New Inscriptions From Sivas Museum I - DergiPark

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with, from, Sivas, also, Claudius, Tiberius, Apollos, name, Tyana, occurs, inscription, Nollé,, Berges, Museum,, part, inscriptions, Personal, base, Fraser, made, Names, this, form, Ἀπολλῶς, nos., Matthews,, Murat, Arsinoe, Claudia, Pape

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* Yard. Doç. Dr. Murat Arslan, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Eskiçağ Dilleri ve Kültürleri
Bölümü, Kampus TR-07058 Antalya (marslan@akdeniz.edu.tr).
GEPHYRA 2 2005 173-178
Murat ARSLAN*
NEW INSCRIPTIONS FROM SIVAS MUSEUM I
Abstract: Four new inscriptions from the Sivas Museum are presented. Three of the below are stele
shaped grave inscriptions while the fourth is a sculpture base giving the name of the artist who made
it.
With the permission of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s General Directorate of Culture
Heritage and Museums I have studied in the summers of 2004 and 2005 the Greek and Latin
inscriptions of the Sivas Museum, of whom four are treated below. A catalogue of the epigraphic material of Sivas is currently in preparation. I am grateful to the director of Sivas Museum, Mrs. Süheyla Demirci, and to the archaeologists Mr. Mehmet Alkan and Mr. Musa
Törnük for their kind assistance during my research stay in Sivas.
1. Ti(berius) Cl(audius) Apollos to his wife Arsinoe
Located in Sivas Museum, without recorded provenance.
Rectangular marble stele with schematic pediment. Three floral acroteria, broken. Pedimental
with rosette in centre of pediment. The pediment rests on two
plasters that define the field and the inscription. The inscription
is on the shaft. At the end of the first, second and the fourth line
of the text the mason has carved a wedge-shaped symbol on the
stone. Immediately below the inscription is a wreath flanked by
grape clusters. The lower part of the stele, including part of the
wreath, has been broken off.
H. 0.89m, W. 0.40m, D. 0.235m, L. 0.025m.
Τι(βέριος) Κλ(αύδιος) Ἀπολλῶς
2 Κλ(αυδίᾳ) Ἀρσινόῃ ῇ σε-
μνοτάτῃ καὶ ἀσυν-
4 κρίτῳ καὶ φιλάν-
δρῳ γυναικὶ μνή-
6 μ{ν}ης ἕνεκα.
Tiberius Claudius Apollos, for Claudia Arsinoe, the most
revered and incomparable and loving wife, in memory.
Date: AD 3rd century.
Murat Arslan 174
The letters are neatly carved. Though the broken-barred alpha indicates Roman influence,
the letter forms such as omega with crossbar , narrow rho with serif , lunate epsilon
and sigma are later, and stylistically the stele appears to be from the third/fourth century
AD.
L. 1: The nominative case of Ἀπολλῶς1 occurs on two inscriptions from Gökbez near Niğde2
(now in Niğde Museum, Inv. 2-1-65; 8-2-65) and on one inscription from Çamköy in Lycia.3
A few examples of this name also occur in Chaironeia4 in the province of Boiotia, on
Cyprus5, and on the Greek islands Syros6 and Delos.7 The name Apollos and variations of this
name, derived from the theonymos Apollon, were especially popular in Egypt, from where
more than two dozens of examples are attested.8
This name shows parallels with masculine names which end with –ᾶς9. The genitive form of
this name ends with –ῶ10, –ῶδος, –ῶτος11 and –ῶϝος.12 The dative Ἀπολλῷ also occurs on an
1 According to Pape - Benseler, Griechischen Eigennamen, 111 and Fraser - Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek
Personal Names 1, Oxford 1987, 56 and 1997, 52 (among many examples) the nominative form is written
Ἀπολλώς. There are just as many examples of the nominative form of Apollos being written Ἀπολλῶς (see fn. 9
for SEG references).
2 Inscriptions published by G. Jacopi, Bolletino del Reale Instituto di Archeologia e Storia dell’ Arte 8 (1938)
32 nos. 3/4 [= D. Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. Archäologisch-historische Untersuchungen zum südwestlichen
Kappadokien I, Bonn 2000 (IK 55), 234/235 no. 60 and 237 no. 66]; D. H. French, (Inscriptions From
Cappadocia I. The Museums of Kırşehir and Niğde, EA 28, 1997, 123 no. 10) collated both texts and observes
that inscription no. 3 Jacopi, loc. cit. has an erroneous reading: Ἀπόλλος instead of Ἀπολλῶς [so also Tyana I
234/235 no. 60]. See in detail French, loc. cit.; SEG XLVII 1858.
3 SEG XLVIII 1648.
4 IGR VII 3386. 1.
5 Fraser - Matthews, Personal Names (1987), 56.
6 IG XII 5 add. p. 335; IG XII (5) 712,17.1.
7 Th. Homolle - M. Holleaux et al., Exploration archéologique de Délos I, Paris 1909, XXX 478. See also
Fraser - Matthews, Personal Names (1987), 56.
