CREAM CITY: THE BRICK THAT MADE MILWAUKEE FAMOUS By ...

Copy and paste this link to your website, so they can see this document directly without any plugins.



Keywords

 the ,  of ,  in ,  and ,  to ,  brick ,  a ,  Milwaukee ,  The ,  was ,  for ,  City ,  with ,  as ,  were ,  by ,  that ,  is ,  Cream ,  at ,  on , Figure ,  from ,  are ,  city ,  clay , the ,  be ,  Milwaukee, ,  bricks

Transcript

 
CREAM
 CITY:
 THE
 BRICK
 THAT
 MADE
 MILWAUKEE
 FAMOUS
 

by
 
ANDREW
 CHARLES
 STERN
 

(Under
 the
 Direction
 of
 MARK
 EDWARD
 REINBERGER)
 
ABSTRACT
 

  This
 thesis
 examines
 the
 unique
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,
 
and
 the
 ways
 the
 brick
 created
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 city
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 The
 brick,
 
known
 as
 Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 later
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 was
 produced
 from
 deep
 bands
 of
 glacial
 
clay
 with
 elevated
 levels
 of
 magnesium
 and
 calcium.
 
 The
 durable
 material
 became
 the
 
ubiquitous
 masonry
 building
 material
 in
 the
 city
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 and
 was
 sought
 
around
 the
 country
 as
 a
 facing
 material.
 This
 thesis
 examines
 the
 methods
 of
 manufacture
 and
 
producers
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 as
 well
 as
 the
 composition
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 glacial
 clay.
 
Architectural
 examples
 spanning
 the
 breadth
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick’s
 use
 are
 also
 detailed.
 Finally,
 
the
 ways
 the
 brick
 and
 cream-­‐colored
 architecture
 provided
 Milwaukee
 with
 exposure,
 
produced
 numerous
 nicknames
 for
 the
 city,
 and
 ultimately
 culminated
 in
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 
city,
 are
 also
 examined.
 
 
INDEX
 WORDS:
  Historic
 Preservation,
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,
 Cream
 City
 Brick,
 
Milwaukee
 Brick,
 Architectural
 History,
 Historic
 Brick,
 Burnham
 Brothers,
 
Lacustrine
 Clay
 
 
CREAM
 CITY:
 THE
 BRICK
 THAT
 MADE
 MILWAUKEE
 FAMOUS
 

 
by
 
 
ANDREW
 CHARLES
 STERN
 

B.S.,
 Portland
 State
 University,
 2007
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A
 Thesis
 Submitted
 to
 the
 Graduate
 Faculty
 of
 The
 University
 of
 Georgia
 in
 Partial
 Fulfillment
 of
 
the
 Requirements
 for
 the
 Degree
 
 
MASTER
 OF
 HISTORIC
 PRESERVATION
 

 
ATHENS,
 GEORGIA
 

2015
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
©
 2015
 

Andrew
 Charles
 Stern
 
All
 Rights
 Reserved
 
 
 
CREAM
 CITY:
 THE
 BRICK
 THAT
 MADE
 MILWAUKEE
 FAMOUS
 

 
by
 
 
ANDREW
 CHARLES
 STERN
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Major
 Professor:
  Mark
 Reinberger
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Committee:
 
  Wayde
 Brown
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Brian
 Cook
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Scott
 Messer
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electronic
 Version
 Approved:
 
 
Julie
 Coffield
 
Interim
 Dean
 of
 the
 Graduate
 School
 
The
 University
 of
 Georgia
 
May
 2015
 
iv
 
 
 
DEDICATION
 

  For
 my
 parents,
 who
 would
 have
 been
 incredibly
 proud
 of
 the
 effort.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
v
 
 
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 

  I
 would
 like
 to
 thank
 Mark
 Reinberger
 for
 his
 assistance
 in
 putting
 this
 thesis
 together.
 
Your
 suggestions
 and
 insights
 were
 incredibly
 helpful
 throughout
 the
 writing
 and
 editing
 
process.
 I
 would
 also
 like
 to
 thank
 Wayde
 Brown,
 Brian
 Cook,
 and
 Scott
 Messer
 for
 their
 
feedback
 and
 contributions
 in
 helping
 round
 out
 some
 rough
 edges.
 Thanks
 to
 Alice
 M.W.
 Hunt
 
and
 Robert
 J.
 Speakman
 at
 the
 Center
 For
 Applied
 Isotope
 Studies
 at
 University
 of
 Georgia
 for
 
generously
 providing
 testing
 of
 brick
 samples.
 I
 am
 grateful
 for
 your
 time
 and
 assistance.
 
Finally,
 I
 would
 like
 to
 thank
 my
 wonderful
 classmates
 for
 their
 support
 over
 the
 past
 two
 years.
 
I
 wish
 you
 all
 nothing
 but
 success
 in
 your
 future
 endeavors.
 
 
 
vi
 
 
 
TABLE
 OF
 CONTENTS
 

Page
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  ................................................................................................................... v
 

LIST
 OF
 TABLES ............................................................................................................................ viii
 

LIST
 OF
 FIGURES ............................................................................................................................ ix
 

1
  INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................1
 

 
 
  Review
 of
 Current
 Literature ..................................................................................4
 
 
 
  Gaps
 In
 Current
 Literature......................................................................................8
 
 
 
  Chapter
 Summaries ................................................................................................9
 
  2
  THE
 DEVELOPMENT
 OF
 MILWAUKEE,
 ITS
 CLAY,
 AND
 BRICK
 PRODUCERS..................11
 

 
 
  The
 Development
 of
 Milwaukee ..........................................................................12
 
 
 
  Characteristics
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 Brick
 Producing
 Clay ................................22
 
 
 
  Cream
 City
 Brick
 Manufacture
 and
 Characteristics
 of
 Finished
 Brick...................28
 
 
 
  Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Producers .............................................................46
 
  3
  CREAM
 CITY
 BRICK
 ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................64
 

 
 
  Introduction..........................................................................................................64
 

 
 
  Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 Brick
 Architecture ................................................................66
 
 
 
  Cream
 City
 Brick
 Use
 Outside
 of
 Milwaukee ........................................................95
 
  4
  THE
 LEGACY
 OF
 CREAM
 CITY
 BRICK..........................................................................106
 

 
 
  Milwaukee
 Brick .................................................................................................107
 

 
vii
 
 
 
  Milwaukee
 to
 a
 Stranger ....................................................................................115
 
 
 
  Cream
 City ..........................................................................................................122
 

  5
  CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................132
 

 
 
  The
 Decline
 of
 Cream
 City
 Brick..........................................................................132
 
 
 
  Conservation
 of
 Cream
 City
 Brick .......................................................................136
 
 
 
  Analysis
 and
 Conclusion .....................................................................................138
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................141
 

 
viii
 
 
 
LIST
 OF
 TABLES
 

Page
 
Table
 2.1:
 Chemical
 makeup
 of
 brick
 clays...................................................................................27
 
Table
 2.2:
 2015
 composition
 tests
 of
 Milwaukee
 and
 Athens,
 Georgia,
 brick
  ............................28
 
Table
 2.3:
 Brick
 tests
 conducted
 by
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 Ph.D.,
 1906....................................................44
 
Table
 3.1:
 The
 first
 ten
 brick
 residences
 in
 Milwaukee ................................................................67
 
 
ix
 
 
 
LIST
 OF
 FIGURES
 

Page
 
Figure
 1.1:
 Ornamental
 title
 from
 late
 nineteenth
 century
 Milwaukee
 souvenir
 book .................4
 
Figure
 2.1:
 View
 of
 Milwaukee
 as
 it
 appeared
 in
 1835,
 looking
 west ..........................................14
 
Figure
 2.2:
 1845
 map
 of
 Milwaukee
 in
 1845
 by
 Increase
 A.
 Lapham...........................................17
 
Figure
 2.3:
 1872
 birds-­‐eye
 view
 of
 Milwaukee
 looking
 west .......................................................19
 
Figure
 2.4:
 Menomonee
 Valley
 circa
 1882 ...................................................................................21
 
Figure
 2.5:
 Map
 of
 Wisconsin
 showing
 the
 distribution
 of
 clays
 in
 the
 state,
 with
 .....................24
 
cream-­‐burning
 Lucustrine
 clay
 shown
 in
 dark
 brown
 
 
Figure
 2.6:
 Clay
 pit
 of
 Davelaar
 &
 Son,
 Milwaukee,
 depicting
 mining
 method
 of
 plow
 and
  .......32
 
scrapers
 dumping
 clay
 onto
 a
 platform
 
 
Figure
 2.7:
 Dual
 disintegrator
 and
 pug
 mill ..................................................................................33
 
Figure
 2.8:
 Soft-­‐mud
 machine
 at
 left
 and
 stiff-­‐mud
 machine
 at
 right
 in
 typical
 use
 at
 the
 .........35
 
turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century
 
 
Figure
 2.9:
 Scove
 kiln,
 the
 most
 typical
 burning
 method
 in
 use
 in
 Milwaukee ............................38
 
Figure
 2.10:
 Circular
 down
 draft
 kiln ............................................................................................38
 
Figure
 2.11:
 Continuous
 kiln
 at
 Burnham
 Brothers’
 Wauwatosa
 yard .........................................38
 
Figure
 2.12:
 Wall
 showing
 various
 shades
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 in
 Milwaukee..............................42
 
Figure
 2.13:
 Locations
 of
 Milwaukee
 brickyards ..........................................................................48
 
Figure
 2.14:
 George
 Burnham ......................................................................................................50
 
Figure
 2.15:
 Jonathan
 L.
 Burnham................................................................................................50
 
Figure
 2.16:
 Advertisement
 for
 J.L.
 Burnham
 &
 Sons...................................................................53
 
 
x
 
Figure
 2.17:
 Advertisement
 for
 Burnham’s
 new
 brick
 machine...................................................54
 
Figure
 2.18:
 Burnham
 Brothers’
 Howell
 Avenue
 yard
 as
 seen
 in
 the
 late-­‐1890s .........................55
 
Figure
 2.19:
 Milwaukee
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Companies ..................................................................57
 
Figure
 2.20:
 1894
 Sanborn
 map
 showing
 the
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Company
 yards..........................58
 
Figure
 2.21:
 Clay
 pit
 of
 the
 Standard
 Brick
 Company ...................................................................60
 
Figure
 3.1:
 Reverend
 Lemuel
 B.
 Hull
 House
 as
 seen
 in
 the
 1880s................................................68
 
Figure
 3.2:
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House
 following
 a
 2007
 restoration.....................................70
 
Figure
 3.3:
 Edward
 Diedrich
 House
 with
 1895
 second-­‐story
 addition .........................................72
 
Figure
 3.4:
 Old
 St.
 Mary’s
 Church.................................................................................................73
 
Figure
 3.5:
 Detail
 of
 St.
 Mary’s
 discolored
 cream-­‐brick................................................................73
 
Figure
 3.6:
 St.
 John
 de
 Nepomuc
 Rectory ....................................................................................75
 
Figure
 3.7:
 Villa
 Uhrig,
 with
 later
 side
 addition ............................................................................77
 
Figure
 3.8:
 James
 S.
 Peck
 House...................................................................................................78
 
Figure
 3.9:
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 prior
 to
 restoration.......................................................................80
 
