut
5. Bolt
6. Spacer
7. Bearing
8. Spacer
9. Wheel
10. O-ring
11. Bearing
12. Damper
13. Clutch hub
14. Stud bolt
15. Lockwasher
16. Nut
17. Sprocket
18. Drive chain
19. Bearing
20. Spacer
21. Oil seal
22. Circlip
23. Washer
24. Nut
REAR WHEEL
(SHAFT-DRIVE MODELS)
1. Axle
2. Spacer
3. Bearing
4. Seal
5. Spacer
6. Hub
7. Weight
8. Cover
9. Screw
10. Clutch hub
11. Bolt
12. O-ring
13. Bearing
14. Bearing
15. Washer
16. Nut
17. Circlip
218 CHAPTER NINE
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 219
d Tighten the pinch bolt on shaft-dnve models
to specifications in Table 2.
e Tighten the axle nut to specifications in Table
2. Install a new axle nut cotter pin
f. Adjust the rear brake pedal free play as
described in Chapter Three,
g Rotate the wheel several times to make sure it
rotates freely and that the brake works
properly,
h Adjust the drive chain, if so equipped, as
described in Chapter Three
Inspection
Measure the axial and radial runout of the wheel
with a dial indicator as shown in Figure 14. The
maximum allowable axial and radial runout is 0.08
in (2.0 mm). If the runout exceeds this dimension,
check the wheel bearing condition If the wheel
bearings are okay, check the wheel rim for damage.
Cast wheels cannot be serviced but must be
replaced if damaged. For wire wheels, refer to the
wheel and spoke information in Chapter Eight.
Inspect the wheel for signs of cracks, fractures,
dents or bends. If it is damaged in any way, it must
be replaced.
WARNING'
Do not try to repair any damage to the
rear wheel as it will result in an unsafe
riding condition
Check axle runout as described under Rear Hub
Inspection m this chapter.
REAR HUB
Disassembly
Refer to Figure 1 or Figure 2 for this procedure.
1. Remove the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
2. Pull the brake assembly straight out of the
wheel (Figure 10).
220 CHAPTER NINE
3. Chain-drive models: To remove the left-hand
clutch hub bearings, perform the following:
a. Pull the clutch hub (Figure 1) out of the wheel
assembly.
b. Remove the circlip, oil seal and spacer from
the left-hand side.
c. Insert a soft aluminum or brass drift into the
right-hand side of the clutch hub. Tap the
bearing out of the hub with a hammer,
working around the perimeter of the outer
race.
4. Shaft-drive models: Remove the bolts securing
the clutch hub (Figure 15) to the wheel and remove
it.
5. To remove the right-hand bearing (Figure 16),
insert a soft aluminum or brass drift into the
left-hand side of the hub and place the end of the
drift on the outer bearing race. Tap the bearing out
of the hub with a hammer working around the
perimeter of the bearing.
6A. Shaft-drive models: Remove the spacer flange
and spacer. Then remove the 2 left-hand bearings
using the method described in Step 5.
6B. Chain drive models: Remove the spacer. Then
remove the left-hand bearing using the same
method described in Step 5. Remove the O-ring
from the left-hand side.
Inspection
1. Do not clean sealed bearings. Non-sealed
bearings can be cleaned in solvent and thoroughly
dried with compressed air. Do not spin the bearing
with the air jet while drying.
2. Clean the inside and outside of the hub with
solvent. Dry with compressed air.
3. Turn each bearing by hand (Figure 17). Make
sure bearings turn smoothly. On non-sealed
bearings, check the balls for evidence of wear,
pitting or excessive heat (bluish tint). Replace
bearings if necessary; always replace as a complete
set. When replacing the bearings, be sure to take
your old bearings along to ensure a perfect
matchup.
4. Check the axle for wear and straightness. Use
V-blocks and a dial indicator as shown in Figure
18. If the runout is 0.008 in. (0.2 mm) or greater,
the axle should be replaced.
5. Check the brake drum (Figure 19) for any
scoring or damage. If damage is apparent, refer to
Chapter Ten for further inspection and service.
Assembly
1. Blow any dirt or foreign matter out of the hub
prior to installing the clutch hub and right-hand
side bearing.
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 221
2 Shaft-drive models. Replace the clutch hub
O-ring if worn or damaged.
3 Pack the hub with multipurpose grease.
NOTE
When performing Step 4, refer to
Figure 1 or Figure 2 for correct bearing
and spacer alignment
CAUTION
Tap the bearings squarely into place
and tap only on the outer race Use a
socket (Figure 20) that matches the
outer race diameter Do not tap on the
inner race or the bearings will be
damaged Be sure to tap the bearings
until they seat completely
4. Install the right-hand beanng (Figure 16),
spacer flange (shaft-drive models) and the spacer.
NOTE
Install the right-hand side bearing with
the sealed side facing outward (Figure
20)
5. Install the left-hand beanng(s) into the hub.
6. Chain-drive models: Install the bearing in the
clutch hub Then install the spacer, oil seal and
circlip
NOTE
Tap the oil seal into the hub using a
socket that matches the outer bushing
diameter
7 Install the clutch hub (Figure 15). On
shaft-drive models, tighten the bolts securely
8 Install the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
CLUTCH HUB AND
DRIVE CHAIN ASSEMBLY
(XV920 CHAIN DRIVE)
Refer to Figure 1 and Figure 21 for this procedure, which applies to chain-driven XV920 models.
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the rear wheel as described in this
chapter
2. Remove the left-hand rear foot peg assembly.
3 Remove the left-hand muffler assembly as
described in Chapter Six.
4 Remove the shift lever.
5. Loosen the upper chain guard boot clamps (A,
Figure 22) and slide the boots toward the wheel.
6 Remove the front sprocket cover (B, Figure 22).
222 CHAPTER NINE
CHAIN-GUARD
(1981-1982 CHAIN
DRIVE MODELS)
1. Oil seal
2. Chain case
3. O-ring
4. Plug
5. Washer
6. O-ring
7. Chain case
8. Upper chain guard
9. Lower chain guard
10. Clamp
11. O-ring
12. Inspection cap
13. Screw
7. Loosen the rear lower chain guard boot clamp
(C, Figure 22) and slide the chain guard forward.
8. Rotate the rear sprocket by hand to expose the
chain link. Disconnect the chain using a chain
breaker.
9. Remove the chain by pulling it out of the lower
chain guard.
10. Remove the bolts securing the top and bottom
chain guards to the swing arm and remove them.
11. Remove the screws securing the sprocket
housing (D, Figure 22) and remove it.
12. Remove the bolts securing the sprocket
retaining ring to the sprocket housing and remove
it.
13. Remove the sprocket assembly from the
housing.
14. Inspect the clutch hub assembly as described
in this chapter.
15. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note
the following.
16. Install the sprocket into the sprocket housing.
Then install the chain through the top sprocket
housing hole, onto the sprocket and back out
through the lower sprocket housing hole.
17. Lightly lubricate the sprocket retaining ring
O-ring with chain grease. Then install the O-ring
onto the retaining ring.
18. Install the retaining ring onto the sprocket
housing. Make sure the O-ring does not slip off the
retaining ring during installation. Tighten the
retaining ring screws securely.
19. Install the sprocket housing (with drive chain
installed) to the frame. Install the attaching bolts
loosely.
NOTE
Do not allow the drive chain to become
dirty as it hangs down from the
sprocket housing. Lay papers
underneath the bike to help keep the
chain clean.
20. Slip the upper chain guard and its clamps over
the upper chain run. Repeat for the lower chain
guard. Install the chain guard bolts loosely.
21. Install the chain over the engine sprocket and
secure the chain with an old chain link or wire.
Then rotate the rear sprocket so that the chain ends
stop at the point of original disassembly. Remove
the old chain link or wire and install a new chain
link, using a universal chain installation tool.
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 223
22. Install the front sprocket cover (B, Figure 22).
23. Connect the chain guard boots to the front
sprocket cover and to the rear chain housing.
Tighten the boots securely with their clamps.
24. Refill the chain housing with the correct type
and quantity of chain lube. See Chapter Three.
Inspection
1. Clean all parts thoroughly in solvent.
2. Examine the chain guards for wear or damage.
Measure the height of the internal chain guard ribs
as shown in Figure 23. If the rib height is less than
0.157 in. (4 mm), replace the chain guard.
3. Check each O-ring for wear or damage; replace
if necessary.
4. Check the chain guard breather (E, Figure 22)
for obstructions. Clean as required.
5. Check the rear sprocket housing and sprocket
retaining ring for wear or damage; replace if
necessary.
6. Inspect the teeth on the front and rear
sprockets. If the teeth are visibly worn (Figure 24),
replace both sprockets and the drive chain. Never
replace any one sprocket or chain as a separate
item; worn parts will cause rapid wear of the new
component. Refer to Drive Chain Adjustment in
Chapter Three.
WHEEL BALANCING
For complete information refer to Chapter Eight.
TIRE CHANGING
Refer to Tire Changing in Chapter Eight.
FINAL SHAFT DRIVE UNIT
These procedures apply to shaft-drive models.
224 CHAPTER NINE
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the 4 nuts and washers (A, Figure 25)
securing the final drive unit to the swing arm.
3. Remove the bolt securing the final drive unit to
the swing arm (B, Figure 25).
4. On 1984-on models, remove the left-hand shock
absorber lower acorn nut.
5. Pull the final drive unit straight back until it is free
of the engine. See Figure 26.
6. Wipe the grease from the splines on the end of the
drive shaft and final drive unit.
7. Check the splines of both units carefully for signs
of wear.
8. Pack the splines with multipurpose
molybdenum disulfide grease.
9. Install the final drive unit onto the swing arm.
Make sure that the splines of the drive shaft engage
properly with the final drive unit.
10. Install the 4 nuts and washers and tighten to
specifications in Table 2.
11. Install the bolt and nut and tighten to
specifications.
12. Install the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
Disassembly/Inspection/
Troubleshooting
Although it may be possible for you to
disassemble the final drive unit for inspection, you
cannot replace the bearings or seals without special
tools. If there is trouble in the final drive unit, it is
best to remove the unit and take it to a dealer or
qualified specialist for overhaul. They are also
better equipped to check and adjust gear lash.
Inspect the exterior of the unit for signs of wear,
cracks, damage or oil leakage. If any damage is
present or there are signs of leakage, take the unit
in for further service.
SWING ARM
Refer to Figures 27-29 for this procedure.
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the centerstand.
2. Remove the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
3A. On 1981-1983 models, perform the following:
a. Remove the mufflers (Figure 30) as described
in Chapter Six.
b. See Figure 31. Remove the shift lever (A) and
the left-hand front foot peg (B).
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 225
SWING ARM
(1981-1982 CHAIN-DRIVE)
1. Pivot shaft
2. Swing arm
3. Cover
4. Washer
5. Bearing
6. Spacer
7. Washer
8. Nut
226 CHAPTER NINE
1. Pivot shaft
2. Lockwasher
3. Swing arm
4. Boot
5. Cover
6. Washer
7. Bearing
8. Spacer
9. Plug
SWING ARM
(1984-ON SHAFT DRIVE)
1. Cover
2. Nut
3. Right pivot shaft
4. Collar
5. Oil seal
6. Bearing
7. Swing arm
8. Plug
9. Lockwasher
10. Left pivot shaft
11. Boot
12. Guard
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 227
c. See Figure 32. Remove the rear brake pedal
(A) and the right-hand front foot peg (B).
d. Remove the left-hand and right-hand engine
braces. See Figure 33.
e. On shaft-drive models, slide the rubber boot
(Figure 34) away from the engine.
3B. On 1984-on models, remove the left- and
right-hand pivot covers (Figure 35).
4. Remove the drive chain or final drive unit as
described in this chapter.
5. On shaft-drive models, remove the bolts
(Figure 36) securing the drive shaft to the middle
gear housing.
6. Disconnect the shock absorber(s) at the swing
arm.
7A. 1981-1982 chain-drive models:
a. Remove the swing arm pivot shaft nut.
b. Withdraw the pivot shaft from the right-hand
side.
c. Remove the swing arm.
228 CHAPTER NINE
7B. 1981-1983 shaft-drive models:
a. Pry back the lockwasher tab on the right-hand
side.
b. Loosen and remove the swing arm pivot shaft
(Figure 37).
c. Remove the swing arm.
7C. 1984-on models:
a. Pry back the lockwasher tab on the left-hand
side.
b. Remove the left-hand pivot shaft (Figure 38).
c. Remove the lock nut (Figure 39) and remove
the right-hand pivot shaft.
d. Remove the swing arm.
8. Installation is the reverse of these steps; note the
following.
9A. On 1981-1983 models, tighten the swing arm
pivot shaft to the specifications in Table 2.
9B. On 1984-on models, perform the following:
a. Install a new left-hand pivot shaft lockwasher.
b. Tighten the left-hand pivot shaft (Figure 38)
to 72 ft.-lb. (100 N«m). Bend over the tab on
the lockwasher to lock the pivot shaft.
c. Tighten the right hand pivot shaft (Figure 40)
to 4 ft.-lb. (5-6 N»m). To secure the right-hand
pivot shaft, tighten the locknut (Figure 39) to
72 ft.-lb. (100 N»m). Make sure the pivot shaft
does not turn when tightening the locknut.
10. After the swing arm is installed, check the side
clearance as described m this chapter.
Inspection
1. Remove the rubber boot from the swing arm
and inspect it for tears or deterioration; replace if
necessary.
2. Remove the oil seals and bearings.
3. Thoroughly clean the bearings in solvent and
dry with compressed air.
4. Turn each bearing by hand. Make sure bearings
turn smoothly. Check the balls for evidence of
wear or pitting. Replace if necessary. Always
replace both bearings at the same time.
5. If bearings have been replaced, the grease seals
should be replaced also.
6. Pack the bearings with a lithium base,
waterproof wheel bearing grease.
7. Install the bearings into the swing arm.
CAUTION
Tap the bearings squarely into place
and tap on the outer race only Do not
tap on the inner race or the bearings
might be damaged. Be sure that the
bearings are completely seated.
Adjustment
1981-1983
Calculate the swing arm side clearance as shown
in Figure 41. If the side clearance is not
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 229
A. Bushing
B. Thrust
washers
C. Swingarm
mounting
bracket
0 004-0 012 in (0.1-0.3 mm), install new thrust
washer(s) of the appropriate thickness. Thrust
washers of various thicknesses are available from
Yamaha dealers.
1984-on
1. This adjustment must be performed with the
lower shock absorber mounts disconnected from
the swing arm.
2. Grasp the swing arm at the rear (Figure 42) and
attempt to move it from side to side. No noticeable
movement should be observed If movement
occurs, proceed to Step 3.
3. Remove the pivot shaft cap from the right-hand
side of the swing arm (Figure 35)
4 Loosen the pivot shaft locknut (Figure 39) and
tighten the pivot shaft (Figure 40) to 4 ft -lb. (5-6
Nvn).
5 Tighten the locknut to 72 ft.-lb. (100 Nvn).
NOTE
When tightening the locknut, make
sure the pivot shaft does not turn
6 Repeat Step 2 If movement is still noticeable,
the swing arm bearings are probably worn. Replace
them as described in this chapter.
SHOCK ABSORBERS
The rear shocks are spring controlled and
hydrauhcally damped. Spring preload can be
adjusted on all models, see Chapter Eleven.
Removal/Inspection/Installation
(1981-1983)
Refer to Figure 43
1 Remove the fuel tank as described in Chapter
Six.
2. Remove the rear wheel as described in this
chapter.
3. Remove the cotter pm and remove the lower
shock absorber pivot shaft (Figure 44)
4. Remove the shock absorber adjuster unit
(Figure 45) from the frame. Do not disconnect any
lines or cables.
5. Remove the front shock absorber bolt (Figure
46).
6. Remove the shock absorber by pulling it
carefully to the rear of the bike. Do not damage any
hoses or cables dunng removal.
7. Inspect the shock absorber for oil leakage at the
O-rmgs and along the body. If oil leakage occurs at
an O-nng connection, have a dealer or qualified
specialist replace the O-nng. If the oil leakage is
from the shock absorber body, replace the shock
absorber.
8. Installation is the reverse of these steps, note the
following
9. Install a new cotter pin at the bottom shock
absorber pivot pin.
10. Turn the shock adjuster to the standard setting
(Figure 47). Then check the shock absorber cable
free play by hand. If the free play is excessive, turn
the cable adjusters (Figure 48) as necessary
11. Adjust the shock absorber as described in
Chapter Eleven
Removal/Inspection/Installation
(1984-on)
Removal and installation of the rear shocks is
easier if they are done separately The remaining
unit will support the rear of the bike and maintain
the correct relationship between the top and
230 CHAPTER NINE
REAR SHOCK ABSORBER
(1981-1983)
1. Cap
2. Air valve
3. O-ring
4. Nut
5. Control panel housing
6. Bolt
7. Ring
8. O-ring
9. Cover
10. Control knob
11. Screw
12. Screw
13. O-ring
14. Control cables
15. Air hose
16. O-ring
17. Bolt
18. Bushing
19. Air chamber/shock assembly
20. Cotter pin
21. Solid bushing
22. Bushing
23. Solid bushing
24. Pivot shaft
25. Upper spring seat
26. Spring
27. Spring guide
28. Lower spring seat
29. Circlip
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 231
bottom mounts. If both shock absorbers must be
removed at the same time, cut a piece of wood the
same length as the shock absorber Drill two holes
in the wood the same distance apart as the bolt
holes Install the wood support after one shock
absorber is removed This will allow the bike to be
easily moved around until the shock absorbers are
reinstalled or replaced
1 Place the bike on the centerstand
2 Turn the lower shock adjuster (Figure 49)
clockwise to its softest setting Repeat for the
opposite side
3 Remove the upper and lower nuts and bolts
(Figure 50)
4 Pull the shock off
5 Check the shock absorber body for any signs of
oil leakage Replace the shock if necessary
6 Install by reversing these removal steps Torque
to specifications in Table 2
7 Adjust the shock absorbers as described in
Chapter Eleven
232 CHAPTER NINE
Table 1 REAR SUSPENSION SPECIFICATIONS
Shock absorber
Spring free length
XV700, XV1000
XV750
XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
XV1100
Swing arm side play
1981-1983
1984-on (limit)
Rear wheel runout
Drive chain (XV920 chain drive)
Type
Number of links
Free play
8.8 in. (223 mm)
6.57 in. (167 mm)
6.77 in. (172 mm)
6.60 in. (168.5 mm)
8.5 in. (216.5 mm)
0.008-0.012 in. (0.1-0.3 mm)
0.04 in. (1.0 mm)
0.079 in. (2 mm)
DID 630DS
90
1/4-7/16 in. (7-10 mm)
Table
Item
Rear axle
XV700,XV1000,XV1100
XV750, XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
Pinch bolt
Swing arm pivot shaft
1981-1983
XV750, XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
1984-on
Left-side bolt
Right-side bolt
Right-side nut
Shock absorber bolt
1981-1983
1984-on
At frame
At swing arm
2 REAR SUSPENSION TIGHTENING
ft.-lb.
75
77
80
11
56
58
72
4.0
72
32
14
22
TORQUES
N*m
105
107
110
16
78
80
100
5.5
100
45
20
30
CHAPTER TEN
BRAKES
The brake system consists of either a single or
dual disc unit on the front and a drum brake on the
rear. This chapter describes repair and replacement
procedures for all brake components.
Refer to Table 1 for brake specifications. Table 1
and Table 2 are at the end of the chapter.
FRONT DISC BRAKES
The front disc brake is actuated by hydraulic
fluid controlled by the hand lever on the right-hand
side of the handlebar. As the brake pads wear, the
brake fluid level drops in the master cylinder
reservoir and automatically adjusts for pad wear.
However, brake lever free play must be maintained
as described in Chapter Three.
When working on a hydraulic brake system, it is
necessary that the work area and all tools be
absolutely clean. Any tiny particles of foreign
matter or grit on the caliper assembly or the master
cylinder can damage the components. Also, sharp
tools must not be used inside the caliper or on the
caliper piston. If there is any doubt about your
ability to correctly and safely carry out major
service on the brake components, take the job to a
Yamaha dealer or brake specialist.
When adding brake fluid use only a type clearly
marked DOT 3 or DOT 4 and use it from a sealed
container. Brake fluid will absorb moisture which
greatly reduces its ability to perform correctly, so
it is a good idea to purchase brake fluid in small
containers and discard what is not used.
Whenever any component has been removed
from the brake system the system is considered
"opened" and must be bled to remove air bubbles.
Also, if the brake feels spongy, this usually means
there are air bubbles in the system and it must be
bled. For safe brake operation, refer to Bleeding the
System in this chapter for complete details.
CAUTION
Disc brake components rarely require
disassembly, so do not disassemble
unless absolutely necessary. Do not use
solvents of any kind on the brake
system internal components. Solvents
will cause the seals to swell and distort.
When disassembling and cleaning
brake components (except brake pads),
use new brake fluid as a cleaning agent.
MASTER CYLINDER
Removal/Installation
1. Loosen the nut securing the right-hand mirror
to the handlebar and remove it.
234 CHAPTER TEN
CAUTION
Cover the fuel tank, front fender and
instrument duster with a heavy cloth or
plastic tarp to protect them from
accidental spilling of brake fluid. Wash
any spilled brake fluid off any painted
or plated surfaces immediately, as it
will destroy the finish. Use soapy water
and rinse completely.
2. Pull back the rubber boot and remove the brakelight switch (Figure 1). On 1982 XV920 shaft drive
models, disconnect the electrical connector at the
master cylinder.
3. Dram the master cylinder as follows:
a. Attach a hose to the brake caliper bleed screw
(Figure 2).
b. Place the end of the hose in a clean container
(Figure 3).
c. Open the bleed screw (Figure 2) and operate
the brake lever to drain all brake fluid from
the master cylinder reservoir.
d. Close the bleed screw and disconnect the
hose.
e. Discard the brake fluid.
3. Remove the union bolt securing the brake hose
to the master cylinder (Figure 4). Remove the
brake hose and both copper sealing washers. Cover
the end of the hose to prevent the entry of foreign
matter and moisture. Tie the hose end up to the
handlebar.
4. Remove the front brake lever, if necessary.
5. Remove the 2 clamping bolts and clamp
securing the master cylinder (Figure 5) to the
handlebar and remove the master cylinder.
6. Install by reversing these removal steps; note
the following:
a. Install the master cylinder clamp with the
"UP" mark facing upward (Figure 5).
b. Tighten the upper clamp bolt first, then the
lower bolt.
c. Install the brake hose onto the master
cylinder. Be sure to place a copper sealing
washer on each side of the hose fitting and
install the union bolt. Tighten the union bolt
to 19 ft.-lb. (26 NTTI).
d. Bleed the brake system as described in this
chapter.
Disassembly
Refer to Figures 6-9.
1. Remove the master cylinder as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the screws securing the reservoir cap
and diaphragm. Pour out the remaining brake fluid
and discard it. Never reuse brake fluid.
BRAKES 235
MASTER CYLINDER
(1981-1983 XV750; 1983 XV920)
1. Cover
2. Union bolt
3. Washer
4. Collar (XV750 only)
5. Bracket
6. Washer
7. Bolt
8. Brake hose
9. Screw
10. Cover
11. Diaphragm
12. Piston assembly
13. Housing
14. Bracket
3. Remove the rubber boot from the area where
the hand lever actuates the internal piston.
4. Use snap ring pliers to remove the internal snap
ring from the groove in the master cylinder body.
5. Remove the piston, return valve, spring cup
and return spring.
6. On 1982 XV920 shaft drive models, remove the
fluid level switch from the master cylinder body (if
necessary).
Inspection
1. Clean all parts in fresh brake fluid. Inspect the
cylinder bore and piston contact surfaces for signs
of wear or damage. If either part is less than
perfect, replace it.
2. Check the end of the piston for wear caused by
the hand lever. Replace the entire piston assembly
if any portion of it shows damage.
3. Inspect the pivot hole in the hand lever. If
worn, it must be replaced.
4. Make sure the passages in the bottom of the
brake fluid reservoir are clear. Check the reservoir
cap and diaphragm for damage and deterioration.
Replace if necessary.
5. Inspect the threads in the master cylinder body
where the brake hose union bolt screws in. If the
threads are damaged or partially stripped, replace
the master cylinder body.
6. Check the hand lever pivot lug on the master
cylinder body for cracks. Replace the master
cylinder body if necessary.
NOTE
Yamaha recommends replacing the
piston seals, dust seals, and rubber cap
whenever the master cylinder is
disassembled.
Assembly
1. Soak the new cups in fresh brake fluid for at
least 15 minutes to make them pliable. Coat the
inside of the cylinder with fresh brake fluid prior to
assembling the parts.
CAUTION
When installing the piston assembly,
do not allow the cups to turn inside out
as they will be damaged and allow
brake fluid to leak within the cylinder
bore.
2. Position the spring with the tapered end facing
toward the primary cup. Position the primary cup
so the open end will go in first (toward the spring).
Install the spring, primary cup and piston assembly
into the cylinder.
236 CHAPTER TEN
MASTER CYLINDER
(1981-1983 XV920 CHAIN DRIVE)
1. Piston assembly
2. Housing
3. Diaphragm
4. Cover
5. Screw
6. Bracket
7. Washer
8. Bolt
9. Cover
10. Union bolt
11. Washer
12. Hose joint
13. Brake hose
14. Bracket
15. Bolt
BRAKES 237
MASTER CYLINDER
(1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
1. Piston assembly
2. Housing
3. Switch assembly with O-ring
4. Diaphragm
5. Cover
6. Screw
7. Bracket
8. Washer
9. Bolt
10. Cover
11. Union bolt
12. Washer
13. Hose joint
14. Bolt
15. Brake hose
16. Bracket
238 CHAPTER TEN
MASTER CYLINDER
(1984-ON)
1. Piston assembly
2. Screw
3. Cover
4. Diaphragm
5. Body
6. Bolt
7. Washer
8. Clamp
9. Washer
10. Union bolt
11. Cover
12. Hose
13. Hose
14. Hose joint
15. Hose
3. Install the master cylinder piston assembly in
the order shown in Figures 6-9. Make sure the snap
ring is firmly seated in the groove in the cylinder.
4. Slide on the rubber boot.
5. Install the diaphragm and cover. Do not tighten
the screws at this time as fluid will have to be
added later.
6. Install the brake lever onto the master cylinder
body.
7. Install the master cylinder as described in this
chapter.
FRONT BRAKE
PAD REPLACEMENT
There is no recommended mileage interval for
changing the friction pads on the disc brakes. Pad
wear depends greatly on riding habits and
conditions. The pads should be checked for wear at
the intervals specified in Chapter Three. On 19811982 chain-drive models, check for brake wear
through the caliper inspection window (Figure 10).
Always replace all pads as a set. On dual-disc models, replace both sets of pads (two per disc).
CAUTION
Watch the pads more closely as they
begin to wear. If pad wear happens to
be uneven for some reason, the backing
plate may come in contact with the disc
and cause damage.
The front brake on all models is basically the
same but has different parts and is assembled
differently according to model. To simplify the
service procedures, the brake designs have been
divided into groups and given a type designation.
These groups are not recognized by Yamaha; they
are used here only for ease of presentation.
BRAKES 239
BRAKE CALIPER
(TYPE 1—1981-1983 XV750;
1983XV920)
1. Nut
2. Washer
3. Washer
4. O-ring
5. Sleeve
6. Housing
7. Bleed screw
8. Cap
9. Spring
10. Pivot bolt
11. Caliper retainer
12. Pad spring
13. Brake pads
14. Clip
15. Dust seal
16. Piston seal
17. Piston
18. Washer
19. Bolt
20. Cap
The Type I front brake (Figure 11) is used on
1981-1983 XV750 and 1983 XV920 models, Type
II (Figure 12) is used on XV920 chain drive models,
Type III (Figure 13) is used on 1982 XV920 shaft
drive models, and Type IV (Figure 14) is used on all
1984-on models.
It is not necessary to disassemble the caliper or
open the hydraulic brake fluid lines to replace the
brake pads.
BRAKE CALIPER
(TYPE 11—1981-1982 XV920
CHAIN DRIVE)
1. Bleed screw
2. Cap
3. Indicator cap
4. Housing
5. Pin
6. Bolt
7. Caliper sleeve
8. Caliper boot
9. Piston
10. Piston seal
11. Dust seal
12. Circlip
13. Anti-rattle spring
14. Brake pads
15. Mounting bracket
16. Anti-rattle shim
17. Housing
240 CHAPTER TEN
1. Remove the front wheel as described in Chapter
Eight.
2A. Type I:
a. Pinch the end of the retaining spring with
pliers (Figure 15) to open it; remove the pad
retaining spring.
b. Remove the pin (Figure 16).
c. Remove the brake pads and shim (Figure 17).
IB. Type II:
a. Remove the brake pad securing screw.
b. Remove the brake pads, shim and pad spring.
c. Repeat on the opposite side.
2C. Type III:
a. Remove the cotter pin (Figure 13) from the
backside of the caliper and remove the slide
pin and caliper housing.
b. Remove the pad retaining pin clip and pad
retaining pin from the caliper.
c. Repeat on the opposite side.
2D. Type IV:
a. Remove the brake caliper cover (Figure 18).
b. Remove the 2 circlips.
c. Remove the pad retaining pin and the pad
spring.
d. Remove the brake pads.
1. Mounting bracket
2. Plate
3. Screw
4. Shim
5. Spring clip
6. Housing
7. Bleed screw
8. Cotter pin
9. Pad retaining pin
10. Slide pin
11. Anti-rattle spring
12. Brake pads
13. Spring
14. Piston seal
15. Piston
1. Cap
2. Bleed screw
3. Cotter pin
4. Pad retaining pin
5. Housing
BRAKE CALIPER
(TYPE IV—1984-ON)
6. Piston assembly
7. Brake pads
8. Pad spring
9. Bolt
BRAKE
CALIPER (TYPE III—
1982XV920
SHAFT DRIVE)
15
BRAKES 241
3. Clean the pad recess and the end of the piston
with a soft brush. Do not use solvent, a wire brush
or any hard tool which would damage the cylinder
or piston.
4. Lightly coat the end of the piston with disc
brake lubricant.
5. When new pads are installed in the caliper, the
master cylinder brake fluid level will rise as the
caliper piston is repositioned. Clean the top of the
master cylinder of all dirt and foreign matter.
Remove the cap (Figure 19) and diaphragm.
Slowly push the caliper piston into the caliper.
Constantly check the reservoir to make sure brake
fluid does not overflow. Remove fluid, if necessary,
prior to it overflowing. The piston should move
freely. If it does not, and there is evidence of it
sticking in the cylinder, the caliper should be
removed and serviced as described under Caliper
Rebuilding in this chapter.
6. Push the piston (Figure 20) in to allow room for
the new pads.
7A. Type /.Install the following new parts in order:
a. Brake pads (Figure 21).
b. Pad retainer.
c. Pad spring.
d. Pad retaining pin (Figure 16) and retaining
spring. Make sure the retaining spring engages the groove (Figure 22) in the retaining
pin completely.
e. Repeat on opposite side (dual caliper models).
7B. Type //.Install the following new parts in order:
a. Brake pads and shims.
b. Pad spring.
242 CHAPTER TEN
c. Pad securing screw.
7C. Type ///.Install the following new parts in order:
a. Brake pads and shim.
b. Retaining spring.
c. Pad retaining pin and clip.
d. Pad retaining pin clip. Make sure the retaining
pin clip engages the groove in the retaining pin
completely.
7D. Type /^.Install the following new parts in order:
a. Brake pads.
b. Pad spring.
c. Pad retaining pin.
d. Circlips.
e. Cover (Figure 18).
8. Install the front wheel as described in Chapter
Eight.
9. Spin the front wheel and activate the brake lever
as many times as it takes to refill the cylinder in the
caliper and correctly position the pads.
10. Refill the master cylinder reservoir, if necessary,
to maintain the correct fluid level. Install the diaphragm and top cap.
WARNING
Use brake fluid from a sealed container
clearly marked DOT 3. Other types may
vaporize and cause brake failure. Always use the same brand name; do not
intermix brake fluids, as many brands
are not compatible.
WARNING
Do not ride the motorcylce until you are
sure the brake is operating correctly. If
necessary, bleed the brake as described
in this chapter.
11. Bed the pads in gradually for the first 50 miles
by using only light pressure as much as possible.
Immediate hard application will glaze the new friction pads and greatly reduce the effectiveness of the
brake.
FRONT CALIPER
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figures 11-14.
1. Drain the master cylinder as follows:
a. Attach a hose to the brake caliper bleed screw
(Figure 2).
b. Place the end of the hose in a clean container
(Figure 3).
c. Open the bleed screw (Figure 2) and operate
the brake lever to drain all brake fluid from
the master cylinder reservoir.
d. Close the bleed screw and disconnect the
hose.
e. Discard the brake fluid.
2. Remove the front wheel as described in Chapter
Eight.
3. Remove the union bolt (A, Figure 23) and
copper sealing washers attaching the brake hose to
the caliper. Cap the end of the brake hose and tie it
up to the fender to prevent the entry of moisture
and dirt.
BRAKES 243
4. Remove the bolt(s) (B, Figure 23) securing the
caliper assembly to the lower fork leg and remove
it.
5. Repeat on the opposite side (if so equipped).
6. Installation is the reverse of removal; note the
following:
a. Torque the caliper attaching bolts to
specifications in Table 2.
b. Install the brake hose using new copper
washers.
c. Tighten the union bolt to specifications in
Table 2.
d. Bleed the brakes as described in this chapter.
WARNING
Do not ride the motorcycle until you are
sure that the brakes are operating
properly.
Caliper Rebuilding
If the caliper leaks, the caliper should be rebuilt.
If the piston sticks in the cylinder, indicating
severe wear or galling, the entire unit should be
replaced. Rebuilding a leaky caliper requires
special tools and experience.
Caliper service should be entrusted to a dealer,
motorcycle repair shop or brake specialist.
Considerable money can be saved by removing the
caliper yourself and taking it in for repair.
The factory recommends that the internal seals
of the caliper be replaced every two years.
FRONT BRAKE
HOSE REPLACEMENT
The factory-recommended brake hose
replacement interval is every 4 years, but it is a
good idea to replace brake hoses whenever signs of
cracking, leakage or damage are apparent.
Refer to Figures 11-14.
CAUTION
Cover the front wheel, fender and fuel
tank with a heavy cloth or plastic tarp
to protect them from the accidental
spilling of brake fluid. Wash any spilled
brake fluid off of any painted or plated
surface immediately, as it will destroy
the finish. Use soapy water and rinse
completely.
1. Drain the master cylinder as follows:
a. Attach a hose to the brake caliper bleed screw
(Figure 2).
b. Place the end of the hose in a clean container
(Figure 3).
c. Open the bleed screw (Figure 2) and operate
the brake lever to drain all brake fluid from
the master cylinder reservoir.
d. Close the bleed screw and disconnect the
hose.
e. Discard the brake fluid.
2. Remove the union bolt and copper sealing
washers securing the brake hose to the caliper and
remove it. See A, Figure 23.
3. Disconnect the hose from clamp on the fork
(Figure 24).
4. On models with dual brake calipers, remove the
union bolts securing the hoses to the fitting (A,
Figure 25).
5. Remove the union bolt (Figure 26) securing the
hose to the master cylinder.
6. Remove the brake hoses.
7. Install new brake hoses, copper sealing washers
and union bolts in the reverse order of removal. Be
sure to install the new sealing washers in their
correct positions. Tighten all union bolts to
specifications in Table 2.
8. Refill the master cylinder with fresh brake fluid
clearly marked DOT 3. Bleed the brake as
described in this chapter.
WARNING
Do not ride the motorcycle until you are
sure that the brakes are operating
properly.
244 CHAPTER TEN
FRONT BRAKE DISC
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the front wheel as described in Chapter
Eight.
NOTE
Place a piece of wood in the caliper(s)
(Figure 27) in place of the disc. This
way, if the brake lever is inadvertently
squeezed, the piston will not be forced
out of the cylinder. If this does happen,
the caliper might have to be
disassembled to reseat the piston and
the system will have to be bled. By using
the wood, bleeding the system is not
necessary when installing the wheel.
2. Straighten the lock tabs on the washers and
remove the bolts (Figure 28) securing the disc to
the wheel.
3. Repeat for opposite side (if so equipped).
4. Install by reversing these removal steps. Install
the bolts and tighten to specifications in Table 2.
Install new lockwashers and bend over the lock
tabs after the bolts are tightened.
Inspection
It is not necessary to remove the disc from the
wheel to inspect it. Small marks on the disc are not
important, but radial scratches deep enough to
snag a fingernail reduce braking effectiveness and
increase brake pad wear. If these grooves are
found, the disc should be resurfaced or replaced.
1. Measure the thickness around the disc at several
locations with vernier calipers or a micrometer
(Figure 29). The disc must be replaced if the
thickness at any point is less than the wear limit
specified in Table 1.
2. Make sure the disc bolts are tight prior to
performing this check. Check the disc runout with
a dial indicator as shown in Figure 30. Slowly
rotate the wheel and watch the dial indicator. If the
runout is 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) or greater, the disc
should be resurfaced. If it cannot be repaired
without becoming thinner than specified in Table
1, replace it.
3. Clean the disc of any rust or corrosion and wipe
clean with lacquer thinner. Never use an oil-based
solvent that may leave an oil residue on the disc.
REAR DRUM BRAKE
Disassembly
Refer to Figure 31 for this procedure.
1. Remove the rear wheel as described in Chapter
Nine.
BRAKES 245
REAR BRAKE
1. Brake arm
2. Bolt
3. Indicator plate
4. Brake backing plate
5. Washer
6. Camshaft
7. Brake shoes
8. Brake springs
9. Nut
10. Lockwasher
11. Flat washer
12. Cotter pin
13. Bolt
14. Brake rod
15. Cotter pin
16. Bolt
2. Pull the brake assembly straight up and out ol
the brake drum (Figure 32).
3. Loosen the clamping bolt (Figure 33) and
remove the brake arm. Make note of the alignment
marks prior to disassembly.
NOTE
Before performing Step 4, mark the left
and right shoe positons. If the shoes are
to be reused, they must be installed in
their original position.
4. Pull the brake shoes (Figure 34) and springs up
and off the guide pins and camshaft as shown in
Figure 35.
5. Remove the return springs and separate the
shoes. If the shoes will be reused, place a clean
shop rag around the linings to protect them from
oil and grease.
6. Remove the camshaft and shim.
Inspection
1. Thoroughly clean and dry all parts except the
linings.
246 CHAPTER TEN
2 Check the contact surface of the drum (Figure
36) for scoring If there are grooves deep enough to
snag a fingernail, the drum should be reground and
new shoes fitted If the drum cannot be repaired
without exceeding the diameter specified in Table
1, replace it This type of wear can be avoided to a
great extent if the brakes are disassembled and
thoroughly cleaned after riding the motorcycle in
water, mud or deep sand
NOTE
If oil or grease is on the drum surface,
clean it off with a clean rag soaked in
lacquer thinner—do not use any solvent
that may leave an oil residue
3 Use vernier calipers (Figure 37) to measure the
thickness of each brake shoe They should be
replaced if lining thickness is less than the
minimum specified in Table 1
4 Inspect the linings for embedded foreign
material Dirt can be removed with a stiff wire
brush Check for traces of oil or grease If the
linings are contaminated, they must be replaced as
a set
5 Inspect the cam lobe and pivot pin area of the
shaft for wear and corrosion Minor roughness can
be removed with fine emery cloth
6 Inspect the brake shoe return springs for wear or
distortion If they are stretched, they will not fully
retract the brake shoes from the drum, resulting in
a power-robbing drag on the drums and premature
wear of the linings Replace as necessary and
always replace as a pair
Assembly
1 Assemble the brake by reversing the
disassembly steps, noting the following
2 Grease the camshaft and anchor posts with a
light coat of molybdenum disulfide grease, avoid
getting any grease on the brake plate where the
linings come in contact with it
3 When installing the brake arm onto the brake
camshaft, be sure to align the punch marks on the
brake lever and housing Tighten the bolt securely
4 Insert the brake panel assembly into the brake
drum
5 Install the rear wheel as described in Chapter
Nine
6 Adjust the rear brake as described m Chapter
Three
BRAKES 247
REAR BRAKE
PEDAL ASSEMBLY
Removal/Installation
1. Place the motorcycle on its centerstand.
2. Completely unscrew the brake rod adjustment
nut (Figure 38) and disconnect the rod from the
brake arm. Reinstall the adjustment nut and spring
on the rod (Figure 39) to avoid losing them.
3. Remove the bolt securing the brake pedal to its
shaft (Figure 40) and remove the pedal.
4. Remove the cotter pin and disconnect the brake
actuating arm from the brake pivot shaft. See
Figure 41.
5. Disconect the brake pedal light switch spring
and brake return spring and remove the actuating
arm.
6. Withdraw the brake pivot shaft from the frame.
7. Install by reversing these removal steps, noting
the following:
a. Apply grease to the brake pivot lever prior to
installing the assembly into the frame.
b. Install a new cotter pin through the clevis pin.
Bend the ends of the cotter pin over
completely.
c. Adjust the rear brake pedal as described in
Chapter Three. Adjust the* brake light switch
as described in Chapter Seven.
BLEEDING THE SYSTEM
This procedure is necessary only when the
brakes feel spongy, there is a leak in the hydraulic
system, a component has been replaced or the
brake fluid is being replaced.
1. Flip off the dust cap from the brake bleeder
valve (Figure 42).
2. Connect a length of clear tubing to the bleeder
valve on the caliper. Place the other end of the tube
into a clean container. Fill the container with
enough fresh brake fluid to keep the end
submerged. The tube should be long enough so that
a loop can be made higher than the bleeder valve
to prevent air from being drawn into the caliper
during bleeding. See Figure 43.
CAUTION
Cover the front wheel, fender and fuel
tank with a heavy cloth or plastic tarp
to protect them from the accidental
spilling of brake fluid. Wash any spilled
brake fluid off of any painted or plated
surface immediately, as it will destroy
the finish. Use soapy water and rinse
completely.
248 CHAPTER TEN
3. Clean the top of the master cylinder of all dirt
and foreign matter. Remove the cap and
diaphragm (Figure 44). Fill the reservoir to about
3/8 in. (10 mm) from the top. Install the
diaphragm to prevent the entry of dirt and
moisture.
WARNING
Use brake fluid from a container
clearly marked DOT 3 or DOT 4 only.
Others may vaporize and cause brake
failure. Always use the same brand
name; do not intermix the brake fluids,
as many brands are not compatible.
4. Slowly apply the brake lever several times. Hold
the lever in the applied position and open the
bleeder valve about 1/2 turn. Allow the lever to
travel to its limit. When this limit is reached,
tighten the bleeder screw. As the brake fluid enters
the system, the level will drop in the master
cylinder reservoir. Maintain the level at about 3/8
in. (10 mm) from the top of the reservoir to
prevent air from being drawn into the system.
5. Continue to pump the lever and fill the
reservoir until the fluid emerging from the hose is
completely free of air bubbles. If you are replacing
the brake fluid, continue this procedure until fresh
brake fluid emerges from the hose.
NOTE
If bleeding is difficult, it may be
necessary to allow the fluid to stabilize
for a few hours. Repeat the bleeding
procedure when the tiny bubbles in the
system settle out.
6. Hold the lever in the applied position and
tighten the bleeder valve. Remove the bleeder tube
and install the bleeder valve dust cap.
7. If necessary, add fluid to correct the level in the
master cylinder reservoir. It must be above the
level line.
8. Install the cap and tighten the screws.
9. Test the feel of the brake lever. It should feel
firm and should offer the same resistance each time
it's operated. If it feels spongy, it is likely that air is
still in the system and it must be bled again. When
all air has been bled from the system and the brake
fluid level is correct in the reservoir, double-check
