New Genera Anatolidamnicola And Sivasi - Acta Zoologica Bulgarica

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from, with, species, Anadoludamnicola, shell, Sivasi, (Fig., Pseudamnicola, gloeri, similar, Type, aperture, Schütt, genera, black, genus, Female, described, IUSHM, penis, Operculum, genitalia, genital, Anatolia, Turkey, nucleus, rather, Height, bodoni, were


Acta zool. bulg., 64 (4), 2012: 341-346
*Corresponding author:
Since the late Triassic, Anatolia witnessed active
geological evolution. Tethys-related land evolution
was partially completed by the late Miocene and by
the Pliocene, evolution of aquatic systems continued. Diversity of the land and aquatic environment
yielded a rich biota in the systems formed. Little of
this rich fauna has been clarified by malacological
studies, which have increased in recent years (Önal
and Kaya 2007, Şengör and Yilmaz 2003).
In hydrobiids, with the addition of the species
described in the presented paper, 46 species are known
from Turkey so far. Most of the genera and species
are, as far as are known, endemic to Anatolia up to
50% (yıldırım et al. 2006). But, the lack of detailed
studies and regional expertise of researchers has resulted in taxonomical problems when comparing the
local fauna to that of Europe. For instance, Paludina
natolica Küster 1852 named as Pseudamnicola natolica (Küster 1852) by Schütt (1965), later Radoman
refused as Pseudorientalia natolica (1973) in the
end of the long years (radoman 1983). After similar studies, the genus Pseudamnicola, reported
to be common throughout Anatolia, was seen to
be restricted to Eastern Anatolia only (Schütt and
Bılgın, 1970, Schütt and ŞeŞen, 1993). Thus further revisions are needed in the group. In this poorly
studied region of Turkey, so far Hydrobiidae genera
Islamia, Sadleriana, Pseudamnicola, Belgrandiella,
Sheitanokok, Hydrobia, Ventrosia, Pyrgorientalia,
Bythinella, Kirelia) were found (Schütt and Bılgın
1970, Schütt and ŞeŞen 1993, yıldırım et al. 2004).
Here, two new genera of Hydrobiidae
(Anadoludamnicola and Sivasi) and two new species (A. gloeri and S. bodoni) and one subspecies (A.
gloeri brevis) are described from Sivas and Malatya.
Identification has been realised by comparing the
anatomy and morphology of the material collected.
Material and Methods
Sampling was quantitative using Ekman grab
(225 cm2). Gastropods were separated from sediNew Genera Anatolidamnicola and Sivasi
(Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from Sivas and Malatya (Turkey)
Serap Koşal Şahin1*, Seval B. Koca2, M. Zeki Yıldırım3
1 Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries and 3rd the author Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Education Faculty of Burdur, Turkey
2 Süleyman Demirel University, Eğirdir Fisheries Faculty Eğirdir Isparta, Turkey
3 Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Burdur Eğitim Fakültesi
Abstract: New freshwater genera (Anadoludamnicola and Sivasi) of Hydrobiidae are described for new hydrobiid
species (Anadoludamnicola gloeri and Sivasi bodoni) from material collected from provinces Sivas and
Malatya (Turkey), using anatomical and morphological data. For now, Sivasi is known from a single locality, while we expect Anadoludamnicola will be found to be commonly distributed in Anatolia.
Key words: Hydrobiidae, Anadoludamnicola, Sivasi, East Anatolia
Şahin S., S. Koca, M. Zeki Yildiri
ment using a system of sieves of different mesh sizes
(20, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm). Gastropods were preserved
in 75% ethanol. Samples were collected from 3 stations with inflatable boat (Fig. 1). between August
2005 and September 2006. Welch’s (1948) method was followed to collect, sift and preserve the
samples. The dissections and measurement of the
genital organs and the shell were carried out using
a stereo microscope (Olympus, SZX12). Totally
82 species have been dissection (22 species belong
to Anadoludamnicola gloeri, 27 species belong to
Sivasi bodoni and 33 species belong to A. gloeri
brevis). The photographs were taken with a digital
camera (Olympus C-5060).