Figure
 3.10:
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 following
 restoration..................................................................80
 
Figure
 3.11:
 National
 Soldier’s
 Home,
 Old
 Main
 Building ............................................................82
 
Figure
 3.12:
 Old
 Main,
 tower
 in
 detail..........................................................................................82
 
Figure
 3.13:
 Alexander
 Mitchell
 Mansion
 circa
 1905 ...................................................................84
 
Figure
 3.14:
 Turner
 Hall,
 designed
 by
 Henry
 C.
 Koch ...................................................................85
 
Figure
 3.15:
 Milwaukee
 City
 Hall ..................................................................................................87
 
Figure
 3.16:
 Industrial
 Exposition
 Building
 prior
 to
 the
 1905
 fire ................................................88
 
Figure
 3.17:
 Frederick
 Pabst,
 Jr.
 Mansion.....................................................................................90
 
 
xi
 
Figure
 3.18:
 Pabst
 Brewery
 complex
 as
 depicted
 circa
 1900,
 constructed
 almost
 entirely
  ........92
 
of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 buildings
 
 
Figure
 3.19:
 The
 Pabst
 complex
 in
 2014
 with
 the
 rehabilitated
 brewhouse
 and
  ........................92
 
unrestored
 building
 
 
 

Figure
 3.20:
 Schlitz
 Brewing
 postcard
 from
 the
 mid-­‐twentieth
 century ......................................93
 
Figure
 3.21:
 Miller
 Brewery
 Complex,
 with
 newer
 brick
 buildings
 evident..................................93
 
Figure
 3.22:
 Keenan
 House,
 Madison,
 Wisconsin.........................................................................96
 
Figure
 3.23:
 Arcade
 Building,
 Riverside,
 Illinois,
 following
 a
 2010s
 restoration...........................98
 
Figure
 3.24:
 Grain
 Belt
 Brewery,
 Minneapolis,
 Minnesota ..........................................................99
 
Figure
 3.25:
 New
 York
 Institute
 for
 the
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb
 in
 1856 ...............................................102
 
Figure
 3.26:
 Levi
 Leiter
 Mansion
 during
 construction
 in
 1893 ...................................................103
 
Figure
 4.1:
 Newspaper
 article
 on
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 typical
 of
 the
 late-­‐1840s ...........................108
 
Figure
 4.2:
 Newspaper
 article
 describing
 Milwaukee
 brick
 on
 display
 in
 Albany,
 New
 York .....111
 
Figure
 4.3:
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 late
 1860s,
 when
 older
 wooden-­‐framed
 structures
 were
  ..........116
 
being
 replaced
 with
 brick
 buildings
 
 
 
Figure
 4.4:
 Downtown
 Milwaukee
 circa
 1867
 showing
 numerous
 Cream
 City
 brick
  ................119
 
commercial
 buildings
 
 
Figure
 4.5:
 Milwaukee
 circa
 1875
 with
 the
 second
 courthouse
 and
 St.
 Johns
 Cathedral
  .........121
 
in
 the
 background
 
 
Figure
 4.6:
 Contemporary
 view
 of
 Walker’s
 Point
 Historic
 District,
 Milwaukee ........................123
 
 
Figure
 4.7:
 Warehouse
 district
 in
 Walker’s
 Point .......................................................................123
 
Figure
 4.8:
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Base
 Ball
 Club,
 likely
 in
 1868.............................................126
 
 
Figure
 4.9:
 Cream
 City
 Hotel
 and
 Restaurant,
 with
 cream-­‐brick
 blocks
 surrounding ................127
 
Figure
 4.10:
 “Cream
 City”
 businesses
 appearing
 in
 the
 1896
 Milwaukee
 directory ..................128
 
Figure
 4.11:
 Flyer
 for
 the
 semi-­‐centennial
 of
 Milwaukee...........................................................129
  1
 

 
 
CHAPTER
 1:
 INTRODUCTION
 

  Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,
 has
 been
 known
 as
 the
 Cream
 City
 for
 over
 one
 hundred
 and
 
fifty
 years.
 For
 those
 unfamiliar
 with
 the
 city,
 it
 would
 be
 easy
 to
 assume
 the
 name
 refers
 to
 the
 
area’s
 illustrious
 connections
 to
 the
 beer
 industry
 or
 the
 area’s
 numerous
 dairy
 farms.
 
However,
 the
 name
 was
 derived
 from
 the
 light-­‐colored
 brick
 that
 became
 the
 ubiquitous
 
masonry
 building
 material
 in
 the
 city
 during
 its
 development
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 By
 the
 
1840s,
 the
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 had
 become
 synonymous
 with
 Milwaukee
 and
 provided
 the
 
burgeoning
 young
 city
 with
 some
 of
 its
 first
 national
 exposure.
 Both
 the
 brick
 as
 a
 material
 and
 
the
 appearance
 of
 Milwaukee
 in
 light
 of
 the
 brick’s
 use
 were
 regularly
 discussed
 throughout
 the
 
nineteenth
 century.
 While
 Schlitz
 Brewery
 had
 proclaimed
 themselves
 “the
 beer
 that
 made
 
Milwaukee
 famous”
 by
 the
 end
 of
 the
 century,
 it
 was
 the
 brick
 that
 built
 Schlitz
 and
 numerous
 
other
 breweries
 that
 actually
 first
 made
 Milwaukee
 famous.
 
  The
 brick,
 often
 branded
 as
 Milwaukee
 brick
 or
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 was
 mined
 from
 deep
 
deposits
 of
 glacial
 clay
 found
 along
 the
 river
 valleys
 throughout
 Milwaukee.
 The
 clay
 was
 high
 in
 
calcium
 and
 magnesium,
 two
 important
 components
 that
 negated
 the
 red-­‐producing
 iron
 also
 
present
 in
 the
 clay.
 The
 earliest
 brick
 producers
 assumed
 their
 product
 was
 worthless,
 as
 they
 
had
 been
 accustomed
 to
 the
 red
 brick
 so
 familiar
 on
 the
 East
 Coast.
 However,
 a
 reputation
 for
 a
 
clean
 and
 crisp
 color,
 as
 well
 as
 being
 durable,
 helped
 the
 brick’s
 popularity
 to
 spread
 
throughout
 the
 country.
 As
 early
 as
 the
 1840s,
 the
 brick
 was
 being
 exported
 throughout
 the
 
  2
 

Great
 Lakes
 region.
 Soon
 thereafter,
 it
 was
 exported
 to
 markets
 throughout
 the
 East
 and
 
eventually
 shipped
 as
 far
 away
 as
 Germany.1
 
  The
 brick
 was
 used
 in
 a
 vast
 breadth
 and
 range
 of
 buildings
 and
 structures.
 It
 was
 used
 
in
 buildings
 representing
 every
 architectural
 style
 found
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 
century,
 including
 many
 of
 the
 city’s
 most-­‐treasured
 architectural
 examples.
 Its
 use
 ranged
 
from
 grand
 mansions
 and
 cathedrals,
 to
 numerous
 commercial
 blocks,
 farmhouses
 and
 
vernacular
 structures,
 and
 even
 for
 more
 utilitarian
 purposes
 such
 as
 chimneys,
 foundations,
 
and
 sewers.
 While
 used
 as
 a
 common
 structural
 masonry
 material
 in
 Milwaukee,
 it
 was
 
exported
 at
 great
 cost
 for
 use
 as
 a
 facing
 material
 in
 grand
 mansions
 and
 public
 buildings
 
elsewhere.
 
  Demand
 for
 the
 brick
 increased
 dramatically
 as
 the
 city
 of
 Milwaukee
 grew
 and
 as
 the
 
reputation
 for
 the
 brick
 increased
 elsewhere.
 A
 number
 of
 brickyards
 existed
 in
 the
 city
 to
 help
 
meet
 this
 demand,
 producing
 in
 the
 tens
 of
 millions
 of
 bricks
 annually
 at
 the
 peak
 of
 the
 
industry.
 George
 and
 Jonathan
 Burnham
 led
 producers
 in
 the
 city,
 thanks
 in
 part
 to
 a
 
revolutionary
 brick
 machine
 they
 invented
 in
 the
 1850s.
 
 However,
 a
 confluence
 of
 factors
 led
 
to
 the
 end
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 production
 in
 the
 early
 part
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century.
 Cream
 City
 
brick
 structures
 are
 a
 finite
 resource
 and
 a
 reminder
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 earlier
 days
 as
 a
 
burgeoning
 industrial
 city.
 And
 while
 numerous
 Cream
 City
 brick
 buildings
 are
 extant,
 this
 
represents
 a
 fraction
 of
 the
 structures
 that
 once
 stood
 in
 the
 city.
 With
 each
 additional
 
demolition,
 the
 city
 loses
 an
 invaluable
 part
 of
 its
 history
 and
 cultural
 fabric.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1
 "The
 City.
 Sailing
 of
 the
 M.S.
 Scott
 for
 Hamburg,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 03
 June
 1859.
 
  3
 

  Despite
 the
 brick’s
 importance
 to
 the
 city
 of
 Milwaukee,
 a
 lack
 of
 substantive
 research
 
exists
 outlining
 both
 the
 qualities
 of
 the
 brick
 and
 its
 use.
 More
 importantly,
 there
 exists
 a
 lack
 
of
 documentation
 as
 to
 how
 the
 brick
 contributed
 to
 creating
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 city.
 Its
 
importance
 was
 well
 noted
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 but
 seemingly
 forgotten
 afterwards,
 
despite
 the
 prevalence
 of
 the
 “Cream
 City”
 name
 in
 Milwaukee.
 This
 thesis
 aims
 to
 fill
 this
 gap
 
by
 answering
 the
 questions:
 What
 is
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 why
 is
 it
 important;
 and
 in
 what
 ways
 
did
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee
 create
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 city
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 
century?
 
 
  To
 answer
 this
 question,
 it
 is
 necessary
 to
 examine
 a
 number
 of
 interrelated
 topics.
 A
 
developmental
 history
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 and
 the
 brick
 industry
 in
 the
 city
 provides
 context
 for
 
the
 growth
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 The
 same
 is
 true
 of
 the
 characteristics
 that
 make
 the
 brick
 
unique,
 including
 chemical
 composition
 and
 physical
 characteristics.
 Likewise,
 examining
 
architectural
 examples
 of
 how
 the
 brick
 was
 used,
 at
 home
 and
 abroad,
 is
 necessary
 in
 
exploring
 the
 breadth
 of
 use
 of
 the
 brick.
 Finally,
 examining
 how
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 
Milwaukee
 were
 thought
 of
 needs
 to
 be
 investigated
 to
 understand
 the
 development
 of
 the
 
city’s
 identity.
 
 
  This
 scope
 of
 thesis
 is
 confined
 to
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 This
 period
 encompasses
 the
 
development
 of
 Milwaukee,
 as
 well
 as
 the
 origins
 and
 height
 of
 cream-­‐brick
 production
 there.
 
 
Milwaukee’s
 best-­‐known
 brick
 producers,
 including
 the
 Burnham
 Brothers,
 operated
 during
 this
 
period
 and
 were
 partially
 responsible
 in
 helping
 a
 small
 frontier
 town
 rise
 to
 a
 great
 industrial
 
center
 and
 “Cream
 City.”
 It
 was
 during
 this
 time
 period
 that
 the
 city’s
 brick
 identity
 was
 
  4
 

established
 and
 solidified.
 Most
 of
 the
 sources
 used
 in
 this
 book
 date
 to
 the
 nineteenth
 
century.
 These
 provide
 firsthand
 accounts
 of
 how
 the
 city
 was
 viewed
 during
 that
 period.
 