for leaks and tighten all fittings and connections.
WARNING
Before riding the motorcycle, make
certain that the brakes are operating
correctly by operating the lever several
times. Then make the test ride a slow
one at first to make sure the brake is
operating correctly.
BRAKES 249
Table 1 BRAKE
Brake fluid
Front brake
Disc thickness
XV750
XV700, XV920, XV1000, XV1100
Wear limit
XV750
XV920
XV700, XV1000, XV1100
Pad thickness
XV700, XV1000, XV1100, XV750 (1988-on)
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
Pad wear limit
XV700, XV1000, XV1100, XV750 (1988-on)
XV750 (1981-1983)
XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive)
Rear brake
Drum diameter
XV750
XV700, XV920, XV1000, XV1100
Wear limit
XV750
XV700, XV920, XV1000, XV1100
Lining thickness
Lining wear limit
Brake shoe spring free length
SPECIFICATIONS
DOT 3 or DOT 4
0.28 in. (7 mm)
0.20 in. (5 mm)
0.256 in. (6.5 mm)
0.117 in. (4.5 mm )
Not specified
0.217 in. (5.5 mm)
0.224 in. (5.7 mm)
0.433 in. (11 mm)
0.326 in. (6 mm)
0.0197 in. (0.5 mm)
0.047 in. (1.2 mm)
Not specified
0.03 in. (0.8 mm)
7.087 in. (180 mm)
7.874 in. (200 mm)
Not specified
7.91 in. (201 mm)
0.157 in. (4 mm)
0.079 in. (2 mm)
2.7 in. (68 mm)
Table
Brake disc @ hub
Brake caliper @ front fork
XV750, XV920 (chain drive)
XV920 (shaft drive), XV700, XV1000,
Brake hose union bolts
Rear brake arm bolt/nut
2 BRAKE
XV1100
TIGHTENING TORQUES
ft.-lb.
14
19
25
19
14
N-rn
20
26
35
26
20
CHAPTER ELEVEN
SUSPENSION ADJUSTMENT
The front forks must be adjusted to correspond
to rear shock absorber adjustment and vehicle
load. See Tables 1-5. When performing the
adjustments in this chapter, make sure not to
exceed the air pressures specified in Table 6.
Tables 1-6 are at the end of the chapter.
FRONT FORKS
Air Pressure Adjustment
The air pressure in the front forks must be
adjusted for various load conditions. See Tables
1-4.
1. Place the bike on the centerstand and raise the
front wheel off the ground.
2. Attach an air pressure tool to the air fitting
(Figure 1).
NOTE
Figure 1 shows the air pressure tool
attached to an air fitting which routes
air to both tubes on XV920 (shaft drive),
XV1000 and XV1100 models. On all
other models, the air pressure must be
adjusted at each fork tube,
3. Inflate to the desired pressure.
SUSPENSION ADJUSTMENT 251
REAR SHOCK
DAMPING ADJUSTER
CAUTION
Never exceed the maximum allowable
air pressure specified in Table 5. The
pressure difference between the two
forks should be 1.4 psi (0.1 kg/cm ) or
less. On XV920 (shaft drive), XV1000
andXVUOO models, the forks are connected and so air pressure is automatically the same in each fork.
Damping Adjustment
(1982 XV920 Shaft Drive)
These forks are equipped with a damping
adjuster to increase or decrease fork damping. The
damping adjustment must be set to correspond to
front fork air pressure, rear shock absorber
adjustment and vehicle load (see Table 3). To
adjust, turn the damping adjuster (Figure 2) by
hand to the desired setting. Four damping
positions are available. The standard setting is No.
1 (minimum damping). No. 4 provides maximum
damping.
WARNING
Always adjust the damping on each
fork to the same number (position) or
the bike's handling will be unstable.
REAR SHOCK ABSORBERS
The rear shock absorbers must be adjusted to
correspond to front fork adjustment and vehicle
load. See Tables 1-4. On models equipped with an
air adjust shock, do not exceed the specified air
pressures in Table 5.
Air Pressure
1. Place the bike on the centerstand to raise the
rear wheel off the ground.
2. Remove the air valve plastic cap.
3. Attach an air pressure tool to the air fitting
(Figure 3).
4. Innate to the desired pressure. Reinstall the air
cap.
CAUTION
Never exceed the maximum allowable
air pressure specified in Table 5.
Damping Adjustment
1981-1983
The damping adjuster can be turned toward the
"H" to increase damping (suspension becomes
harder) or turned toward the S to decrease
damping (suspension becomes softer). Turn the
damping adjuster by hand to the desired setting.
See Figure 4 and Figure 5.
252 CHAPTER ELEVEN
1984-on XV1000 and XV1100
These shocks are equipped with a damping
adjuster to increase or decrease shock damping.
The damping adjustment must be set to
correspond to front fork air pressure, and vehicle
load (see Table 4). To adjust, turn the damping
adjuster (Figure 6) by hand to the desired setting.
Four damping positions are available. The
standard setting is No. 1 (minimum damping). No.
4 provides maximum damping.
WARNING
Always adjust the damping on each
shock to the same number (position) or
the bike's handling will be unstable.
NOTE
When adjusting the damping, make
sure the adjuster is placed in a click
position. If not, the damping will
automatically be set to the maximum
position (No. 4).
Spring Adjustment (1984-on)
Spring preload on these models can be adjusted
by rotating the cam ring at the base of the
spring—clockwise to increase preload and
counterclockwise to decrease it. See Figure 7
(XV700) or Figure 8 (XV1000 and XVI100).
Both cams must be indexed on the same detent.
Table 1
Load
Rider
Rider plus passenger
Rider plus passenger
and/or luggage
Maximum vehicle
load limit
RECOMMENDED
Front fork
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5.7-17 (0.8-1.2)
SUSPENSION SETTINGS (XV750;
Rear shock absorber
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
14-28 (1-2)
43-57 (3-4)
43-57 (3-4)
57 (4.0)
1983 XV920)
Damper
adjuster
1-3
3,4
4,5
6
SUSPENSION ADJUSTMENT 253
Table
Load
Rider
Rider plus passenger
Rider plus passenger
and/or luggage
Maximum vehicle
load limit
2 RECOMMENDED
Front fork
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
8-14 (0.6-1.0)
11-17 (0.8-1.2)
SUSPENSION SETTINGS (XV920RH, RJ)
Rear shock absorber
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
14-28 (1-2)
28-42 (2-3)
42-57 (3-4)
57 (4.0)
Damper
adjuster
1,2
2,3
4,5
5,6
Table 3 RECOMMENDED
Load
Rider
Rider plus passenger
Rider plus passenger
and/or luggage
Maximum vehicle
load limit
Front fork
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
11-17(0.8-1.2)
SUSPENSION
Damper
adjuster
1
2
3
4
SETTINGS (1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE)
Rear shock absorber
air pressure Damper
psi (kg/cm2) adjuster
14-28 (1-2)
28-43 (2-3)
42-57 (3-4)
57 (4.0)
1,2,3
3,4
4,5
6
Table 4 RECOMMENDED SUSPENSION SETTINGS (XV1000)
Table
Load
Rider
Rider plus passenger
Rider plus passenger
and/or luggage
Maximum vehicle
load limit
5 RECOMMENDED
Front fork
air pressure
psi (Kg/cm2)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
11-17 (0.8-1.2)
SUSPENSION SETTINGS
Rear shock
absorber
damper adjuster
1-2
1-2
3-4
4
(XV1100)
Spring seat
1-2
2-3
3-5
5
Load
Rider
Rider plus passenger
Rider plus passenger
and/or luggage
Maximum vehicle
load limit
Front fork
air pressure
psi (kg/cm2)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
5-7 (0.4-0.8)
11-17(0.8-1.2)
Rear shock absorber
damper adjuster
1
2
3
4
254 CHAPTER ELEVEN
Table 6 SUSPENSION AIR PRESSURE
Front fork
XV750, XV920 (shaft drive), XV1000, XV1100
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
XV920 (chain drive)
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
Rear shock
AIM 981-1983 models
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
Air pressure
5.7 psi (0.4 kg/cm2)
0
17 psi (1.2 kg/cm2)
5.7 psi (0.4 kg/cm2)
0
36 psi (2.5 kg/cm2)
14 psi (1.0 kg/cm2)
7 psi (0.5 kg/cm2)
57 psi (4.0 kg/cm2)
INDEX— Section One
XV700-1100 Virago • 1981-1999
A
Air cleaner 116
Air induction system 138-139
Alternator 147-150
B
Battery 22-24
Brakes 233-249
c Carburetor adjustments 50-51
Carburetor rejetting 131
Carburetors 116-124
Chain 32,221-223
Charging system 145-147
Checks, routine 20-21
Choke cable
adjustment 130-131
replacement 133-134
Clutch 100-106
Clutchcable 106-107
Clutch hub and drive chain assembly . . . 221-223
Coasting enrichener system 125-126
Computerized monitor system (XV920J) . . . 182
Crankcase breather system 137-138
D
Drive sprocket (chain-drive models) 107
E
Electrical system 145-189
alternator 147-150
charging system 145-147
ignition system 151-159
ruses 186-187
horn 186
lighting system 179-180,186
starting system 161-178
switches 180-182
voltage regulator/rectifier 150-151
Engine
break-in 91
crankcase 85-88
crankshaft and connecting rods 88-90
cylinder 70-72
cylinder heads and camshafts 60-67
drive gear, middle 90
neutral switch 81
oil level switch 80
oillines 79-80
oil pressure relief valve 78-79
oil pump/strainer 75-78
pistons and piston rings 72-75
primary drive gear 84-85
removal/installation 57-59
rocker arm assemblies 69-70
timing gears 81-84
valves and valve components 67-69
Exhaust system . . , ,. 139-142
F
Final drive shaft unit *' 223-224
Fork, front 207-214
Front disc brakes 233
caliper rebuilding 243
caliper removal/installation 242-243
disc 244
hose replacement 244
pad replacement 238-242
Fuel filter 135
Fuel level measurement 127-130
Fuelpump 135-136,182-185
Fuel shutoff valve 134-135
Fueltank 136-137
Fuel warning light system 185
Fuses 186-187
H
Handlebar 201-203
Horn 186
Hub,front 193-196
Hub, rear 219-221
I
Ignition coil 155,158-159
Ignition system 151-159
256 INDEX
Ignition timing 48
Ignitorunit 155
L
Lighting system 179-180,186
Lubrication 24-34
M
Maintenance
air cleaner removal/installation 40-41
clutch adjustment 38
crankcase breather hose 41
disc brake fluid change 36
disc brake fluid level 35
disc brake lines and seals 35
disc brake pad wear 36
drive chain 34
exhaust system 40
front brake lever adjustment 36-37
front suspension check 42
fuel and vacuum line inspection 40
fuel filter 40
fuel shutoff valve/filter 39
inspection/replacement 34
intervals 21
lubrication . r . 35
nuts, bolts and other fasteners 43
rear brake pedal free play 37
rear brake pedal height adjustment 37
rear brake shoe wear 37
rear suspension check 43
starter brushes 42
steering head bearings 42
steering play 42
tension check/adjustment 34-35
throttle operation/adjustment 39
wheel bearings 42
Master cylinder 233-238
Mixture control valve 138-139
o Oil level switch 80
Oil lines 79-80
Oil pressure relief valve 78-79
Oil pump/strainer 75-78
P
Pickup coil 159-160
Pressure sensor 161
R
Rear brake pedal assembly 247
Rear drum brake 244-246
Rear shock absorbers 229-231,251-252
s Shift drum and forks 114
Shift mechanism 107-109
Shock absorbers, rear 229-231,251
Sparkplugs 19,46-48,160-161
Starter gears 90-91
Starting system 161-178
Steeringhead 204-207
Suspension adjustment
frontfork 250-251
rear shock absorbers 251-252
Swing arm 224-229
Switches 180-182
T
Throttle cable adjustment 132-133
Tires 21-22,198-201
Tools
basic hand tools 5-8
tune-up and troubleshooting tools 8-9
Transmission 109-114
Tune-up
air cleaner element 44
carburetor idle mixture 48
carburetor idle speed adjustment 51-52
carburetor synchronization 50-51
compression test 45-46
ignition timing 48
reading spark plugs 48
spark plug gapping and installing 47-48
spark plug removal/installation 47
spark plug selection 46-47
tools 8-9
valve clearance adjustment 44-45
V
Valve clearance adjustment 44-45
Voltage regulator/rectifier 150-151
w Wheels 21-22,190-198,216-219
Wiring diagrams 257-277
WIRING DIAGRAMS
258 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1981-1983 XV750
AND 1983 XV920
WIRING DIAGRAMS 259
260 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1981-1982 XV920 CHAIN DRIVE
WIRING DIAGRAMS 261
262 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1982 XV920 SHAFT DRIVE
WIRING DIAGRAMS 263
264 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1984-1985 XV700
WIRING DIAGRAMS 265
266 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1984-1985 XV1000
WIRING DIAGRAMS 267
268 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1986-1987 XV700
WIRING DIAGRAMS 269
270 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1986-1987 XV1100
WIRING DIAGRAMS 271
272 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1988-1990 XV750
WIRING DIAGRAMS 273
274 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1988-1990 XV1100
WIRING DIAGRAMS 275
276 WIRING DIAGRAMS
XV1100(1992-ONU.K.)
WIRING DIAGRAMS 277
Color Code
B
W
R
Y
L
G
0
P
Br Gr Ch Dg Sb B/W
B/Y
L/B
L/W
L/Y
R/B
R/W
R/Y
R/G
Y/R
G/Y
W/G
Br/W
Black
White
Red
Yellow
Blue
Green
Orange
Pink
Brown
Gray
Chocolate
Dark green
Sky blue
Black While
Black/Yellow
Blue/Black
Blue/White
Blue/Yellow
Red/Black
Red/White
Red/Yellow
Red/Green
Yellow/Red
Green/Yellow
White/Green
Brown/White
278 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1991-ONXV750
WIRING DIAGRAMS 279
Color Code
B
W
R
G
L
Y
0
P
Br Gr Ch Sb Dg B/W
B/R
B/Y
Black
White
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Orange
Pink
Brown
Gray
Chocolate
Sky blue
Dark green
Black White
Black/Red
Black/Yellow
L/B
L/W
L/Y
L/R
R/B
R/W
R/G
R/Y
Br/W
Br/Y
Y/R
Y/G
W/G
Blue/Black
Blue/White
Blue/Yellow
Blue/Red
Red/Black
Red/White
Red/Green
Red/Yellow
Brown/White
Brown/Yellow
Yellow/Red
Yellow/Green
White/Green
280 WIRING DIAGRAMS
1991-ONXV1100
WIRING DIAGRAMS 281
B
W
R
G
L
Y
0
P
Br Gr Ch Sb Dg Color Code
Black
While
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Orange
Pink
Brown
Gray
Chocolate
Sky blue
Dark green
O O
LIB
L/W
L/Y
L/R
R/B
TO
R/G
R/Y
Br/W
Br/Y
Y/R
Y/G
W/G
B/W
B/R
B/Y
Blue/Black
Blue/White
Blue/Yellow
Blue/Red
Red/Black
Red/White
Red/Green
Red/Yellow
Brown/White
Brown/Yellov
Yellow/Red
Yellow/Green
White/Green
Black/White
Black/Red
Black/Yellow
CLYMER.
YAMAHA
Section Two: XV535 Virago • 1987-2003
TheXV700-1100 Virago 1981-1997 models
are covered in Section One of this book.
Chapter One
General Information
Chapter Two
Troubleshooting
Chapter Three
Perodic Lubrication, Maintenance and Tune-up
Chapter Four
Engine
Chapter Five
Clutch and Transmission
Chapter Six
Fuel, Emission Control and Exhaust Systems
Chapter Seven
Electrical System
Chapter Eight
Front Suspension and Steering
Chapter Nine
Rear Suspension and Final Drive
Chapter Ten
Brakes
Index
Wiring Diagrams
CONTENTS— Section Two
XV535 Virago • 1987-2003
QUICK REFERENCE DATA VII
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INFORMATION 1
Parts replacement
CHAPTER TWO
TROUBLESHOOTING 4
Emergency troubleshooting Engine performance
Engine starting Ignition system
CHAPTER THREE
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 6
Routine checks New battery installation
Maintenance intervals Periodic lubrication
Tires and wheels Periodic maintenance
Battery Tune-up
CHAPTER FOUR
ENGINE 28
Engine principles Oil strainer
Servicing engine in frame Primary drive gear
Engine Camshaft drive chain and damper
Cylinder heads and camshafts Crankcase
Valves and valve components Crankshaft and connecting rods
Rocker arm assemblies Middle drive gear
Pistons and piston rings Starter clutch and reduction gears
Oil pump Break-in
CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 78
Clutch Transmission
Clutch cable Shift dram and forks
Shift mechanism
CHAPTER SIX
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 100
Carburetor Fuel pump
Carburetor adjustments Fuel tank(s)
Coasting enricher system Crankcase breather system
Fuel level measurement Evaporative emission control
Throttle cable replacement Air injection system
Fuel shutoff valve Exhaust system
Fuel filter
CHAPTER SEVEN
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 126
Charging system Lighting system
Alternator Switches
Voltage regulator/rectifier Fuel pump testing
Ignition system Horn
Starting system Fuses
CHAPTER EIGHT
FRONT SUSPENSION AND STEERING 154
Front wheel Steering head
Front hub Front fork
Handlebar
CHAPTER NINE
REAR SUSPENSION AND FINAL DRIVE 171
Rear wheel Rear swing arm
Rear hub Shock absorbers
Shaft drive
CHAPTER TEN
BRAKES 181
Front disc brake Front brake hose replacement
Master cylinder Front brake disc
Front brake pad replacement Rear brake pedal assembly
Front caliper
INDEX 195
WIRING DIAGRAMS 198
QUICK REFERENCE DATA
XV535
TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE (COLD}
Load
Up to 198 1b. (90 kg)
Front
Rear
198-max. Ib. (90-max kg)*
Front
Rear
High-speed riding
Front
Rear
* Maximum load: 49-state 507 Ib. (230 kg
psi (kg/cm2)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
36 (2.5)
28 (2.0)
36 (2.5)
.), Calif. 505 Ib. (229 kg.), U.K. 501 Ib. (227 kg.).
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
I tem
Engine oil
40° F (5° C) and above
60° F (15° C) and below
Brake fluid
Battery refilling
Fork oil
Control cables and pivot points
Final drive unit
Type
Yamalube 4 or SAE 20W/40
Yamalube 4 or SAE 10W/30
DOT 3
Distilled water
SAE10W
SAE 10W/30 motor oil
Hypoid gear oil SAE 80 GL-4 or SAE 80W/90
APPROXIMATE REFILL CAPACITIES
Item
Engine oil
With filter change
Without filter change
Engine rebuild
Front fork
Final gear case
Quantity
3.0 U.S. qt. (2.8 L, 2.5 Imp. qt.)
2.7 U.S. qt. (2.6 L, 2.3 Imp. qt.)
3.4 U.S. qt. (3.2 L, 2.8 Imp. qt.)
7.71 U.S. oz. (228 cc, 8.03 Imp. oz.)
0.20 U.S. qt. (0.19 L, 0.17 Imp. qt.)
TUNE-
Ignition timing
Valve clearance (cold)
Intake
Exhaust
Spark plug
Type
U.S.
U.K.
Gap
Idle speed
Compression pressure (cold at sea level)
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
UP SPECIFICATIONS
Fixed
0.003-0.005 in. (0.07-0.12 mm)
0.005-0.007 in. (0.12-0.17 mm)
NGK BP7ES, ND W22EP-U
NGK BPR7ES, ND W22EPR-U
0.028-0.031 in. (0.7-0.8 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
156 psi (11 kg/cm2,1,100 kPa)
142 psi (10 kg/cm2,1,000 kPa)
171 psi (12 kg/cm2,1,200 kPa)
VII
REPLACEMENT BULBS
Item
Headlight
Tall/brakelight
U.S.
U.K.
Front running light (U.S.)
Auxiliary light (U.K.)
Front flasher
U.S.
U.K.
Rear flasher
U.S.
U.K.
Meter light
Indicator lights
High beam
All others
Voltage/Wattage
12V 60W/55W
12V 8W/27W
12V5W/21W
12V8W/27W
12V 4W
12V 8W/27W
12V 21W
12V 27W
12V 21W
12V 3.4W
12V1.7W
12V 3.4W
FUSES
Main
Headlight
Signal
Ignition
Spare
Amperage
20A
10A
10A
10A
20A&10A
VIII
INTRODUCTION
This portion of this detailed and comprehensive manual
covers the U.S. and the U.K. models of the Yamaha
XV535 V-twins from 1987-on.
The expert text gives complete information on maintenance, tune-up, repair and overhaul. Hundreds of photos
and drawings guide you through every step. The book
includes all you will need to know to keep your Yamaha
running right.
A shop manual is a reference. You want to be able to
find information fast. As in all Clymer books, this one is
designed with you in mind. All chapters are thumb tabbed.
Important items are extensively indexed at the rear of the
book. All procedures, tables, photos, etc., in this manual
are for the reader who may be working on the bike for the
first time or using this manual for the first time. All the
most frequently used specifications and capacities are
summarized in the Quick Reference Data pages at the
front of the manual.
Keep the book handy in your tool box. It will help you
better understand how your bike runs, lower repair costs
and generally improve your satisfaction with the Yamaha.
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INFORMATION
This detailed, comprehensive manual covers the
U.S. and the U.K. models of the Yamaha XV535 Virago V-twins from 1987-on. Table 1 lists engine,
chassis and primary identification numbers for
models covered in this manual and Table 2 lists the
general specifications.
Table 1 and Table 2 are found at the end of the
chapter.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins.
If a specific procedure is not included
in this chapter, refer to Chapter One
at the front of this manual for service
procedures.
PARTS REPLACEMENT
Yamaha makes frequent changes during a model
year, some minor, some relatively major. When you
order parts from the dealer or other parts distributors, always order by frame and engine numbers.
The frame serial number and vehicle identification
number (VIN) is stamped on the right-hand side of
the steering stem (Figure 1). The engine number is
stamped on a raised pad on the right-hand side of
the crankcase (Figure 2) by the rear cylinder. The
carburetor number is on the left-hand side of the
NO. 1 carburetor body just below the top cover.
Write the numbers down and carry them with
you. Compare new parts to old before purchasing
them. If they are not alike, have the parts manager
explain the difference to you. Table 1 lists engine
and frame serial numbers for the models covered in
this manual.
NOTE
If your Yamaha was purchased secondhand and you are not sure of its model
CHAPTER ONE
year, use the bike's engine serial number and vehicle identification number
(VIN) and the information in Table 1.
Read your bike's engine serial number. Then compare the number with
the engine and serial numbers listed
in Table 1. If your bike's serial number is listed in Table 1, cross-reference the number with the adjacent
model number and year.
Table
Model Numbers and Year
1987
XV535T
XV535TC
1988
XV535U
XV535UC
1989
XC535W
XC535WC
1990**
XV535A
XV535AC
1993
XV535E
XV535EC
1994
XV535F
XV535FC
XV535SF
XV535SFC
1995
XV535G
XV535GC
XV535SG
XV535SGC
1996
XV535H 3JCS (except California)
XV535HC 3JCT (California)
XV535SH 3JCN (except California)
XV535SHC 3JCP (California)
1997
1998
XV535K
XV535KC
1999
XV535L
XV535LC
2000
XV535M
XV535MC
Models Number and Year
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992-1997
1998-2003
'Primary identification nubtner.
"The XV535 was not available in the U.S.
1 ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER
U.S. Models
Starting Engine Number
2GV-000101
2JU-000101
2GV-038101
3BG-000101
2UJ-020101
3BG-002101
3JC-007101
3JC-002101
3JC-014101
3JC-020101
3JC-021101
3JC-025101
3JC-028101
3JC-033101
3JC-036101
3JC-039101
3JC-041101
3JC-047101
3JC-050101
3JC-053101
3JC-055101
3JC-060101
N/A
3JC-065097*
3JC-065689*
3JC-065951*
3JC-066007*
N/A
N/A
U.K. Models
Starting Engine Number
2YL-003101
2YL-005101
2YL-0022101
2YL-0022101
2YL-
N/A
in 1991 and 1992.
2
GENERAL INFORMATION
Table 2 GENERAL
Engine type
Bore and stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Ignition
Carburetion
Air filter
Fuel type
Fuel tank capacity
1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U. K. models
Total
Reserve
1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U. K. models
Total
Reserve
Clutch
Transmission
Transmission ratios
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Final reduction ratio
Starting system
Battery
Charging system
Chassis dimensions
Overall length
Overall width
Overall height
Seat height
Wheelbase
Ground clearance
Basic weight
U.S. models
1987-1989
49-State
California
1990-on
49-state
California
U.K. models
Steering head angle
Trail
Front suspension
Telescopic fork
Travel
Rear suspension
Travel
Front tire
Rear tire
1987-1989
1990-on
SPECIFICATIONS
Air-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, V-twin
2.992 x 2.323 in. (76 x 59 mm)
32.64 cu. in. (535 cc)
9:1
Transistor control ignition (TCI)
2 Mikuni carburetors
Dry type element
Gasoline: regular unleaded
2.3 U.S. gal. (8.6 L, 1.9 Imp. gal.)
0.5 U.S. gal. (2.0 L, 0.4 Imp. gal.)
3.6 U.S. gal. (13.5 L, 3.0 Imp. gal.)
0.7 U.S. gal. (2.5 L, 0.5 Imp. gal.)
Wet, multi-plate
5 speeds, constant mesh
2.714
1.900
1.458
1.166
0.966
3.071
Electric starter only
12 volt/12 amp hour
AC alternator
87.0 in. (2,210 mm)
32.1 in. (815 mm)
43.3 in. (1,100 mm)
27.6 in. (700 mm)
59.5 in. (1,511 mm)
5.7 in. (145 mm)
408 Ib. (185 kg)
4101b. (186 kg)
430 Ib. (195 kg)
432 Ib. (196 kg)
4151b. (188 kg)
31°
4.8 in. (122 mm)
5.9 in. (150 mm)
Dual shock
3.3 in. (85 mm)
3.00S-19 4PR
140/90-15 70S
140/90-15M/C 70S
3
CHAPTER TWO
TROUBLESHOOTING
Diagnosing mechanical problems is relatively
simple if you use orderly procedures and keep a few
basic principles in mind. The first step in any troubleshooting procedure is to define the symptoms as
closely as possible and then localize the problem.
Subsequent steps involve testing and analyzing
those areas which could cause the symptoms. A
haphazard approach may eventually solve the problem, but it can be very costly in terms of wasted time
and unnecessary parts replacement.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins. If
a specific procedure is not included in
this chapter, refer to Chapter Two at the
front of this manual for service procedures.
overheat the starter. Check for obvious problems
even before getting out your tools. Go down the
following list step-by-step. Do each one. If the vehicle still will not start, refer to the appropriate
troubleshooting procedures which follow in this
chapter.
1. Is there fuel in the tank? On models without a
sub-fuel tank, raise the seat and open the main fuel
tank filler cap (Figure 1). On models with a sub-fuel
tank, open the sub-fuel tank filler cap (Figure 2) and
rock the bike from side to side. Listen for fuel
sloshing around.
WARNING
Do not use an open flame to check in the
tank. A serious explosion is certain to
result.
EMERGENCY TROUBLESHOOTING
When the vehicle is difficult to start, or won't start
at all, it does not help to wear down the battery and
2. On models so equipped, is the fuel shutoff valve
in the ON position?
3. Make sure the fuel reserve switch (A, Figure 3)
is in the RES position. If there is any doubt about the
TROUBLESHOOTING
fuel pump operation, refer to Chapter Seven in this
section of the manual.
4. Make sure the engine kill switch (B, Figure 3) is
not stuck in the OFF position or that the wire is not
broken and shorting out.
5. Are the spark plug wires (Figure 4) on tight?
Remove the engine covers and push both on and
slightly rotate them to clean the electrical connection
between the plugs and the connectors.
6. Is the choke lever (Figure 5) in the correct position? Push the lever down for a cold engine and up
for a warm engine.
ENGINE STARTING
Follow the Engine Starting procedure in Chapter
Two in front of this manual noting that the XV535
is equipped with an Ignitor Unit and not a CDI unit.
ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Follow the Engine Performance procedure in
Chapter Two in front of this manual noting that the
XV535 is equipped with a fuel fitter.
IGNITION SYSTEM
All XV535 models are equipped with the Transistor Control Ignition system. This system consists of
both a pickup unit and an ignitor unit and uses no
breaker points or other moving parts. It is non-adjustable, and if any problems arise that you believe
to be related to the ignition system, refer to Chapter
Seven for ignition system troubleshooting procedures.
5
CHAPTER THREE
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE
AND TUNE-UP
Your bike can be cared for by two methods: preventive and corrective maintenance. Because a motorcycle is subjected to tremendous heat, stress and
vibration—even in normal use—preventive maintenance prevents costly and unexpected corrective
maintenance. When neglected, any bike becomes
unreliable and actually dangerous to ride. When
properly maintained, the Yamaha XV535 is one of
the most reliable bikes available and will give many
miles and years of dependable and safe riding. By
maintaining a routine service schedule as described
in this chapter, costly mechanical problems and unexpected breakdowns can be prevented.
The procedures presented in this chapter can be
easily performed by anyone with average mechanical skills. Table 1 presents a factory recommended
maintenance schedule. Tables 1-5 are at the end of
the chapter.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins. If
a specific procedure is not included in
this chapter, refer to Chapter Three at
the front of this manual for service procedures.
ROUTINE CHECKS
The following simple checks should be carried out
at each fuel stop.
Engine Oil Level
Refer to Engine Oil Level Check under Periodic
Lubrication in this chapter.
Tire Pressure
Tire pressure must be checked with the tires cold.
Correct tire pressure depends a lot on the load you
are carrying. See Table 2.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP
Battery
Remove the frame right-hand side cover and
check the battery electrolyte level. The level must be
between the upper and lower level marks on the case
(Figure 1).
For complete details see Battery Removal/Installation and Electrolyte Level Check in this chapter.
MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
The services and intervals shown in Table 1 are
recommended by the factory. Strict adherence to
these recommendations will insure long life from
your Yamaha. If the bike is run in an area of high
humidity, the lubrication services must be done more
frequently to prevent possible rust damage.
For convenient maintenance of your motorcycle,
most of the services shown in Table 1 are described
in this chapter. Those procedures which require
more than minor disassembly or adjustment are covered elsewhere in the appropriate chapter. The Contents and Index can help you locate a particular
service procedure.
TIRES AND WHEELS
Tire Pressure
Tire pressure should be checked and adjusted to
accommodate rider and luggage weight. A simple,
accurate gauge (Figure 2) can be purchased for a
few dollars and should be carried in your motorcycle
tool kit. The appropriate tire pressures are shown in
Table 2.
NOTE
After checking and adjusting the air
pressure, make sure to reinstall the air
valve cap. The cap prevents small pebbles and/or dirt from collecting in the
valve stem that could allow air leakage
or result in incorrect tire pressure readings.
BATTERY
CAUTION
If it becomes necessary to remove the
battery breather tube from the frame
when performing any of the following
procedures, make sure to route the tube
correctly during installation to prevent
acid from spilling on parts.
Removal/Installation and
Electrolyte Level Check
The battery is the heart of the electrical system. It
should be checked and serviced as indicated (Table
1). The majority of electrical system troubles can be
attributed to neglect of this vital component.
In order to correctly service the electrolyte level
it is necessary to remove the battery from the frame.
7
CHAPTER THREE
The electrolyte level should be maintained between
the two marks on the battery case. If the electrolyte
level is low, it's a good idea to completely remove
the battery so that it can be thoroughly cleaned,
serviced, and checked.
1. Remove the seat(s).
2. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K. models, perform the following:
a. Unhook both fuel lines (A, Figure 3) from the
clamps on top of the battery cover.
b. Remove the battery cover (B, Figure 3).
3. Unhook the battery strap (A, Figure 4).
4. Disconnect the battery vent tube (B, Figure 4).
5. Pull the battery part way up out of the battery box
to gain access to the battery cable attachment screws.
6. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable (A,
Figure 5) from the battery.
7. Disconnect the positive (+) battery cable (B, Figure 5).
WARNING
I Protect your eyes, skin and clothing. If
electrolyte gets into your eyes, flush
your eyes thoroughly with clean water
and get prompt medical attention.
CAUTION
Be careful not to spill battery electrolyte
on painted or polished surfaces. The
liquid is highly corrosive and will damage the finish. If it is spilled, wash it off
immediately with soapy water and thoroughly rinse with clean water.
8. Lift the battery out of the battery box and remove
it.
9. Rinse the battery off with clean water and wipe
dry.
8
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP
10. Remove the caps (Figure 6) from the battery
cells and add distilled water. Never add electrolyte
(acid) to correct the level. Fill only to the upper
battery level mark (Figure 7).
11. After the level has been corrected and the battery
allowed to stand for a few minutes, check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell with a
hydrometer (Figure 8). Follow the manufacturer's
instructions for reading the instrument. See Battery
Testing in Chapter Three in the front section of this
manual.
CAUTION
If distilled water has been added to a
battery in freezing or near freezing
weather, add it to the battery, dress
warmly and then ride the bike for a
minimum of 30 minutes. This will help
mix the water thoroughly into the electrolyte in the battery. Distilled water is
lighter than electrolyte and will float on
top of the electrolyte if it is not mixed in
properly. If the water stays on the top, it
may freeze and fracture the battery
case, ruining the battery.
12. After the battery has been refilled, recharged or
replaced, install it by reversing these removal steps
while noting the following:
a. Position the battery in the case with the negative (-) terminal on the right-hand side of the
bike.
b. Coat the battery terminals with a thin layer of
dielectric grease to retard corrosion and decomposition of the terminals.
c. Attach the positive (+) cable first then the
negative (-) cable.
CAUTION
Make sure to reconnect the battery
breather tube (B, Figure 4) to the battery. If the tube was removed with the
battery, make sure to route it in its correct position through the frame.
NEW BATTERY INSTALLATION
When replacing the old battery with a new one, be
sure to charge it completely (specific gravity, 1.2601.280) before installing it in the bike. Failure to do
so, or using the battery with a low electrolyte level
will permanently damage the battery. When pur9
10 CHAPTER THREE
chasing a new battery, the correct battery capacity
for models covered in this manual is 12 volts/12 amp
hours.
NOTE
Recycle your old battery. When you replace the old battery, be sure to turn in
the old battery at that time. The lead
plates and the plastic case can be recycled Most motorcycle dealers will accept your old battery in trade when you
purchase a new one, but if they will not,
many automotive supply stores certainly will. Never place an old battery
in your household trash since it is illegal, in most states, to place any acid or
lead (heavy metal) contents in landfills.
There is also the danger of the battery
being crushed in the trash truck and
spraying acid on the truck operator.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION
Engine Oil Level Check
Engine oil level is checked through the inspection
window located at the bottom of the crankcase cover
on the right-hand side (Figure 9).
1. Place the bike on level ground on the sidestand.
Start the engine and let it reach normal operating
temperature.
2. Stop the engine and allow the oil to settle.
3. Hold the bike level in the upright position.
4. The oil level should be between the maximum and
minimum window marks (Figure 9). If necessary,
remove the oil fill cap (Figure 10) and add the
recommended oil listed in Table 3 to raise the oil to
the proper level. Do not overfill.
Engine Oil and Filter Change
The factory-recommended oil and filter change
interval is specified in Table 1. This assumes that the
motorcycle is operated in moderate climates. The
time interval is more important than the mileage
interval because combustion acids, formed by gasoline and water vapor, will contaminate the oil even
if the motorcycle is not run for several months. If a
motorcycle is operated under dusty conditions, the
oil will get dirty more quickly and should be changed
more frequently than recommended.
Use only a detergent oil with an API rating of SE
or SF. The quality rating is on the label of the bottle
(Figure 11). Try always to use the same brand of oil.
Use of oil additives is not recommended. Refer to
Table 3 for correct weight of oil to use under different temperatures.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 11
To change the engine oil and filter you will need
the following:
a. Drain pan.
b. Funnel.
c. Wrench or socket to remove drain plug.
d. 3 quarts of oil.
e. Oil filter element.
NOTE
Never dispose of motor oil in the trash, on
the ground, or down a storm drain. Many
service stations accept used motor oil and
waste haulers provide curbside used motor
oil collection. Do not combine other fluids
with motor oil to be recycled. To locate a
recycler, contact the American Petroleum
Institute (API) at www.recycleoU.org.
There are a number of ways to discard the used oil
safely. The easiest way is to pour it from the drain
pan into a gallon plastic bleach, juice or milk container for recycling or disposal. Do not discard oil in
your household trash or pour it onto the ground.
1. Place the motorcycle on the sidestand.
2. Start the engine and run it until it is at normal
operating temperature, then turn it off.
3. Place a drip pan under the crankcase and remove
the drain plug (Figure 12).
4. Remove the oil filler cap (Figure 10); this will
speed up the flow of oil.
5. Allow the oil to drain for at least 15-20 minutes.
NOTE
Before removing the oil filter cover,
thoroughly clean off all dirt and oil
around it.
6. Remove the bolts securing the filter cover
(Figure 13) to the crankcase.
7. Remove the cover and the filter (Figure 14).
Discard the oil filter and clean out the cover and filter
housing with cleaning solvent. Dry parts thoroughly.
8. Inspect the O-ring in the end of the cover (Figure
15) and replace if necessary.
NOTE
Prior to installing the cover, clean off
the mating surface of the crankcase—do
not allow any dirt to enter the oil system.
9. Position the new oil filter with the shoulder end
(Figure 16) going in first and install the filter.
10. Reinstall the filter cover to the crankcase and
tighten the bolts to 7.2 ft.-lb. (10 N.m).
11. Install the drain plug and gasket and tighten to
31 ft.-lb. (43 N.m).
12 CHAPTER THREE
12. Fill the crankcase with the correct weight (Table
3) and quantity of oil (Table 4).
13. Screw the oil filler cap on securely.
14. Start the engine and allow it to idle. Check for
leaks.
15. Turn the engine off and allow the oil to settle.
Check for correct oil level (Figure 9); adjust if
necessary.
Front Fork Oil Change
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
CAUTION
If the bike has been subjected to frequent
rain or moisture or if the bike has been
in storage for any period of time, moisture may have passed by the trim cap
causing rust. Any rust must be removed
prior to removing any upper fork parts
during this procedure. If any rust particles drop down into the fork assembly
the fork must be removed, disassembled
and thoroughly cleaned prior to refilling with fresh fork oil. After removing
the trim cap, if rust is present, scrape it
clean, blow the rust residue out with
compressed air and apply WD-40, or
equivalent, then remove the stopper ring
and spring seat.
2. Remove the fork trim cap (A, Figure 17).
3. Loosen the top fork tube pinch bolt (B, Figure
17).
NOTE
Figure 18 is shown with the fork assembly removed for clarity. It is not necessary to remove the fork assembly for this
procedure.
4. The spring seat and spring are held in position by
a stopper ring. To remove the stopper ring, have an
assistant depress the spring seat (A, Figure 18) using
a suitable size drift.
5. Remove the stopper ring (B, Figure 18) from its
groove in the fork with a small screwdriver. Discard
the stopper ring as a new one must be installed.
6. When the stopper ring is removed, release tension
from the spring seat and remove it.
7. Place a drip pan under the fork and remove the
drain screw and washer (Figure 19). Allow the oil
to drain for at least 5 minutes.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 13
WARNING
Do not allow the fork oil to come in
contact with any of the brake components.
8. Place a shop cloth around the top of the fork tube,
the handlebar and the upper fork bridge to catch
remaining fork oil while the fork spring is removed.
Withdraw the fork spring from the fork tube.
9. With both of the bike's wheels on the ground, have
an assistant steady the bike. Then push the front end
down and allow it to return. Perform this procedure
until all the oil is expelled from the fork tube.
10. Install the drain screw and washer (Figure 19)
and tighten securely.
11. Fill the fork tube with the correct amount (Table
4) and weight (Table 3) of fork oil.
NOTE
In order to measure the correct amount
of fluid, use a baby bottle. These bottles
have measurements in fluid ounces (oz.)
and cubic centimeters (cc) imprinted on
the side.
NOTE
Figure 20 is shown with the fork assembly removed for clarity. It is not necessary to remove the fork assembly for this
procedure.
12. Position the fork spring with the narrow pitch
coils toward the top and install the fork spring (Figure 20).
13. Inspect the O-ring seal (Figure 21) on the spring
seat; replace if necessary.
CAUTION
Always install a new stopper ring during assembly. This is necessary in order
to hold the spring seat securely in place.
14. Install the spring seat. Have an assistant compress the spring seat and install a new stopper ring.
Make sure the stopper ring seats fully in the groove
in the fork tube before releasing the spring seat.
15. Install the trim cap.
16. Repeat Steps 2-15 for the opposite side.
17. Road test the bike and check for oil leaks.
PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
Front Disc Brake
The hydraulic brake fluid in the disc brake master
cylinder should be checked every month. The disc
brake pads should be checked at the intervals specified in Table 1. Replacement is described in Chapter
Ten.
Disc Brake Fluid Level
The brake fluid on these models is visually monitored by observing the fluid level in the reservoir
(Figure 22). The level is corrected by adding fresh
brake fluid.
1. The fluid level in the reservoir should be maintained above the lower level line (Figure 22). If
necessary, correct the level by adding fresh brake
fluid. Remove the cover screws and cover (Figure
23) and lift the diaphragm out of the housing.
WARNING
Use brake fluid from a sealed container
and clearly marked DOT 3 only (specified for disc brakes). Others may vaporize and cause brake failure. Do not
14 CHAPTER THREE
intermix different brands or types of
brake fluid as they may not be compatible Do not intermix a sihcone based
(DOT 5) brake fluid as it can cause
brake component damage leading to
brake system failure
CAUTION
Be careful not to spill brake fluid on
painted or plated surfaces as it will destroy the surface Wash immediately
with soapy water and thoroughly rinse
it off
2 Reinstall all parts and tighten the cover screws
securely
NOTE
If the brake fluid was so low as to allow
air in the hydraulic system, the brakes
will have to be bled Refer to Chapter
Ten in the front section of this manual
Disc Brake Pad Wear
Inspect the brake pads for excessive or uneven
wear, scoring, and oil or grease on the friction surface
If any of these conditions exist, replace the pads
as described under Brake Pad Replacement in Chapter Ten, in this section of this manual
To inspect, remove the plug (Figure 24) on top of
the cahper and observe the thickness on each pad If
the pads are worn to a thickness of 0 03 in (0 8 mm)
or less, they must be replaced
Front Brake Lever Adjustment
An adjuster is provided to maintain the front brake
lever free play
1 Loosen the adjuster locknut (A, Figure 25) and
turn the adjuster (B, Figure 25) to obtain a free play
measurement of 0 08-0 20 in (2-5 mm) Tighten the
locknut securely
NOTE
Free play is the distance the lever travels from the at-rest position to the applied position when the master cylinder
is depressed by the lever adjuster
2 Rotate the front wheel and check for brake drag
Also operate the brake lever several times to make
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 15
sure it returns to the at-rest position immediately
after release.
Rear Brake Pedal Height Adjustment
The rear brake pedal height should be adjusted at
the intervals specified in Table 1 or anytime the
brake shoes are replaced.
1. Place the motorcycle on the sidestand.
2. Check to be sure the brake pedal is in the at-rest
position.
3. The correct height position above the top of the
foot peg is 3/4-1 1/4 in. (20-30 mm). To adjust,
proceed to Step 4.
4. Loosen the locknut (A, Figure 26) and turn the
adjusting bolt (B, Figure 26) to achieve the correct
height. Tighten the locknut securely and adjust the
free play, described in Chapter Three in the front
section of the manual, and brake light, described in
Chapter Seven in this section of the manual.
Gearshift Pedal Adjustment
NOTE
The adjuster rod front locknut has lefthand threads.
1. Loosen the front and rear locknuts (A, Figure 27)
on the adjuster rod.
2. Turn the adjuster rod (B, Figure 27) in either
direction until the top of the gearshift pedal is 2.0-2.4
in. (50-60 mm) above the top surface of the footpeg.
3. After the correct height is achieved, check the
angle of the change pedal arms. They must be at a
90° angle to the adjuster rod as shown in Figure 28.
Readjust if necessary to achieve this alignment.
4. Tighten both locknuts securely.
Clutch Adjustment
The clutch cable free play should be adjusted to
obtain a free play of 3/32-1/8 in. (2-3 mm) at the
intervals specified in Table 1.
NOTE
If you are unable to achieve the correct
amount of free play adjustment using
this adjustment procedure, there is an
additional adjustment procedure within
the clutch mechanism. Refer to Chapter