Type materials, paratypes and holotypes are
deposited in IUSHM (İstanbul Üniversity Science
Faculty Hydrobiology Museum)
Abbreviations: ago: accessory gland of oviduct; bc: bursa copulatrix; gp: gonopore; ovd: oviduct;
p: penis; rs: receptaculum seminis; I: intestine; OE:
oesophagus; SL: shell length; SW: shell width; AL:
aperture length; AW: aperture width.
Anadoludamnicola n. gen.
Diagnosis: A genus of Hydrobiidae, living in
freshwater springs, characterized by a very minute
shell that is ovoid conical and has a strongly developed last whorl. Umbilicus closed by the inner lip. Operculum is typically orange coloured.
Genital system of male and female are similar to
Pseudamnicola with 1 receptaculum seminis and
penis is large and getting narrower; rather sparsely
pigmented. Oviduct isn’t black; seminal receptacle
is small and elongated.
Type species: Anadoludamnicola gloeri n.sp.
Anadoludamnicola gloeri n.sp.
Shell (Fig. 2a): Shell thin, dully horn coloured,
with apex not very acute and 3-3,5 whorls; shell ovoid conical with a strongly developed last whorl more
developed and oval aperture nearly angular at the
top; umbilicus closed by the lip, suture not deep.
Operculum (Fig.2b): Operculum ellipsoidal,
paucispiral, nucleus submarginal, typical operculum
is orange in colour, but nucleus is darker.
Body (Fig. 2c): Eye spots present, lower part of
tentacles and area surrounding eyes is pigmented.
Male genitalia (Fig. 2d): Male genitals with a
rather elongated penis, at the distal end pointed and
rather pigmented.
Female genitalia (Fig. 2e): Female genital
with a bursa copulatrix of normal size and with a
long duct connecting with the oviduct at the middle
part of the albumen gland. There is a thin and long
receptaculum seminis.
Radula (Fig. 2f): Central tooth of radula has
1 cusp at each side of the base; on the upper side of
the central tooth are 9 cusps (1 median, and 4 cusps
on each side).
Stomach and intestine (Fig. 2g): Stomach
is bean shape, without gastric caecum, having two
chambers. Intestine enveloping the style sack up to
the midsection.
Type locality: Malatya-Akçadağ, İnek Pınarı
38° 31´ 08.04˝N 38° 00´ 28.93˝E; Small spring in the
Picnic area. Snails living on all surfaces of stones in
the spring.
Details water: pH: 8,1; dissolved oxygen: 9.2
mg/L, water temperature: 22.3 ºC; conductivity: 315
Other localities: Malatya-Akçadağ Melet
Deresi. 38º 11’ 11’’ N, 37º 59’ 28’’ E (10 September
2005). Small stream. Snails living on all surfaces
of stones and on the Ceratophylum sp. in the stream. Details water: pH: 8.2; dissolved oxygen: 8.6
mg/L; water temperature: 21.2 ºC; conductivity: 330
Type material
Holotype: IUSHM 2012-1039. Holotype dimensions: SL: 1.9 mm, SW: 1.7 mm, AL: 1.0 mm,
AW: 0.9 mm.
Paratypes: Paratypes 2 samples IUSHM 20121040.
Etymology: The name of genus derived from
Anatolia in Turkish and closest relative ‘damnicola’.
Specific epithet is named in honour of malacologist
Peter Glöer.
Fig. 1. The sampling sites of new taxa. (1:Malatya-Akçadağ-Melet, 2: Malatya-Akçadağ-İnekpınarı, 3: MalatyaAkçadağ-Takas, 4: Sivas-Gürün- Gökpınar)
New Genera Anatolidamnicola and Sivasi from Sivas and Malatya (Turkey)...
Anadoludamnicola gloeri brevis n.subsp.
Shell (Fig. 3a): General view of shell similar
to nominal species but subspecies is smaller in size.
Shell dull horny, with a blunt apex and 2-3 whorls;
ovoid conical with more developed last whorl and
oval aperture nearly angular at the top side; umbilicus closed by the lip.
Operculum (Fig. 3b): Operculum ellipsoidal,
paucispiral, nucleus submarginal, orange coloured,
but nucleus darker.
Body (Fig. 3c): Face is dark black and eye spots
present but not perceptible because of black face.