 
 
Figure
 1.1:
 Ornamental
 title
 from
 late
 nineteenth
 century
 Milwaukee
 souvenir
 book2
 
 
Review
 of
 Current
 Literature
 
  Despite
 the
 lack
 of
 a
 comprehensive
 history
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 its
 importance
 to
 
the
 city
 of
 Milwaukee,
 a
 number
 of
 resources
 exist
 to
 help
 piece
 together
 this
 narrative.
 
Currently,
 the
 most
 comprehensive
 study
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 is
 the
 journal
 article,
 
“Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Brick,”
 written
 by
 Milwaukee
 architect
 and
 historian
 H.
 Russell
 
Zimmermann.
 The
 article
 first
 appeared
 in
 the
 March
 1970
 Historical
 Messenger
 of
 the
 
Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society
 and
 has
 since
 been
 reprinted
 in
 Historic
 Preservation
 and
 
as
 part
 of
 the
 introduction
 to
 Zimmermann’s
 Heritage
 Guidebook
 to
 landmarks
 and
 historical
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann,
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook:
 Landmarks
 and
 Historical
 Sites
 in
 
Southeastern
 Wisconsin,
 2nd
 ed.
 (Milwaukee:
 H.W.
 Schwartz,
 1989),
 21.
 
  5
 

sites
 in
 Southeastern
 Wisconsin.
 The
 article
 provides
 a
 history
 of
 the
 brick’s
 production
 and
 
use
 and
 briefly
 examines
 reactions
 to
 how
 the
 brick
 was
 received
 abroad.
 The
 article
 is
 well
 
researched
 and
 well
 written;
 yet
 at
 eleven
 pages,
 the
 brevity
 of
 the
 article
 provided
 just
 a
 
cursory
 look
 into
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 
 
 
  The
 only
 other
 document
 dedicated
 specifically
 to
 Cream
 City
 brick
 was
 a
 master’s
 
thesis
 completed
 in
 2011
 by
 Christopher
 Ciesielski
 at
 the
 Art
 Institute
 of
 Chicago.
 The
 thesis
 
covers
 the
 composition
 of
 Milwaukee
 clay,
 the
 manufacture
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 an
 account
 of
 
brick
 producers
 in
 the
 city,
 and
 conservation
 issues.
 The
 paper
 mainly
 draws
 information
 from
 
histories
 of
 Milwaukee
 and
 surveys
 conducted
 of
 the
 clay
 industry
 in
 Wisconsin.
 The
 thesis
 
provides
 a
 solid
 history
 of
 the
 brick
 producers
 in
 the
 city
 and
 a
 clear
 analysis
 of
 conservation
 
issues
 facing
 cream-­‐brick
 buildings.
 However,
 it
 does
 not
 discuss
 any
 architectural
 uses
 of
 the
 
brick
 and
 provides
 more
 of
 a
 material
 history
 of
 the
 product.
 
 
 A
 number
 of
 histories
 of
 Milwaukee
 exist,
 yet
 the
 three
 most
 useful
 for
 examining
 the
 
developmental
 history
 of
 the
 city
 and
 the
 brick
 industry
 are
 the
 four-­‐volume
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 
Milwaukee,
 written
 by
 James
 S.
 Buck,
 the
 three-­‐volume
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 
First
 Settlement
 To
 The
 Year
 1895,
 edited
 by
 Howard
 Louis
 Conrad,
 and
 John
 Gurda’s
 The
 
Making
 of
 Milwaukee.
 Buck’s
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 is
 a
 four-­‐volume
 set
 released
 
between
 1876
 to
 1886.
 These
 volumes
 contain
 many
 firsthand
 accounts
 of
 the
 city’s
 
development
 as
 well
 providing
 valuable
 biographical
 information
 on
 some
 of
 the
 city’s
 
prominent
 citizens.
 As
 an
 early
 settler
 to
 Milwaukee,
 Buck
 also
 includes
 his
 opinions
 and
 
remembrances
 of
 living
 in
 the
 city.
 The
 Conrad
 work
 provides
 a
 social,
 political,
 and
 economic
 
history
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 from
 settlement
 until
 the
 end
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 It
 has
 
  6
 

the
 benefit
 of
 seeing
 the
 city
 through
 to
 the
 end
 of
 the
 period
 covered
 in
 this
 thesis.
 In
 
addition,
 its
 numerous
 biographical
 sketches
 go
 well
 beyond
 the
 depth
 or
 number
 presented
 
in
 the
 Buck
 work.
 Both
 of
 these
 works
 provide
 valuable
 information
 on
 the
 early
 use
 of
 brick
 as
 
well
 as
 information
 on
 the
 men
 who
 produced
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 
 Milwaukee
 writer
 and
 
historian
 John
 Gurda
 provides
 a
 contemporary
 view
 of
 Milwaukee
 history
 in
 his
 book,
 The
 
Making
 of
 Milwaukee.
 The
 book
 benefits
 from
 the
 knowledge
 gained
 with
 an
 additional
 
century
 of
 Milwaukee
 history
 and
 provides
 a
 concise,
 yet
 detailed,
 look
 into
 the
 historic
 
context
 of
 the
 city.
 
 
  A
 number
 of
 useful
 studies
 were
 undertaken
 on
 the
 geology
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 the
 
composition
 of
 the
 clay
 deposits
 in
 the
 state
 in
 the
 1800s.
 These
 help
 to
 shed
 light
 on
 the
 
composition
 of
 the
 brick
 and
 its
 characteristics
 and
 provide
 context
 for
 the
 clay
 industry
 in
 the
 
state.
 Geologist
 Thomas
 Chrowder
 Chamberlain
 produced
 the
 four-­‐volume
 Geology
 of
 
Wisconsin:
 Survey
 of
 1873-­‐1879.
 These
 studies
 looked
 at,
 among
 many
 other
 things,
 the
 
location
 and
 composition
 of
 glacial
 clays
 throughout
 the
 state
 and
 the
 production
 of
 cream
 
brick
 in
 the
 state.
 It
 was
 the
 most
 in-­‐depth
 look
 into
 the
 geology
 of
 Wisconsin
 at
 the
 time
 it
 
was
 written.
 
  Ernest
 Robertson
 Buckley,
 Ph.D.,
 expanded
 upon
 this
 early
 work
 in
 1901
 with
 the
 
publication
 of
 the
 bulletin
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 produced
 by
 the
 Wisconsin
 
Geological
 and
 Natural
 History
 Survey.
 The
 bulletin
 looks
 specifically
 at
 Wisconsin
 clay
 and
 
goes
 into
 much
 more
 depth
 on
 the
 character
 of
 clay
 deposits
 throughout
 the
 state.
 It
 also
 
examines
 the
 products
 produced
 with
 the
 clay,
 including
 brick,
 tile,
 and
 terracotta.
 The
 
 
 
  7
 

bulletin
 includes
 a
 description
 of
 the
 brick
 and
 tile
 industry
 in
 the
 state
 at
 the
 time
 and
 
includes
 photographs
 of
 many
 of
 the
 state’s
 brickyards.
 
  The
 most
 in-­‐depth
 document
 is
 the
 follow-­‐up
 to
 the
 Buckley
 document,
 the
 1906
 The
 
Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses
 by
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 Ph.D.
 The
 paper
 goes
 into
 the
 minutia
 
concerning
 properties
 of
 each
 compound
 contained
 in
 Wisconsin
 clay,
 firing
 characteristics
 of
 
clay,
 and
 geographical
 locations
 of
 the
 clay
 throughout
 the
 state.
 Most
 importantly,
 the
 paper
 
goes
 into
 great
 detail
 on
 the
 different
 methods
 of
 brick
 production
 employed
 in
 Wisconsin,
 
notes
 the
 production
 statistics
 of
 individual
 brickyards,
 and
 performs
 tests
 on
 various
 bricks
 
and
 clay.
 
 
  Information
 on
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 architecture
 of
 Milwaukee
 was
 primarily
 gleaned
 
from
 three
 sources.
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann’s
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee
 goes
 into
 great
 detail
 on
 
nearly
 three-­‐dozen
 of
 the
 city’s
 best
 architectural
 treasures,
 mainly
 confined
 to
 residential
 
mansions.
 The
 book
 includes
 background
 information
 on
 the
 buildings,
 photographs,
 and
 
context
 on
 both
 the
 architects
 of
 the
 buildings
 and
 the
 families
 who
 lived
 there.
 Zimmermann
 
also
 wrote
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook,
 which
 very
 briefly
 looks
 at
 nearly
 one
 thousand
 buildings
 
in
 and
 around
 Milwaukee,
 including
 churches,
 business
 blocks,
 residences,
 and
 industrial
 
buildings.
 The
 book
 helps
 to
 illustrate
 just
 how
 prevalent
 Cream
 City
 brick
 usage
 was
 in
 early
 
Milwaukee.
 Finally,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 Milwaukee
 provides
 an
 
account
 of
 the
 architectural
 history
 of
 the
 city.
 It
 was
 produced
 by
 the
 City
 of
 Milwaukee
 in
 
1980,
 following
 a
 comprehensive
 architectural
 survey
 of
 the
 city.
 It
 includes
 examples
 of
 
buildings
 constructed
 in
 the
 many
 architectural
 styles
 found
 in
 the
 city,
 both
 extant
 and
 
demolished.
 
 
 
  8
 

  Finally,
 nineteenth
 century
 newspapers
 and
 magazines
 were
 examined
 to
 look
 for
 
mentions
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 or
 news
 articles
 describing
 Milwaukee.
 These
 provided
 a
 glimpse
 
of
 how
 the
 city
 of
 Milwaukee
 was
 viewed
 in
 light
 of
 its
 cream-­‐brick
 architecture.
 Milwaukee’s
 
first
 daily
 paper,
 The
 Sentinel,
 proved
 the
 most
 useful
 both
 through
 their
 reporting
 and
 their
 
reprinting
 of
 articles
 written
 for
 other
 newspapers
 about
 Milwaukee.
 