8 Alexandreia Museum. Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Ägypten=SB, eds. Friedrich Priesigke,
Friedrich Bilabel, Emil Kiessling and Hans-Albert Rupprecht. Vols. 1. 3473; 5062; F. Preisigke, Namenbuch,
Heidelberg 1922, 42; D. Foraboschi, Onomasticon altertum papyrologicum, Milano/Varese 1971, 43 pp.; IGR IV
1282; SEG XX 549; XXVIII 1496; XXXV 1625; 1653; 1676c; XLI 1656; XLVI 2109; 2170, 29; XLIX 2330; L
1615; etc. For examples from further away, see Fraser - Matthews, Personal Names (1987), 56 for Cyrene and
Marmarica; for Lucania in southern Italy see Fraser - Matthews Personal Names (1997), 52.
The name Apollos occurs mainly in late antique literature; Apophthegmata patrum V. 4. 15; 24; 32; 44; 48;
Procop. Rhet. et Scr. E; Commentarii in Isaiam 2645. 39; Chron. Paschale 402. 1; Athanasius Theol., Apologia
contra Arrianos; 49. 3. 191; 75. 6. 17; 24; 26; 36; Phot. Lexicogr., Scr. E. frg. in epistulam I ad Corinthios 548.
30 etc.
9 C. Brixhe, Le dialecte grec de Pamphylie. Documents et grammaire. Paris 1976, 106; D. Berges - J. Nollé,
Tyana I. 191 fn. 41.
10 Pape - Benseler, Eigennamen, 111 (who claims that the genitive form can also end with –ώ); French,
Cappadocia, 123 nos. 10; D. Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. 190 nos. 11; SEG XLIV 1461.
11 SEG XX 737; XLIII 1535; 1567; XLVI 2119; XLIX 2128; SB 1. 4250. 1; see also Fraser - Matthews,
Personal Names (1987), 56.
12 D. Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. 190-191.
New Inscriptions from Sivas Museum I 175
inscription from Tyana13; the accusative Ἀπολλώ occurs in Act. apost. 19. 1.14 In southern
Cappadocia people generally used the vocative Ἀπολλώ.15
L. 2: Κλ(αυδίᾳ) Ἀρσινόῃ occurs at Sidyma.16
L. 2-4: A similar formula occurs on the epitaph of a woman from Stratonikeia17.
2. Ti(berius) Cl(audius) Apollos to his son Ti(berius) Cl(audius) Pomponius
Located in Sivas Museum, without recorded provenance.
Rectangular marble stele. Pedimental part broken. Immediately below the inscription is a
wreath flanked by grape clusters. The upper part of the wreath has been damaged.
H. 0.70 m, W. 0.435 m, D. 0.250 m, L. 0.035 m.
Τι(βέριος) Κλ(αύδιος) Ἀπολλῶς
2 Τι(βερίῳ) Κλ(αυδίῳ) Πομπωνίῳ
τῷ φρονίμῳ καὶ
4 ἀσυνκρίτῳ υἱῷ
μνήμης ἕνεκα.
Tiberius Claudius Apollos, for Tiberius
Claudius Pomponius, his prudent and
incomparable son, in memory.
Date: AD 3rd century.
For the dating of this stele, see no. 1 above.
These two inscriptions, nos. 1 and 2, appear to have been dedicated by the same person,
judging from the family name and the similarity in the style of the letters, the text and decorations, and were most probably made by the same mason. Tiberius Claudius Apollos set up
these two stelai, one for his wife Claudia Arsinoe and one for his son Tiberius Claudius Pomponius.
L. 1: For Ἀπολλῶς see no. 1 line 1.
13 Jacopi, 32 nos. 3 = D. Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. 234-235 no. 60. See also French, Cappadocia, 123; D.
Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. 201 fn. 77.
14 Attested by Pape - Benseler, Eigennamen, 111.
15 D. Berges - J. Nollé, Tyana I. 191 fn. 42. See also the vocative of Apollos in SEG XLIII 639.
16 ΤΑΜ ΙΙ,1-3 194; 281.
17 M. Ç. Şahin. Die Inschriften von Stratonikeia. Vol. II,1. Lagina, Stratonikeia und Umgebung. Bonn 1982
(IK 22,1) no. 1262: Ζώσιμος καὶ Ἀχιλλία οἱ γονεῖς | τῇ γλυκυτάτῃ θυγατρὶ Θεοφίλᾳ | καὶ Φίλων ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς τῇ
σεμνοτάτῃ | καὶ ἀσυνκρίτῳ γυναικὶ μνείας χάριν.
Murat Arslan 176
3. Germanus to his mother
Located in Sivas Museum, Inv. no. 91/7, found in the village of Emlak Karacaören near
Şarkışla.
Upper part of marble stele, with triangular pediment. Pedimental with roughly incised triangle
in centre of pediment, which rests on a plaster that defines the field and the inscription. The
inscription is complete on the top and the sides but broken below.
H. 0,40 m, W. 0,225 m, D. 0,09 m, L. 0,02-0,025 m.
Γερμανὸς
2 τῇ χρηστῇ
καὶ ἀσυνκρί-
4 τῷ μητρὶ [- -]
- - - - - - - -
Germanus for his good and
incomparable mother . . .