Male genitalia (Fig.3d): Male genital similar
with the nominal species.
Female genitalia (Fig.3e): Female genital similar with the nominal species.
Radula (Fig.3f): Radula similar with the nominal species.
Type locality: Malatya, Takas Village (38° 31´
03.85 ˝N 38° 00´46.78˝ E).
Small spring and its pool. Snails living on the
surfaces of the stones in the pool. Details water: pH:
7.6; dissolved oxygen: 10.3 mg/L; water temperature: 20.7 ºC; conductivity: 250 μs/cm.
Other localities: As far as is known, only from
the type locality Takas from Malatya.
Type material
Holotype: IUSHM 2012-1041 Holotype dimensions SL: 1.2 mm, SW: 1.2 mm, AL: 0.7, AW:
0.7 mm.
Paratypes: paratypes 2 samples IUSHM 20121042.
Etymology: The name of subspecies derived
from smaller shell.
Sivasi n. gen.
Diagnosis: A genus of Hydrobiidae, living in
freshwater springs, characterized by large ovoid
Table 1. Dimensions of Anadoludamnicola gloeri, n: 21.
Height of shell Diameter of shell Height of aperture
of aperture HS/DS HA/DS
min 1.69 1.44 0.94 0.78 1.104 1
max 2.41 1.87 1.22 1.09 1.401 1.218
average 1.951±0.070 1.621±0.040 1.063±0.029 0.95±0.030 1.203±0.030 1.122±0.018
Fig. 2. Anadoludamnicola gloeri n.sp. a. shell; b.
operculum; c-d: penis; e. female genital tract; f. central tooth of radula; g. stomach; (Scale 1 mm).
Şahin S., S. Koca, M. Zeki Yildiri
shell, with blunt, rounded mostly corroded apex,
more developed last whorl, rather deep suture. Distal
side of penis is large, the end of it resembles a bird’s
claw and slightly pigmented. Female genitals with a
rather big bursa copulatrix; big and elongated rs1 is
situated and lying near oviduct.
Etymology: From Sivas, locality in Turkey
near which the new genus was discovered.
Type species: Sivasi bodoni n. sp.
Sivasi bodoni n. sp.
Shell (Fig. 4a): Shell large ovoid, dull horny,
with a blunt apex and 2-2,5 swollen whorls; last
whorl strongly developed; umbilicus small slit like,
or closed.
Operculum (Fig. 4b): Operculum elongateellipsoidal, paucispiral, nucleus submarginal, and
orange in colour, but nucleus darker.
Body (Fig. 4c): Face is dark black and eye
spots present but sometimes eyes not perceptible because of black face.
Male genitalia (Fig. 4d): Proximal side of penis is large, distal end resembling a bird’s claw and
slightly pigmented.
Female genitalia (Fig. 4e-f): Female genitals
with a rather big bursa copulatrix; big and elongated
(rs1) is situated and lying near oviduct.
Type locality: Sivas-Gürün Gökpınar, 38° 39´
22˝N 38° 18´ 15˝E. Type locality is small lake fed
by springs.
Table 2. Dimensions of Anadoludamnicola gloeri brevis, n: 20
Height of shell Diameter of shell Height of aperture
of aperture HS/DS HA/DS
min 1.09 1.12 0.68 0.65 0.924 0.958
max 1.44 1.25 0.78 0.78 1.180 1.103
average 1.295±0.031 1.219±0.013 0.741±0.013 0.717±0.012 1.063±0.024 1.034±0.014
Fig. 3. Anadoludamnicola gloeri brevis n. sub. sp. a. shell; b. operculum; c-d: penis; e. female genital tract; f: central
tooth of radula (scale 1 mm).
Table 3. Dimensions of Sivasi bodoni, Sivas-Gökpınar n: 21
Height of shell Diameter of shell Height of aperture
of aperture HS/DS HA/DS
min 1.91 1.53 0.97 0.91 1.038 0.893
max 2.78 2.19 1.44 1.41 1.712 1.147
average 2.436±0.046 1.888±0.042 1.179±0.026 1.135±0.029 1.298±0.029 1.043±0.015
New Genera Anatolidamnicola and Sivasi from Sivas and Malatya (Turkey)...