 
 
Gaps
 In
 Current
 Literature
 
  With
 the
 exception
 of
 the
 Zimmermann
 article
 on
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 none
 of
 the
 sources
 
mentioned
 above
 provide
 a
 comprehensive
 account
 of
 the
 many
 facets
 involved
 in
 answering
 
the
 question
 at
 hand.
 Rather,
 they
 each
 provide
 a
 piece
 of
 the
 larger
 contextual
 puzzle.
 The
 
sources
 on
 the
 historical
 background
 of
 Milwaukee
 shed
 light
 on
 the
 beginnings
 of
 the
 brick
 
industry
 and
 the
 men
 responsible
 for
 it,
 but
 largely
 ignore
 any
 great
 discussion
 about
 how
 or
 
where
 the
 brick
 was
 used.
 Likewise,
 the
 documents
 on
 the
 geology
 and
 clay
 of
 Wisconsin
 
provide
 valuable
 information
 on
 the
 inner-­‐workings
 of
 the
 clay
 industry
 in
 Wisconsin
 around
 
the
 turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century,
 and
 give
 detailed
 information
 about
 clay
 deposits
 and
 
composition,
 but
 do
 not
 look
 at
 architectural
 uses
 of
 the
 brick.
 The
 books
 on
 architecture
 
briefly
 touch
 on
 Cream
 City
 brick
 but
 leave
 out
 any
 discussion
 of
 the
 brick’s
 production
 and
 how
 
the
 brick
 influenced
 the
 identity
 of
 Milwaukee.
 Unfortunately,
 personal
 papers
 or
 business
 
records
 from
 the
 brick
 producers
 either
 do
 not
 exist
 or
 have
 not
 been
 made
 public.
 These
 
would
 be
 useful
 in
 providing
 more
 information
 on
 brick
 production
 in
 Milwaukee.
 It
 is
 surprising
 
that
 for
 such
 an
 important
 part
 of
 the
 city’s
 history,
 no
 comprehensive
 document
 exists
 tying
 
  9
 

together
 these
 pieces
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 its
 role
 in
 helping
 Milwaukee
 develop.
 The
 value
 
of
 such
 a
 resource
 would
 be
 immense.
 
 
Chapter
 Summaries
 
  This
 first
 chapter
 presents
 the
 context
 for
 the
 research
 conducted
 and
 poses
 the
 
question
 to
 be
 answered
 in
 this
 thesis.
 A
 review
 of
 available
 literature
 is
 presented,
 and
 gaps
 in
 
literature
 are
 explained.
 
 
  The
 second
 chapter
 examines
 the
 development
 of
 the
 City
 of
 Milwaukee
 and
 the
 brick
 
that
 made
 the
 city
 famous.
 The
 development
 of
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 will
 be
 
briefly
 examined,
 including
 settlement
 patterns
 and
 the
 growth
 of
 the
 city
 as
 an
 industrial
 
center.
 The
 chapter
 also
 examines
 the
 composition
 of
 the
 clay
 in
 Milwaukee
 and
 the
 
characteristics
 of
 the
 finished
 cream-­‐brick
 produced
 there.
 Both
 have
 unique
 qualities
 that
 set
 
them
 apart
 from
 their
 red
 counterparts.
 The
 methods
 of
 brick
 production,
 the
 brickyards
 where
 
brick
 was
 produced,
 and
 the
 men
 responsible
 for
 building
 Milwaukee’s
 brick
 industry
 will
 also
 
be
 studied.
 
 
  Chapter
 Three
 looks
 at
 the
 architectural
 uses
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 both
 in
 Milwaukee
 
and
 abroad.
 The
 brick
 was
 used
 extensively
 in
 the
 City
 of
 Milwaukee
 throughout
 the
 nineteenth
 
century
 and
 was
 found
 in
 architecture
 spanning
 many
 different
 styles
 and
 purposes.
 This
 
chapter
 looks
 at
 some
 well-­‐known
 high-­‐style
 examples,
 as
 well
 as
 some
 of
 the
 vernacular
 uses
 
where
 possible.
 The
 brick’s
 use
 outside
 of
 Milwaukee
 will
 also
 be
 examined.
 The
 brick
 was
 used
 
extensively
 in
 the
 Great
 Lakes
 area
 but
 also
 found
 markets
 throughout
 the
 country
 and
 
overseas.
 
 
  10
 

  The
 fourth
 chapter
 examines
 the
 ways
 that
 Milwaukee’s
 brick
 provided
 the
 city
 with
 an
 
identity,
 in
 both
 architectural
 terms
 and
 more
 psychological
 terms.
 The
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 
became
 the
 defining
 characteristic
 of
 the
 city,
 when
 viewed
 from
 within
 or
 abroad.
 It
 also
 
provided
 the
 city
 with
 the
 identity
 of
 the
 Cream
 City.
 This
 identity
 was
 embraced
 by
 those
 who
 
lived
 in
 the
 city,
 becoming
 incorporated
 with
 a
 large
 number
 of
 businesses
 and
 organizations.
 
Nineteenth
 century
 newspaper
 and
 magazine
 articles
 are
 used
 to
 help
 tell
 the
 story
 of
 the
 
progression
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 identity.
 The
 development
 of
 the
 Cream
 City
 nickname
 
and
 its
 uses
 are
 also
 looked
 at.
 
  The
 fifth
 chapter
 looks
 at
 the
 decline
 of
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 industry
 in
 Milwaukee.
 
Undercutting
 of
 prices
 by
 Chicago
 producers,
 changing
 architectural
 preferences,
 and
 
exhaustion
 of
 clay
 in
 the
 Milwaukee
 area
 all
 contributed
 to
 the
 demise
 of
 the
 industry
 in
 the
 
city.
 The
 character
 defining
 characteristics
 of
 the
 brick
 will
 be
 reviewed,
 as
 will
 conservation
 
issues
 regarding
 the
 brick.
 The
 chapter
 also
 summarizes
 the
 arguments
 presented
 in
 support
 of
 
the
 thesis
 question
 and
 examines
 the
 lasting
 importance
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 to
 the
 city
 of
 
Milwaukee.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11
 

 
 
CHAPTER
 2:
 THE
 DEVELOPENT
 OF
 MILWAUKEE,
 ITS
 
 

CLAY,
 AND
 BRICK
 PRODUCERS
 

  Following
 the
 settlement
 of
 Milwaukee
 by
 non-­‐Native
 Americans
 in
 the
 1830s,
 the
 city
 
was
 rapidly
 transformed
 from
 a
 heavily
 timbered
 and
 wild
 land
 to
 a
 bustling
 urban
 center
 and
 
industrial
 powerhouse.
 As
 the
 city
 rose
 along
 the
 shoreline
 of
 Lake
 Michigan,
 city
 founder
 
Solomon
 Juneau
 quickly
 realized
 the
 need
 for
 reliable
 building
 materials.
 While
 timber
 was
 
abundant,
 Juneau
 also
 recognized
 the
 need
 for
 a
 more
 durable
 material
 to
 help
 build
 his
 city.
 At
 
Juneau’s
 urging,
 local
 brick
 was
 first
 fired
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 fall
 of
 1835.3
 
 The
 curious
 light
 
cream-­‐colored
 brick
 that
 was
 produced
 initially
 disappointed
 the
 pioneer
 brickmakers
 who
 
were
 more
 familiar
 with
 the
 red
 brick
 of
 the
 East
 Coast.
 4
 
 However,
 the
 local
 product
 proved
 to
 
be
 very
 durable
 and
 eventually
 highly
 regarded
 visually.
 
 
  This
 chapter
 will
 trace
 the
 development
 of
 Milwaukee,
 looking
 at
 the
 early
 landscape
 
and
 settlement
 patterns
 and
 the
 people
 who
 contributed
 to
 the
 growth
 of
 the
 city.
 This
 history
 
is
 by
 no
 means
 comprehensive
 but
 will
 provide
 context
 for
 the
 success
 of
 the
 brick
 making
 
industry
 in
 the
 city.
 The
 characteristics
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 clay
 will
 also
 be
 examined.
 The
 
composition
 of
 the
 clay
 found
 in
 Milwaukee
 holds
 the
 key
 to
 the
 unique
 brick
 the
 city
 became
 
known
 for.
 A
 brief
 description
 of
 the
 clay
 deposits,
 along
 with
 the
 physical
 and
 visual
 
characteristics
 will
 be
 addressed.
 The
 methods
 used
 for
 producing
 brick
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3
 Howard
 Louis
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 
vol.
 2
 (Chicago:
 American
 Biographical
 Publishing
 Company,
 1895),
 19.
 
 
4
 James
 S.
 Buck,
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 the
 First
 American
 Settlement
 in
 1833,
 to
 
1841
 (Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 News
 Company,
 1876),
 48.
 
 
 
12
 

century
 will
 also
 be
 examined.
 As
 technology
 progressed,
 the
 techniques
 for
 making
 brick
 
advanced
 from
 the
 rudimentary,
 hand-­‐molded
 bricks
 of
 the
 early
 pioneers
 to
 a
 more
 
streamlined,
 power
 driven
 method
 in
 use
 at
 the
 end
 of
 the
 century.
 
 Finally,
 the
 brickmakers
 
and
 brickyards
 of
 Milwaukee
 will
 be
 examined.
 
 As
 technology
 advanced
 and
 demand
 both
 
locally
 and
 nationally
 increased,
 the
 brick
 industry
 rose
 from
 a
 few
 small
 yards
 to
 an
 economic
 
powerhouse
 in
 the
 city
 of
 Milwaukee.
 
 
 
The
 Development
 of
 Milwaukee
 
First
 Settlement
 in
 Milwaukee
 
  Early
 European
 settlers
 to
 Milwaukee
 found
 a
 land
 dominated
 by
 thick
 stands
 of
 oaks
 
and
 maples,
 tamarack
 groves,
 and
 clusters
 of
 hickories.5
 The
 Milwaukee,
 Menomonee,
 and
 
Kinnickinnic
 Rivers
 ran
 through
 the
 area,
 converging
 near
 the
 shoreline
 of
 Lake
 Michigan
 before
 
emptying
 into
 the
 lake.
 The
 lowlands
 along
 the
 rivers
 consisted
 of
 swamps
 of
 reeds,
 grasses,
 
and
 wild
 rice.
 Above
 these
 valleys
 were
 bluffs
 reaching
 upwards
 of
 100
 feet
 tall.6
 
 
  Native
 American
 villages
 dotted
 the
 landscape
 along
 the
 three
 rivers
 and
 bluffs.7
 The
 
villages,
 averaging
 500
 occupants
 in
 size,
 were
 inhabited
 annually
 during
 the
 non-­‐winter
 
months
 by
 a
 mix
 of
 Native
 American
 groups,
 including
 the
 Potawatomi,
 Chippewa,
 Ottawa,
 Fox,
 
Sauk,
 and
 Menominee.
 8
 This
 important
 Native
 American
 gathering
 spot
 was
 known
 by
 varying
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5
 H.
 Russell
 Austin,
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City
 (Milwaukee:
 
Milwaukee
 Journal,
 1946),
 11.
 
6
 John
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee
 (Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society,
 
1999),
 8.
 

7
 Ibid.,
 7.
 
8
 Ibid.,
 5.
 
 
 
13
 

names
 among
 them
 Milwogues,
 Miskouminia,
 Melecki,
 Willawaky,
 Milwacky,
 etc.9
 Translations
 
of
 the
 name
 were
 commonly
 given
 to
 mean
 “good
 land.”
 
 
  European
 contact
 had
 been
 limited
 to
 relatively
 small
 numbers
 of
 French
 missionaries
 
and
 fur
 traders
 through
 the
 seventeenth
 and
 eighteenth
 centuries.
 By
 the
 end
 of
 the
 
eighteenth
 century,
 however,
 the
 first
 permanent
 non-­‐native
 residents
 began
 to
 settle
 the
 
region.
 Among
 the
 earliest
 was
 Jacques
 Vieau,
 who
 arrived
 in
 1795,
 establishing
 a
 trading
 post
 
along
 the
 Menomonee
 River.10
 
 Vieau
 welcomed
 an
 apprentice
 and
 future
 son-­‐in-­‐law,
 Solomon
 
Juneau,
 to
 Milwaukee
 in
 1818.
 Vieau,
 Juneau,
 and
 a
 few
 other
 traders
 remained
 as
 seasonal
 
residents
 of
 Milwaukee
 through
 the
 1820s.
 The
 near
 extinction
 of
 beaver,
 and
 a
 smallpox
 
epidemic,
 drove
 most
 from
 Milwaukee
 by
 1830.
 Solomon
 Juneau
 remained,
 determined
 to
 
develop
 his
 “homesite
 into
 a
 townsite.”11
 
 
 
  Early
 Milwaukee
 Development
 
 
 Newcomers
 arrived,
 largely
 driven
 by
 land
 speculation.
 The
 non-­‐native
 population
 of
 
Milwaukee
 pushed
 into
 the
 hundreds
 by
 1835.12
 Three
 competing
 settlements
 arose
 in
 the
 city,
 
bounded
 by
 the
 natural
 geography
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 rivers.
 