Five in this section of this manual.
1. At the hand lever, slide back the clutch lever shield
(Figure 29).
2. Loosen the locknut (A, Figure 30) and rotate the
adjuster (B, Figure 30) for free play adjustment
(Figure 31).
NOTE
If sufficient free play cannot be obtained
at the hand lever, additional adjustment
can be made at the lower adjuster on the
crankcase.
CHAPTER THREE
3. Completely loosen the clutch cable at the handlebar.
4. At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts (A, Figure 32) and rotate the adjuster (B,
Figure 32) until the correct amount of free play is
achieved. For fine adjustment, repeat Step 2 if necessary.
Throttle Operation/Adjustment
The throttle grip should have 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3-5
mm) of rotational play (Figure 33). Make sure there
is free play in the cable so the carburetors will be
able to close completely when the throttle is let off.
If adjustment is necessary, loosen the cable locknut
(A, Figure 34) and turn the adjuster (B, Figure 34)
in or out to achieve the proper play. Tighten the
locknut securely.
Check the throttle cable from gnp to carburetors.
Make sure it is not kinked or chafed. Replace it if
necessary.
Make sure that the throttle grip rotates smoothly
from fully closed to fully open. Check at center, full
left and full right position of steering.
16
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 17
Air Cleaner Removal/Installation
A clogged air cleaner can decrease the efficiency
and life of the engine. Never run the bike without the
air cleaner installed; even minute particles of dust
can cause severe internal engine wear.
The service intervals specified in Table 1 should
be followed with general use. However, the air
cleaner should be serviced more often if the bike is
ridden in dusty areas.
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat(s).
3A. On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K.
models, remove the rear bolt and front bolt on each
side, securing the frame top cover and remove the
cover (Figure 35).
3B. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K.
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in
Chapter Six in this section of the manual.
4. Unscrew the long bolt and remove the bolt and
washer (A, Figure 36) securing the air cleaner cover.
5. Remove the air cleaner cover (B, Figure 36).
6. Remove the air cleaner element (A, Figure 37)
and long metal tube.
7. Tap the element lightly to remove most of the dirt
and dust; then apply compressed air to the outside
surface of the element.
8. Inspect the element (Figure 38) and make sure it
is in good condition. Replace if necessary.
9. Clean out the inside of the air box (Figure 39)
with a shop rag and cleaning solvent. Remove any
foreign matter that may have passed through a broken cleaner element.
10. When installing the air cleaner element make
sure that the rubber O-nng gasket (Figure 40) seats
against the air box properly. Also align the hole in
the filter with the threaded hole in the lower mount18 CHAPTER THREE
ing bracket and install the long metal tube (B, Figure
37).
11. Install the cover and position it so the intake lip
touches the projection on the frame (Figure 41).
12. Install the long bolt and washer and tighten the
bolt securely.
13. Install the frame top cover, or sub-fuel tank and
the seat(s).
Front Suspension Check
1. Apply the front brake and pump the fork up and
down as vigorously as possible. Check for smooth
operation and check for any oil leaks.
2. Make sure the upper (A, Figure 42) and lower (B,
Figure 42) fork bridge bolts are tight.
3. Remove the trim caps and check the tightness of
the 4 Allen bolts securing the handlebar upper holders (Figure 43) and handlebar.
4. Check that the front axle pinch bolt (A, Figure
44) and the front axle (B, Figure 44) are tight.
CAUTION
If any of the previously mentioned bolts
and nuts are loose, refer to Chapter
Eight, in this section of the manual, for
correct procedures and torque specifications.
Rear Suspension Check
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Push hard on the rear wheel sideways to check for
side play in the rear swing arm bushings or bearings.
NOTE
Figure 45 and Figure 46 are shown
with the rear wheel removed for clarity.
sn PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 19
3 Remove the top cover (Figure 45) and check the
tightness of the upper and lower shock absorber
mounting nuts and bolts (Figure 46)
4 Check the tightness of the rear brake torque arm
bolts (A, Figure 47)
5 Make sure the rear axle nut is tight and the cotter
pin is still m place (Figure 48)
6 Make sure the rear axle pmch bolt (B, Figure
47) is tight
7 Check the tightness of the swing arm pivot bolt
(Figure 49) and that the tab on teh lockwasher is up
against one flat of the bolt head
CAUTION
If any of the previously mentioned nuts
or bolts are loose, refer to Chapter Nine
in this section of the manual, for correct
procedures and torque specifications
TUNE-UP
A complete tune-up restores performance and
power that is lost due to normal wear deterioration of
engine parts Because engine wear occurs over a combined period of time and mileage, the engine tune-up
should be performed at the intervals specified in Table
1 More frequent tune-ups may be requred if the bike
is ridden primarily m stop-and-go traffic
Table 5 summarizes tune-up specifications/
Before starting a tune-up procedure, make sure to
first have all new parts on hand
Refer to the XV700-1100 section of this manual
for typical air cleaner procedures, compression testing and spark plug information
Because different systems in an engine interact, the
procedures should be done in the following order
a Clean or replace the air cleaner element
b Adjust valve clearances
20 CHAPTER THREE
c. Check engine compression.
d. Check or replace the spark plugs.
e. Check the ignition timing.
f. Synchronize carburetors and set idle speed.
Tools
To perform a tune-up on your Yamaha, you will
need the following tools:
a. Spark plug wrench.
b. Socket wrench and assorted sockets.
c. Flat feeler gauge.
d. Compression gauge.
e. Spark plug wire feeler gauge and gapper tool.
f. Ignition timing light.
g. Carburetor synchronization tool—to measure
manifold vacuum.
Air Cleaner Element
The air cleaner element should be cleaned or
replaced prior to doing other tune-up procedures, as
described in this chapter.
Valve Adjustment
Valve clearance measurement must be made with
the engine cool, at room temperature.
1. Remove the seat.
2A. On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K.
models, remove the rear bolt and front bolt on each
side securing the frame top cover and remove the
cover (Figure 35).
2B. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K.
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in
Chapter Six in this section of the manual.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 21
3. Unhook the battery strap (A, Figure 50).
4. Disconnect the battery vent tube (B, Figure 50).
5. Pull the battery part way up out of the battery box
to gain access to the battery cable attachment points.
6. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable (Figure
51) from the battery.
7. Remove the frame right-hand side cover (Figure
52).
8. Disconnect the fuel hose from the frame clamp
(A, Figure 53) and move it out of the way.
9. Carefully pull the starter relay (B, Figure 53) from
its frame mount and move it out of the way. Do not
disconnect the cables from the relay.
10. Remove the battery as described in this chapter.
11. From the rear cylinder, remove the following:
a. The cylinder head side cover (A, Figure 54)
from each side.
b. The spark plug (this makes it easier to turn over
the engine by hand).
c. The intake and exhaust valve adjuster covers.
12. Remove both frame side covers.
13. Remove bolts securing the left-hand side cover
(Figure 55) and remove the cover.
14A. On models equipped with the air injection
system, disconnect the hoses (A, Figure 56) from
the air injection system and remove the left-hand
bracket assembly (B, Figure 56) with the system
components still attached to it.
14B. On all other models, remove the bracket (Figure 57).
15. Remove bolts securing the right-hand side cover
(Figure 58) and electrical component bracket (Figure 59) and move the bracket assembly out of the
way.
16. From the front cylinder, remove the following:
a. The cylinder head side cover (B, Figure 54)
from each side.
b. The spark plug (this makes it easier to turn over
the engine by hand).
c. The intake and exhaust valve covers (Figure
60).
17. On the left-hand crankcase cover, remove the
timing hole cover (A, Figure 61) and the crankshaft
cover (B, Figure 61).
18. Rotate the engine by turning the crankshaft
clockwise. Use a socket on the bolt (Figure 62)
located on the left-hand end of the crankshaft. Continue to rotate the crankshaft until the "T" mark on
the rotor for the rear cylinder (Figure 63) is aligned
with the crankcase cover stationary pointer as
22 CHAPTER THREE
TDC FOR REAR CYLINDER
FIRING RANGE FOR
REAR CYLINDER
TDC FOR FRONT CYLINDER
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 23
viewed through the timing window in the left-hand
crankcase cover. The rear cylinder is now at top
dead center (TDC) on the compression stroke.
19. Check that there is free play in both the intake
and exhaust valve for the rear cylinder. If not, rotate
the crankshaft an additional 360° clockwise.
20. The correct clearance is as follows:
a. Exhaust valves: 0.005-0.007 in. (0.12-0.17
mm).
b. Intake valves: 0.003-0.005 in. (0.07-0.12
mm).
NOTE
The exhaust valves are located next to
the exhaust pipes and the intake valves
are located next to the carburetor assembly.
21. Insert a feeler gauge between exhaust valve
rocker arm adjuster screw and valve stem (Figure
64). The clearance is correct when there is a slight
drag on the feeler gauge when it is inserted and
withdrawn. Repeat for the intake valve.
22. To correct the clearance, perform the following:
a. Loosen the valve adjuster locknut (Figure
65).
b. Turn the adjuster in or out to obtain the correct
clearance.
c. When the correct clearance is obtained,
tighten the locknut securely and recheck the
clearance.
d. Repeat for the opposite valve.
23. Rotate the engine by turning the crankshaft
clockwise. Use a socket on the nut located on the
left-hand end of the crankshaft. Continue to rotate
the crankshaft until the slit in the rotor for the, front
cylinder (Figure 63) is aligned with the crankcase
cover stationary pointer as viewed through the timing window in the left-hand crankcase cover. The
front cylinder is now at top dead center (TDC) on
the compression stroke.
24. Repeat Steps 18-22 to adjust the front cylinder's
intake and exhaust valves.
25. Install all items removed in the reverse order of
removal. Make sure the O-ring seal (Figure 66) is
in place in the valve adjuster cover. Replace if necessary.
Correct Spark Plug Heat Range
Spark plugs are available in various heat ranges
that are hotter or colder than the spark plugs originally installed at the factory.
Select plugs in a heat range designed for the loads
and temperature conditions under which the engine
will operate. Using incorrect heat ranges, however,
can cause piston seizure, scored cylinder walls or
damaged piston crowns.
The standard heat range spark plugs are found in
Table 5.
24 CHAPTER THREE
Ignition Timing
Timing is set on all models and is not adjustable.
The following procedure is used to check ignition
timing only.
It is only necessary to check the timing on the rear
cylinder. If it is found correct, the front cylinder will
automatically be correct.
NOTE
Before starting this procedure, check all
electrical connections related to the ignition system. Make sure all connections are tight and free of corrosion and
that all ground connections are tight.
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Remove the timing cover (A, Figure 61) on the
left-hand crankcase cover.
3. Connect a portable tachometer following the
manufacturer's instructions.
4. Connect a timing light to the rear cylinder following the manufacturer's instructions.
CAUTION
When attaching the timing light to the
spark plug wire, do not puncture the
wire or cap with the timing light probe.
This would cause excessive wire resistance from the separation of the wire
conductor and/or high-voltage leakage
to ground due to damage of the plug
wire insulation. In either case, engine
miss-firing would result
5. Start the engine and let it warm up to normal
operating temperature. Bring the engine speed to
1,200 rpm and aim the timing light toward the timing
marks on the timing plate.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 25
6. The stationary pointer should align with the "F"
mark on the timing plate (Figure 67). If not, remove
the alternator cover as described in Chapter Seven,
in this section of the manual, and check the pick-up
(A, Figure 68) and stator (B, Figure 68) assembly
screws for tightness. If these are tight, refer to Chapter Seven, in this section of the manual, for ignition
system troubleshooting. Ignition timing cannot be
adjusted on these models.
Carburetor Synchronization
A vacuum gauge (Chapter One) must be used to
synchronize the carburetors.
NOTE
Prior to synchronizing the carburetors,
the ignition timing must be checked and
the valve clearance properly adjusted.
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Start the engine and let it reach normal operating
temperature. Then turn it off.
3. Disconnect the small vacuum plug cap from each
carburetor joint (Figure 69).
4. Connect the vacuum gauge to both carburetor
vacuum port joints following the manufacturer's
instructions.
5. Start the engine and allow it to idle at 1,140-1,250
rpm.
6. The carburetors are synchronized if they have the
same gauge readings. If not, turn the synchronizing
screw (Figure 70) and balance the rear carburetor to
the front carburetor until the gauge readings are the
same.
7. Rev the engine several times to make sure the
readings remain the same.
8. Turn the engine off and disconnect the vacuum
gauge from the carburetors.
9. Install the small vacuum plug cap onto each
carburetor joint (Figure 69) and make sure it is
secured in place.
Carburetor Idle Speed Adjustment
Before making this adjustment, the air cleaner
must be clean, the carburetors must be synchronized
and the engine must have adequate compression.
Otherwise this procedure cannot be done properly.
1. Attach a portable tachometer following the manufacturer's instructions.
2. Start the engine and let it warm up to normal
operating temperature.
3. Settheidle speed by turning the carburetor throttle
stop screw (Figure 71) in to increase or out to
decrease idle speed.
4. The correct idle speed is listed in Table 5.
Table 1 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE*
Initial 600 miles
(1,000 km) or 1 month
Change engine oil and oil filter
Inspect valve clearance, adjust if necessary
Check front and rear brake lever and pedal free
play; adjust if required
Check front brake pads and rear brake shoe
thickness; replace as required
Adjust clutch lever free play
Lubricate speedometer and control cables
Change final gear oil
Check sidestand switch operation
(continued)
26 CHAPTER THREE
Table 1 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (continued)*
Table 2 TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE (COLD)
Load
Up to 1981b. (90 kg)
Front
Rear
198-max. Ib. (90-max kg)*
Front
Rear
High-speed riding
Front
Rear
* Maximum load: 49-state
psi (kg/cm2)
28 (2.0)
32 (2.3)
28 (2.0)
36 (2.5)
28 (2.0)
36 (2.5)
507 Ib. (230 kg.), Calif. 505 Ib. (229 kg.), U.K. 501 Ib. (227 kg.)
Table 3 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
Item
Engine oil
40° F (5° C) and above
60°F(15°C)andbelow
Brake fluid
Battery refilling
Oil Type
Yamalube 4 or SAE 20W/40
Yamalube 4 or SAE 10W/30
DOT 3
Distilled water
(continued)
Every 4,400 miles Inspect valve clearance; adjust if necessary
(7,000 km) or 7 months Check, clean and regap spark plugs
Change engine oil and oil filter
Check crankcase breather hose for tightness and damage
Inspect fuel lines for deterioration, chafed,
cracked or swollen ends; replace if necessary
Inspect the exhaust system for leaks; tighten
bolts and nuts if necessary
Synchronize the carburetors
Check idle speed; adjust if necessary
Check front brake pads and rear brake shoe
thickness; replace as required
Adjust clutch lever free play
Check oil level in final drive unit
Lubricate speedometer and control cables
Clean and inspect air filter element with
compressed air, replace if necessary
Lubricate rear brake pedal, shift lever and sidestand
Check front fork oil seal for leakage
Check steering stem for looseness
Check tire and wheel condition
Check wheel bearings for smooth operation
Check battery fluid level and specific gravity;
add water if necessary
Check brake fluid level in master cylinder;
add fluid if necessary
Every 8,200 miles Replace the spark plugs
(13,000 km) or 13 months Check fluid level in final drive unit; add'fluid if necessary
Every 15,800 miles Lubricate steering stem bearings
(25,000 km) or 25 months Lubricate swing arm bearings
* This Yamaha factory maintenance schedule should be considered as a guide to general maintenance and
lubrication intervals. Harder than normal use and exposure to mud, water, sand, high humidity, etc. will
naturally dictate more frequent attention to most maintenance items.
PERIODIC LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 27
Table 3 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS (continued)
Table 4 APPROXIMATE REFILL CAPACITIES
Item
Engine oil
With filter change
Without filter change
Engine rebuild
Front forks
Final gear case
Quantity
3.0 U.S. qt. (2.8 L, 2.5 Imp. qt.)
2.7 U.S. qt. (2.6 L, 2.3 Imp. qt.)
3.4 U.S. qt. (3.2 L, 2.8 Imp. qt.)
7.71 U.S. oz. (228 cc, 8.03 Imp. oz.)
0.20 U.S. qt. (0.19 L, 0.17 Imp. qt.)
Table 5
Ignition timing
Valve clearance (cold)
Intake
Exhaust
Spark plug
Type
U.S.
U.K.
Gap
Idle speed
Compression pressure (cold at sea level)
Standard
Minimum
Maximum
TUNE UP SPECIFICATIONS
Fixed
0.003-0.005 in. (0.07-0.12 mm)
0.005-0.007 in. (0.12-0.17 mm)
:
NGK BP7ES, ND W22EP-U „ -
NGK BPR7ES, ND W22EPR-U
0.028-0.031 in. (0.7-0.8 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
156 psi (11 kg/cm2,1,100 kPa)
142 psi (10 kg/cm2,1,000 kPa)
171 psi (12 kg/cm2,1,200 kPa)
Item
Fork oil
Control cables and pivot points
Final drive unit
Oil Type
SAE 10W
SAE10W/30 motor oil
Hypoid gear oil SAE 80 GL-4 or SAE 80W/90
CHAPTER FOUR
ENGINE
The engine is a V-twin air-cooled, 4-stroke design.
The cylinders are offset (to improve rear cylinder
cooling) and set at a 75° angle; the cylinders fire on
alternate crankshaft rotations. Each cylinder is
equipped with a single camshaft and 2 valves. The
crankshaft is supported by 2 main bearings in a
vertically split crankcase.
Both engine and transmission share a common
case and the same wet sump oil supply. The clutch
is a wet-type located inside the right crankcase cover.
Refer to Chapter Five in this section of the manual
for clutch and transmission service procedures.
This chapter provides complete procedures and
information for removal, inspection, service and
reassembly of the engine.
Table 1 provides complete specifications for the
engine and Table 2 lists all of the engine torque
specifications. Table 1 and Table 2 are located at the
end of this chapter.
Before beginning work, re-read Chapter One in
the front section of this book. You will do a better
job with this information fresh in your mind.
ENGINE PRINCIPLES
Figure 1 explains how the engine works. This will
be helpful when troubleshooting or repairing the
engine.
SERVICING ENGINE IN FRAME
The following components can be serviced while
the engine is mounted in the frame (the bike's frame
is a great holding fixture for breaking loose stubborn
bolts and nuts):
a. Gearshift mechanism.
b. Clutch.
c. Carburetors.
d. Starter motor and gears.
ENGINE 29
30 CHAPTER FOUR
e Alternator and electrical systems
f Oil pump
ENGINE
Removal/Installation
1 Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual
2 Remove the front cylinder head right-hand cover
(Figure 2) and the rear cylinder head left-hand cover
(Figure 3)
3 Remove the bolts securing the ignition coil cover
(Figure 4) and remove the cover
4 Disconnect the ignition primary coil wire electrical connectors (Figure 5) Each connector contains
2 wires 1 red/white and 1 gray, and 1 red/white and
1 orange
5 Remove the carburetor assembly as described in
Chapter Six in this section of the manual
6 Remove the exhaust system as described in Chapter Six in this section of the manual
7 At the clutch hand lever, slide back the clutch lever
shield (Figure 6)
ENGINE 31
8. Loosen the clutch cable locknut (A, Figure 7) and
rotate the adjuster (B, Figure 7) to allow maximum
slack in the clutch cable.
9. At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts (A, Figure 8) and rotate the adjuster (B,
Figure 8) to allow maximum slack in the clutch
cable. Disconnect the clutch cable from the actuating
lever.
10. Remove the starter motor as described in Chapter
Seven in this section of the manual.
11. Remove the bolts securing the left-hand under
cover (Figure 9) and remove the cover.
12. Remove the following from the right-hand side:
a. Right-hand footpeg assembly (Figure 10).
b. Remove the front (Figure 11) and rear (Figure 12) nuts securing the rear brake pedal and
engine guard assembly (Figure 13) and remove the assembly.
13. Remove the bolt (Figure 14) securing the shift
lever arm and slide it off the shift shaft.
14. Remove the left-hand foot peg (A, Figure IS).
15. Remove the left-hand footrest bar assembly (B,
Figure 15).
32 CHAPTER FOUR
16 Place wood block(s) and a small hydraulic jack
under the engine to support it securely
17 Disconnect the sidestand switch electrical connector.
18 Remove the nuts (Figure 16) securing the
sidestand and remove the sidestand assembly.
19 Disconnect the spark plug lead (A, Figure 17)
from each spark plug
20 Move the drive shaft rubber boot (Figure 18)
back away from the engine and onto the swing arm.
21 Remove the bolt securing the engine ground
cable and disconnect the cable.
22. Carefully pull the stator wire harness from the
frame and remove the wires from the frame Note
the path of the wire harness during removal, it must
be routed the same during installation
23 Using a crisscross pattern, loosen then remove
the Allen screws securing the left-hand crankcase
cover (Figure 19) Remove the cover and gasket.
24. Disconnect the neutral switch electrical lead (A,
Figure 20)
25 Remove the right-hand crankcase lower bolts
and remove the starter motor electrical cable and
ENGINE 33
holding straps. Remove the electrical cable (Figure
21) from the engine.
26. Disconnect the alternator and the pulse generator
electrical connectors.
27. Disconnect the crankcase breather hose (Figure
22) from the rear cylinder head.
28. Take a final look all over the engine to make sure
everything has been disconnected.
29. Place a stand under the swing arm or tie the bike
down to secure it in a vertical position after the
engine is removed.
CAUTION
The following steps require the aid of a
helper to safely remove the engine assembly from the frame.
30. Make sure the hydraulic jack is still in place and
supporting the engine securely.
31. Loosen, but do not remove, all engine mounting
bolts and nuts.
32. Remove the rear lower through bolt (B, Figure
20).
33. Remove the rear upper bolt (Figure 23) on each
side.
34. Remove the front upper bolts, washers and nuts
(Figure 24) securing the front cylinder head to the
frame.
35. Remove the rear upper bolts and washers (B,
Figure 17) securing the rear cylinder head to the
frame.
36. Slowly lower the engine and move it forward,
then remove the engine from the frame. Using a
screwdriver, disengage the drive shaft's universal
joint from the output shaft.
37. Take the engine to a workbench for further
disassembly.
34 CHAPTER FOUR
38. Install by reversing these removal steps, while
noting the following:
a. Apply a light coat of molybdenum disulfide
grease to the splines of the output shaft and the
universal joint prior to engaging these 2 parts.
b. Tighten the engine mounting bolts to the
torque specifications in Table 2.
c. Fill the engine with the recommended type
and quantity of oil as described in Chapter
Three in this section of the manual.
d. Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter
Three in this section of the manual.
e. Start the engine and check for leaks.
CYLINDER HEADS
AND CAMSHAFTS
This section describes removal, inspection and
installation procedures for the cylinder head and
camshaft components. Valves and valve components
are described under a separate heading.
Removal
NOTE
This procedure is for the rear cylinder.
Removal of the front cylinder is identical, except for differences noted in Step
29
1. Remove the engine from the frame as described
in this chapter.
2. Remove the exhaust valve adjuster cover (Figure
25).
3. Remove the bolts (Figure 26) securing the rear
cylinder side cover and remove the cover.
4. Remove the intake valve adjuster cover.
CAUTION
The next steps will position the rear
cylinder at top dead center (TDC) on the
compression stroke. This is necessary to
avoid damage to the camshaft and related parts
5. Using the bolt (Figure 27) on the left-hand end of
the crankshaft, turn the crankshaft clockwise until
the index mark on the camshaft sprocket aligns with
the fixed pointer on the cylinder head (A, Figure
28).
ENGINE 35
6. Also check that the "T" timing mark on the edge
of the alternator rotor is aligned with the centerline
of the rear cylinder (pointing straight up toward the
timing mark on the camshaft). If the "T" mark is not
properly aligned, rotate the crankshaft an additional
360° rotation until alignment is correct.
NOTE
A cylinder at TDC of its compression
stroke will have free play in both of its
rocker arms, indicating that both the
intake and exhaust valves are closed.
7. The rear cylinder piston must be at top dead center
(TDC) on the compression stroke.
8. With the crankshaft timing mark on the "T," move
both rocker arms to make sure they are loose and
have free play. If both rocker arms are not loose;
rotate the engine an additional 360° until both rocker
arms have free play.
9. Remove the camshaft chain tensioner center bolt
(Figure 29) and spring (Figure 30). Remove the
bolts securing the camshaft chain tensioner lifter
(Figure 31) and remove the tensioner lifter and
gasket. ' *
10. Remove both spark plugs. This will make it
easier to rotate the engine.
11. Place a wrench on the bolt (Figure 27) on the
left-hand end of the crankshaft to prevent it from
turning, then loosen the camshaft sprocket mounting
bolt (B, Figure 28).
12. Remove the bolt and the oil baffle plate (C,
Figure 28) from the sprocket.
NOTE
If the crankcase is not going to be disassembled take note of this possible
problem. There is a small locating pin
(A, Figure 32) that correctly positions
the camshaft sprocket to the camshaft.
When removing the camshaft sprocket
be careful the pin does not work loose
as it will fall into the crankcase. If the
pin does fall, the crankcase must be split
to retrieve the pin.
13. Carefully slide the camshaft sprocket off the
camshaft shoulder and remove the sprocket (B, Figure 32) from the drive chain.
14. Remove the locating pin (Figure 33) from the
end of the camshaft.
36 CHAPTER FOUR
15. Tie a piece of wire to the camshaft chain and tie !
it to an external portion of the engine to prevent the
camshaft chain from falling down into the crankcase.
CAUTION
If the crankshaft must be rotated with
the camshaft removed, pull up on the
camshaft chain and keep it taut, make
certain that the camshaft chain is properly meshed onto the crankshaft timing
sprocket then rotate the crankshaft. If
this step is not followed, the chain may
become kinked and cause damage to the
crankcases, the camshaft chain and the
timing sprocket on the crankshaft.
16. Remove the left-hand bolts (Figure 34) securing
the cylinder head.
17. Using a crisscross pattern, loosen then remove
the nuts and washers securing the engine hanger
plates and the cylinder head (Figure 35). Don't
forget the one nut and washer (Figure 36) in the
recess on the spark plug side of the cylinder head.
18. Remove the engine hanger plates.
19. Loosen the cylinder head by tapping around the
perimeter with a rubber or soft faced mallet. If
necessary, gently pry the head loose with a broadtipped screwdriver.
CAUTION
Remember the cooling fins are fragile
and may be damaged if tapped or pried
on too hard. Never use a metal hammer.
20. Untie the wire securini! the catnshalt chain to the
exterior of the engine and hold onto the end of the
wire.
I
ENGINE 37
21 Lift the cylinder head straight up and off the
crankcase studs Guide the cam chain through the
opening in the cylinder head and retie the wire to the
exterior of the engine This will prevent the drive
chain from falling down into the crankcase
22 Remove the cylinder head gasket and discard it
Don't lose the locating dowels
23 Remove the camshaft chain slipper on the exhaust side (Figure 37)
24 Place a clean shop cloth into the cam chain
opening in the cylinder to prevent the entry of foreign matter
25 Unstake the locking tabs (Figure 38) on the
camshaft bushing lockwasher
NOTE
The camshaft bushing bolts are of two
different lengths The long bolt (A, Figure 39) is used on the exhaust side and
short bolt (B, Figure 39) is used on the
intake side The bolts must be installed
in this location during installation
26 Remove the bolts (A, Figure 40) securing the
bushing lockwasher (B, Figure 40) and remove the
lockwasher
27 Screw a 10 mm bolt (A, Figure 41) into the end
of the camshaft and withdraw the camshaft and
camshaft bushing (B, Figure 41)
28 If necessary, remove the self-locking nuts (Figure 42) securing the rear exhaust joint to the cylinder
head Remove the exhaust joint and discard the nuts
as they cannot be reused
29 Repeat Steps 2-27 for the front cylinder head,
noting the following that are unique to the front
cylinder
38 CHAPTER FOUR
a. Remove the bolt (Figure 43) on each side
securing the ignition coil assembly to the front
cylinder head and remove the coil assembly.
b. Remove the nuts (A, Figure 44) and the nuts
and washers (B, Figure 44) securing the front
engine hanger plate to the cylinder head and
remove the hanger plate. Note the location of
the washers as they must be reinstalled on the
same crankcase studs during installation.
c. While observing Step 5, rotate the crankshaft
until the slit in the alternator rotor is aligned
with the crankcase cover stationary pointer.
See Figure 63 m Chapter Three. The alternator rotor "T" mark is for the rear cylinder.
d. Remove the special long nuts (A, Figure 45)
and washers securing the cylinder head and
the cylinder head cover mounting bracket (B,
Figure 45). Remove the mounting bracket.
e. The front cylinder camshaft sprocket is not
equipped with an oil baffle plate like the one
used on the rear cylinder.
ENGINE 39
Camshaft Inspection
1. Check the camshaft bearing journals (A, Figure
46) for wear or scoring.
2. Using a micrometer, measure the sprocket end of
the bearing journal (Figure 47) and the opposite
journal (Figure 48). Compare to dimensions listed
in Table 1. If any dimension is worn to the service
limit dimension or less the camshaft must be replaced. !
3. Check the camshaft lobes (B, Figure 46) for wear
or scoring. The lobes should show no signs of wear
or scoring and the edges should be square. Slight
damage may be removed with a silicone carbide
oilstone. Use No. 100-120 grit stone initially, then
polish with a No. 280-320 grit stone.
4. Even though the lobe surface appears to be satisfactory, with no visible signs of wear, each camshaft
lobe must be measured as shown in Figure 49.
Compare to dimensions listed in Table 1. If either
dimension is worn to the service limit dimension or
less the camshaft must be replaced.
5. Also measure the cam lobe width (Figure 50) with
a micrometer. Compare to dimensions listed in Table 1. If either dimension is worn to the service limit
dimension or less the camshaft must be replaced.
6. Measure the cam bearing surface inside diameter
in the cylinder head (Figure 51) and camshaft bushing (Figure 52). The bearing surfaces should not be
scored or excessively worn. Compare to dimensions
listed in Table 1. If either dimension is worn to the
service limit dimension or less either the cylinder
head or the bushing must be replaced.
7. Inspect the camshaft sprocket (Figure 53) for
wear; replace if necessary.
40 CHAPTER FOUR
Cylinder Head Inspection
1. Remove all traces of gasket material from the
cylinder head and cylinder mating surfaces. Do not
scratch the gasket surface.
2. Without removing the valves, remove all carbon
deposits from the combustion chamber (Figure 54)
and valve ports with a wire brush. A blunt screwdriver or chisel may be used if care is taken not to
damage the head, valves and spark plug threads.
3. Examine the spark plug threads (A, Figure 55) in
the cylinder head for damage. If damage is minor or
if the threads are dirty or clogged with carbon, use a
spark plug thread tap (Figure 56) to clean the threads
following the manufacturer's instructions. If thread
damage is severe, refer further service to a dealer or
competent machine shop.
4. After the carbon is removed from the combustion
chamber and the valve ports (B, Figure 55)and the
spark plug thread hole is repaired, clean the entire
head in cleaning solvent. Blow dry with compressed
air.
5. Clean away all carbon from the piston crown. Do
not remove the carbon ridge at the top of the piston.
6. Check for cracks in the combustion chamber and
exhaust ports. A cracked head must be replaced.
7. Inspect the camshaft bushing seating area (B,
Figure 41) in the cylinder head for damage, wear or
burrs. Clean up if damage is minimal; replace cylinder head if necessary.
8. After the head has been thoroughly cleaned, place
a straightedge across the cylinder head/cylinder gasket surface (Figure 57) at several points. Measure
the warp by inserting a flat feeler gauge between the
straightedge and the cylinder head at each location.
Maximum allowable warpage is 0.010 in. (0.25
mm). If warpage exceeds this limit, the cylinder head
must be replaced.
ENGINE 41
9. Inspect the valve and valve guides as described in
this chapter,
10. Inspect the exhaust side camshaft chain guide
(Figure 58) for excessive wear or separation. Replace if necessary.
11. Inspect the camshaft chain tensioner assembly
(Figure 59) for wear or damage. If any part is
damaged, replace the assembly.
Installation
NOTE
This procedure is for the rear cylinder.
Installation of the front cylinder is identical, except for differences noted in
Step 27. If both cylinder heads have
been removed; install the rear cylinder
assembly first, then the front cylinder.
1. Lubricate the camshaft bearing journals and bearing surfaces in the cylinder head and camshaft bushing with molybdenum disulfide grease or assembly
oil.
NOTE
If both cylinder heads have been disassembled, be sure to install the correct
camshaft into the correct cylinder head.
The front camshaft is marked with a "2"
(Figure 60) and the rear camshaft is
marked with a "I."
2. Position the camshaft with the locating dowel hole
facing up toward the timing mark in the cylinder
head. Install the camshaft and camshaft bushing (B,
Figure 41) into the cylinder head. After installation,
check this basic alignment (Figure 61) and realign
if necessary.
NOTE
The bolts have different lengths. The
long bolt (A, Figure 39) is used on the
exhaust side and short bolt (B, Figure
39) is used on the intake side. The bolts
must be installed in this location during
installation.
3. Install a new lockwasher (B, Figure 40) and the
bolts (A, Figure 40) in their correct location. Tighten
the bolts to the torque specifications in Table 2.
4. Stake the locking tabs (Figure 38) onto the flat of
each bolt.
5. Remove the shop cloth from the cam chain opening in the cylinder.
6. Install the large dowel pin (Figure 62) and O-ring
seal (Figure 63).
7. Position the camshaft chain slipper on the exhaust
side with the "UP" mark and arrow (Figure 64)
42 CHAPTER FOUR
facing up and install the slipper (Figure 37). Make
sure it is correctly seated in the locator at the lower
end.
8. If removed, install the 2 small locating dowels (A,
Figure 65) and a new cylinder head gasket (B,
Figure 65).
9. Install the cylinder head onto the crankcase studs.
With your fingers, carefully insert the cam chain into
the cam chain cavity on the side of the cylinder head
while pushing the cylinder head down into position
(Figure 66).
10. Make sure the upper portion of the exhaust side
chain slipper is indexed into the cavity in the cylinder head (Figure 67).
11. Tie the wire attached to the cam chain to the
exterior of the engine.
NOTE
If both cylinder heads have been disassembled, be sure to install the correct
cylinder head nuts. The front cylinder
head uses the larger or longer special
nuts (Figure 68) while the rear cylinder
uses the normal type of nuts.
12. Install the engine hanger plates (A, Figure 69)
onto the crankcase studs and install the washers and
nuts (B, Figure 69). Don't forget to install the one
ENGINE 43
nut and washer (Figure 70) in the recess on the spark
plug side of the cylinder head.
13. Using a crisscross pattern, tighten the nuts securing the engine hanger plates and the cylinder head
(Figure 71). Tighten the bolts to the torque specifications in Table 2.
14. Install the left-hand bolts (Figure 34) securing
the cylinder head. Tighten the bolts to the torque
specifications in Table 2.
15. Make sure the timing mark on the alternator rotor
is still aligned correctly to ensure proper valve timing. Perform the following:
a. Temporarily install the left-hand crankcase
cover and hold it in place with several screws.
b. Remove the timing hole cover and the crankshaft cover.
c. Observe that the "T" timing mark on the edge
of the alternator rotor is aligned with the fixed
pointer on the crankcase (Figure 72). If alignment is incorrect, use the bolt (Figure 73) on
the left-hand end of the crankshaft and turn the
crankshaft clockwise until the "T" timing
mark on the edge of the alternator rotor is
aligned with the fixed pointer on the crankcase
(Figure 72).
NOTE
In the following step, the locating pin
may want to partially back out of the
blind hole in the camshaft due to residual cleaning solvent or engine oil remaining in this receptacle. To help
remedy this problem, spray the blind
hole in the camshaft with an aerosol
electrical contact cleaner, then me compressed air to blow out this blind hole.
This will allow the pin to go in the
desired amount although it may still
stick out farther than necessary at first.
44 CHAPTER FOUR
16. Install the locating pin (Figure 33) into the end
of the camshaft and push it in as far as it will go.
17. Pull the drive chain off the camshaft shoulder.
18. Position the camshaft sprocket with the timing
mark facing out and straight up for alignment with
the fixed pointer on the top inside surface of the
cylinder head.
19. Correctly mesh the sprocket with the drive chain
so the index mark on the camshaft sprocket aligns
with the fixed pointer on the cylinder head (Figure
74) and install the sprocket (B, Figure 32) onto the
camshaft shoulder while aligning the locating dowel
with the sprocket notch (A, Figure 32).
CAUTION
Very expensive damage could result
from improper camshaft and camshaft
chain alignment. Recheck your work
several times to make sure alignment is
correct.
20. Insert your finger into the camshaft drive chain
tensioner hole in the cylinder and press on the drive
chain damper. This will take up the slack in the drive
chain; make sure the sprocket timing mark is still
aligned. If alignment is incorrect, adjust it at this
time by repositioning the drive chain on the
sprocket, in either direction, until correct alignment
is obtained.
21. On the rear cylinder only, install the oil baffle
plate (C, Figure 28) and bolt (B, Figure 28) securing
the sprocket.
22. Place a wrench on the bolt (Figure 73) on the
left-hand end of the crankshaft to prevent it from
turning, then tighten the camshaft sprocket mounting bolt to the torque specifications in Table 2.
23. Push the tensioner lifter (Figure 75) all the way
into the tensioner body, then install the tensioner
lifter, new gasket and the bolts (Figure 31) into the
cylinder. Tighten the bolts to the torque specifications in Table 2.
24. Install the spring (Figure 30) and the center bolt
(Figure 29). Tighten the center bolt to the torque
specifications in Table 2.
25. Inspect the large O-ring seal (Figure 76) on the
side cover and install the side cover and bolts (Figure 26). Tighten the bolts securely.
26. Install the engine into the frame as described in
this chapter.
27. Repeat Steps 2-26 for the front cylinder head,
noting the following that are unique to the front
cylinder head:
a. The front cylinder camshaft sprocket is not
equipped with an oil baffle plate like the one
used on the rear cylinder.
b. In Step 15c, the slit in the alternator rotor
should align with the crankcase cover stationary pointer.
c. Install the front hanger plate and install the
nuts (A, Figure 44) and the nuts and washers
(B, Figure 44) securing the front engine
hanger plate to the cylinder head and tighten
the nuts to the torque specification in Table 2.
ENGINE 45
d. Install the ignition coil assembly and the bolt
(Figure 43) on each side. Tighten the bolts
securely.
28. Adjust the valves as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual.
VALVE ASSEMBLY
1. Keepers
2. Spring seat
3. Inner spring
4. Outer spring
5. Oil seal
6. Valve spring seat
7. Valve
VALVES AND VALVE COMPONENTS
Removal
Refer to Figure 77 for this procedure.
1. Remove the cylinder head as described in this
chapter.
CAUTION
To avoid loss of spring tension, do not
compress the springs any more than
necessary to remove the keepers.
2. Compress the valve springs with a valve compressor tool (Figure 78). Remove the valve keepers and
release the compression. Remove the valve compressor tool.
3. Remove the valve spring retainer and valve
springs (Figure 79).
NOTE
The valve spring seat and valve stem
seal will stay in the cylinder head (Figure 80).
46 CHAPTER FOUR
4. Prior to removing the valve, remove any burrs
from the valve stem (Figure 81). Otherwise the
valve guide will be damaged.
5. Mark all parts as they are disassembled so that
they will be installed in their same locations.
Inspection
1. Clean valves with a wire brush and solvent.
NOTE
The valve contact surface cannot be
ground as it has a special coating. If
defective, the valve(s) must be replaced.
2. Inspect the contact surface of each valve for
burning or pitting (Figure 82). Unevenness of the
contact surface is an indication that the valve is not
serviceable.
3. Measure the valve stem for wear. Compare with
specifications given in Table 1.
4. Remove all carbon and varnish from the valve
guide with a stiff spiral wire brush. Measure each
valve guide at top, middle and bottom with a small
hole gauge. Compare with specifications given in
Table 1.
5. Subtract the measurements taken in Step 3 from
the measurement taken in Step 4. The difference is
the valve-to-valve stem clearance. See Table 1 for
correct clearance. Replace any guide or valve that is
not within tolerance. Valve guide replacement is
discussed in this chapter.
6. Insert each valve in its guide. Hold the valve just
slightly off its seat and rock it sideways in 2 directions. If it rocks more than slightly, the guide is
probably worn and should be replaced. If a dial
indicator is available, a more accurate measurement
can be made as shown in Figure 83. Replace any
guides that exceed the valve stem-to-guide clearance
specified in Table 1. If the guides must be replaced,
take the cylinder head to a dealer or machine shop.
7. Measure each valve spring free length with a
vernier caliper (Figure 84). All should be within the
length specified in Table 1 with no signs of bends or
distortion. Replace all defective springs in pairs
(inner and outer).
8. Measure the tilt of all springs as shown in Figure
85. Compare with specifications listed in Table 1.
9. Inspect each set of valve springs (Figure 79) for
wear, distortion or damage. Replace as a set if necessary.
ENGINE 47
10 Check the valve spring retainer and valve keepers If they are in good condition they may be reused,
replace as necessary
11 Inspect valve seats (B, Figure 55) If worn or
burned, they must be reconditioned This should be
performed by your dealer or a qualified machine