Date: AD 3rd century?
The letter forms , , , , are late Roman and stylistically the stele appears to be from
the third century AD.
L. 2-3: A similar formula τῇ χρηστῇ καὶ ἀσυνκρίτῳ occurs on the epitaph of a woman of
Amasia.18
4. Statue base made by Secundio Asianus
Located in Sivas Museum, Inv. No. 434, found
in the village of Eğerli near Şarkışla.
Small inscribed statue base made of marble;
rectangular with rounded edges along two of the
sides. The top of the base is decorated with a
serpent slithering along the edges with its head
towards the inscription. Attached to the centre
of the base is a statue made of the same material. A pair of human feet and the lower body of
what is presumably a lion is preserved. A person, possibly a man or a god, is standing with
one foot on the body of the animal.
18 J. G. C. Anderson, F. Cumont and H. Gregoire, Studia Pontica III: Recueil des inscriptions grecques et latines du Pont
et de l’Arménie. Bruxelles 1910, no. 112.
New Inscriptions from Sivas Museum I 177
The base has been inscribed along the front with the name of the sculptor. A large ivy leaf is
incised after the second line and the final letter, respectively, of the inscription.
H. 0,20 m, W. 0,295 m, D. 0,21 m, L. 0,025 m.
Σεκουνδίων Ἀσια-
2 νὸς τεχνείτης 
ἐποίει 
The craftsman Secundio
Asianus made (this).
Date: AD 2nd/3rd century.
L. 1: The name Σεκουνδίων is attested from İstanbul Museum (SEG XLIX 1805, 214; see also
Pape - Benseler, 1361; SEG XLVII 613 “Korkyra”).
L. 1-2: Ἀσιανός: IGBulg. 4 (Moesia and Trace); IG XIV 2 (Italia). Genitive form Ἀσιανοῦ is
attested, MAMA 3 118 (Korasion); TAM III. 1 936a (Termessos); IEph. 1042; IGBulg. 23.
L. 2: Though in earlier periods the profession of the τεχν(ε)ίτης was not held in high esteem,
in later periods they were an integrated and respected part of urban society such as at Termessos19 (TAM III. 1 4; 62 114) and Laodiceia ad Lycum (SEG XLVII 1740).
19 See in detail SEG L 1335; O. van Nijf, “Inscriptions and civic memory in the Roman East”. In A. E.
Cooley (ed), The afterlife of inscriptions. Reusing, rediscovering, reinventing & revitalizing ancient inscriptions
(London 2000) 21-36. See also M.-Chr. Hellmann, Les signatures d'architectes en langue grecque: essai de mise
au point. ZPE 104 (1994) 151-178. Hellmann, loc. cit. mentions and explains several related terms of τεχν(ε)ίτης.
In this article Hellmann also points out the distinction between architects and craftsmen.
Murat Arslan 178
ÖZET
Sivas Müzesinden Yeni Yazıtlar I
Bu makalede Sivas Müzesi’de yer alan üç mezar yazıtı ile sol ayağıyla (muhtemelen) aslan üzerine basan heykel fragmanının altındaki küçük bir heykel kaidesi üzerinde bu eseri yapan sanatçının adını veren yazıt tanıtılmaktadır. Sivas Müzesi’ndeki Yunanca ve Latince yazıtlar 2004-2005 yazında Kültür
ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Anıtlar ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izni çerçevesinde çalışılmış ve şu an
yayına hazırlanmaktadır. No. 1 Tiberius Claudius Apollos tarafından eşi Claudia Arsinoe için yaptırılmış bir mezar yazıtıdır ve İ.S. 2/3 yüzyıla tarihlenmektedir. No. 2 gene Tiberius Claudius Apollos
tarafından bu kez oğlu Tiberius Claudius Pomponius için yaptırılmış bir mezar yazıtıdır. Bu iki yazıt,
malzemesi, stili, üzerinde taşıdığı motifleri, yazı tekniği açısından benzerlik göstermektedir ve büyük
bir ihtimalle aynı ustanın elinden çıkmıştır. No. 3 Germanus’un faziletli ve biricik annesi anısına yaptırdığı kırık steldir ve İ.S. ca. 3. yüzyıla tarihlenmektedir. No. 4 ise, zanaatkâr Secundio Asianus tarafından yapılmış bir aslan? üzerine basan bir kişiye ait küçük bir heykel kaidesidir. Kaidenin üzerinde
ayrıca büyük bir yılan kabartması işlenmiştir. Kaide üzerindeki yazıt ve heykel fragmanlarına ait stil
kritikten İ.S. 2-3. yüzyıla tarihlenebileceği düşünülmektedir.
Yazıtların çevirileri şöyledir:
No. 1: Tiberius Claudius Apollos, son derece sevip saydığı, eşsiz ve kocasını seven karısı Claudia
Arsinoe anısına (yaptırdı).
No. 2: Tiberius Claudius Apollos, öngörülü ve eşsiz oğlu Tiberius Claudius Pomponius anısına (yaptırdı).
No. 3: Germanus, faziletli ve eşsiz annesine - - No. 4: Zanaatkâr Secundio Asianus yaptı.

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