 Solomon
 Juneau
 established
 a
 
partnership
 with
 Morgan
 Martin
 and
 established
 their
 townsite,
 Juneautown,
 between
 the
 
Milwaukee
 River
 and
 Lake
 Michigan.
 Byron
 Kilbourn
 arrived
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 1834,
 intent
 on
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9
 Austin,
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City,
 11.
 
10
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 12.
 
11
 Ibid.,
 23.
 
12
 Austin,
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City,
 22.
 
 
 
14
 

 
Figure
 2.1:
 View
 of
 Milwaukee
 as
 it
 appeared
 in
 1835,
 looking
 west13
 
 
making
 Milwaukee
 the
 “greatest
 city
 in
 the
 Midwest.”14
 His
 settlement,
 Kilborntown,
 was
 
located
 opposite
 Juneautown,
 along
 the
 western
 banks
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 River.
 Virginia-­‐born
 
George
 H.
 Walker
 also
 arrived
 in
 1834
 and
 established
 himself
 south
 of
 Juneautown,
 at
 the
 
confluence
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 and
 Menomonee
 Rivers
 –
 an
 area
 soon
 known
 as
 Walker’s
 Point.
 
These
 settlements,
 based
 on
 the
 highest
 and
 driest
 land
 in
 their
 respective
 parcels,
 would
 be
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

13
 "Map
 of
 Milwaukee
 print,
 Circa
 1835,"
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Library
 Digital
 Collections,
 accessed
 
15
 February,
 2015,
 
 http://content.mpl.org/cdm/ref/collection/MilwWaterwa/id/559.
 
14
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City,
 39.
 
 
 
15
 

the
 centers
 on
 which
 Milwaukee
 developed
 and
 expanded.15
 The
 three
 operated
 as
 
competitors,
 each
 trying
 to
 define
 itself
 as
 the
 true
 city.
 Juneautown
 and
 Kilbourntown
 led
 the
 
way,
 with
 Walker’s
 Point
 developing
 more
 slowly.
 These
 divided
 settlements
 remained
 until
 
unified
 as
 one
 “City
 of
 Milwaukee”
 in
 1846.
 
 
  To
 accommodate
 the
 great
 number
 of
 settlers
 and
 speculators
 arriving,
 improvements
 
were
 needed
 in
 the
 city.
 A
 federal
 survey
 conducted
 in
 January
 1835
 set
 the
 area
 into
 the
 well-­‐
recognized
 gridded
 pattern
 of
 640-­‐acre
 squares.
 Streets
 were
 graded
 in
 1836,
 the
 dense
 forest
 
was
 cleared
 for
 both
 building
 materials
 and
 developable
 land,
 and
 bluffs
 were
 leveled
 –
 their
 
soils
 providing
 fill
 for
 nearby
 marshes.16
 The
 log
 houses
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 earliest
 settlers
 soon
 
gave
 way
 to
 more
 advanced
 structures.
 A
 Greek
 Revival
 courthouse
 was
 erected
 by
 Solomon
 
Juneau
 in
 1836,
 as
 was
 the
 city’s
 first
 hotel.
 Kilbourn
 was
 also
 busy
 filling
 in
 swamps
 and
 
grading
 roads
 on
 his
 side
 of
 the
 river.
 The
 competition
 for
 supremacy
 between
 the
 two
 main
 
settlements
 was
 well
 recognized.
 In
 two
 well-­‐recounted
 examples,
 Kilbourn
 intentionally
 paved
 
his
 west
 side
 streets
 to
 not
 conform
 to
 the
 east
 side
 grid
 and
 also
 published
 an
 official
 “City
 of
 
Milwaukee”
 map
 in
 1836
 depicting
 the
 gridded
 development
 of
 his
 settlement
 with
 nary
 a
 sign
 
of
 life
 on
 the
 east
 side
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 River.
 
 
  It
 was
 during
 this
 time
 that
 the
 first
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 famed
 bricks
 were
 fired.
 As
 a
 journal
 
article
 on
 Nineteenth
 Century
 Midwest
 Brick
 notes,
 “brickmaking
 was
 one
 of
 the
 most
 localized
 
of
 all
 nineteenth
 century
 industries.”17
 Prior
 to
 rail
 transportation,
 especially
 in
 a
 quasi-­‐isolated
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

15
 Megan
 E.
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture
 (Charleston,
 SC:
 Arcadia
 Publishing,
 2010),
 
7.
 

16
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 30.
 
17
 William
 D.
 Walters,
 "Nineteenth
 Century
 Midwestern
 Brick,"
 Pioneer
 America
 14,
 no.
 3
 
(1982):
 125.
 
 

 
 
16
 

settlement
 like
 Milwaukee
 was
 at
 the
 time,
 importing
 building
 materials
 was
 not
 feasible.
 
Historian
 Howard
 Louis
 Conrad,
 in
 the
 second
 volume
 of
 his
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 From
 Its
 First
 
Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 recalls
 the
 story
 of
 Solomon
 Juneau’s
 involvement
 in
 the
 
beginnings
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 Juneau,
 intent
 on
 having
 brick
 manufactured
 “at
 home,”
 
contracted
 with
 brickmaker
 Nelson
 Olin
 in
 1835
 to
 come
 to
 Milwaukee
 and
 open
 a
 yard.
 By
 the
 
end
 of
 that
 year,
 25,000
 bricks
 had
 been
 fired
 for
 use
 in
 the
 first
 brick
 buildings
 in
 the
 city.18
 The
 
cream-­‐brick
 produced
 that
 year,
 the
 color
 of
 which
 was
 not
 initially
 admired,
 would
 provide
 a
 
ready
 supply
 of
 local
 masonry
 for
 the
 rise
 of
 Milwaukee.
 
 
  In
 spite
 of
 setbacks
 following
 a
 national
 depression
 and
 bursting
 of
 the
 real
 estate
 
bubble
 in
 1837,
 the
 city
 continued
 to
 grow
 through
 the
 end
 of
 the
 1830s.
 The
 competition
 
between
 the
 settlements
 drove
 development,
 with
 each
 trying
 to
 outdo
 the
 other.19
 By
 1843,
 
when
 the
 population
 of
 Milwaukee
 had
 increased
 to
 3,000
 citizens,
 the
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 
described
 the
 building
 boom,
 “They
 are
 building
 houses
 and
 stores
 in
 all
 directions.
 Being
 here
 
is
 just
 like
 living
 in
 a
 carpenter’s
 shop
 –
 the
 sound
 of
 hammers
 heard
 continually.20
 The
 Yankee
 
settlers
 of
 the
 1830s
 gave
 way
 to
 foreign
 settlers
 of
 the
 1840s,
 with
 roughly
 half
 of
 the
 
populace
 born
 in
 either
 Germany
 or
 the
 British
 Isles
 in
 1846.
 21
 
 The
 three
 competing
 villages
 
were
 finally
 merged
 when
 the
 City
 of
 Milwaukee
 was
 officially
 chartered
 on
 January
 31,
 1846.
 
Solomon
 Juneau
 was
 elected
 the
 first
 mayor.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

18
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 2,
 19.
 
19
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 57.
 
20
 Ibid.,
 48.
 
21
 Austin,
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City,
 74.
 
 
 
17
 

 
Figure
 2.2:
 1845
 map
 of
 Milwaukee
 by
 Increase
 A.
 Lapham22
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

22
 Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 
the
 City
 (Milwaukee:
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1983),
 4.
 
 
 
18
 

The
 Rise
 of
 an
 Industrial
 City
 
  Milwaukee’s
 economic
 prosperity
 continued
 through
 the
 1840s
 and
 1850s.
 This
 period
 
witnessed
 Milwaukee
 progressing
 beyond
 settlement
 status
 and
 transforming
 into
 a
 successful
 
small
 city.23
 The
 population
 more
 than
 doubled,
 to
 over
 20,000,
 in
 the
 four
 years
 since
 the
 city
 
was
 chartered
 in
 1846,
 and
 it
 more
 than
 doubled
 again
 to
 over
 45,000
 from
 1850
 to
 1860.24
 
This
 period
 saw
 the
 expansion
 of
 infrastructure
 around
 Milwaukee
 to
 accommodate
 the
 
increasing
 number
 of
 residents.
 Many
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 lasting
 industries
 such
 as
 “flour
 mills,
 
meat
 packers,
 tanners,
 and
 brewers
 earning
 a
 national
 reputation
 for
 beer
 production”
 were
 
established
 during
 this
 period.25
 The
 raw
 and
 finished
 goods
 produced
 were
 sent
 by
 the
 
increasingly
 important
 and
 busy
 port,
 and
 by
 the
 railroads
 that
 arrived
 in
 the
 1850s.
 Not
 least
 
among
 the
 industries
 established
 and
 thriving
 was
 Milwaukee’s
 brick
 industry.
 The
 dramatic
 
rise
 of
 both
 industry
 and
 population
 meant
 a
 boon
 for
 the
 brickyards
 in
 operation.
 The
 
reputation
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 already
 spreading
 by
 the
 1840s,
 with
 no
 shortage
 of
 demand
 
for
 the
 product.
 
 
  Despite
 a
 grim
 national
 background,
 the
 Civil
 War
 brought
 Milwaukee
 continued
 growth
 
and
 prosperity.
 The
 city’s
 industries
 churned
 out
 much
 needed
 supplies
 for
 the
 Union
 during
 
the
 war,
 including
 wheat,
 meat,
 leather,
 and
 beer.26
 Following
 the
 war,
 the
 city
 became
 “the
 
greatest
 shipper
 of
 wheat
 on
 earth,
 one
 of
 the
 top
 twenty
 cities
 in
 America,
 and
 a
 leading
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

23
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture,
 17.
 
24
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 92.
 
25
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture,
 17.
 
26
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 101.
 
 
 
19
 

 
Figure
 2.3:
 1872
 birds-­‐eye
 view
 of
 Milwaukee
 looking
 west27
 
 
 
source
 of
 products
 ranging
 from
 harness
 leather
 to
 lager
 beer.”28
 The
 post-­‐Civil
 War
 formula
 for
 
Milwaukee
 was
 described
 as
 “industries
 plus
 immigrants
 equaled
 growth.”29
 The
 population
 
topped
 71,000
 in
 1870,
 and
 increased
 to
 115,000
 by
 1880.
 Many
 of
 these
 arrivals
 were
 
immigrants
 from
 Germany
 and
 later,
 Poland.30
 New
 offices,
 commercial
 blocks,
 industrial
 
centers,
 and
 residences
 rose
 around
 the
 city.
 Many
 of
 the
 city’s
 older
 wooden-­‐framed
 
structures
 were
 replaced
 with
 more
 elaborate
 masonry
 structures.
 Increasing
 individual
 wealth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

27
 Bailey,
 H.H.
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin
 [map].
 Milwaukee:
 Holzapfel
 &
 Eskuche,
 1872.
 From
 
Library
 of
 Congress,
 Map
 Collections.
 Accessed.
 http://www.loc.gov/item/76693067/
 (accessed
 
15
 February
 2015).
 
28
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 103.
 