shop Seats and valves in near-perfect condition can
be reconditioned by lapping with a fine carborundum paste Lapping, however, is always inferior to
precision grinding
Installation
1 Coat the valve stems with molybdenum disulfide
grease To avoid damage to the valve stem seal, turn
the valve slowly while inserting the valve into the
cylinder head
2 Install the valve springs with their closer wound
coils facing the cylinder head First install the inner
spring (Figure 86) and then the outer spring (Figure
87)
3 Install the valve spring retainer (Figure 88)
CAUTION
To avoid loss of spring tension, do not
compress the springs any more than
necessary to install the keepers
4. Compress the valve springs with a compressor
tool (Figure 78) and install the valve keepers
5 After the keepers have been installed and the
compresssor tool removed, gently tap the end of the
valve stem (Figure 89) with a soft aluminum or
brass drift and hammer This will ensure that the
keepers are properly seated
48 CHAPTER FOUR
Valve Guide Replacement
When valve guides are worn so that there is excessive valve stem-to-guide clearance or valve tipping, the guides must be replaced. This job should
only be done by a dealer as special tools are required
as well as considerable expertise. If the valve guide
is replaced; also replace the respective valve.
Valve Seat Reconditioning
Special valve cutter tools and considerable expertise are required to properly recondition the valve
seats in the cylinder head. You can save considerable
money by removing the cylinder head(s) and taking
just the cylinder head(s) to a dealer or machine shop
and have the valve seats ground.
Valve Lapping
Valve lapping is a simple operation which can
restore the valve seal without machining if the
amount of wear or distortion is not too great.
1. Coat the valve seating area in the head with a
lapping compound such as Carborundum or Clover
Brand.
2. Insert the valve into the cylinder head.
3. Wet the suction cup of the lapping stick and stick
it onto the head of the valve. Lap the valve to the seat
by rotating the lapping stick in both directions.
Every 5 to 10 seconds, rotate the valve 180° in the
valve seat; continue lapping until the contact surfaces of the valve and the valve seat are a uniform
grey. Stop as soon as they are, to avoid removing too
much material.
4. Thoroughly clean the cylinder head and all valve
components in solvent or detergent and hot water to
remove all grinding compound. Any compound left
on the valves or the cylinder head will end up in the
engine and will cause damage.
5. After the lapping has been completed and the
valve assemblies have been reinstalled into the head,
the valve seal should be tested. Check the seal of
each valve by pouring solvent into each of the intake
and exhaust ports. The solvent should not flow past
the valve seat and the valve head. Perform on all sets
of valves. If fluid leaks past any of the seats, disassemble that valve assembly and repeat the lapping
procedure until there is no leakage.
6. If the cylinder head and valve components were
cleaned in detergent and hot water, apply a light coat
of engine oil to all bare metal surfaces to prevent any
rust formations.
ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLIES
The rocker arms and rocker arm shafts are identical (same Yamaha part No.) but they will develop
different wear patterns during use. It is recommended that all parts be marked during removal so
that they can be assembled in their original position.
ENGINE 49
Removal/Inspection/Installation
1. Remove the cylinder head(s) as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the rocker arm shaft bolts and washers
(Figure 90).
3. Install one of the 10 mm crankcase bolts into the
end of the rocker arm shaft (Figure 91).
4. Hold onto the rocker arm and withdraw the rocker
arm shaft with the bolt (Figure 92).
5. Wash all parts in cleaning solvent and thoroughly
dry.
6. Inspect the rocker arm pad where it rides on the
camshaft lobe and where the adjuster rides on the
valve stem (Figure 93). If the pad is scratched or
unevenly worn, inspect the camshaft lobe for scoring, chipping or flat spots. Replace the rocker arm if
defective.
7. Measure the inside diameter of the rocker arm
bore (A, Figure 94) with an inside micrometer and
check against the dimension listed in Table 1. Replace if worn to the service limit or greater.
8. Inspect the rocker arm shaft for signs of wear or
scoring. Measure the shaft outside diameter (B, Figure 94) with a micrometer and check against the
dimension listed in Table 1. Replace if worn to the
service limit or less.
9. Inspect the rocker arm shaft bolt sealing washer
(A, Figure 95) for damage and replace if necessary.
10. Make sure the rocker arm shaft bolt oil hole (B,
Figure 95) is clear, clean out if necessary with a
piece of wire and compressed air. This hole must be
free and clear for proper upper end lubrication.
11. Coat the rocker arm shaft and rocker arm bore
with assembly oil or fresh engine oil.
12. Correctly position the rocker arm (Figure 96) in
the cylinder head and install the rocker arm shaft.
50 CHAPTER FOUR
13. Push the rocker arm shaft all the way through the
rocker arm until it bottoms out in the cylinder head.
14. Install a sealing washer (Figure 97) on the rocker
arm shaft bolt and install the bolt.
15. Repeat Steps 3-14 for the other rocker arm
assembly.
CYLINDER
Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head as described in this
chapter.
2. Remove the bolt (Figure 98) on the camshaft
chain side of the cylinder.
3. Loosen the cylinder by tapping around the perimeter with a rubber or plastic mallet. If necessary,
gently pry the cylinder loose with a broad-tipped
screwdriver.
4. Pull the cylinder straight up and off of the crankcase studs. Work the cam chain wire through the
opening in the cylinder and retie the wire to the
crankcase so the chain will not fall into the crankcase.
5. Remove the cylinder base gasket and discard it.
Remove the small dowel pins from the crankcase
studs and the one large dowel pin and O-ring seal.
6. Stuff clean shop cloths into the crankcase opening
to prevent objects from falling into the crankcase.
7. Repeat Steps 2-6 for the other cylinder.
Inspection
1. Soak with solvent any old cylinder head gasket
material on the cylinder. Use a broad-tipped dull
chisel and gently scrape off all gasket residue. Do
not gouge the sealing surface as oil and air leaks will
result.
2. Measure the cylinder bore with a cylinder gauge
(Figure 99) or inside micrometer at the points shown
in Figure 100.
3. Measure in 2 axes—in line with the piston pin and
at 90° to the pin. If the taper or out-of-round is 0.004
in. (0.10 mm) or greater, the cylinder must be rebored to the next oversize and a new piston and rings
installed. Rebore both cylinders even if only one is
worn.
NOTE
The new piston should be obtained before the cylinder is rebored so that the
ENGINE 51
piston can be measured; slight manufacturing tolerances must be taken into
account to determine the actual size and
working clearance. Piston-to-cylinder
wear limit is listed in Table 1.
4. Check the cylinder wall (Figure 101) for
scratches; if evident, the cylinder should be rebored.
NOTE
The maximum wear limit on the cylinder
is listed in Table 1. If the cylinder is
worn to this limit, it must be replaced.
Never rebore a cylinder if the finished
rebore diameter will be this dimension
or greater.
5. Check the cylinder base O-ring (Figure 102).
Replace if worn or damaged.
Installation
1. Check that the top surface of the crankcase and
the bottom surface of the cylinder are clean prior to
installing a new base gasket.
2. Install a new cylinder base 'gasket (A, Figure
103).
3. Install the 2 small dowel pins (B, Figure 103) and
the large dowel pin and O-ring seal (C, Figure 103).
4. Make sure the end gaps of the piston rings are not
lined up with each other—they must be staggered.
Lubricate the piston rings and the inside of the
cylinder bore with assembly oil or fresh engine oil.
5. Carefully install the cylinder and slide it down
onto the crankcase studs. Guide the camshaft chain
and camshaft tensioner assembly into the camshaft
chain slot in the cylinder.
6. Carefully feed the cam chain and wire up through
the opening in the cylinder and tie it to the engine.
7. Install the cylinder and slide it down onto the
crankcase studs. Guide the camshaft chain and camshaft tensioner assembly into the camshaft chain slot
in the cylinder.
8. Carefully feed the camshaft chain wire up through
the opening in the cylinder and tie the wire to the
exterior of the engine.
9. Start the cylinder down over the piston. Compress
each piston ring with your fingers as it enters the
cylinder (Figure 104).
10. Slide the cylinder down until it bottoms out on
the crankcase (Figure 105).
11. Repeat Steps 1-10 for the other cylinder.
52 CHAPTER FOUR
12. Install the cylinder head as described in this
chapter.
PISTONS AND PISTON RINGS
Piston
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the cylinder head(s) and cylinder(s) as
described in this chapter.
2. Stuff clean shop cloths into the crankcase opening
to prevent objects from falling into the crankcase.
3. Lightly mark the top of the pistons with an "F"
(front) or "R" (rear) so they will be installed into the
correct cylinder.
4. Remove the piston rings as described in this
chapter.
5. Before removing the piston, hold the rod tightly
and rock the piston as shown in Figure 106. Any
rocking motion (do not confuse with the normal
sliding motion) indicates wear on the piston pin,
piston pin bore or connecting rod small-end bore
(more likely a combination of these). Mark the piston and pin so that they will be reassembled into the
same set.
6. Remove the clips from each side of the piston pin
bore (A, Figure 107) with a small screwdriver or
scribe. Hold your thumb over one edge of the clip
when removing it to prevent the clip from springing
out.
7. Use a proper size wooden dowel or socket extension and push out the piston pin.
CAUTION
Be careful when removing the pin to
avoid damaging the connecting rod. If it
is necessary to gently tap the pin to
remove it, be sure that the piston is
properly supported so that lateral shock
is not transmitted to the lower connecting rod bearing.
8. If the piston pin is difficult to remove, heat the
piston and pin with a butane torch. The pin will
probably push right out. Heat the piston to only
about 140° F (60° C), i.e., until it is too warm to
touch, but not excessively hot. If the pin is still
difficult to push out, use a homemade tool as shown
in Figure 108.
9. Lift the piston off the connecting rod and inspect
it as described in this chapter.
ENGINE 53
10. If the piston is going to be left off for some time,
place a piece of foam insulation tube over the end of
the rod to protect it.
11. Apply molybdenum disulfide grease to the inside
surface of the connecting rod.
12. Oil the piston pin with assembly oil or fresh
engine oil and install it in the piston until its end
extends slightly beyond the inside of the boss (Figure 109).
13. Place the piston over the connecting rod with the
"EX" mark (Figure 110) on the front piston crown
directed toward the front of the engine and the "EX"
on the rear piston should face toward the rear of the
engine.
14. Line up the piston pin with the hole in the
connecting rod. Push the piston pin through the
connecting rod and into the other side of the piston
until it is even with the piston pin clip grooves.
CAUTION
If it is necessary to tap the piston pin
into the connecting rod, do so gently
with a block of wood or a soft-faced
hammer. Make sure you support the piston to prevent the lateral shock from
being transmitted to the connecting rod
bearing.
NOTE
In the next step, install the clips with the
gap away from the cutout in the piston
(B, Figure 107).
15. Install new piston pin clips in both ends of the
pin boss. Make sure they are seated in the grooves
in the piston.
16. Check the installation by rocking the piston back
and forth around the pin axis and from side to side
along the axis. It should rotate freely back and forth
but not from side to side.
17. Install the piston rings as described in this chapter.
18. Repeat Steps 1-17 for the other piston.
Piston Inspection
1. Carefully clean the carbon from the piston crown
(Figure 111) with a chemical remover or with a soft
scraper. Do not remove or damage the carbon ridge
around the circumference of the piston above the top
ring. If the piston, rings and cylinder are found to be
dimensionaly correct and can be reused, removal of
the carbon ring from the top of the piston or the
carbon ridge from the top of the cylinder will promote excessive oil consumption.
CAUTION
Do not wire brush the piston skirts.
54 CHAPTER FOUR
2. Examine each ring groove for burrs, dented edges
and wide wear. Pay particular attention to the top
compression ring groove as it usually wears more
than the other grooves.
3. If damage or wear indicates piston replacement,
select a new piston as described under Piston Clearance Measurement in this chapter.
4. Oil the piston pin and install it in the connecting
rod. Slowly rotate the piston pin and check for radial
and axial play (Figure 112). If any play exists, the
piston pin should be replaced, providing the rod bore
is in good condition.
5. Measure the inside diameter of the piston pin bore
with a snap gauge (Figure 113) and measure the
outside diameter of the piston pin with a micrometer
(Figure 114). Compare with dimensions given in
Table 1. Replace the piston and piston pin as a set if
either or both are worn.
6. Check the oil control holes (Figure 115) in the
piston for carbon or oil sludge buildup. Clean the
holes with a small diameter drill bit and blow out
with compressed air.
7. Check the piston skirt for galling and abrasion
which may have been caused by piston seizure. If
light galling is present, smooth the affected area with
No. 400 emery paper and oil or a fine oilstone.
However, if galling is severe or if the piston is deeply
scored, replace it.
8. If damage or wear indicate piston replacement,
select anew piston as described under Piston Clearance Measurement in this chapter.
Piston Clearance Measurement
1. Make sure the piston and cylinder walls are clean
and dry.
ENGINE 55
2. Measure the inside diameter of the cylinder bore
at a point 1/2 in. (13 mm) from the upper edge with
a bore gauge.
3. Measure the outside diameter of the piston across
the skirt (Figure 116) at right angles to the piston
pin. Measure at a distance 0.40 in. (10 mm) up from
the bottom of the piston skirt.
4. Subtract the dimension of the piston from the
cylinder dimension and compare to the dimension
listed in Table 1. If clearance is excessive, the piston
should be replaced and the cylinder should be rebored to the next oversize. Purchase the new pistons
first; measure its diameter and add the specified
clearance to determine the proper cylinder bore diameter.
Piston Ring
Removal/Installation
WARNING
The edges of all piston rings are very
sharp. Be careful when handling them
to avoid cutting fingers.
1. Measure the side clearance of each ring in its
groove with a flat feeler gauge (Figure 117) and
compare to dimensions given in Table 1. If the
clearance is greater than specified, the rings must be
replaced. If the clearance is still excessive with the
new rings, the piston must also be replaced.
2. Remove the old rings with a ring expander tool or
by spreading the ends with your thumbs just enough
to slide the ring up over the piston (Figure 118).
Repeat for the remaining rings.
3. Carefully remove all carbon buildup from the ring
grooves with a broken piston ring (Figure 119).
4. Inspect the grooves carefully for burrs, nicks or
broken and cracked lands. Recondition or replace
the piston if necessary.
5. Check the end gap of each ring. To check the ring,
insert the ring, one at a time, into the bottom of the
cylinder bore and push it in about 5/8 in. (16 mm)
with the crown of the piston to ensure that the ring
is square in the cylinder bore. Measure the gap with
a flat feeler gauge (Figure 120) and compare to
dimensions in Table 1. If the gap is greater than
specified, the rings should be replaced. When installing new rings, measure their end gap in the same
manner as for old ones. If the gap is less than
specified, carefully file the ends with a fine-cut file
until the gap is correct.
56 CHAPTER FOUR
NOTE
The oil control ring expander spacer is
unmeasurable. If the oil control ring
rails show wear, all 3 parts of the oil
control ring should be replaced as a set.
6. Roll each ring around its piston groove as shown
in Figure 121 to check for binding. Minor binding
may be cleaned up with a fine-cut file.
NOTE
Install the compression rings with their
markings facing up.
1. Install the piston rings—first, the bottom, then the
middle, then the top ring—by carefully spreading
the ends with your thumbs and slipping the rings
over the top of the piston. Remember that the piston
rings must be installed with the manufacturer's
marks on them toward the top of the piston or there
is the possibility of oil pumping past the rings.
8. Make sure the rings are seated completely in their
grooves all the way around the piston and that the
ends are distributed around the piston as shown in
Figure 122. The important thing is that the ring gaps
are not aligned with each other when installed to
prevent compression pressure from escaping.
9. If installing oversize compression rings, check the
number to make sure the correct rings are being
installed. The ring numbers should be the same as
the piston oversize number.
10. If new rings were installed, measure the side
clearance of each ring in its groove with a flat feeler
gauge (Figure 117) and compare to dimensions
given in Table 1.
OIL PUMP
Removal/Installation
The oil pump can be removed with the engine
mounted in the frame; this procedure is shown with
the engine removed for clarity.
1. Remove the clutch assembly as described in
Chapter Five in this section of the manual.
2. Remove the bolts (Figure 123) securing the oil
pump to the crankcase and remove the oil pump
assembly.
3. Remove the small O-ring (A, Figure 124) and the
large locating dowel and O-ring (B, Figure 124)
from the crankcase.
ENGINE 57
4. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Install new O-nng seals.
b. Install the oil pump mounting bolts and
tighten to the torque specification in Table 2.
Disassembly/Inspection/Assembly
There are no replacement parts for the oil pump
except for the driven gear. If any part(s) is faulty or
out of specification, replace the oil pump assembly.
1. Remove the screw and plate (Figure 125) securing the oil relief valve in place.
2. Remove the spring (Figure 126) and plunger from
the oil pump assembly.
3. Remove the Phillips head screw (Figure 127)
securing the pump cover to the body and remove the
cover.
4. Remove the inner and outer rotors and the rotor
shaft and dowel pin.
5. Clean all parts in solvent and thoroughly dry.
6. Inspect both rotors (Figure 128) for wear and
abrasions. If worn or damaged, replace the oil pump
assembly.
7. Inspect the oil pump body and cover for cracks
(Figure 129). If worn or damaged, replace the oil
pump assembly.
8. Inspect the teeth on the driven gear (Figure 130).
Replace the driven gear if the teeth are damaged or
any are missing.
9. Coat all parts with fresh engine oil prior to assembly.
10. Install the outer rotor into the oil pump body.
11. Using a flat feeler gauge measure the clearance
between the outer rotor and the oil pump body
(Figure 131). Compare to specifications listed in
58 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 1. If the clearance is worn to the service limit
dimension or greater, replace the oil pump assembly.
12. Install the inner rotor into the outer rotor in oil
pump body.
13. Using a flat feeler gauge measure the clearance
between the inner rotor tip and the outer rotor (Figure 132). Compare to specifications listed in Table
1. If the clearance is worn to the service limit dimension or greater, replace the oil pump assembly.
14. Install the rotor shaft and dowel pin (Figure 133)
into the cover.
15. Position the inner rotor with the dowel pin
groove facing down and install the inner rotor onto
the dowel pin and cover (Figure 134).
16. Install the outer rotor onto the inner rotor and
align it onto the cover so the body can be installed.
17. Install the body onto the cover and rotor assembly. Align the locating dimple and the recess (Figure
135) of the 2 parts and press them together.
18. Install the Phillips head screw (Figure 127)
securing the pump cover to the body and tighten
securely.
19. Install the plunger and the spring (Figure 126)
into the oil pump assembly.
ENGINE 59
20. Install the plate and screw (Figure 125) securing
the oil relief valve in place Tighten the screw securely.
OIL STRAINER
Removal/Inspection/Installation
The oil strainer can be removed with the engine
mounted in the frame; this procedure is shown with
the engine removed for clarity
1 Remove the bolt (Figure 136) securing the shift
lever arm and slide it off the shift shaft
2. Remove the left-hand foot peg (A, Figure 137)
3. Remove the left-hand footrest bar assembly (B,
Figure 137)
4 Remove the bolt (A, Figure 138) securing the oil
strainer cover and remove the cover (B, Figure 138).
5 Withdraw the oil strainer (Figure 139) from the
crankcase.
6. Clean the oil strainer and cover in solvent and dry
with compressed air
60 CHAPTER FOUR
7. Inspect the screen (Figure 140) for any broken
areas or small holes or damage. If the screen is
damaged in any area, replace the strainer.
8. Inspect the O-ring seal (Figure 141) on the
strainer for deterioration or damage. Replace if necessary.
9. Inspect the O-ring seals (Figure 142) on the
strainer cover for deterioration or damage. Replace
if necessary.
10. Install by reversing these removal steps, while
noting the following:
a. Position the oil strainer with the wing (Figure
143) pointing toward the front of the engine
and install the strainer.
b. Make sure all O-ring seals are in place and
install the strainer cover. Install the bolts and
tighten securely.
PRIMARY DRIVE GEAR
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the engine from the frame as described
in this chapter.
2. Remove the clutch assembly as described in
Chapter Five in this section of the manual.
3. Temporarily reinstall the clutch outer housing.
4. Straighten the locking tab (A, Figure 144) on the
primary drive gear lockwasher.
5. Place a shop cloth between the teeth of the primary
drive gear and the gear on the backside of the clutch
outer housing. This will prevent the gear from rotating while loosening the nut.
6. Loosen the primary drive gear nut (B, Figure
144), then remove it.
7. Remove the primary drive gear nut.
8. Remove the lockwasher (Figure 145), the holding
plate (Figure 146) and the oil pump dnve gear
(Figure 147).
9. Remove the clutch outer housing (Figure 148).
10. Remove the primary drive gear (Figure 149) and
the locating key (Figure 150) from the crankshaft.
11. Inspect the gears and holding plate (Figure 151)
for wear or damage. If the gear teeth are worn or
damaged they must be replaced.
12. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Install the primary drive gear first (A, Figure
152), then install the locating key (B, Figure
152). This eliminates the problem of the key
ENGINE 61
62 CHAPTER FOUR
sliding down the keyway when installing the
gear onto the shaft.
b. Install the locating tab on the lockwasher (Figure 153) into the notch in the holding plate.
c. Place a shop cloth between the teeth of the
primary drive gear and the gear on the backside of the clutch outer housing (Figure 154).
This will prevent the gear from rotatmg while
loosening the nut.
d. Tighten the locknut to the torque specification
in Table 2. Bend the locking tab (A, Figure
144) down against one of the flats on the
primary drive gear.
CAMSHAFT DRIVE CHAIN
AND DAMPER
Removal/Installation
Front cylinder
1. Remove the primary drive gears as described in
this chapter.
2. Remove the bolts (A, Figure 155) securing the
camshaft drive chain damper and remove the damper
unit (B, Figure 155).
3. Remove the drive chain (C, Figure 155) from the
timing sprocket on the crankshaft.
4. Inspect all components as described in this chapter.
5. Install by reversing these removal steps. Install the
bolts and tighten to the specification in Table 2.
Rear cylinder
1. Remove the alternator rotor (Figure 156) as described in Chapter Seven in this section of the manual.
2 Remove the bolts (A, Figure 157) securing the
camshaft drive chain damper and remove the damper
unit (B, Figure 157).
3. Remove the drive chain (C, Figure 157) from the
timing sprocket on the crankshaft
4 Inspect all components as described in this chapter.
5. Install by reversing these removal steps. Install the
bolts and tighten to the specification in Table 2.
ENGINE 63
Inspection
1. Inspect the drive chain (Figure 158) for wear,
stretching or link damage. Replace if necessary.
2. Inspect the damper unit sliding surface (A, Figure
159) for excessive wear or damage. Make sure the
pivot point (B, Figure 159) moves freely. Replace if
necessary.
CRANKCASE
Service to the lower end requires that the crankcase assembly be removed from the motorcycle
frame and disassembled (split).
Disassembly
1. Remove the engine as described in this chapter.
Remove all exterior assemblies from the crankcase.
Set the engine on the workbench.
2. Remove the neutral indictor switch (Figure 160)
from the exterior of the left-hand crankcase half.
3. On the right-hand side, rotate the gearshift drum
so the shift cam ramps align with the reliefs in the
crankcase. This is necessary so the drum can pass
through the crankcase in Step 8.
4. Starting with the right-hand side, loosen in 1/2
turn increments the No. 14 and No. 13 bolts (Figure
161). Remove the bolts.
5. Turn the crankcase over with the left-hand side
facing up.
6. On the left-hand side, loosen numbered bolts
(1-12) in 1/2 turn increments (Figure 162). Start
with the highest number first. Remove all bolts.
7. Turn the crankcase over with the right-hand side
facing up.
64 CHAPTER FOUR
8. Carefully tap around the perimeter of the crankcase with a plastic mallet (do not use a metal hammer) to help separate the 2 case halves. Separate the
case halves by pulling the right-hand crankcase up
and off the left-hand case half.
9. After separating the crankcase halves, the transmission and crankshaft assemblies should stay with
the left-hand crankcase. Check the right-hand crankcase to make sure no transmission shims are stuck
to the bearings. If found, reinstall them immediately
in their original positions.
10. Remove the 2 small dowel pins and the large
O-ring and dowel pin from case halves.
11. Remove the transmission, shift forks and shift
drum assemblies from the left-hand crankcase half
as described in Chapter Five in this section of the
manual.
12. Remove the crankshaft assembly as described in
this chapter.
Inspection
1. Remove the screws (Figure 163) and remove the
oil baffle plate from the right-hand case half.
2. Thoroughly clean the inside and outside of both
crankcase halves with cleaning solvent. Dry with
compressed air. Make sure there is no solvent residue left in the cases as it will contaminate the engine
oil. Lubricate the bearings with oil to prevent rust
formation.
3. Make sure all oil passages are clean; blow them
out with compressed air.
4. Check the crankcases for cracks or other damage.
Inspect the mating surfaces of both halves. They
must be free of gouges, burrs or any damage that
could cause an oil leak.
5. Make sure the crankcase studs are not bent and
the threads are in good condition. Make sure they are
screwed into the crankcase tightly.
6. Inspect the crankcase bearings as described in this
chapter.
7. Install the oil baffle and the screws (Figure 163).
Tighten the screws securely.
Crankcase Bearings
Inspection/Replacement
1. After cleaning the crankcase halves in cleaning
solvent and drying with compressed air, lubricate the
bearings with engine oil.
LEFT CASE
RIGHT CASE
ENGINE 65
2. Rotate the transmission and bearing inner race and
check for play or roughness. Refer to Figure 164 and
Figure 165. Replace the bearing if it is noisy or if it
does not spin smoothly.
3. Rotate the middle gear shaft bearing inner race
(Figure 166) and check for play or roughness. Replace the bearing if it is noisy or if it does not spin
smoothly.
4. To remove crankcase bearings, perform the following:
a. Heat the crankcase to approximately 205-257°
F (95-125° C) in an oven or on a hot plate. Do
not attempt bearing removal by heating the
crankcases with a torch as this type of localized heating may warp the cases.
b. Wearing a pair of work gloves for protection,
remove the case from the oven and place it on
wood blocks for support. Drive out the bearing with a suitable size drift placed on the
outside bearing race. A large socket works
well for bearing removal.
NOTE
The main bearings are installed in a
steel sleeve that is part of the crankcase
(Figure 167). Special tools are required
to remove and install these bearing and
should be entrusted to a Yamaha dealer
5. Inspect the crankshaft main bearings (Figure 168)
for wear (bluish tint) or damage. Replace if necessary.
6. Before installing new bearings, clean the bearing
housing and oil passages with solvent. Dry thoroughly with compressed air.
7. Install new crankcase bearings by reversing the
removal steps, while noting the following:
66 CHAPTER FOUR
a. Installation of the bearings is made easier by
first placing the bearings in a freezer for approximately 30 minutes. Then reheat the
crankcase half and install the bearing by driving it squarely into position. If the bearing
cocks in its bore, remove it and reinstall. It
may be necessary to refreeze the bearing and
reheat the case half.
b. Lubricate the bearing races with clean engine
oil after installation.
Assembly
1. Prior to installation of all parts, coat all parts with
assembly oil or engine oil.
2. Install the crankshaft as described in this chapter.
Make sure the connecting rods are positioned correctly within the piston opening (Figure 169).
3. Place the left-hand crankcase on wood blocks.
4. Install the shift drum, shift forks and transmission
assemblies (Figure 170) as described in Chapter
Five in this section of the manual.
5. Correctly align the gearshift drum so the shift cam
ramps align with the reliefs in the right-hand crankcase. This is necessary so the drum can pass through
the crankcase in Step 11.
6. Install the large O-ring and dowel pin (Figure
171) and the 2 small dowel pins (Figure 172) into
the left-hand case half.
7. Apply oil to the transmission shafts and crankshaft
bearing surfaces.
8. Clean the crankcase mating surfaces of both
halves with aerosol electrical contact cleaner.
9. Make sure the case half sealing surfaces are perfectly clean and dry.
NOTE
Always use the correct type of gasket
sealer—avoid thick and hard-setting
materials.
10. Apply a light coat of Yamabond No. 4 liquid
gasket sealer, or equivalent, to the sealing surfaces
of the left-hand half. Make the coating as thin as
possible.
11. Align the right-hand crankcase bearings with the
left-hand assembly. Join both halves and tap together
lightly with a plastic mallet—do not use a metal
hammer as it will damage the cases (Figure 173).
12. Install all bolts in both crankcase halves and
tighten in two stages to a final torque listed in Table
ENGINE 67
2 Tighten bolts in the correct sequence starting with
the lowest number first (Figure 162)
13 Install all engine assemblies that were removed
14 Install the engine as described in this chapter
CRANKSHAFT AND
CONNECTING RODS
Removal/Installation
1 Split the crankcase as described in this chapter
2 Remove the crankshaft assembly (Figure 174)
from the left-hand crankcase half
3 Remove the connecting rod cap bolt nuts (A,
Figure 175) and separate the rods from the crankshaft
4 Mark each rod and cap (Figure 176) as a set Also
mark them with a "F" (front) and "R" (rear) to
indicate from what cylinder they were removed
5 Mark each rod cap and bearing insert so that they
can be reinstalled in their original position
6 Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following
a Install the bearing inserts into each connecting
rod and cap Make sure they are locked in
place correctly
CAUTION
If the old bearings are reused, be sure
they are installed in their exact original
positions
b Lubricate the bearings and crankpins with assembly oil and install the rods so that the letter
"Y" (B, Figure 175) on each rod faces the
tapered end of the crankshaft Apply molybdenum disulfide grease to the threads of the
68 CHAPTER FOUR
connecting rod bolts. Install the caps and
tighten the cap nuts evenly, in a couple of
steps, to the torque specification listed in Table 2.
CAUTION
On the final tightening sequence, if a
torque of 22 ft.-Ib. (32 N>m) is reached,
do not stop tightening until the final
torque value is achieved. If the tightening is interrupted between 22-25 ft.-Ib.
(32-36 N.m), loosen the nut to less than
22 ft.-lb. (32 N.m) and tighten to the
final torque value in one step.
1. Position the crankshaft with the tapered end going
into the left-hand crankcase (Figure 177) and install
the crankshaft in the left-hand crankcase bearing.
When installing the crankshaft, align the front and
rear connecting rods with their respective cylinder
position (Figure 169). Continue to check this alignment until the crankshaft is completely installed.
Connecting Rod Inspection
1. Check each rod for obvious damage such as cracks
and burns.
2. Check the piston pin bushing (Figure 178) for
wear or scoring.
3. Take the rods to a machine shop and have them
checked for twisting and bending.
4. Examine the bearing inserts (Figure 179) for
wear, scoring or burning. They are reusable if in
good condition. Make a note of the bearing size (if
any) stamped on the back of the insert if the bearing
is to be discarded; a previous owner may have used
undersize bearings.
5. Remove the connecting rod bearing bolts (Figure
180) and check them for cracks or twisting. Replace
any bolts as required and as a set.
6. Check bearing clearance as described in this chapter.
Connecting Rod Bearing
and Oil Clearance Measurement
CAUTION
If the old bearings are to be reused, be
sure that they are installed in their exact
original locations.
ENGINE 69
1. Wipe bearing inserts and crankpins clean. Install
bearing inserts in rod and cap (Figure 181).
2. Place a piece of Plastigage on one crankpin parallel to the crankshaft.
3. Install rod, cap and nuts, then tighten the nuts to
25 ft.-lb. (36 N.m).
CAUTION
Do not rotate crankshaft while Plastigage is in place.
4. Remove nuts and the rod cap.
5. Measure width of flattened Plastigage according
to the manufacturer's instructions (Figure 182).
Measure at both ends of the strip. A difference of
0.001 in. (0.025 mm) or more indicates a tapered
crankpin; the crankshaft must be reground or replaced. Use a micrometer and measure the crankpin
OD (Figure 183) to get an exact journal dimension.
6. If the crankpin taper is within tolerance, measure
the bearing clearance with the same strip of Plastigage. Correct bearing clearance is specified in Table
1. Remove Plastigage strips.
7. If the bearing clearance is greater than specified,
use the following steps for new bearing selection.
8. The connecting rods and caps are marked with a
No. 4 or No. 5.
9. The crankshaft is marked on the left-hand counterbalancer with a set of 2 numbers (Figure 184).
The numbers relate to the crankshaft connecting rod
journals, reading from left to right.
10. To select the proper bearing insert number, subtract the crankshaft connecting rod journal number
(Step 9) from the connecting rod and cap number
(Step 8). For example, if the connecting rod and cap
number is 4 and the crankshaft connecting rod journal is 2,4 - 2 = 2. The new bearing insert should be
coded 2.
70 CHAPTER FOUR
11. After new bearings have been installed, recheck
clearance with Plastigage. If the clearance is out of
specifications, either the connecting rod or the
crankshaft is worn beyond the service limit. Refer
the engine to a dealer or qualified specialist.
Connecting Rod Side
Clearance Measurement
1. With both connecting rods attached to the crankshaft, insert a flat feeler gauge between the counterweight and the connecting rod big end (Figure 185).
2. The specified side clearance is listed in Table 1.
3. If the clearance is out of specification, either the
connecting rod or the crankshaft is worn beyond the
service limit. Refer the engine to a dealer or qualified
specialist.
Crankshaft Inspection
1. Clean crankshaft thoroughly with solvent. Clean
oil holes with rifle cleaning brushes; flush thoroughly and dry with compressed air. Lightly oil all
oil journal surfaces immediately to prevent rust.
2. If the surface on all journals is satisfactory, take
the crankshaft to your dealer or local machine shop.
They can check out-of-roundness, taper and wear on
the journals. They can also check crankshaft alignment and inspect for cracks. Check against measurements given in Table 1.
3. Inspect the cam chain sprockets at each end. Refer
to Figure 186 and Figure 187. If they are worn or
damaged, the crankshaft will have to be replaced.
Also inspect the condition of both chains; replace if
necessary.
Crankshaft Bearing and
Oil Clearance Measurement
1. Wipe bearing inserts in the crankcase and the main
bearing journals clean.
2. Use a micrometer and measure the main journal
OD (Figure 188) at two places. Write these dimensions down.
3. Use a bore gauge and measure the main journal
insert ID (Figure 189) at two places. Write these
dimensions down.
ENGINE 71
4. To select the proper bearing insert number, subtract the crankshaft OD (Step 2) from the main
journal insert ID (Step 3).
5. The oil clearance specification is listed in Table
1. If the clearance is out of specifications, either the
crankshaft or the bearing insert is worn beyond the
service limit. Refer the engine to a dealer or qualified
specialist.
MIDDLE DRIVE GEAR
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the bolts securing the middle drive gear
cover (Figure 190) and remove the cover and O-ring
gasket.
2. Remove the engine from the frame as described
in this chapter.
3. Remove the bolts (Figure 191) securing the middle driven gear bearing housing.
4. Remove the bearing housing and shims from the
crankcase. Note the location and number of shims
(Figure 192). They must be reinstalled in the same
location.
5. Separate the crankcase as described in this chapter. Do not remove the transmission shaft assemblies.
6. Unstake the nut securing the middle drive gear.
7. Remove the first gear (Figure 193) from the
transmission drive shaft.
8. Install the "Grabbit," or equivalent onto the transmission drive shaft forth gear (Figure 194) this will
keep the transmission shaft from rotating while loosening the middle drive gear nut.
9. Loosen, then remove the middle drive gear nut (A,
Figure 195).
72
CHAPTER FOUR
10. Remove the middle drive gear (B, Figure 195)
and if necessary, remove the transmission drive shaft
as described in Chapter Five.
11. Inspect the components as described in this
chapter.
12. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Be sure to install the same number of shims
and in the same location (Figure 192) as noted
during removal.
b. Use the same tool set-up used during removal
(Figure 196) to keep the transmission shaft
from rotating while tightening the middle
drive gear nut. Tighten the drive gear nut to the
torque specification in Table 2.
c. Stake the nut securing the middle drive gear.
d. Tighten the middle driven gear bearing housing bolts to the torque specification in Table
2.
e. Make sure the O-ring seal (Figure 197) is in
place on the middle drive gear cover. Install
the cover and tighten the screws securely.
ENGINE 73
Inspection
Special tools are required to disassemble the
driven shaft assembly. Refer this type of work to a
Yamaha dealer or competent machine shop.
1. Inspect for chipped or missing teeth on the middle
drive (Figure 198) and the driven gear (A, Figure
199). If either gear is damaged, both the drive and
driven gears must be replaced as a set.
2. Inspect the drive gear inner splines (Figure 200)
for wear or damage. If damaged, both the drive and
driven gears must be replaced as a set.
3. Inspect the spring (B, Figure 199) for wear, cracks
or damage and replace if necessary.
4. Inspect the O-ring seal (Figure 201) for deterioration or hardness. Replace if necessary.
5. Move the universal joint (Figure 202) back and
forth and pull in and out on it. Check for looseness
or stiffness, replace if necessary.
6. Inspect the universal joint inner splines (Figure
203) for wear or damage. If the splines are damaged,
also check the outer splines on the drive shaft for
damage. Replace the universal joint if necessary.
STARTER CLUTCH AND
REDUCTION GEARS
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the alternator rotor (Figure 156) as described in Chapter Seven in this section of the manual.
2. Remove the Woodruff key (Figure 204) from the
crankshaft.
3. Remove the starter idler gear No. 1 (Figure 205)
and shaft (Figure 206).
4. Slide the idler gear No. 2 (Figure 207) from the
crankshaft.
74
CHAPTER FOUR
5. If necessary, remove the Allen bolts (Figure 208)
securmg the starter clutch assembly to the backside
of the alternator rotor and remove the assembly.
6. Inspect the components as described in this chapter.
7. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:.
a. If removed, apply red Loctite (No. 271) to the
bolts prior to installation.
b. Install the bolts and tighten to the specification
in Table 2.
Inspection
1. Inspect for chipped or missing teeth on the starter
idler gear No. 2 (Figure 209) and on the starter idler
gear No. 1 (A, Figure 210). Replace either gear if
necessary.
2. Inspect the starter idler No. 1 shaft (B, Figure 210)
for wear or cvmage. Replace if necessary.
3. Inspect thr area (Figure 211) in the idler gear No.
2 where it rides on the crankshaft for wear or galling.
Replace the gear if any damage is evident.
4. Inspect the roller riding surface of the starter idler
gear No. 2 for wear or abrasion. Replace the gear if
any damage is evident.
5. Check the rollers (Figure 212) in the starter clutch
for uneven or excessive wear. Replace as a set if any
are bad. If damaged, remove the rollers, springs and
plungers.
BREAK-IN
Following cylinder servicing (boring, honing,
new rings, etc.) and major lower end work, the
engine should be broken in just as if it were new. The
performance and service life of the engine depends
greatly on a careful and sensible break-in. For the
first 500 miles, no more than one-third throttle
ENGINE 75
should be used and speed should be varied as much
as possible within the one-third throttle limit. Prolonged, steady running at one speed, no matter how
moderate, is to be avoided, as is hard acceleration.
Following the 500-mile service, increasingly
more throttle can be used but full throttle should not
be used until the motorcycle has covered at least
1,000 miles and then it should be limited to short
bursts until 1,500 miles have been logged.
The mono-grade oils recommended for break-in
and normal use provide a superior bedding pattern
for rings and cylinders than do multi-grade oils. As
a result, piston ring and cylinder bore life are greatly
increased. During this period, oil consumption will
be higher than normal. It is therefore important to
frequently check and correct the oil level. At no time,
during break-in or later, should the oil level be
allowed to drop below the bottom line on the inspection window; if the oil level is low, the oil will
become overheated resulting in insufficient lubrication and increased wear. 500-Mile Service
It is essential that the oil and filter be changed after
the first 500 miles. In addition, it is a good idea to
change the oil and filter at the completion of break-in
(about 1,500 miles) to ensure that all of the particles
produced during break-in are removed from the
lubrication system. The small added expense may be
considered a smart investment that will pay off in
increased engine life.
Table 1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Item
General
Type
Number of cylinders
Bore and stroke
Displacement
Compression ratio
Cylinders
Cylinder liner
Warp limit
Bore
Taper
Out-of-round
Cylinders
Piston/cylinder clearance
Specifications
in. (mm)
4-stroke, air-cooled,
2
2.992 x 2.323 in. (76 >
32.64 cu. in. (535 cc)
9:1
Aluminum alloy with
0.0012 (0.03)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
V-twin
< 59 mm)
cast iron liners
2.991-2.993(75.98-76.02)