Other localities: S. bodoni is known only
at the Type Locality (Sivas-Gürün-Gökpınar).
Type material
Holotype: IUSHM 2012-1043. Holotype dimensions: SL: 2.4 mm, SW: 1.7 mm, AL: 1.2, AW:
1.1 mm.
Paratypes: Paratypes 2 samples IUSHM 20121044
Etymology: The name of the genus is derived
from the Sivas city in Turkey; the species is named
in honour of Dr. Marco Bodon.
In order to determine whether our new
Anadoludamnicola and Sivasi species are new,
we compared them with all other hydrobiid taxa
mentioned in the literature from Central Europe:
Especially Sadleriana species which are similar
(glöer 2002), Turkey: (Schütt and ŞeŞen 1993,
Schütt and BiÝlgıÝn 1970, BiіlgıÝn 1980, Sc 1980)
and other Balkan countries (radoman 1983).
Among the forms in neighbouring areas, the
new genus Anadoludamnicola is most close anatomically to Pseudamnicola. Presence of one recepteculum seminis and an tapering straight penis are the shared characters. This resemblance
marks the relativeness of closely distributed genera. However, Pseudamnicola has black pigmentation in the ovary canal and enlarged oviduct
(radoman 1983), which is not in the new genus.
Also Sadleriana Clessin, 1890 and Pseudorientalia
Radoman, 1973 are similar in penial morphology, but they differ in having two rs instead of one
(glöer 2002 and radoman 1983).
Schütt (1980) described the Pseudamnicola species which have a black ovary canal, however ovary
canal is not black in two new genera in our study.
Considering the other species recorded from the
region, Boettger (1957) described Pseudamnicola
lindbergi from Elbistan (Type locality Elbistan originally reported to be a town in Malatya, but it belongs
to Kahramanmaraş province close to Malatya) using shell characters, but shell characters of the species (olive green coloration and corroded apex) does
not fit with Anadoludamnicola gloeri n. gen. n. sp.
Another aspect to be mentioned is that the presence
of the new genera may indicate that the taxonomical
status of Anatolian ‘Pseudamnicola’ should be reevaluated. At least this study shows the absence of
real Pseudamnicola in the studied area.
Among regional Pseudamnicola species,
Pseudamnicola bilgini described by Schütt and
ŞeŞen (1993) from Amrud spring (Kızıltepe) Mardin
is distinctive with a long bursa copulatrix uncommon
in the genus, but penial characters and the coloration
of the oviduct is similar to that of Pseudamnicola.
Female characters of Pseudamnicola intranodosa
described by Schütt and ŞeŞen (1993) from Düziçi,
Urfa are not known but this species is differentiated
Fig. 4. Sivasi bodoni n.sp. a. shell; b. operculum c-d. penis; e: female genital tract; f: stomach (scale 1 mm).
Şahin S., S. Koca, M. Zeki Yildiri
from Anadoludamnicola by a small tubercle on the
inner lip and black oviduct.
Conchologically, Sivasi n.gen is also similar to
Pseudamnicola (ZhadiÝ, 1952). But the male and female genitalia are clearly different: Pseudamnicola
genus has tapering straight penis shape while Sivasi
genus has the penis like bird’s claw. The oviduct
Pseudamnicola’s is not black in Sivasi. Penial shape
is also very characteristic in differentiation from
other similar genera like Anadoludamnicola and
Accordingly, both new genera can be differentiated from Pseudamnicola distributed in proximity
of the study area simply by oviduct coloration, shell
characters or penis shape.
The shell dimensions of the new species are
given in Table 1, 2, 3.
In Turkey there have been few survey studies
on Hydrobioidea, but so far 20 genera and 46 species
have been reported to occur in Turkey (YILDIRIM
et al. 2004). Generic and higher systematics in the
fauna is still problematic. The high speciation in the
spring snails is evidently a consequence of narrow
habitat needs and occurrence in places with consistent geographical isolation. Thus we expect further
new species from Turkey.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the tuBitak,
Project number 106T196.
Fig. 5. 1: Anadoludamnicola gloeri, 2: Anadoludamnicola gloeri brevis, 3: Sivasi bodoni
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Received: 05.04.2015
Accepted: 26.09.2012

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