29
 Ibid.,
 138.
 
30
 Austin,
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City,
 22.
 
 
 
20
 

manifested
 itself
 in
 elaborate
 and
 grand
 mansions
 erected
 throughout
 the
 city.
 Tastes
 were
 
changing
 as
 well,
 as
 “architectural
 design
 ran
 rampant
 with
 exuberance,
 ornament,
 and
 
considerable
 size.”31
 
 
  The
 twenty-­‐five
 year
 period
 following
 the
 Civil
 War
 witnessed
 unprecedented
 growth
 in
 
industry
 in
 Milwaukee.
 Many
 of
 these
 trades
 had
 been
 around
 since
 the
 pioneer
 times,
 yet
 now
 
“assumed
 a
 scale
 that
 few
 Milwaukeeans
 could
 have
 imagined
 before
 the
 Civil
 War.”32
 
Milwaukee’s
 best-­‐known
 breweries,
 including
 Miller
 Brewing
 Company,
 Best
 Brewing
 Company
 
(later
 renamed
 Pabst
 Brewing
 Company),
 Joseph
 Schlitz
 Brewing
 Company,
 and
 Valentin
 Blatz
 
Brewing
 Company,
 all
 expanded
 operations
 –
 Best
 becoming
 America’s
 largest
 producer
 by
 
1874.33
 The
 meatpacking
 and
 tanning
 industries
 expanded,
 and
 the
 new
 business
 of
 machinery
 
manufacturing,
 led
 by
 Edward
 P.
 Allis,
 took
 off.34
 Much
 of
 the
 industrial
 expansion
 was
 centered
 
in
 the
 rapidly
 in-­‐filled
 swamplands
 of
 the
 Menomonee
 River
 Valley
 (including
 the
 city’s
 largest
 
brickyards).
 Almost
 without
 exception,
 these
 newly
 expanded
 industries
 built
 their
 factories,
 
warehouses,
 and
 offices
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 
 
 
  Industry
 continued
 to
 dominate
 as
 the
 city
 approached
 the
 beginning
 of
 the
 twentieth
 
century.
 The
 value
 of
 manufactured
 produces
 increased
 from
 nearly
 $19
 million
 in
 1869
 to
 
nearly
 $124
 million
 in
 1899.35
 While
 still
 a
 predominantly
 German
 city
 by
 the
 turn
 of
 the
 
twentieth
 century,
 other
 nationalities,
 such
 as
 Poles,
 Irish,
 Italians,
 and
 eastern
 European
 Jews
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

31
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture,
 27.
 
32
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 117-­‐18.
 
33
 Ibid.,
 121.
 
34
 Ibid.,
 123.
 
35
 Bayrd
 Still,
 Milwaukee,
 History
 of
 a
 City
 (Madison,
 WI:
 State
 Historical
 Society
 of
 Wisconsin,
 
1948),
 321.
 

 
 
21
 

settled
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 search
 of
 work.36
 The
 city
 was
 well
 connected
 by
 rail
 and
 streetcar
 lines
 
and
 miles
 of
 paved
 roads.
 Electricity
 had
 arrived
 in
 the
 city,
 used
 primarily
 for
 lighting
 and
 
electric
 streetcars.
 
 Some
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 most
 notable
 architecture
 was
 also
 completed
 in
 the
 
last
 decade
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 including
 Milwaukee
 City
 Hall,
 the
 Pfister
 Hotel,
 the
 
Pabst
 Building,
 the
 Federal
 Building
 and
 United
 States
 Courthouse
 and
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Library
 
and
 Museum.
 
 
 
Figure
 2.4:
 Menomonee
 Valley
 circa
 188237
 
 
 
 

  Milwaukee
 emerged
 from
 a
 small
 fur-­‐trading
 settlement
 to
 become
 a
 burgeoning
 urban
 
center
 and
 industrial
 leader
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 Buoyed
 by
 immigration
 and
 industry,
 the
 
city
 grew
 dramatically
 in
 the
 second
 half
 of
 the
 century.
 Milwaukee
 had
 established
 an
 identity
 
for
 its
 German
 proclivities,
 beer
 production,
 and
 manufactured
 goods.
 Yet
 behind
 much
 of
 
Milwaukee’s
 growth
 during
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 were
 the
 building
 blocks
 responsible
 for
 
making
 the
 city.
 The
 following
 section
 examines
 the
 clay
 used
 in
 Milwaukee’s
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

36
 Gurda,
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee,
 175.
 
37
 "The
 Menomonee
 Valley
 In
 Milwaukee
 in
 1882,"
 Wikimedia,
 accessed
 16
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_menomonee_valley_in_milwaukee_1882.jpg.
 
 
 
22
 

brick
 production,
 methods
 of
 manufacturing
 the
 brick,
 and
 the
 businesses
 and
 businessmen
 
responsible
 for
 propelling
 the
 industry.
 
 
 
Characteristics
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 Brick
 Producing
 Clay
 
  Despite
 the
 disappointment
 of
 the
 early
 pioneers
 at
 their
 cream-­‐colored
 brick,
 the
 
product
 was
 not
 only
 durable
 but
 also
 eventually
 highly
 regarded
 visually.
 Early
 speculation
 for
 
the
 color
 of
 the
 brick
 placed
 the
 blame
 on
 a
 lack
 of
 iron
 in
 Milwaukee
 clay.
 This
 was,
 however,
 
not
 the
 case.
 
 This
 section
 examines
 the
 types
 of
 clay
 found
 in
 Milwaukee,
 as
 well
 as
 the
 
chemical
 composition
 of
 the
 clay.
 The
 characteristics
 of
 the
 finished
 brick
 will
 also
 be
 looked
 at.
 
  The
 clays
 in
 Wisconsin
 can
 be
 divided
 into
 two
 broad
 categories
 –
 residual
 clay
 and
 
transported
 clay.
 Generally,
 residual
 clays
 are
 composed
 of
 rocks
 that
 have
 disintegrated
 in
 
place
 with
 only
 soluble
 salts
 removed,
 while
 transported
 clays
 are
 formed
 of
 rocks
 disintegrated
 
in
 one
 location
 and
 transported
 elsewhere
 by
 water,
 ice,
 and
 wind.38
 Transported
 clays
 make
 
up
 the
 largest
 type
 of
 clay
 in
 the
 state
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 the
 clay
 responsible
 for
 the
 cream-­‐
colored
 brick
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee.39
 These
 clays
 were
 deposited
 in
 Wisconsin
 in
 two
 
distinctly
 different
 ways
 -­‐
 by
 glacial
 action
 and
 by
 water.
 
 
  Glacial
 clay
 is
 found
 around
 the
 state,
 though
 distributed
 in
 an
 irregular
 manner.
 This
 
clay
 is
 difficult
 to
 work
 into
 brick
 due
 to
 the
 presence
 of
 large
 pebbles
 and
 boulders.40
 By
 
contrast,
 the
 clays
 deposited
 by
 water
 are
 the
 more
 extensive
 in
 the
 state
 and
 make
 up
 the
 
majority
 of
 the
 clay
 found
 in
 Milwaukee.
 These
 clays
 were
 deposited
 during
 successive
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

38
 Ernest
 Robertson
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 
and
 Natural
 History
 Survey,
 Bulletin
 No.
 7
 
 (Madison,
 WI:
 Published
 by
 the
 State,
 1901),
 1.
 
39
 Ibid.,
 30,
 67.
 
40
 Ibid.,
 34.
 
 
 
23
 

advances
 and
 retreats
 of
 ice
 sheets
 during
 the
 glacial
 period.41
 Known
 as
 lacustrine
 clays,
 these
 
clays
 are
 not
 as
 widely
 distributed
 as
 glacial
 clays
 but
 make
 up
 deposits
 much
 thicker
 than
 the
 
glacial
 deposits.42
 While
 found
 throughout
 the
 state,
 they
 are
 found
 in
 the
 greatest
 depth
 along
 
the
 shorelines
 of
 Lake
 Michigan
 and
 Lake
 Superior.
 In
 some
 locations
 in
 Milwaukee
 and
 along
 
Lake
 Michigan
 these
 clay
 deposits
 were
 shown
 to
 be
 upwards
 of
 one
 hundred
 feet
 deep.43
 
These
 clays
 range
 in
 color
 from
 reddish
 brown
 to
 light
 purple
 to
 grayish
 blue.44
 
  The
 clay
 deposits
 are
 found
 below
 a
 few
 feet
 of
 topsoil.
 The
 upper
 level
 of
 these
 
lacustrine
 deposits
 averages
 one
 to
 three
 feet
 in
 depth
 and
 is
 reddish
 brown
 in
 color,
 while
 the
 
lower
 beds
 are
 of
 a
 bluish
 or
 pinkish
 tint
 and
 extend
 the
 depth
 of
 the
 clay
 deposit.
 These
 layers
 
exhibited
 differing
 properties
 when
 burned.
 The
 upper,
 red
 layer
 tended
 to
 burn
 closer
 to
 a
 
more
 familiar
 red
 brick,
 while
 the
 lower
 clay
 layer
 produced
 a
 pure
 white
 or
 buff
 when
 
burned.45
 Milwaukee’s
 brick
 producers
 commonly
 mixed
 these
 two
 layers
 to
 accomplish
 their
 
desired
 result.
 A
 common
 ratio
 used
 in
 Milwaukee
 consisted
 of
 one
 part
 red
 mixed
 with
 three
 
parts
 blue
 clay
 to
 produce
 the
 desired
 cream
 color.46
 It
 should
 be
 noted
 that
 these
 clay
 deposits
 
were
 not
 uniformly
 dispersed
 around
 the
 Milwaukee
 area.
 Yards
 within
 miles
 of
 each
 other
 
could
 contain
 drastically
 different
 depths
 and
 types
 of
 clay.47
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

41
 Ibid.,
 35.
 
42
 Ibid.
 
43
 Ibid.,
 36.
 
44
 Ibid.,
 60.
 
45
 Christopher
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick"
 (master's
 thesis,
 Art
 Institute
 of
 Chicago,
 2011),
 9.
 
46
 Ibid.
 
47
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 9.
 
 
 
24
 

 
Figure
 2.5:
 Map
 of
 Wisconsin
 showing
 the
 distribution
 of
 clays
 in
 the
 state,
 with
 
 
cream-­‐burning
 Lucustrine
 clay
 shown
 in
 dark
 brown48
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

48
 Ernest
 Robertson
 Buckley,
 "Plate
 1:
 Map
 of
 Wisconsin,"
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 &
 Natural
 
History
 Survey,
 accessed
 16
 February,
 2015,
 
 https://wgnhs.uwex.edu/pubs/b007plate01/.
 