0.0014-0.0022
(0.035-0.055)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
0.004 in.
(0.1)
(continued)
76 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
Item
Pistons
Diameter
Measuring point
Piston rings
Number per piston
Compression
Oil control
Ring end gap
Top
Top and second
Oil (side rail)
Ring side clearance
Top
Second
Crankshaft
Runout
Oil clearance
Connecting rod
Side clearance
Oil clearance
Camshaft
Runout
Oil clearance
Lobe height
Intake
Exhaust
Lobe width
Intake
Exhaust
Cam cap inside diameter
Camshaft outside diameter
Rocker arms and shafts
Shaft clearance
Rocker arm inside diameter
Rocker arm shaft diameter
Valves
Valve stem outer diameter
Intake
Specifications
in. (mm)
2.989-2.991
(75.92-75.97)
0.14(3.5)
2
1
0.012-0.018
(0.30-0.45)
0.012-0.018
(0.30-0.45)
0.008-0.031
(0.2-0.8)
0.001-0.003
(0.03-0.07)
0.0008-0.0024
(0.02-0.06)

0.0008-0.0020
(0.020-0.052)
0.011-0.017
(0.27-0.42)
0.001-0.002
(0.026-0.050)

0.0008-0.0024
(0.020-0.061)
1.564(39.73)
1.566(39.77)
1.269(32.22)
1.272(32.30)
1.102-1.103
(28.00-28.02)
1.100-1.102
(27.96-27.98)
0.0004-0.0015
(0.009-0.038)
0.5512-0.5519
(14.000-14.018)
0.5504-0.5508
(13.980-13.991)
0.274-0.275
(6.960-6.990)
Wear limit
in. (mm)




0.028
(0.7)
0.031
(0.8)

0.005
(0.12)
0.005
(0.12)
0.0012
(0.03)



0.0012(0.03)

1.560
(39.63)
1.562
(39.67)
1.229
(31.22)
1.232
(31.30)


0.0032
(0.08)
0.5543
(14.078)
0.5492
(13.950)
0.273
(6.930) (continued)
ENGINE 77
Table 1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
Item
Valve clearance outer diameter
Exhaust
Valve guide inner diameter
Intake and exhaust
Stem-to-guide clearance
Intake
Exhaust
Valve seat width intake & exhaust
Valve face width intake & exhaust
Valve stem runout maximum
Margin thickness intake & exhaust
Head diameter
Intake
Exhaust
Valve springs
Outer free length
Intake & exhaust
Inner free length intake & exhaust
Tilt limit intake & exhaust
Oil pump
Tip clearance
Side clearance
Specifications
in. (mm)
0.273-0.274
(6.930-6.960)
0.275-0.276
(7.0-7.012)
0.0004-0.0015
(0.010-0.037)
0.0010-0.0020
(0.025-0.052)
0.04-0.05(1.0-1.2)
0.09 (2.3)

0.04-0.06(1.0-1.4)
1.453-1.461
(36.9-37.1)
1.256-1.264
(31.9-32.1)
1.717(43.6)
1.571 (39.9)

0.0-0.005(0.0-0.12)
0.001-0.003(0.03-0.08)
Wear limit
in. (mm)
0.272
(6.910)
0.278
(7.05)
0.0031
(0.08)
0.0039
(0.10)
0.055(1.4)

0.0012(0.03)
0.028 (0.7)




2.5°/0.067(1.7)
0.007(0.17)
0.003 (0.08)
Table 2 ENGINE TIGHTENING TORQUES
iiem
Engine mounting hardware
Rear upper bolt
Front upper bolts
Rear lower through bolt
Bracket-to-front cylinder head
Camshaft bushing holder bolts
Cylinder head bolts and nuts
Side bolt
8 mm nut
10 mm nut
Cylinder bolt
Camshaft sprocket bolt
Camshaft chain tensioner
Mounting bolts
Center bolt
Camshaft drive chain damper
mounting bolts
Oil pump mounting bolts
Primary drive gear
Locknut
Bearing housing bolts
Middle drive gear nut
Starter clutch bearing bolts
Crankcase bolts
6 mm
8 mm
Connecting rod nuts
ft.-lb.
40
40
40
40
14
14
14
25
7.2
40
8.7
14
7.2
5.1
50
18
85
14
7.2
17
25
N*m
55
55
55
55
20
20
20
35
10
55
12
20
10
7
70
25
120
20
10
24
36
CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION
CLUTCH
The clutch on the Yamaha XV535 is a wet multiplate type which operates immersed in the engine
oil.
All clutch parts can be removed with the engine
in the frame. Refer to Table 1 for all clutch specifications and Table 2 for all tightening torques. Tables
1 and 2 are found at the end of the chapter.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins. If
a specific procedure is not included in
this chapter, refer to Chapter Five in the
front of this manual for service procedures.
Removal
Refer to Figure 1 for this procedure.
Portions of this procedure are shown with the
engine remove and partially disassembled. It is not
necessary to do so for clutch removal.
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual.
3. At the hand lever, slide back the clutch lever shield
(Figure 2).
4. Loosen the clutch cable locknut (A, Figure 3) and
rotate the adjuster (B, Figure 3) to allow maximum
slack in the cable.
5. At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts (A, Figure 4) and rotate the adjuster (B,
Figure 4) to allow maximum slack in the cable.
Disconnect the clutch cable from the actuating lever.
6. Remove the following from the right-hand side.
a. Right-hand footpeg assembly (Figure 5).
b. Rear brake pedal and engine guard assembly
(Figure 6).
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 79
CLUTCH
LBolt
2. Spring
3. Locknut
4. Washer
5. Pressure plate
6. Push plate
7. O-ring
8. Pushrod No. 1
9. Steel ball
10. Clutch nut
11. Lockwasher
12. Clutch disc
13. Friction disc
14. Clutch boss ring
15. Clutch plate No. 1
16. Spring
17. Spring seat
18. Clutch boss
19. Splined thrust washer
20. Clutch housing
21. Pushrod No. 2
80 CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 81
7. Remove the bolts securing the right-hand crankcase cover (Figure 7) and remove the cover and
gasket. Don't lose the dowel pins.
8. Remove the circlip (A, Figure 8) and remove the
oil pump drive gear (B, Figure 8).
9. Remove the 5 pressure plate screws (Figure 9)
and springs (Figure 10).
10. Remove the pressure plate (Figure 11).
11. Remove the clutch plates and friction disc (A,
Figure 12) and keep them in order.
12. Use a magnetic tool and remove the steel ball
from the center of the transmission shaft (B, Figure
12).
13. Straighten out the locking tab (A, Figure 13) on
the clutch nut lockwasher.
NOTE
To keep the clutch housing from turning,
use the "Grabbit" or Yamaha Universal
Clutch Holder special tool (part No
YM-91042) on the clutch boss See Figure 14
14. Loosen, then remove the clutch nut (B, Figure
13) and the lockwasher (Figure 15). Discard the
lockwasher as a new one must be installed during
assembly.
15. Remove the clutch boss (Figure 16).
16 Remove the thrust plate (Figure 17) and clutch
housing (Figure 18).
17. Remove the long push rod No. 2 from the center
of the transmission shaft.
Inspection
1. Clean all clutch parts in a petroleum-based solvent
such as kerosene and thoroughly dry with compressed an"
82 CHAPTER FIVE I
2. Measure the free length of each clutch spring as
shown in Figure 19. Replace any springs that are too
short (Table 1).
3. Measure the thickness of each friction disc (Figure 20) at several places around the disc as shown
in Figure 21. See Table 1 for specifications. Replace
all friction discs if any one is found too thin. Do not
replace only 1 or 2 discs.
4. Check the clutch metal plates for warpage as
shown in Figure 22. If any plate is warped more than
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 83
specified (Table 1), replace the entire set of plates.
Do not replace only 1 or 2 plates.
5. Check the gear teeth on the clutch housing (Figure 23). Replace if necessary.
6. Inspect the pressure plate (Figure 24) for signs of
wear or damage; replace if necessary.
7. Inspect the fingers on the clutch housing (Figure
25) and the clutch boss (Figure 26) for cracks or
galling in the grooves where the clutch friction disc
tabs slide (Figure 27). They must be smooth for
chatter-free clutch operation.
8. Inspect the inner splines (Figure 28) in the clutch
boss assembly. If damage is only a slight amount,
remove any small burrs with a fine cut file; if damage
is severe, replace the clutch boss.
NOTE
The clutch boss is a sub-assembly with
a built-in damper located inside the first
clutch plate A large wire clip (Figure
29) holds the assembly together. Do not
disassemble this unit unless there was
severe clutch chatter prior to disassembly.
84 CHAPTER FIVE
9. Inspect the long push rod No. 2 (Figure 30) by
rolling it on a flat surface, such as a piece of glass.
Any clicking noise detected indicates that the rod is
bent and should be replaced.
10. Inspect the clutch nut and sphned thrust washer
(Figure 31) for wear or damage. Replace as necessary.
11. Inspect the end of the pushrod No. 1 (A, Figure
32) for wear or damage. If damaged, perform the
following:
a. Remove the nut and washer (Figure 33) and
remove the pushrod No. 1 and the push plate
from the pressure plate.
b. Inspect the O-ring seal (B, Figure 32) on the
No. 1 pushrod and replace if necessary.
c. Reinstall the pushrod No. 1 and push plate into
the backside of the pressure plate.
d. Install the washer and nut. Do not tighten the
nut at this time as it must be adjusted after the
clutch assembly is installed in the crankcase.
Installation
1. Coat all parts with clean engine oil.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 85
NOTE
While installing the clutch housing,
slightly rotate it back and forth until the
gears mesh properly. Push it on until it
bottoms out.
2. Install the clutch housing (Figure 18). Make sure
it meshes properly with the primary drive gear.
3. Install the splined thrust washer (Figure 17).
4. Install the clutch boss (Figure 16).
5. Install the new lockwasher (Figure 15). Make
sure the locking tabs on the lockwasher are inserted
into the slots in the pressure plate.
6. Position the clutch nut with the recessed side
(Figure 34) going on first. Install the clutch nut (B,
Figure 13) and tighten to specification (Table 2)
using a torque wrench and holding tool to keep the
clutch hub from turning. See Figure 14. Bend up the
lockwasher (A, Figure 13) against one side of the
nut.
7. Install the long push rod (Figure 35) into the
center of the transmission shaft.
8. Install the steel ball (Figure 36) into the center of
the transmission shaft.
NOTE
On models so equipped, position the
friction discs so the double notches (A,
Figure 37) align with the embossed
marks on the clutch housing (B, Figure
37). If the clutch housing is not marked,
align all friction disc double notches.
9. First install a friction disc (Figure 38) and then a
clutch plate (Figure 39). Continue to install the
friction discs and clutch plates until all are installed.
The last item installed is a friction disc (A, Figure
12).
86 CHAPTER FIVE
10 Make sure all friction discs are aligned as shown
in Figure 40
11 Install the pressure plate (Figure 11)
12 Install the springs (Figure 10) and bolts (Figure
9) and tighten in a criss-cross pattern to specifications (Table 2)
NOTE
The clutch mechanism free play must be
adjusted after the clutch assembly has
been disassembled even if the No 1
push rod assembly was not disassembled
13 Adjust the clutch mechanism free play as described in this chapter
14 Make sure the clutch cover dowel pins (A, Figure 41) are in place and mstall a new clutch cover
gasket (B, Figure 41)
15 Install the clutch cover (Figure 7) and tighten
the cover screws securely
16 Install the following onto the right-hand side
a Rear brake pedal and engine guard assembly
(Figure 6)
b Right-hand footpeg assembly (Figure 5)
17 Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual
18 Refill the crankcase with the recommended type
and quantity of engine oil, refer to Chapter Three in
this section of the manual
Clutch Mechanism Free Play Adjustment
This adjustment is necessary if there is insufficient freeplay in the clutch cable or if the clutch
assembly has been disassembled
1 If the clutch has not been disassembled, perform
Steps 1-7 Clutch Removal in this chapter
2 Loosen the pushrod No 1 locknut (A, Figure 42)
3 Push the clutch actuating lever (A, Figure 43) on
the crankcase cover toward the front of the engine
until it stops
4 With the clutch actuating lever in this position, use
a screwdriver to turn the pushrod No 1 (B, Figure
42) in either direction until the mark on the lever is
aligned with the match mark on the crankcase cover
(B, Figure 43)
5 Hold the pushrod No 1 in this position and tighten
the locknut securely
6 Repeat Step 3 to ensure correct alignment, readjust if necessary
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 87
7 Install all items removed
8. Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter Three in
this section of the manual.
CLUTCH CABLE
Replacement
In time, the cable will stretch to the point where it
is no longer useful and will have to be replaced
1 Place the bike on the sidestand.
2 Remove the seat(s)
3A On 1987-1989 US models and 1988 UK
models, remove the rear bolt and front bolt on each
side securing the frame top cover and remove the
cover (Figure 44)
3B On 1990-on US models and 1989-on UK
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in
Chapter Six in this section of the manual
4. At the hand lever, slide back the clutch lever shield
(Figure 45)
5 Loosen the clutch cable locknut (A, Figure 46)
and rotate the adjuster (B, Figure 46) to allow maximum slack m the cable.
6 At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts and rotate the adjuster (A, Figure 47) to
allow maximum slack in the cable
7 Disconnect the clutch cable from the clutch actuating lever (B, Figure 47) Then pull the cable out
of the lever.
NOTE
Prior to removing the cable, make a
drawing of the cable routing through
the frame It is very easy to forget how
it was, once it has been removed Replace it exactly as it was, avoiding any
sharp turns
8. Carefully remove the cable from the frame clamps
and replace with a new one. Make sure the cable fits
into the cable clamp on the left-hand side of the
frame (Figure 48) and upper fork bridge (Figure
49)
9. Adjust the clutch as described in Chapter Three in
this section of the manual.
SHIFT MECHANISM
Refer to Figure 50 for this procedure.
88 CHAPTER FIVE
SHIFTER ASSEMBLY
1. E-clip
2. E-clip
3. Shift shaft
4. Return spring
5. Spring
6. Stopper stud
7. Lockwasher
8. Washer
9. Stopper lever
10. Spring
11. Oil seal
12. Shift arm
13. Bolt
14. Nut
15. Shift rod
16. Cover
17. Shift pedal
18. Dust cover
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 89
Removal/Inspection/Installation
Portions of this procedure are shown with the
engine remove and partially disassembled. It is not
necessary to do so for shift mechanism removal and
installation.
1. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual.
2. Remove the bolt (Figure 51) securing the shift
lever arm and slide it off the shift shaft.
3. Remove the left-hand foot peg (A, Figure 52).
4. Remove the left-hand footrest bar (B, Figure 52).
5. At the hand lever, slide back the clutch lever shield
(Figure 45).
6. Loosen the locknut (A, Figure 46) and rotate the
adjuster (B, Figure 46) to allow maximum slack in
the cable.
7. At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts and rotate the adjuster (A, Figure 47) to
allow maximum slack in the cable.
8. Disconnect the clutch cable from the clutch actuating lever (B, Figure 47). Then pull the cable out
of the lever.
9. Drain the engine oil as described in Chapter Three
in this section of the manual.
10. Remove the bolts securing the left-hand crankcase cover (Figure 53) and remove the cover and
gasket. Don't lose the dowel pins.
11. Remove the clutch assembly as described in this
chapter.
12. On the left-hand side, remove the E-clip (Figure
54) and washer (Figure 55) from the shift shaft
assembly.
13. On the right-hand side, disengage the shift lever
(Figure 56) I'mm ilk1 sliili ilium and remove ihc shilt
shall asscmblv I nun Ihc cmnkciiM11 Figure 57).
90 CHAPTER FIVE
14 Examine the shift shaft spindle assembly for
damage Refer to Figure 58 and Figure 59 If the
shaft is bent or damaged in any way, it must be
replaced
15 If necessary, remove the washer (A, Figure 60),
spring (B, Figure 60) and slide the stopper lever
assembly (C, Figure 60) off the shaft
16 On the left-hand side, insert the end of the shift
shaft spindle into the engine crankcase opening
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 91
17. Push the shift arm down and install the shift
mechanism all the way. Figure 61 and Figure 62
shows the installed assembly.
18. Reverse Steps 2-12 to complete installation.
Refill the engine with the correct type and quantity
of oil as described in Chapter Three in this section
of the manual.
TRANSMISSION
The crankcase must be disassembled to gain access to the transmission components.
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figure 63 for this procedure.
TRANSMISSION
1. Ball bearing
2. Drive axle 1st gear
3. Drive axle 4th gear
4. Circlip
5. Splined washer
6. Drive axle 3rd gear
7. Drive axle 5th gear
8. Drive axle 2nd gear
9. Drive axle
10. Main shaft/1 st gear
11. Main shaft 4th gear
12. Main shaft 3rd gear
13. Main shaft 5th gear
14. Main shaft 2nd gear
92 CHAPTER FIVE
1. Separate the crankcase as described in Chapter
Four in this section of this manual.
2. Remove the middle driven gear assembly as described in Chapter Four.
3. Withdraw the shift fork shafts and shift forks from
both transmission shafts as described in this chapter.
4. Remove the shift drum (Figure 64).
5. Remove the main shaft (A, Figure 65) and drive
axle (B, Figure 65) assemblies from the crankcase
as an assembly.
6. Inspect the transmission assembly as described in
this chapter.
NOTE
Prior to installing any components, coat
all bearing surfaces with assembly oil.
7. Properly mesh both transmission assemblies together in their proper relation to each other (Figure
66) and install them into the crankcase. Make sure
both shafts completely bottom out in the crankcase.
If necessary, tap on the end of the shafts with a
soft-faced mallet.
8. Install the shift drum (Figure 64).
9. Install the shift forks and shafts into both transmission shafts as described in this chapter.
10. Install the middle driven gear assembly as described in Chapter Four in this section of the manual.
11. Assemble the crankcase assembly as described
in Chapter Four in this section of the manual.
Main Shaft Disassembly/Assembly
Disassembly and assembly of the main shaft requires the use of a hydraulic press and an insert.
Refer to Figure 63 for this procedure.
NOTE
When disassembling the main shaft assembly, place all parts in a container,
such as an egg carton (Figure 67), to
prevent mixing up the gear alignment
1. Prior to disassembling the main shaft, use a Vernier caliper and measure the overall length of the
gear set (Figure 68) and write this number down.
Also measure the clearance between the second and
fifth gears (Figure 69) and write this number down.
These numbers are to be used during assembly to
make sure the shaft is assembled to the correct
clearance and overall length.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 93
2. Install an insert (A, Figure 70) below the fifth gear
and install the main shaft assembly in the hydraulic
press.
3. While holding onto the main shaft assembly, press
the second gear (B, Figure 70) off the shaft.
4. Release hydraulic pressure and remove the shaft
and insert assembly from the press.
5. Remove the second gear, fifth gear and the insert.
6. Remove the third gear.
7. Remove the circlip, splined washer and slide off
the fourth gear.
8. Inspect the main shaft assembly as described in
this section.
NOTE
Prior to installing any components,
coat all bearing surfaces with assembly
oil.
9. Install the fourth gear (A, Figure 71).
10. Install the splined washer (B, Figure 71) and
circlip (C, Figure 71). Make sure the circlip is seated
correctly in the main shaft groove.
11. Install the third gear (Figure 72).
12. Install the fifth gear (Figure 73).
94 CHAPTER FIVE
13. Apply a light coat of molybdenum disulfide
grease to the main shaft and to the inner surface of
the second gear. This will aid in pressing the second
gear onto the shaft.
14. Install the second gear (Figure 74) onto the end
of the shaft as far as it will go.
15. Install the main shaft assembly in the hydraulic
press (Figure 75).
16. Install a piece of pipe or socket on top of the
second gear (Figure 76). The inner diameter of the
pipe or socket must be large enough for the end of
the main shaft to pass into it without touching.
17. While holding onto the main shaft assembly, start
pressing the second gear onto the shaft.
18. Refer to the clearance measured in Step 1 and
place the correct thickness flat feeler gauge between
the second and fifth gears (Figure 77).
NOTE
At the beginning the second gear will
press smoothly onto the main shaft and
then will usually "jump" several times
making a loud cracking noise. This is
normal, but when the gear does jump it
moves rapidly and will close the clearance between the 2 gears very rapidly.
Apply hydraulic pressure slowly.
19. Continue to press the second gear onto the shaft
while holding the feeler gauge in place. Press the
gear into place until the correct clearance between
the gears is achieved as noted in Step 1. If the gear
jumps during installation and clamps onto the feeler
gauge, the second gear must be pressed back off and
then reinstalled until the correct amount of clearance
is achieved.
20. After the correct clearance is achieved, release
the hydraulic pressure and remove the shaft assembly from the press.
21. Use a Vernier caliper and measure the overall
length of the gear set (Figure 68). This dimension
should be the same as noted in Step 1.
22. Refer to Figure 78 for correct placement of the
gears.
Drive Axle Disassembly/Assembly
Refer to Figure 63 for this procedure.
NOTE
When disassembling the drive axle assembly, place all parts in a container,
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION
such as an egg carton (Figure 79), to
prevent mixing up the gear alignment.
1. Remove the drive axle first gear and forth gear.
2. Remove the circlip and splined washer.
3. Remove the drive axle third gear and fifth gear.
4. Remove the circlip and splined washer.
5. Remove the drive axle second gear.
6. Inspect the drive axle assembly as described in
this chapter.
NOTE
Prior to installing any components,
coat all bearing surfaces with assembly
oil.
7. Install the drive axle second gear (A, Figure 80).
8. Install the splined washer (B, Figure 80) and
circlip (C, Figure 80). Make sure the circlip is
properly seated in the drive axle groove.
9. Install the drive axle fifth gear (Figure 81).
10. Position the drive axle third gear with the dog
receptacle side going on last and install the drive axle
third gear (Figure 82).
11. Install the splined washer (A, Figure 83) and
circlip (B, Figure 83). Make sure the circlip is
properly seated in the drive axle groove.
12. Install the drive axle forth gear (Figure 84).
13. Install the drive axle first gear (Figure 85).
14. Refer to Figure 86 for correct placement of the
gears.
15. Properly mesh both transmission assemblies together (Figure 87) to make sure all mating gears are
properly aligned.
Inspection
1. Clean all parts in cleaning solvent and thoroughly
dry.
96 CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 97
2. Inspect the gears visually for cracks, chips, broken
teeth and burnt teeth (Figure 88). Check the dogs
(A, Figure 89) on the ends of the gears to make sure
they are not rounded off. If the lugs are rounded off,
check the shift forks as described later in this chapter.
More than likely, one or more of the shift forks is
bent.
NOTE
Defective gears should be replaced, and
it is a good idea to replace the mating
gear even though it may not show as
much wear or damage. Remember that
accelerated wear to new parts is normally caused by contact from worn
parts.
3. Inspect all free wheeling gear bearing surfaces
(Figure 90) for wear, discoloration and galling. Inspect the mating shaft bearing surface also. If there
is any metal flaking or visual damage, replace both
parts.
4. Inspect the splines (Figure 91) on both shafts for
wear or discoloration. Check the mating gear internal splines also (B, Figure 89). If no visual damage
is apparent, install each sliding gear on its respective
shaft and work the gear back and forth to make sure
gear operates smoothly.
5. Check all circlips and washers. Replace any circlips that may have been damaged during operation
or removal as well as any washers that show wear.
6. If some of the transmission components were
damaged, make sure to inspect the shift drum and
shift forks as described in this chapter.
SHIFT DRUM AND FORKS
Removal/Installation
1. Separate the crankcase as described in Chapter
Four in this section of the manual.
2. Withdraw the rear long shift fork shaft.
3. Withdraw the front short shift fork shaft.
4. Remove all 3 shift forks from both transmission
shafts.
5. Remove the shift drum from the left-hand side
crankcase.
NOTE
When installing the shift forks, the number on each shift fork (Figure 92) must
face toward the left-hand side crankcase.
6. Install the shift drum (Figure 93).
7. Insert the No. 1 shift fork into the drive axle fifth
gear (A, Figure 94) then insert the No. 3 shift fork
into the drive axle forth gear (B, Figure 94).
8. Insert the No. 2 shift fork into the main shaft third
gear (Figure 95).
9. Move all shift forks into position so that their pin
seats in their respective shift drum groove.
98 CHAPTER FIVE
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION 99
10. Insert the rear long shift fork shaft through the
No. 1 and No. 3 shift forks (A, Figure 96). Make
sure the shaft bottoms out in the crankcase.
11. Insert the front short shift fork shaft into the No.
2 shift fork (B, Figure 96). Make sure the shaft
bottoms out in the crankcase.
12. Assemble the crankcase assembly as described
in Chapter Four.
Inspection
1. Inspect each shift fork for signs of wear or cracking (Figure 97). Examine the shift forks at the points
where they contact the slider gear. This surface
should be smooth with no signs of wear or damage.
Make sure the forks slide smoothly on the shaft
(Figure 98). Make sure the shaft is not bent. This
can be checked by removing the shift forks from the
shaft and rolling the shaft on a piece of glass. Any
clicking noise detected indicates that the shaft is
bent.
2. Check grooves in the shift drum (Figure 99) for
wear or roughness.
3. Check the shift drum bearing (A, Figure 100).
Make sure it operates smoothly with no signs of
wear or damage.
4. Check the ramps and pin in the segment (B,
Figure 100) for wear or damage, replace if necessary by removing the screw (Figure 101) on the end.
5. Check the cam pin followers in each shift fork.
They should fit snugly but not too tightly. Check the
end that rides in the shift drum for wear or burrs.
Replace as necessary.
Table 1 CLUTCH SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Friction plate (6 pcs)
Clutch plate (5 pcs)
Warp limit
Clutch spring (5)
Free length
Pushrod No. 2 bend limit
Standard
in. (mm)
0.114-0.122
(2.9-3.1)
0.060-0.067
(1.1-1.7)