 
 
25
 

Composition
 of
 Milwaukee
 Clay
 
  Historian
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann
 rightly
 points
 out
 in
 his
 essay
 on
 Cream
 City
 brick
 that
 
because
 “almost
 all
 clays
 contain
 [the]
 same
 list
 of
 ingredients,
 it
 becomes
 obvious
 that
 their
 
proportions
 are
 the
 critical
 factor”
 for
 determining
 the
 color
 and
 characteristics
 of
 fired
 brick.49
 
This
 list
 of
 ingredients
 found
 in
 clay
 includes
 silica
 (silicon
 oxide),
 lime
 (calcium
 oxide),
 magnesia
 
(magnesium
 oxide),
 alumina
 (aluminum
 oxide),
 iron
 (ferricoxide),
 potash
 (potassium
 oxide),
 
combined
 water,
 and
 trace
 amounts
 of
 other
 elements.50
 Each
 of
 these
 has
 some
 effect
 on
 
what
 types
 of
 products
 can
 be
 produced
 with
 the
 clay
 and
 the
 overall
 characteristics
 of
 the
 
finished
 product.
 
 
  Silica,
 often
 in
 the
 form
 of
 sand,
 lessens
 the
 tendency
 of
 clay
 to
 shrink
 when
 fired.
 
However,
 the
 presence
 of
 too
 much
 silica
 causes
 brick
 to
 become
 weak
 and
 brittle.
 Potash
 is
 
usually
 found
 in
 small
 amounts
 and
 serves
 as
 a
 binding
 agent
 with
 silica
 and
 iron.
 Iron
 in
 the
 
clay
 is
 most
 obviously
 observed
 in
 the
 red
 color
 of
 fired
 bricks.
 It
 also
 serves
 to
 strengthen
 the
 
brick
 by
 binding
 with
 other
 compounds.
 While
 the
 earliest
 brickmakers
 in
 Milwaukee
 had
 
assumed
 that
 their
 clay
 lacked
 this
 crucial
 element,
 increased
 levels
 of
 magnesia
 and
 lime
 were
 
actually
 responsible
 for
 the
 cream-­‐colored
 brick.
 
  These
 elevated
 levels
 of
 magnesia
 and
 lime
 in
 Milwaukee
 clay
 give
 the
 brick
 both
 their
 
cream
 color
 and
 their
 noted
 durability.
 These
 compounds
 form
 a
 light-­‐colored,
 strong
 bonding
 
alumina-­‐lime-­‐magnesia-­‐iron
 compound
 when
 burned
 at
 high
 temperatures,
 thus
 producing
 a
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

49
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann,
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 Historical
 Messenger
 of
 the
 
Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society
 26
 (1970):
 4.
 
50
 Ibid.
 
 
 
 
26
 

buff
 cream
 brick
 rather
 than
 a
 red
 brick.51
 Magnesia
 in
 lacustrine
 clays
 can
 be
 present
 at
 levels
 
as
 high
 as
 twelve
 times
 the
 national
 average.
 Lime
 present
 at
 levels
 three
 to
 one
 compared
 to
 
iron
 produce
 the
 most
 marked
 results.52
 There
 are
 many
 possible
 sources
 for
 the
 elevated
 
levels
 of
 these
 compounds,
 although
 in
 Wisconsin
 the
 mineral
 dolomite,
 a
 double
 carbonate
 of
 
lime
 and
 magnesia,
 is
 thought
 to
 be
 the
 one
 most
 responsible.53
 
 
  Clay
 burned
 at
 an
 insufficient
 temperature
 would
 result
 in
 the
 iron
 oxidizing,
 rather
 than
 
binding
 with
 the
 lime
 and
 magnesium.
 A
 red
 or
 pink
 brick
 would
 result.
 This
 had
 a
 practical
 
advantage
 in
 that
 “the
 effects
 of
 inadequate
 burning
 are
 made
 evident
 in
 the
 imperfect
 
development
 of
 the
 cream
 color,
 and
 hence
 a
 more
 carefully
 burned
 product
 is
 usually
 
secured.”54
 Four
 times
 the
 heat
 was
 required
 to
 secure
 a
 cream
 colored
 product
 as
 opposed
 to
 
a
 red
 brick.55
 The
 other
 effect
 this
 bonding
 has
 is
 to
 create
 a
 remarkably
 hard
 and
 firm
 product.
 
The
 strength
 of
 the
 brick
 will
 be
 examined
 in
 the
 next
 section.
 
  The
 following
 chart
 shows
 relative
 percentages
 of
 compounds
 found
 in
 Milwaukee
 clay.
 
Four
 tests
 included
 below
 were
 conducted
 on
 clays
 found
 at
 yards
 producing
 cream-­‐colored
 
brick
 in
 Milwaukee.
 For
 comparisons
 sake,
 clay
 from
 other
 regions
 of
 the
 state
 and
 county
 are
 
included.
 Note
 that
 both
 the
 clays
 found
 in
 Madison
 and
 Ashland,
 Wisconsin,
 are
 of
 a
 red-­‐
burning
 variety.
 The
 results
 show
 the
 clays
 found
 in
 Milwaukee
 are
 considerably
 lower
 in
 silica
 
and
 alumina
 than
 those
 found
 elsewhere.
 Likewise,
 Milwaukee
 clay
 is
 vastly
 higher
 in
 both
 lime
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

51
 Thomas
 Chrowder
 Chamberlin,
 Geology
 of
 Wisconsin:
 Survey
 of
 1873-­‐1879,
 vol.
 1
 (Madison,
 
WI:
 Commissioners
 of
 Public
 Printing,
 1883),
 669.
 
52
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 and
 Natural
 
History
 Survey,
 Bulletin
 No.
 15
 
 (Madison,
 WI:
 Published
 by
 the
 State,
 1906),
 17.
 
53
 Ibid.,
 18.
 
54
 Chamberlin,
 Geology
 of
 Wisconsin:
 Survey
 of
 1873-­‐1879,
 1
 669.
 
55
 Zimmermann,
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 9.
 
 
 
27
 

and
 magnesia.
 As
 noted
 above,
 these
 two
 compounds
 are
 responsible
 for
 the
 cream
 color
 of
 
Milwaukee’s
 brick.
 
 
 
Table
 2.1:
 Chemical
 makeup
 of
 brick
 clays56
 
Compound
 
 
Location
 
Silica
  Alumina
 
  Iron
 
  Lime
  Magnesia
 
  Potash
 
  Soda
  Water
  Other
 
Compounds
 
Total
 
Madison,
 
WI
 

75.80
  11.07
  3.84
  1.84
  0.08
  1.74
  0.40
  3.70
  1.09
 

99.56
 

Ashland,
 WI
  58.08
  25.38
  4.44
  8.30
 (combined)
  -­‐
  -­‐
  4.09
  -­‐
  100.2
 
Choctaw
 
County,
 AL
 
83.30
  5.12
  1.60
  0.46
  0.00
  0.00
  0.00
  6.60
  2.06
 

99.14
 

Golden,
 CO
  45.88
  35.42
  1.74
  0.44
  0.20
  1.19
  0.00
  14.10
  3.57
  102.5
 

Mt.
 Savage,
 
MD
 

50.46
  35.91
  1.51
  0.13
  1.02
  0.00
  0.00
  12.78
  1.64
 

103.5
 

Burnham
 
Bros,
 
Howell
 
Yard,
 
Milwaukee
 
40.17
  9.14
  3.00
  14.49
  8.34
  3.06
  -­‐
  21.37
  0.78
  100.4
 

Burnham
 
Bros,
 West
 
Yard,
 
Milwaukee
 
41.63
  8.51
  3.40
  14.39
  8.02
  2.90
  -­‐
  20.08
  1.12
  100.1
 

Standard
 
Brick
 Co.,
 
Milwaukee
 
43.84
  7.82
  2.00
  15.16
  8.03
  2.44
  -­‐
  19.79
  0.95
  100.0
 

 
 
  For
 further
 comparison,
 tests
 were
 conducted
 in
 March
 2015
 on
 a
 Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 
a
 common
 brick
 produced
 in
 Athens,
 Georgia,
 likely
 around
 the
 turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century.
 
These
 tests
 were
 conducted
 under
 the
 direction
 of
 Alice
 M.W.
 Hunt
 at
 the
 Center
 for
 Applied
 
Isotope
 Studies
 at
 the
 University
 of
 Georgia.
 The
 results
 are
 similar
 to
 those
 conducted
 around
 
the
 turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century
 on
 brick
 from
 Milwaukee
 and
 elsewhere.
 The
 Milwaukee
 
brick
 contains
 higher
 percentages
 of
 lime
 (calcium)
 and
 magnesia
 compared
 with
 the
 Athens
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

56
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 273,
 78,
 79;
 The
 History
 of
 Racine
 and
 
Kenosha
 Counties,
 Wisconsin,
 
 (Kenosha,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 Company,
 1879),
 169.
 
 
 
28
 

red
 brick.
 Similarly,
 the
 Athens
 brick
 contains
 more
 iron,
 the
 compound
 largely
 responsible
 for
 
determining
 the
 color
 of
 brick.
 
 
 
Table
 2.2:
 2015
 composition
 tests
 of
 Milwaukee
 and
 Athens,
 Georgia,
 brick57
 
Compound
 
 
Location
 
SiO2
  Al2O3
 
  Fe2O3
  CaO
  MgO
 
  K2O
  TiO2
  MnO
  Other
 

Compounds
 
Total
 
Milwaukee,
 WI
  55.77
  10.51
  3.59
  14.77
  10.78
  3.55
  0.39
  0.07
  0.66
  100.0
 

Athens,
 GA
  64.89
  24.04
  7.05
  0.19
  0.74
  2.00
  1.10
  0.09
  0.00
  100.0
 

 
Cream
 City
 Brick
 Manufacture
 and
 Characteristics
 of
 Finished
 Brick
 
Methods
 of
 Brick
 Manufacturing
 
  Brick
 manufacturing
 is
 a
 complex
 process.
 Many
 steps
 are
 involved
 between
 the
 
extraction
 of
 raw
 clay
 from
 the
 ground
 and
 the
 burning
 of
 a
 durable,
 dependable,
 and
 beautiful
 
brick.
 While
 brick
 have
 been
 produced
 for
 nearly
 10,000
 years,
 and
 fired
 brick
 for
 
approximately
 5,000
 years,
 the
 process
 became
 much
 more
 regulated
 and
 efficient
 in
 the
 
nineteenth
 century.
 The
 Industrial
 Revolution
 made
 the
 technological
 advances
 that
 allowed
 
bricks
 to
 be
 produced
 in
 quantities
 never
 before
 possible.
 Due
 to
 the
 localized
 nature
 of
 early
 
brick
 manufacture,
 production
 was
 “more
 widespread
 in
 the
 American
 frontier
 than
 is
 often
 
realized.”58
 
 
  Before
 examining
 the
 techniques
 used
 for
 brick
 production
 in
 Milwaukee,
 it
 is
 useful
 to
 
look
 at
 some
 of
 the
 advances
 that
 occurred
 during
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 that
 made
 
mechanized
 production
 possible.
 Production
 was
 “seasonal,
 cyclical
 and
 badly
 paid,
 [and]
 …
 
required
 substantial
 amounts
 of
 young
 and
 unskilled
 labor,”
 of
 which
 there
 was
 no
 shortage
 in
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

57
 Hunt,
 Alice
 M.W.,
 Center
 for
 Applied
 Isotope
 Studies,
 University
 of
 Georgia,
 March
 2015.
 
58
 Walters,
 "Nineteenth
 Century
 Midwestern
 Brick,"
 126.
 
 
 
29
 

Milwaukee.
 Through
 most
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 bricks
 were
 hand-­‐molded
 and
 set
 in
 
wooden
 brick
 molds.
 An
 average
 output
 for
 a
 twelve-­‐hour
 workday
 was
 9,000
 to
 10,000
 bricks
 
per
 worker
 using
 this
 method.59
 However,
 due
 to
 the
 time-­‐consuming
 nature
 of
 the
 work
 and
 
desire
 to
 increase
 output,
 attempts
 were
 made
 at
 streamlining
 production
 by
 developing
 
mechanical
 means
 of
 brick
 production.
 