1.56(39.5)

Minimum
in. (mm)
0.102
(2.6)

0.008 (0.2)
1.52 (38.5)
0.02 (0.5)
Item
Clutch nut
Clutch spring bolts
Table 2 CLUTCH TIGHTENING
ft.-lb.
50
5.8
TORQUES
N*m
70
8
CHAPTER SIX
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL
AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
This chapter describes complete procedures for
servicing the fuel, emission control and exhaust
systems. Carburetor specifications are listed in Table 1. Table 1 is at the end of the chapter.
NOTE
Where differences occur relating to the
United Kingdom (U.K.) models they are
identified. If there is no (U.K.) designation relating to a procedure, photo or
illustration it is identical to the United
States (U.S.) models.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins. If
a specific procedure is not included in
this chapter, refer to Chapter Six in the
front section of this manual for service
procedures.
CARBURETOR
Removal/Installation
Remove both carburetors as an assembled unit.
1. Place the motorcycle securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat(s).
3A. On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K.
models, remove the rear bolt and front bolt on each
side securing the frame top cover and remove the
cover (Figure 1).
3B. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K.
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in this
chapter.
4. Unhook the battery strap (A, Figure 2).
5. Disconnect the battery vent tube (B, Figure 2).
6. Pull the battery part way up out of the battery box
to gain access to the battery cable attachment screws.
7. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable (Figure
3) from the battery.
8. Remove the right-and left-hand frame and engine
side covers.
9A. On models equipped with the air injection system, disconnect the hoses (A, Figure 4) from the air
injection system and remove the left-hand bracket
assembly (B, Figure 4) with the system components
still attached to it.
9B. On all other models, remove bolts securing the
left-hand side cover (Figure 5) and remove the
bracket (A, Figure 6).
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 101
10. Disconnect the vent hose (B, Figure 6) from
each carburetor.
11. Remove bolts securing the right-hand side cover
(Figure 7) and electrical component bracket (Figure
8) and move the bracket assembly out of the way.
12. Remove the bolts securing the rubber intake tube
to each cylinder head (Figure 9).
13. At the throttle lever, loosen the cable locknut (A,
Figure 10) and loosen the adjuster (B, Figure 10) to
allow maximum amount of slack in the throttle
cable.
102 CHAPTER SIX
14 Loosen the locknut on the throttle cable (A,
Figure 11)
15 Open the throttle wheel with your finger and
disconnect the throttle cable from the carburetor
throttle wheel (B, Figure 11)
16 Loosen the hose clamp and disconnect the fuel
hose (Figure 12) from the carburetor assembly Insert a golf tee to prevent the dribbling of fuel
17 Remove the hose clamp screws (Figure 13)
securing the air filter housing joints to both carburetors Remove both hose clamps
18 Push the air filter housing joints up into the air
box
19 Grasp the carburetor assembly and work the
assembly out toward the left-hand side Remove the
carburetor assembly from the frame
CAUTION
Stuff clean shops rags into the intake
openings in the cylinder heads to prevent foreign objects from falling into the
cylinder heads
20 While the carburetor assembly is removed, examine the cylinder head intake tubes and the rubber
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 103
outlet boots on the air filter box for any cracks or
damage that would allow unfiltered air to enter the
engine. Replace any damaged parts.
21. Install by reverse these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Make sure the O-ring seal is in place in the
rubber intake tube prior to installation. During
installation of the carburetor assembly, do not
snag the O-ring on the cylinder head surface
as the O-ring will either be damaged or may
be moved out of position resulting in a vacuum leak.
b. Make sure the carburetors are fully seated
forward in the filter housing joints on both
carburetors. Also make sure the joints are correctly seated in the air filter air box.
CAUTION
Make sure the carburetor intake tubes
are air tight. Air leaks can cause severe
engine damage because of a lean mixture or the intake of dirt and moisture.
c. Check the throttle cable for correct routing
after installation. The cable must not be
twisted, kinked or pinched.
d. Adjust the throttle cable as described in Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
Carburetor Assembly
Separation/Reassembly
The carburetors can be cleaned without separating
the individual body assemblies but if necessary, they
can be separated as follows.
1. Remove the screw and E-clip (A, Figure 14)
securing the choke lever and remove the choke lever
assembly (B, Figure 14). Don't lose the plastic
washers that will fall out when the lever is removed.
2. Loosen the screws on the choke lever link (Figure
15).
3. Remove the E-clip, spring and remove the choke
lever from the assembly.
4. Remove the screws securing the upper bracket and
remove the bracket.
5. Remove the screws securing the lower bracket (A,
Figure 16) and remove the bracket.
6. Move the hose clamps on the fuel line assembly
(Figure 17) away from both carburetor bodies.
7. Place the carburetor assembly on a piece of plate
glass with the vacuum chamber covers facing down.
104 CHAPTER SIX
CARBURETOR
1. Cover
2. Guide
3. Screw
4. Spring
5. Jet needle assembly
6. Diaphragm/slide
7. Main jet nozzle
8. Upper bracket
9. Pilot air Jet No. 1
10. Carburetor body
11. Float hanger
12. Float
13.0-ring gasket
14. Float chamber
15. Lockwasher
16. Needle valve
17. Throttle lever and
return spring
18. Choke lever
19. O-ring
20. Drain screw
21. Screw
22. Choke lever assembly
23. Choke assembly
24. Choke plate
25. Gasket
26. Coasting enrichener assembly
27. E-clip
28. Washer
29. Seal
30. Pilot jet
31. Rubber plug
32. Main jet bleed pipe
33. Rubber plug
34. Lower bracket
35. Throttle adjust knob and spring
36. Main jet
37. Washer
38. Main jet holder
39. Needle valve and seat
40. Sychronizing lever assembly
41. Springs
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 105
8. Carefully separate the carburetor bodies from
each other. Don't lose the small synchronizing screw
(B, Figure 16) that will usually fall out.
9. Reassemble by reversing these separation steps
while noting the following:
a. Place the carburetor assembly on a piece of
plate glass with the inlet side facing down.
b. Tighten the upper and lower bracket screws
securely while pressing down on both carburetors to maintain proper alignment between
the 2 carburetors.
c. Connect the rubber fuel line onto each carburetor body and reposition the hose clamps.
Make sure the clamps are positioned correctly
to avoid a fuel leak.
Individual Carburetor
Disassembly/Assembly
Refer to Figure 18 for this procedure. It is recommended to disassemble only one carburetor at a time
to prevent accidental interchange of parts.
1. Move the hose clamps on the fuel line assembly
(Figure 17) away from the carburetor to be disassembled.
2. Remove the screws (Figure 19) securing the float
bowl and remove the float bowl and gasket.
3. Remove the float (Figure 20) and the needle valve
(Figure 21).
4. Remove the main jet (A, Figure 22).
5. Remove the main jet nozzle holder screw (B,
Figure 22) and the washer under it.
NOTE
One of the vacuum cover screws is a
Torx head type (size T-27) and a special
tool is required to remove it. Use
Yamaha special tool U.S. part No. YU05258, U.K. part No. 90890-05349, or
equivalent.
6. Remove the screws (Figure 23) and the vacuum
chamber cover.
7. Remove the diaphragm spring (Figure 24) from
the diaphragm.
8. Lift the diaphragm assembly (A, Figure 25) out
of the carburetor.
9. Unscrew the pilot air jet No. 2 (Figure 26).
10. Remove the screws securing the choke chamber
and remove the chamber assembly.
106 CHAPTER SIX
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 107
11. Remove the screws securing the jet block assembly (Figure 27) and remove it. Remove the gasket
(Figure 28) and O-ring (A, Figure 29).
12. Turn the carburetor over and tap it with your
hand. Remove the main jet nozzle (B, Figure 29).
13. Remove the screws securing the coasting enricher cover (Figure 30) and remove the spring and
diaphragm (A, Figure 31).
14. Remove the rubber plugs (A, Figure 32) from
the jet holder assembly.
15. Unscrew the pilot jet (B, Figure 32) and the main
bleed pipe (C, Figure 32).
16. If necessary, remove the screws securing the
throttle cable bracket and remove it.
17. Remove the needle valve assembly (Figure 33).
Don't lose the O-ring seal.
18. Unscrew the pilot air jet No. 1 (A, Figure 34).
19. Clean and inspect that carburetor as described in
this chapter.
20. Installation is the reverse of these steps while
noting the following.
a. Check the throttle shaft and throttle plate (Figure 35) for excessive play or damage. Check
the throttle plate screws for looseness. If the
throttle shaft and/or plate is damaged, that
carburetor body must be replaced as an assembly.
b. Make sure the O-ring seal is in place on the
needle valve assembly prior to installation.
c. Align the projection (Figure 36) on the jet
block with the groove (Figure 37) on the jet
needle and install the jet block. Check to make
sure the alignment is correct as shown in Figure 38. Tighten the screws securely.
d. Replace the float bowl seal (Figure 39) if
deformed or starting to deteriorate or if the
bowl has leaked.
108 CHAPTER SIX
e. Align the locating tab on the vacuum diaphragm (B, Figure 25) with the relief in the
carburetor body. Insert your index finger into
the venturi and hold the slide up to almost the
full open position. This will help eliminate
pinching the diaphragm when the top cover is
installed.
f. Install the cover and tighten the cover screws
securely.
g. Align the locating tab on the coasting enricher
diaphragm (B, Figure 31) with the relief in the
carburetor body. Install the spring and cover
and tighten the screws securely.
h. If removed, apply blue Loctite (No. 242) to the
throttle cable bracket screws prior to installation. Tighten the screws securely.
21. Repeat Steps 1-17 for the other carburetor. Do
not interchange parts—keep them separate.
22. After the carburetors have been disassembled the
idle speed should be adjusted and the carburetors
synchronized as described in Chapter Three in this
section of the manual.
Cleaning and Inspection
1. Thoroughly clean and dry all parts. Yamaha does
not recommend the use of a caustic carburetor cleaning solvent. Instead, clean carburetor parts in a petroleum based solvent. Then rinse in clean water.
2. Allow the carburetor to dry thoroughly before
assembly and blow dry with compressed air. Blow
out the jets and needle jet holder with compressed
air.
CAUTION
If compressed air is not available, allow
the parts to air dry or use a clean lintFUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 109
free cloth. Do not use a paper towel to
dry carburetor parts, as small paper
particles may plug openings in the carburetor body or jets.
CAUTION
Do not use a piece of wire to clean the
jets as minor gouges in the jet can alter
flow rate and upset the fuel/air mixture.
3. Inspect the end of the float valve needle (Figure
40) for wear or damage. Also check the inside of the
needle valve in the needle valve body. If either part
is damaged, replace as a set. A damaged needle valve
or a particle of dirt or grit in the needle valve assembly will cause the carburetor to flood and overflow
fuel.
4. Inspect all O-ring seals on the needle valve assembly prior to installation. O-ring seals tend to become
hardened after prolonged use and heat and therefore
lose their ability to seal properly. Replace if necessary.
5. Make sure the holes in the main jet nozzle (Figure
41) and all jets are clear (Figure 42). Clean out if
they are plugged in any way. Replace the main jet
nozzle if you cannot unplug the holes.
6. Make sure all openings in the carburetor body are
clear. Refer to Figure 43, Figure 44 and B, Figure
34. Clean out if they are plugged in any way.
7. Inspect the slide area (Figure 45) in the carburetor
body. Make sure it is clean and free of any burrs or
obstructions that may cause the diaphragm assembly
to hang up on during normal operation.
8. Inspect the diaphragm slide (A, Figure 46) for
scoring and wear. Replace if necessary.
9. Inspect the diaphragm (B, Figure 46) for tears,
cracks or other damage. Replace the throttle slide
assembly if the diaphragm is damaged.
110 CHAPTER SIX
10. Inspect the float (Figure 47) for deterioration or
damage. If the float is suspected of leakage, place it
in a container of non-caustic solution and push it
down. If the float sinks or if bubbles appear (indicating a leak), the float must be replaced.
CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENTS
Idle Speed, Idle Mixture Adjustment and Carburetor Synchronization are covered in Chapter Three in
this section of the manual.
COASTING ENRICHENER SYSTEM
The carburetors on these models are equipped
with a coasting enrichener system. When the throttle
is opened, air is forced to the pilot air jet through two
passageways in the carburetor body. When the throttle is off, vacuum at the carburetor joint increases
and actuates the enrichener diaphragm which shuts
off the air through one of the passages. This action
increases the fuel mixture at the pilot jet outlet and
reduces afterburning.
1. Remove the carburetor assembly as described in
this chapter.
2. Remove the screws securing the coasting enrichener cover and remove the spring and diaphragm
(Figure 48).
3. Inspect the enrichener diaphragm for tears or other
damage. Replace the diaphragm if necessary.
4. Install by reversing these removal steps.
FUEL LEVEL MEASUREMENT
The fuel level in the carburetor float bowls is
critical to proper performance. The fuel flow rate
from the bowl up to the carburetor bore depends not
only on the vacuum in the throttle bore and the size
of the jets, but also on the fuel level. Yamaha gives
a specification of actual fuel level, measured from
below the piston valve center mark on the float bowl
(Figure 49) with the carburetors mounted on the
motorcycle.
This measurement is more useful than a simple
float height measurement because the actual fuel
level can vary from bike to bike, even when their
floats are set at the same height. Fuel level inspection
requires a special Yamaha Fuel Level Gauge (U.S.
part No. YM-01312, U.K. partNo. 90890-01312) or
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 111
a vinyl tube with an inside diameter of 6 mm (0.24
in.).
The fuel level is adjusted by bending the float arm
tang (Figure 50).
Inspection/adjustment
Carburetors leave the factory with float levels
properly adjusted. Rough riding, a worn needle
valve or bent float arm can cause the float level to
change. To adjust the float level on these carburetors,
perform the following.
WARNING
Some gasoline will drain from the carburetors during this procedure. Work in
a well-ventilated area, at least 50 feet
from any open flame. Do not allow anyone to smoke. Wipe up spills immediately.
1. Place the motorcycle securely on the sidestand.
Make sure the bike and carburetor assembly are in a
true vertical position. If necessary, place shims under
the sidestand to achieve a true vertical position for
the carburetor assembly.
NOTE
Figure 51 and Figure 52 are shown
with the carburetor assembly removed
for clarity. Do not remove the assembly
for this procedure.
2. Connect the fuel level gauge (U.S. part No. YM01312, U.K. part No. 90890-01312) or a vinyl tube
(with a 0.24 in./6 mm inner diameter) to the drain
nozzle on the float chamber (Figure 51) on the front
carburetor. Secure the gauge so that it is vertical
against the float bowl.
3. Loosen the carburetor drain screw. Refer to A,
Figure 52 for the front cylinder or B, Figure 52 for
the rear cylinder.
4. Start the engine and allow it to idle for a few
minutes. Turn the engine off.
5. Wait until the fuel in the gauge settles.
6. The fuel level should be 0.53-0.57 in. (13.5-14.5
mm) below the piston valve center mark on the float
bowl. Note the reading for the front carburetor.
7. If the fuel level is incorrect, note the dimension
for the front carburetor, tighten the drain screw and
then repeat this procedure for the rear carburetor.
Note the fuel level in the rear carburetor.
8. If the fuel level is incorrect, adjust the float height
as follows:
a. Remove the carburetor assembly as described
in this chapter.
b. Remove the screws (Figure 53) securing the
float bowl and remove the float bowl and
gasket.
c. Remove the float (Figure 54) and the needle
valve.
112 CHAPTER SIX
d. Carefully adjust the tang (Figure 50) on the
float. Bending the float upward very slightly
to lower the fuel level; bend the tang downward to raise the fuel level. If the fuel level is
set too high, the result with be a rich air-fuel
mixture. If it is set too low, the mixture will be
too lean.
e. Install the needle valve, float and float bowl.
9. Install the carburetor assembly and repeat this
procedure until both fuel levels are correct.
CAUTION
The floats on both carburetors must be
adjusted to the correct position to maintain the same air-fuel mixture to each
cylinder.
THROTTLE CABLE REPLACEMENT
1. Place the bike securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat.
3A. On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K.
models, remove the rear bolt and front bolt on each
side securing the frame top cover and remove the
cover.
3B. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K.
models, remove the sub-fuel tank as described in this
chapter.
4. At the throttle lever, loosen the cable locknut (A,
Figure 55) and loosen the adjuster (B, Figure 55) to
allow maximum amount of slack in the throttle
cable.
5. Remove the screws securing the right-hand
switch/throttle housing halves together (C, Figure
55).
6. Remove the housing from the handlebar and disengage the throttle cable (D, Figure 55) from the
throttle grip.
7. Loosen the locknut on the throttle cable (A, Figure 56) at the carburetor assembly.
8. Open the throttle wheel with your finger and
disconnect the throttle cable from the carburetor
throttle wheel (B, Figure 56).
9. Disconnect the throttle cable from any clips holding the cable to the frame.
NOTE
The piece of string attached in the next
step will be used to pull the new throttle
cable back through the frame so it will
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 113
be routed in the exact same position as
the old one.
10. Tie a piece of heavy string or cord (approximately 7 ft./2 m) to the carburetor end of the throttle
cable. Wrap this end with masking or duct tape. Do
not use an excessive amount of tape as it will be
pulled through the frame. Tie the other end of the
string to the frame.
11. At the throttle lever end of the cable, carefully
pull the cable (and attached string) out through the
frame. Make sure the attached string follows the
same path of the cable through the frame.
12. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
old cable.
Installation
1. Lubricate the new cable as described in Chapter
Three in the front section of the manual.
2. Tie the string (used during removal) to the new
throttle cable assembly and wrap it with tape.
3. Carefully pull the string back through the frame
routing the new cable through the same path as the
old cable.
4. Remove the tape and untie the string from the
cable and the frame.
5. Reverse Steps 1-9 of Removal, while noting the
following:
a. Operate the throttle grip and make sure the
carburetor throttle linkage is operating correctly and with no binding. If operation is
incorrect or there is binding, carefully check
that the cable is attached correctly and there
are no tight bends in the cable.
b. Adjust the throttle cable as described in Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
c. Test ride the bike and make sure the throttle is
operating correctly.
FUEL SHUTOFF VALVE
(1990-ON U.S. MODELS,
1989-ON U.K. MODELS)
Troubleshooting
1. Remove the main fuel tank as described in this
chapter.
2. Connect a suitable size piece of tubing to the fuel
port.
3. Turn the lever to the ON position.
4. Blow through the tubing and observe the following:
a. The air goes through the tubing and valve—
the valve is operating correctly.
b. The air does not go through the tubing and
valve—the valve is faulty and must be replaced.
5. Leave the hose attached and attach a 12 volt
battery to the solenoid's electrical connector as follows:
a. Battery positive (+) to the yellow/blue terminal.
b. Battery negative (-) to the blue terminal.
6. Blow through the tubing and observe the following:
a. The air goes through the tubing and valve—
the valve is faulty and must be replaced.
b. The air does not go through the tubing and
valve—the valve is operating correctly.
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figure 57 for this procedure.
NOTE
On prior models the main fuel tank was
not equipped with a fuel shutoff valve.
WARNING
Some fuel may spill in the following
procedure. Work in a well-ventilated
area at least 50 feet from any sparks or
flames, including gas appliance pilot
lights. Do not allow anyone to smoke in
the area. Keep a B:C rated fire extinguisher handy.
1. Remove the fuel tank as described in this chapter.
2. If still attached, disconnect the fuel line and vacuum line from shutoff valve.
3. Remove the bolts and washers (A, Figure 58)
securing the shutoff valve to the fuel tank and remove the valve (B, Figure 58).
4. Inspect the shutoff valve mounting O-ring; replace if necessary.
5. Install by reversing these removal steps. Pour a
small amount of gasoline in the tank after installing
the valve and check for leaks. If a leak is present,
solve the problem prior to installing the fuel tank.
114 CHAPTER SIX
FUEL FILTER
All models are equipped with a separate fuel filter
that cannot be cleaned. If dirty or clogged, a new
filter must be installed. The filter must be periodically replaced (no replacement intervals are
specified by Yamaha).
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the seat.
2. Disconnect the inlet (A, Figure 59) and outlet (B,
Figure 59) fuel lines from the fuel filter. Plug the
end of the fuel line with golf tees.
3. Remove the fuel filter from the rubber mount and
remove the filter (C, Figure 59).
4. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Install the fuel filter so that the flange end and
arrow mark (D, Figure 59) face toward the
fuel pump.
b. Check the fuel line clamps for damage; replace if necessary.
c. After installation is complete, thoroughly
check for leaks.
FUEL PUMP
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the seat.
2. Disconnect the battery negative cable.
SHUTOFFVALVE
(1990-ON U.S.
1989-ON U.K.)
1. Bolt
2. Collar
3. Rubber bushing
4. Gasket
5. Valve body
6. Valve disc
7. O-ring
8. Valve
9. Spring
10. Plate
11. Screw
12. Knob
13. Screw
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 115
3. Disconnect the fuel pump electrical connector (A,
Figure 60)
4. Disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet (B, Figure 60)
lines from the fuel pump. Plug the end of the fuel
lines with a golf tee to prevent fuel leakage.
5. Remove the clamping bolts (C, Figure 60) securing the fuel pump to the mounting bracket on the fuel
tank.
6. Carefully pull the fuel pump (D, Figure 60) from
the mounting bracket.
7. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following.
a. Check the fuel line clamps for damage; replace if necessary.
b. After installation is complete, thoroughly
check for fuel leaks.
FUEL TANK(S)
On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K. models, there is one main fuel tank that is mounted within
the frame assembly beneath the seat and behind the
battery. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K.
models, there are two fuel tanks, the main fuel tank
that is the same as on prior models as well as an
additional sub-fuel tank that is mounted on top of the
frame in place of the top cover used on prior years.
WARNING
Some fuel may spill in the following
procedures. Work in a well-ventilated
area at least 50 feet from any sparks or
flames, including gas appliance pilot
lights. Do not allow anyone to smoke in
the area. Keep a B:C rated fire extinguisher handy.
Sub-Fuel Tank
(1990-on U.S. Models and
1989-on U.K. Models)
1. Place the bike securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Disconnect the battery negative cable.
4. Remove the rear bolt, washer and rubber cushion
(A, Figure 61) and front bolt and washer (B, Figure
61) on each side securing the sub-tank to the frame.
Don't lose the metal collar within the rubber cushions on the front mounting areas.
NOTE
In the following step, leave the fuel lines
attached to the sub-fuel tank.
5. Disconnect both fuel lines (Figure 62) from the
main fuel tank. Plug the end of both fuel lines with
a golf tee to prevent the entry of foreign matter and
the loss of fuel.
6. Unhook both fuel lines from the clamps on top of
the battery cover.
7. Check to make sure everything is disconnected
from the fuel tank and remove it from the frame.
116 CHAPTER SIX
8. If necessary, pour the fuel out of the fuel tank into
a container approved for gasoline storage.
9. Check the rubber dampers for wear and damage;
replace if necessary.
Main Fuel Tank
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove both seats(s).
3. Disconnect the battery negative cable.
4. Remove both frame side covers (Figure 63).
5. Remove the bolts securing the left-hand rear side
cover (Figure 64) and remove the cover.
6. On the left-hand side, remove the bolts securing
the rear bracket and remove the bracket.
7. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K. models, perform the following:
a. Disconnect both fuel lines (Figure 62) from
the main fuel tank. Plug the end of both fuel
lines with a golf tee to prevent the entry of
foreign matter and the loss of fuel.
b. Unhook both fuel lines from the clamps on top
of the battery cover.
8. Unhook the starter relay (A, Figure 65) from the
frame mounting bracket and move the relay out of
the way.
9. On models so equipped, remove the battery cover.
10. Remove the battery as described in Chapter
Three in this section of the manual.
11. Remove the bolts, washers and lockwashers
securing the battery box and remove the box from
the frame.
12. Disconnect the electrical connectors from the
fuse panel and remove the panel.
13. Remove the fuel pump and fuel filter (B, Figure
65) from the top and side of the fuel tank as described
in this chapter.
14. Remove the bolts securing the fuel tank front
mounting bracket and remove the bracket.
15. Remove the bolts, washers and lockwashers (C,
Figure 65) securing the rear of the fuel tank to the
frame.
16. Check to make sure everything is disconnected
from the fuel tank and that all mounting bolts are
removed.
17A. On 1987-1989 U.S. models and 1988 U.K.
models, remove the fuel tank and filler cover (D,
Figure 65).
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 117
17B. On all other models, remove the fuel tank from
the frame.
18. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Don't pinch any electrical wires during installation.
b. Reconnect all hoses and connectors. Make
sure all hose clamps are in place and are on
tight.
CRANKCASE BREATHER SYSTEM
To comply with air pollution standards, all models
are equipped with a closed crankcase breather system. The system routes the engine combustion gases
into the air filter air box where they are burned in the
engine.
Make sure the hose clamps at each end of the hose
are tight. Check the hose for deterioration and replace as necessary.
EVAPORATIVE EMISSION CONTROL
(1990-ON CALIFORNIA MODELS)
All models sold in California since 1990 are
equipped with an evaporative emission control system to reduce the amount of fuel vapors released into
the atmosphere. The system consists of a charcoal
canister, a roll-over valve, assorted vacuum lines and
modified carburetors and fuel tank.
During engine operation, fuel vapors formed in
the fuel tank exit the tank though a roll-over valve
and enter the charcoal canister through a connecting
hose. The vapors are stored in the charcoal canisters
until the bike is ridden at high speed, when the
vapors are then passed through a hose to the carburetor and mixed and burned with the incoming fresh
air. During low-speed engine operation or when the
bike is parked, the fuel vapors are stored in the
charcoal canister.
The roll-over valve (Figure 66) is installed in line
with the fuel tank and charcoal canister. Air and fuel
vapor passing through the valve is controlled by an
internal weight. During normal riding (or when the
fuel tank is properly positioned), the weight is at the
bottom of the valve. In this position, the breather
passage is open to allow the fuel vapors to flow to
the charcoal canister. When the bike is rolled or
turned over, the weight moves to block off the passage. In this position it is impossible for stored fuel
vapors to flow to the charcoal canister.
Service to the emission control system is limited
to replacement of damaged parts. No attempt should
be made to modify or remove the emission control
system.
Parts Replacement
When purchasing replacement parts (carburetor
and fuel tank), be sure to specify that the parts are
for a 1990-on California emission control bike. Parts
sold for non-emission control bikes are not compatible with this emission control system.
Inspection/Replacement
Maintenance to the evaporative emission control
system consists of periodic inspection of the hoses
for proper routing and a check of the canister mounting bracket. Refer to Figure 67.
WARNING
Because the evaporative emission control system stores fuel vapors, make sure
the work area is free of all flame or
sparks before working on the emission
system.
1. Whenever servicing the evaporative emission
control system, make sure the ignition switch is
turned OFF.
2. Make sure all hoses are attached and that they are
not damaged or pinched.
3. Replace any worn or damaged parts immediately.
4. The canister is capable of working through the
motorcycle's life without maintenance, provided
that it is not damaged or contaminated.
Roll-Over Valve
Replacement
1. Remove the seat and the frame right-hand side
cover.
2. Remove the bolt and washer securing the roll-over
valve to the side of the main fuel tank (Figure 66).
3. Disconnect the vacuum lines from each end of the
roll-over valve and remove the valve.
4. Install by reversing these removal steps. Make
sure the roll-over valve is tight.
118 CHAPTER SIX
Canister and Hose
Replacement
1. Label the hoses and fittings prior to disconnecting
them.
2. Move the hose clamps off the hoses, then disconnect the hoses from the canister.
3. Remove the bolt, lockwasher and washer securing
the canister to the frame.
4. Remove the canister from the frame.
5. To remove the hoses, perform the following:
a. Remove the tie wraps securing the hoses to the
frame and throttle cables.
b. Disconnect the hoses from the carburetor assembly, fuel tank and canister.
6. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Make sure all hoses are connected to the correct fitting.
b. Make sure the hose clamps and bolts are tight.
AIR INJECTION SYSTEM
(1990-ON U.S. AND
1989-ON U.K. MODELS)
All 1990-on U.S. and 1989-on U.K. models are
equipped with an air injection emission control system to reduce the amount of hydrocarbons released
into the atmosphere. The system consists of an air
cut valve, a reed valve assembly and air and vacuum
hoses (Figure 68). This system does not pressurize
air, but uses the momentary pressure differentials
generated by the exhaust gas pulses to introduce
fresh air into the exhaust ports. Make sure all air and
vacuum hoses are correctly routed and attached as
shown in Figure 69. Inspect the hoses and replace
any if necessary.
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figure 68, Figure 69 and Figure 70 for
this procedure.
NOTE
Prior to removing any hoses, mark the
hose and the fitting with a piece of masking tape and identify where the hose
goes during installation.
1. Place the bike securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat.
EVAPORATIVE
EMISSION CONTROL
(1990-ON CALIFORNIA MODELS)
LHose
2. Hose clamp
3. Rollover valve
4. Bolt
5. Washer
6. Clamp
7. Canister
8. Cover
9. Bracket
10. Lockwasher
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 119
3. Remove the left-hand cover (Figure 71).
4. To remove the air cleaner (Figure 72), perform
the following:
a. Remove the bracket screws and remove the
bracket and cover.
b. Disconnect hose No. 2 from the air cleaner and
remove the air cleaner.
5. To remove the air cut valve (Figure 73), perform
the following:
a. Disconnect hose No. 2 and No. 3 from the air
cut valve.
b. Disconnect the vacuum hose from the air cut
valve.
c. Remove the air cut valve.
6. To remove the reed valve assembly (Figure 74),
perform the following:
a. Disconnect hose No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5 from
the reed valve assembly.
b. Remove the mounting screws and remove the
reed valve assembly.
7. To remove air pipe No. 1 and No. 2, perform the
following:
a. Disconnect the air pipes from hose No. 4 and
No. 5 (Figure 75).
b. Remove the bolt securing the air pipe No. 5 to
the rear cylinder (Figure 76).
c. Remove the bolts securing the air pipes to the
right-hand crankcase cover (Figure 77).
AIR INJECTION SYSTEM
(1990-ON U.S. AND 1989-ON U.K. MODELS)
120 CHAPTER SIX
AIR INJECTION SYSTEM LAYOUT
(1990-ON U.S. AND 1989-ON U.K. MODELS)
TOP VIEW
REAR VIEW
FRONT VIEW
1. Reed valve
2. Air cleaner
3. Air cut valve
4. To cylinders
5. To air cut valve
6. To front cylinder
7. To rear cylinder
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 121
AIR INJECTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(1990-ON U.S. AND 1989-ON U.K. MODELS)
1. Hose No. 1
2. Mounting bracket
3. Bracket
4. Rubber bumper
5. Bolt
6. Cap
7. Air cleaner
8. Washer
9. Washer
10. Nut
11. Reed valve assembly
12. Hose clamp
13. Hose No. 5
14. Hose No. 4
15. Air pipe No. 1
16. Muffler
17. Cover
18. Screw
19. Air pipe No. 2
20. Vacuum hose
21. Air cut valve
22. Air hose No. 3
23. Air hose No. 2
24. Hose clamp
25. Plug
26. Bracket
122 CHAPTER SIX
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 123
EXHAUST SYSTEM
I.Nut
2. Mounting bracket
3 Bolt
4 Gasket
5 Rear joint
6 Exhaust system
7 Washer
8 Lockwasher
NOTE
Figure 78 and Figure 79 are shown on
the front cylinder Air pipe attachment
to the rear cylinder is identical
d. Remove the bolts securing the air pipes to the
cylinders Refer to Figure 78 and Figure 79
e Disconnect the air pipes from the cylinders
and remove both air pipes from the engine
Don't lose the small muffler in the fitting
where they attach to the cylinders
8 Install by reversing these removal steps Be sure
to install each hose and pipe onto the correct fitting
and tighten the bolts securely
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Removal/Installation
Refer to Figure 80 for this procedure
1 Place the bike on the sidestand
2 Remove the nuts (Figure 81) securing the front
exhaust pipe flange to the front cylinder head
3 Remove the bolts (A, Figure 82) securing the rear
exhaust pipe to the rear joint Leave the rear joint
attached to the rear cylinder
4 Remove the bolt (B, Figure 82) secunng the
right-hand foot peg and muffler to the frame
5 Remove the bolt, lockwasher and washer (Figure
83) secunng the muffler chamber to the frame
6 Carefully move the exhaust system forward to
clear the threaded studs on the front cylinder head
exhaust port Pull the exhaust system out of the
right-hand side of the frame and remove it from the
frame and engine
7 If replacement of the rear joint is necessary, the
rear cylinder head must be removed as described in
Chapter Four in this section of the manual After the
124 CHAPTER SIX
cylinder head is removed, remove the self-locking
nuts (Figure 84) and remove the rear joint. Install
new self-locking nuts and tighten securely.
NOTE
Don't lose the gasket at the front exhaust
port and at the rear joint when the exhaust pipe is removed from the engine.
8. Inspect the system as described in this chapter.
9. Be sure to install a new gasket in the front exhaust
port in the cylinder head and at the rear joint (Figure
85).
10. Install all of the exhaust system components and
tighten the fasteners only finger-tight at this time.
Make sure the exhaust pipe inlets are correctly
seated in the cylinder head exhaust port and at the
rear joint.
11. Securely tighten the bolts and nuts securing the
front exhaust pipe flange to the cylinder head and to
the rear joint, then tighten the bolts and nuts securing
the muffler to the frame. This will minimize exhaust
leakage at the cylinder head.
12. After installation is complete, start the engine
and make sure there are no exhaust leaks. Correct
any leak prior to riding the bike.
Inspection
1. Check for leakage where the exhaust pipes attach
to the muffler chamber.
2. Inspect the muffler chamber mounting bracket for
wear or damage. Replace if necessary.
Maintenance
The exhaust system is a vital key to the motorcycles operation and performance, You should periodically inspect, clean and polish (if required) the
exhaust system. Special chemical cleaners and preservatives compounded for exhaust systems are
available at most motorcycle shops.
Severe dents which cause flow restrictions require
replacement of the damaged part.
To prevent internal rust buildup, periodically remove the system and turn it upside down to drain
any trapped moisture.
FUEL, EMISSION CONTROL AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS 125
Table 1 CARBURETOR SPECIFICATIONS
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
49-state
California
Main jet
Both
Front
Rear
Main air jet
Jet needle
Both
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
No. 1
No. 2
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Fuel level
Idle speed
Item
Manufacturer
Model
I.D. mark
Main jet
Main air jet
Jet needle
Cylinder 1
Cylinder 2
Pilot jet
Pilot air jet
No. 1
No. 2
Pilot screw
Starter jet
Fuel level
Idle speed
1987-1989 U.S.
Mikuni
BDS34
2GV00
2JU00
137.5


140

5DZ7-1
5DZ8-1
32.5
60
160
Preset
40
0.53-0.57 in.
(13.5-14.5 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
1988 U.K.
Mikuni
BDS34
2JV00
135
140
5DZ10-3
5DZ9-3
35
70
170
2 turns out
40
0.53-0.57 in.
(13.5-14.5 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
1990-on U.S.
Mikuni
BDS34
3JC10
3JC00

137.5
135
140
Y-0


35
70
170
Preset
40
0.53-0.57 in.
(13.5-14.5 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
1989-on U.K.
Mikuni
BDS34
3BT00
135
140
5DZ10-3
5DZ9-3
35
70
170
2 turns out
40
0.53-0.57 in.
(13.5-14.5 mm)
1,150-1,250 rpm
CHAPTER SEVEN
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The electrical systems consists of the following
systems:
a. Charging system.
b. Ignition system.
c. Starting system.
d. Lighting system.
e. Directional signal system.
f. Horn.
This chapter discusses each system in detail. Refer
to Chapter Three for routine ignition system maintenance. Electrical system specifications are found
in Table 1. Tables 1-4 are found at the end of the
chapter.
NOTE
This chapter covers all procedures
unique to the XV535 Virago V-twins. If
a specific procedure is not included in
this chapter, refer to Chapter Seven at
the front of this manual for service procedures.
CHARGING SYSTEM
The charging system consists of the battery, alternator and a solid state rectifier/voltage regulator
(Figure 1).
The alternator generates an alternating current
(AC) which the rectifier converts to direct current
(DC). The regulator maintains the voltage to the
battery and load (lights, ignition, etc.) at a constant
voltage regardless of variations in engine speed and
load.
Testing Charging System
Whenever the charging system is suspected of
trouble, make sure the battery is fully charged before
going any further. Clean and test the battery as
described in Chapter Three in this section of the
manual. If the battery is in good condition, test the
charging system as follows.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 127
CHARGING SYSTEM
128 CHAPTER SEVEN
1. Place the bike securely on the sidestand.
2. Remove the seat.
3. Check the fuses as described in this chapter.
Replace any blown fuses.
4. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-on U.K. models, perform the following:
a. Unhook both fuel lines (A, Figure 2) from the
clamps on top of the battery cover.
b. Remove the battery cover (B, Figure 2).
NOTE
Do not disconnect either the positive or
negative battery cables; they are to remain in the circuit as is.
5. Connect a 0-20 DC voltmeter to the battery as
shown in Figure 3. Connect the positive (+) voltmeter terminal to the positive (+) battery terminal and
the negative (-) voltmeter terminal to ground.
6. Start the engine and accelerate to approximately
5,000 rpm. Voltage should read 14-15 volts.
7. If charging current is lower than specified, check
the alternator stator as described in the following
section.
ALTERNATOR
An alternator is a form of electrical generator in
which a magnetized field called a rotor revolves
within a set of stationary coils called a stator. As the
rotor revolves, alternating current is induced in the
stator. The current is then rectified and used to operate the electrical accessories on the motorcycle and
for charging the battery. The rotor is a permanent
magnet.
Stator Checks
1. Remove the frame left-hand side cover.
2. Disconnect the alternator 3-pin electrical connector (containing 3 white wires) located by the fuel
pump.
3. Using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between the alternator terminals (Figure 4). It is not
necessary to remove the stator assembly to perform
this test. Set the ohmmeter to ohms x 1. Check each
white wire against the other white. The specified
resistance value should be 0.34-0.42 ohms.
4. If the values are not within the specified range,
check the electrical wires to and within the connector
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 129
terminals. If they are okay, then there is an open
circuit or short in the stator coils and the stator must
be replaced as described in this chapter.
Stator
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on its sidestand.
2. Remove the frame left-hand side cover.
3. Disconnect the alternator 3-pin electrical connector (containing 3 white wires) located by the fuel
pump.
4. On 1990-on U.S. models and 1989-onU.K. models, perform the following:
a. Unhook both fuel lines (A, Figure 2) from the
clamps on top of the battery cover.
b. Remove the battery cover (B, Figure 2).
5. Disconnect the negative battery cable as described
in Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
6. Remove the bolt (Figure 5) securing the shift
lever arm and slide it off the shift shaft.
7. Remove the left-hand foot peg (A, Figure 6).
8. Remove the left-hand footrest bar (B, Figure 6).
9. At the clutch cable lower adjuster, loosen the
locknuts and rotate the adjuster (A, Figure 7) to
allow maximum slack in the cable.
10. Disconnect the clutch cable from the clutch
actuating lever (B, Figure 7). Then pull the cable out
of the lever and move it out of the way.
11. Remove the bolt securing the engine ground
cable and disconnect the cable.
12. Carefully pull the stator wire harness from the
frame and remove the wires from the frame. Note
the path of the wire harness during removal; it must
be routed the same during installation.
13. Using a crisscross pattern, loosen then remove
the Allen screws securing the alternator cover/coil
assembly (Figure 8).
14. Remove the alternator cover/coil assembly, gasket and electrical cable. Don't lose the locating
dowels.
15. To replace the stator coils, perform the following:
a. Remove the screws and lockwashers (A, Figure 9) securing the stator coil assembly.
b. Remove the screw and metal retainer (B, Figure 9).
c. Carefully pull the rubber grommets (Figure
10) and wiring harness from the cover. Remove the stator coil assembly from the cover.
13© CHAPTER SEVEN
d. Separate the stator wiring harness from the
pickup coil harness and remove the stator wiring.
16. Install by reversing these removal steps. Note the
following:
a. Make sure the locating dowels (A, Figure 11)
are in place and install a new gasket (B, Figure
11).
b. Make sure the electrical wire harness is routed
through the frame exactly as before.
c. Clean all wire connectors with electrical contact cleaner.
Inspection
1. Inspect the alternator cover/coil assembly for
wear or cracking.
2. Check the electrical wires on the stator for any
opens or poor connectors. Also check the stator's
insulating material for cracking. If the stator appears
damaged in any way, test the assembly as described
under Stator Testing in this chapter.
Flywheel (Rotor)
Removal/Installation
The following Yamaha special tools are required
for flywheel removal:
a. Flywheel puller set (U.S. part No. YU-33270)
or (U.K. part No. 90890-01362).
b. Adapter (U.S. part No. YU-33282) or (U.K.
part No. 90890-04089).
NOTE
This procedure is shown with the engine
removed and partially disassembled/or
clarity. It is not necessary to remove the
engine for this procedure.
1. Remove the alternator stator as described in this
chapter.
2. Use a strap wrench (Figure 12) on the flywheel
to keep it from turning.
3. Remove the flywheel bolt and washer (Figure 13)
securing the flywheel.
CAUTION
Make sure to thread the special tool
bolts completely into the flywheel
threads to avoid damage to the flywheel
as well as the special tool.
4. Install the previously described Yamaha special
tools or a similar puller, onto the flywheel as shown
in Figure 14.
5. Use a wrench on the puller and tap on the end of
the puller jackscrew with a brass mallet until the
flywheel disengages. Remove the puller and the
flywheel (Figure 15).
6. If necessary, remove the Woodruff key from the
crankshaft.
7. Installation is the reverse of these steps while
noting the following:
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 131
a If removed, install the Woodruff key (Figure
16) in the crankshaft
CAUTION
Carefully inspect the inside of the flywheel (Figure 17) for small bolts,
washers or other metal "trash" that
may have been picked up by the magnets These small metal bits can cause
severe damage to the alternator stator
assembly
132 CHAPTER SEVEN
b. Install the flywheel washer and bolt. Lock the
flywheel as in Step 2 during removal. Tighten
the flywheel bolt to 58 ft.-lb. (80 N.m).
Flywheel (Rotor) Testing
The flywheel (rotor) is permanently magnetized
and cannot be tested except by replacement with a
flywheel known to be good. A flywheel can lose
magnetism from old age or a sharp blow. If defective,
the flywheel must be replaced; it cannot be re-magnetized.
VOLTAGE REGULATOR/RECTIFIER
Varying engine speeds and electrical system loads
affect alternator output. The voltage regulator controls alternator output by varying its field current.
Yamaha does not provide any test procedures or
specifications for the voltage regulator/rectifier.
The voltage regulator is mounted either under the
frame behind the engine (Figure 18) or under the
left-hand trim panel (Figure 19).
IGNITION SYSTEM
All XV535 models are equipped with a Transistor
Control Ignition (TCI) system. The TCI system consists of both a pickup unit and an ignitor unit and
uses no breaker points. It is non-adjustable, but the
timing should be checked to make sure all components within the ignition system are operating correctly. The ignition advance circuit is controlled by
signals generated by the pickup coils and the advance curve cannot be modified to improve performance. The schematic layout of this ignition system
and how it relates to the rest of the bike's electrical
systems is shown in Figure 20.
Most problems involving failure to start, poor
driveability or rough running are caused by trouble
in the ignition system:
Note the following symptoms:
a. Engine misses.
b. Stumbles on acceleration (misfiring).
c. Loss of power at high speed (misfiring).
d. Hard starting (or failure to start).
e. Rough idle.
Most of the symptoms can also be caused by a
carburetor(s) that is worn or improperly adjusted.
But considering the law of averages, the odds are far
better that the source of the problem will be found
in the ignition system rather than the fuel system.
Troubleshooting
The following basic tests are designed to quickly
pinpoint and isolate problems in the ignition system.
Ignition Spark Test
Perform the following spark test to determine if
the ignition system is operating properly.
1. Remove one of the spark plugs as described in
Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
2. Connect the spark plug wire and connector to the
spark plug and touch the spark plug base to a good
ground like the engine cylinder head. Position the
spark plug so you can see the electrodes.
WARNING
During the next step, do not hold the
sparkplug, wire or connector or a serious electrical shock may result. If neeELECTRICAL SYSTEM 133
IGNITION SYSTEM
134 CHAPTER SEVEN
essary, use a pair of insualted pliers to
hold the spark plug or wire. The high
voltage generated by the ignition system
could produce serious or fatal shocks.
3. Crank the engine over with the starter. A fat blue
spark should be evident across the spark plug electrodes.
4A. If a spark is obtained in Step 3, the problem is
not the ignitor unit or coil. Check the fuel system
and spark plugs.
4B. If no spark is obtained, proceed with the following tests.
Testing
Test procedures for troubleshooting the ignition
system are found in the diagnostic chart in Figure
21. A multimeter, as described in Chapter One, in
the front section of the manual, is required to perform the test procedures. The diagnostic chart will
IGNITION SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS*
TRANSMISSION AND INTERNAL SHIFT MECHANISM 135
refer you to a certain procedure in this chapter for
testing.
Pickup Coil Testing
To get an accurate reading, the ignition coils must
be warm (minimum temperature is 20° C [68° F]). If
necessary, start the engine and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. If you are unable to start
the bike, heat the pickup coil to the proper temperature with a portable hair dryer.
1. Remove the seat and frame left-hand side cover.
2. Disconnect the battery negative lead as described in Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
3. Disconnect the picup coil 4-pin electrical connector (containing 1 red, 1 blue, 1 brown and 1
green) from the ignitor unit. The ignitor unit is located under the right-hand engine cover (Figure
22) behind the fuel pump relay and the flasher relay
assembly.
NOTE
Connect the ohmmeter to the electrical connector attached to the wiring
harness leading to the pickup coil.
4. Use an ohmmeter on R x 100 to measure the
pickup coil resistance between the following terminals:
a. Brown to green.
b. Red to blue.
5. Compare the pickup coil reading to the specification in Table 1. Replace the pickup coil assembly
if it does not meet the test specifications.
6. If the pickup coil is satisfactory, reconnect the
electrical connector and install all removed parts.
Pickup Coil
Removal/Installation
1. Remove the seat and disconnect the battery negative lead as described in Chapter Three in this section of the manual.
'Consider any test results carefully before replacing a component that tests only slightly out of specification,
especially resistance. A number of variables can affect test results dramatically. Most motorcycle dealerships and parts suppliers will not accept the return of any electrical part. If you cannot determine the exact
cause of any electrical system malfunction, have a Yamaha dealership retest that specific system to verify
test results.
136
CHAPTER SEVEN
2. Remove the alternator stator assembly as described in this chapter.
3. Remove the screws and lockwashers (A, Figure
23) securing the pickup coil assembly.
4. Remove the screw and metal retainer (B Figure
23).
5. Carefully pull the rubber grommets (Figure 10)
and wiring harness from the cover. Remove the
pickup coil assembly from the cover.
6. Separate the pickup coil wiring harness from the
stator coil harness and remove the pickup coil wiring.
7. Follow the pickup coil electrical harness from the
coil assembly to the electrical connector on the
frame and loosen or remove any clamps or tie wraps
securing the harness to the frame.
8. Disconnect the electrical connector from the lgmtor unit and remove the pickup coil assembly from
the frame.
9. Install by reversing these removal steps while
noting the following:
a. Make sure the rubber grommets are properly
seated in the crankcase groove to prevent the
entry of moisture.
b. Apply a dielectric compound to the electrical
connectors prior to reconnecting them. This
will help seal out moisture.
c. Make sure the electrical connectors are free of
corrosion and are completely coupled to each
other.
Ignition Coils Testing
To get an accurate reading, the ignition coils must
be warm (minimum temperature is 20° C [68° F]. If
necessary, start the engine and let it warm up to
normal operating temperature. If you are unable to
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 137
start the bike, heat the coils to the proper temperature
with a portable hair dryer.
1. Place the motorcycle on the sidestand. Turn the
front wheel to either side to gain access to the cover.
2. Remove the bolts securing the ignition coil cover
(Figure 24) and remove the cover.
3. Disconnect the ignition primary coil wire electrical connectors (Figure 25). Each connector contains
2 wires; (1 red/white and 1 gray) and (1 red/white
and 1 orange).
4. Remove the front cylinder head right-hand cover
(Figure 26) and the rear cylinder head left-hand
cover (Figure 27)
5. Disconnect the spark plug lead (Figure 28) from
each spark plug.
6. At each electrical connector, measure the coil
primary resistance using an ohmmeter set at R x 1.
Connect the ohmmeter test leads to the ignition coil
connector as shown in Figure 29. The correct primary resistance is listed in Table 1.
7. Carefully remove the spark plug cap from each
spark plug lead.
8. Measure the secondary resistance using an ohmmeter set at R x 1,000. Measure between the coil's
secondary spark plug lead (Figure 30) and the gray
138
CHAPTER SEVEN
or orange lead. The correct secondary resistance is
listed in Table 1.
9. Replace the ignition coil(s) if it doesn't test within
the specifications in Step 6 and/or Step 8.
10. Reconnect all electrical connections. Make sure
the electrical connectors are free of corrosion and are
completely coupled to each other.
11. Install all items removed.
Ignition Coil
Removal/Installation
1. Place the motorcycle on the sidestand.
2. Remove the bolts securing the ignition coil cover
(Figure 24) and remove the cover.
3. Disconnect the ignition primary coil wire electrical connectors (Figure 25). Each connector contains
2 wires: 1 red/white and 1 gray; and 1 red/white and
1 orange.
4. Remove the front cylinder head right-hand cover
(Figure 26) and the rear cylinder head left-hand
cover (Figure 27).
5. Disconnect the spark plug lead (Figure 28) from
each spark plug.
NOTE
Step 6 and Step 7 are shown with the
engine removed from the frame for clarity.
6. Remove the bolt, lockwasher and washer (Figure
31) on each side securing each ignition coil assembly to the front cylinder mounting bracket.
7. Carefully pull the ignition coil assembly (Figure
32), spark plug leads and cap out from the mounting
bracket and remove both coil assemblies.
8. Install by reversing these removals steps. Make
sure the electrical connectors are free of corrosion
and are completely coupled to each other.
Ignitor Unit Check
The ignitor unit cannot be tested. If there is a
problem within the ignition system and all other
components within the ignition system perform
within test specifications, then the ignitor unit is
probably faulty and should be replaced.
Prior to purchasing a new ignitor unit, have the
system checked by a Yamaha dealer. They may
perform a "remove and replace" test to see if the
igniter unit is faulty. This type of test is expensive if
performed by yourself. Remember if you purchase
a new ignitor unit and it does not solve your particular ignition system problem, you cannot return the
ignitor unit for a refund. Most motorcycle dealers
will not accept returns on electrical and electronic
components since they could be damaged internally
even though they look okay externally.
Ignitor Unit
Removal/Installation
The ignitor unit is located under the right-hand
engine cover behind the fuel pump relay and the
flasher relay assembly.
1. Remove the seat and disconnect the battery negative lead as described in Chapter Three in this section
of the manual.
2. Remove the right-hand engine cover (Figure 33).
3. Remove the bolts securing the electrical panel to
the mounting bracket (Figure 34).
4. Carefully pull the electrical panel out and turn it
around.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 139
5. Remove the bolts and washers securing the ignitor
unit to the electrical panel.
6. Disconnect the electrical wire connectors at the
ignitor unit and remove it.
7. Install by reversing these removal steps. Before
connecting the electrical wire connectors at the ignitor unit, make sure the connectors are clean of any
dirt or moisture.
STARTING SYSTEM
The starting system consists of the starter motor,
starter solenoid, starter circuit cutoff relay and the
starter switch.
The starting system is shown in Figure 35. When
the starter button is pressed, it engages the solenoid
switch that closes the circuit. The electricity flows
from the battery to the starter motor.
CAUTION
Do not operate the starter for more than
five seconds at a time. Let it rest approximately ten seconds, then use it
again.
When the engine stop switch and the main switch
are turned to ON, the engine can only be started if:
a. The transmission is in NEUTRAL.
b. The clutch lever is pulled in (transmission in
gear) and the sidestand is up.
If the above conditions are not met, the starting
circuit cut-off relay will prevent the starter from
operating.
The starter gears are covered in Chapter Four in
this section of the manual.
Table 2, at the end of the chapter, lists possible
starter problems, probable causes and the most common remedies.
Starter Motor
Removal/Installation
1. Place the bike on the sidestand.
2. Remove the exhaust system as described in Chap- j
ter Six in this section of the manual.
3. Make sure the ignition switch is in the OFF
position.
4. Disconnect the negative lead from the battery.
NOTE
Figure 36 is shown with the engine
partially disassembled for clarity.
5. Pull back on the rubber boot and disconnect the
electrical wire (A, Figure 36) from the starter motor.
6. Remove the bolts (B, Figure 36) securing the
starter motor to the crankcase and remove it.
7. Installation is the reverse of these steps. Note the
following:
a. Grease the starter O-ring (A, Figure 37) and
insert the starter motor into the crankcase and
properly mesh it with the starter reduction
gears. Do not damage the O-ring during installation.
b. Tighten the starter motor mounting bolts to
5.1ft.-lb.(7N.m).
Starter Motor Disassembly/Assembly
The overhaul of a starter motor is best left to an
expert. This section shows how to determine if the
unit is defective.
Refer to Figure 38 for this procedure.
1. Remove the starter motor case bolts and lockwashers (Figure 39).
140 CHAPTER SEVEN
STARTING SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 141
2. Slide off the front cover (B, Figure 37).
3. Slide off the rear cover (Figure 40) and shims
(Figure 41). Record the number of shims as the
same number must be installed during assembly.
4. Withdraw the armature from the case (Figure 42).
5. Clean all grease, dirt, and carbon dust from the
armature, case and end covers
CAUTION
Do not immerse brushes or the wire
windings in solvent or the insulation
might be damaged Wipe the windings
STARTER MOTOR
1. Bolt
2. Lockwasher
3. Washer
4. Rear cover
5. Shim
6. Shim
7. Brush holder (negative)
8. Brush holder (positive)
9. O-ring
10. Case and armature
11. Front cover
142 CHAPTER SEVEN
with a cloth slightly moistened with solvent and dry thoroughly.
6. Pull back the spring from behind the brashes and
remove the brashes from their guides. Measure the
length of each brash with a vernier caliper (Figure
43). If they are worn to 0.20 in. (5.0 mm) or less,
replace them.
7. Check the spring tension by comparing to a new
set of springs. Replace if necessary.
8. Inspect the condition of the commutator (Figure
44). The mica in a good commutator is below the

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