  Because
 hand-­‐molded
 bricks
 were
 fairly
 porous
 and
 prone
 to
 absorbing
 water,
 the
 
earliest
 brick-­‐making
 machines
 were
 designed
 to
 further
 press
 brick
 molded
 by
 hand
 into
 a
 
more
 dense
 and
 stronger
 product.
 However,
 these
 early
 machines
 were
 constructed
 of
 wood
 
and
 ill-­‐suited
 for
 the
 rigors
 of
 the
 heavy
 work.60
 Other
 early
 devises
 aimed
 at
 molding
 brick
 also
 
failed
 because
 they
 were
 designed
 for
 use
 with
 one
 type
 of
 clay
 but
 did
 not
 work
 for
 other
 clay
 
types.
 The
 machines
 often
 proved
 difficult
 to
 operate
 and
 prohibitively
 expensive
 to
 produce.
 
Numerous
 patents
 were
 filed
 in
 the
 early
 nineteenth
 century,
 yet
 few
 of
 these
 models
 were
 
either
 practically
 functional
 or
 went
 into
 widespread
 production.61
 Despite
 failure
 of
 these
 early
 
devises,
 “rising
 demand
 and
 the
 lure
 of
 significantly
 lower
 production
 costs
 continued
 to
 foster
 
invention”
 and
 improvements
 eventually
 occurred.62
 
 
  Successful
 early
 machines
 for
 dry-­‐pressed
 clay
 contained
 brick
 molds
 that
 rotated
 on
 a
 
disk
 under
 a
 piston
 that
 compressed
 the
 clay
 into
 the
 mold.
 Once
 molded,
 the
 green
 bricks
 
would
 be
 taken
 away
 by
 conveyor
 belt.
 Thomas
 Culbertson
 of
 Cincinnati
 produced
 one
 notable
 
example
 in
 1846.
 
 This
 machine
 replaced
 pistons
 with
 compressing
 rollers
 that
 pulverized
 the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

59
 I.B.
 Holley
 Jr.,
 "The
 Mechanization
 of
 Brickmaking,"
 Technology
 and
 Culture
 50,
 no.
 1
 (2009):
 
84.
 

60
 Ibid.,
 85.
 
61
 Ibid.
 
62
 Ibid.,
 90.
 
 
 
30
 

clay
 then
 fed
 it
 into
 molds
 rotating
 under
 the
 rollers.
 This
 model
 was
 copied
 and
 updated
 by
 
numerous
 other
 producers.
 The
 Chambers
 Brothers
 Company
 of
 Philadelphia
 produced
 one
 of
 
the
 earliest
 successful
 models
 for
 use
 with
 stiff-­‐mud
 clay
 in
 1857.
 Their
 machine
 was
 an
 
extrusion
 machine
 that
 pushed
 clay
 through
 a
 die
 onto
 a
 conveyor
 belt
 where
 they
 were
 then
 
sanded
 and
 cut
 by
 knife
 or
 later
 by
 wire.
 The
 machine
 was
 initially
 horse-­‐powered
 and
 later
 
driven
 by
 steam.
 The
 Milwaukee-­‐based
 Burnham
 Brothers
 have
 been
 credited
 with
 producing
 
the
 first
 successfully
 operated
 steam-­‐powered
 brick
 machine
 likely
 in
 the
 1850s.
 Unfortunately,
 
the
 patent
 for
 this
 machine
 has
 not
 been
 located
 to
 back-­‐up
 this
 claim.
 The
 patent
 for
 a
 later
 
improved
 machine
 is
 available.
 Even
 after
 the
 onset
 of
 successful
 machines
 there
 remained
 a
 
stigma
 against
 machine
 made
 bricks
 in
 some
 quarters
 with
 the
 belief
 that
 hand-­‐molded
 bricks
 
were
 superior
 to
 machine-­‐made
 brick.63
 
  The
 following
 is
 a
 brief
 explanation
 of
 the
 steps
 involved
 in
 the
 production
 of
 Cream
 City
 
brick.
 Different
 brickyards
 used
 different
 methods
 of
 production
 (of
 which
 some
 will
 be
 noted
 
later),
 and
 this
 section
 serves
 as
 a
 general
 overview
 of
 the
 processes
 involved
 in
 the
 production
 
of
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 The
 production
 methods
 described
 largely
 come
 from
 manuals
 written
 
early
 in
 the
 twentieth
 century.
 The
 power-­‐driven
 and
 mechanized
 production
 techniques
 
certainly
 were
 not
 available
 in
 Milwaukee
 until
 the
 1850s
 and
 not
 widely
 implemented
 in
 the
 
city
 until
 well
 later
 than
 that.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

63
 Ibid.,
 92.
 
 
 
31
 

Mining
 
  The
 mining
 process
 involves
 physically
 removing
 suitable
 clay
 from
 a
 clay
 bank
 or
 pit
 for
 
use
 in
 manufacture.
 At
 a
 majority
 of
 Milwaukee
 plants,
 particularly
 the
 smaller
 operations,
 clay
 
was
 dug
 out
 with
 the
 use
 of
 picks
 and
 shovels
 and
 hauled
 to
 the
 yards
 in
 carts.64
 Many
 yards
 set
 
up
 temporary
 rail
 lines
 to
 haul
 clay
 by
 carts
 pulled
 by
 horses.
 Larger
 yards,
 mainly
 those
 found
 
in
 Milwaukee,
 used
 hydraulic
 steam
 shovels
 to
 aid
 in
 getting
 clay
 loose.
 Dynamite
 was
 also
 
frequently
 used
 for
 particularly
 difficult
 sections.65
 
  The
 mining
 process
 involved
 intricate
 knowledge
 of
 the
 types
 of
 clays
 found
 at
 the
 
deposits.
 The
 man
 in
 charge
 of
 removing
 clays
 would
 have
 to
 know
 the
 character
 of
 the
 clay
 
layers,
 how
 the
 clay
 burned,
 the
 color
 the
 clay
 burned,
 and
 the
 composition
 of
 the
 clay.66
 
Different
 clay
 types
 were
 removed
 separately,
 allowing
 them
 to
 be
 mixed
 in
 exact
 proportions
 
later
 according
 to
 the
 finished
 product
 desired.
 
 
  A
 crucial
 second
 step,
 and
 one
 often
 neglected,
 was
 the
 weathering
 of
 the
 clay.
 This
 
involved
 exposing
 the
 mined
 clay
 to
 one
 season
 of
 freeze-­‐thaw
 cycles
 before
 being
 mixed.
 This
 
allowed
 the
 clay
 to
 become
 more
 plastic
 and
 easily
 worked.
 Ideally,
 the
 clay
 was
 mined
 in
 fall,
 
spread
 on
 the
 surface
 of
 the
 ground,
 and
 allowed
 to
 weather
 through
 the
 “off”
 months
 when
 
the
 ground
 was
 frozen
 and
 could
 not
 be
 worked.67
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

64
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 42.
 
65
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 41.
 
66
 Ibid.,
 42.
 
67
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 42.
 
 
 
32
 

 
Figure
 2.6:
 Clay
 pit
 of
 Davelaar
 &
 Son,
 Milwaukee,
 depicting
 mining
 
 
method
 of
 plow
 and
 scrapers
 dumping
 clay
 onto
 a
 platform68
 
 
 
Tempering
 and
 Mixing
 
  Following
 mining
 (and
 ideally,
 weathering),
 the
 clay
 was
 tempered
 and
 mixed.
 If
 the
 clay
 
contained
 gravel
 or
 stones,
 it
 was
 often
 screened
 or
 passed
 through
 a
 crusher
 to
 remove
 these
 
elements
 before
 these
 processes.
 Tempering
 involved
 adding
 water
 to
 the
 raw
 clay
 and
 
allowing
 it
 to
 sit
 for
 twelve
 to
 forty-­‐eight
 hours
 to
 soften
 before
 mixing.69
 
 The
 amount
 of
 water
 
added
 varied
 depending
 on
 the
 consistency
 necessary
 for
 the
 type
 of
 brick
 to
 be
 produced.
 
Soft-­‐mud
 brick
 required
 a
 different
 consistency
 than
 stiff-­‐mud,
 for
 example.
 Most
 commonly
 in
 
Wisconsin,
 vats
 of
 clay
 and
 water
 were
 filled
 and
 tempered
 on
 alternate
 days
 to
 allow
 for
 a
 
continuous
 supply
 of
 clay
 ready
 to
 be
 mixed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

68
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 42.
 
69
 Ibid.
 
 
 
33
 

 
Figure
 2.7:
 Dual
 disintegrator
 and
 pug
 mill70
 
 
  Mixing
 was
 a
 particularly
 important
 step,
 as
 improper
 mixing
 often
 resulted
 in
 bricks
 
that
 delaminated
 quickly
 when
 exposed
 to
 harsh
 weather.71
 It
 was
 during
 this
 step
 that
 sand,
 
coal,
 and
 other
 stabilizers
 were
 also
 added
 to
 the
 tempered
 clay
 to
 help
 prevent
 uneven
 
shrinkage
 and
 cracking.72
 The
 process
 was
 generally
 done
 in
 one
 of
 two
 ways
 –
 pug
 mill
 or
 
tempering
 wheel.
 
 
  A
 pug
 mill
 was
 the
 most
 common
 method
 by
 the
 1840s.
 The
 pug
 mill
 was
 a
 machine
 
consisting
 of
 a
 hopper
 where
 clay
 was
 loaded,
 auger
 blades
 used
 to
 mix
 the
 clay,
 and
 an
 
extruder
 slot
 end
 where
 mixture
 exited.
 The
 pug
 mills
 were
 operated
 with
 horsepower
 until
 the
 
1850s,
 when
 they
 were
 converted
 to
 steam
 power.73
 
  The
 other
 method
 of
 mixing
 used
 was
 by
 a
 tempering
 wheel.
 This
 involved
 tempering
 
the
 raw
 clay
 with
 water
 in
 a
 vat
 overnight
 and
 working
 it
 the
 following
 day
 with
 a
 large
 wrought
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

70
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 60.
 
71
 Ibid.,
 44.
 
72
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 15.
 
73
 Ibid.
 
 
 
34
 

iron
 wheel
 that
 was
 lowered
 into
 the
 vat.
 It
 was
 worked
 for
 a
 half-­‐day
 or
 more,
 depending
 on
 
the
 qualities
 of
 the
 clay.
 E.R.
 Buckley
 observed
 in
 his
 1901
 report
 that
 while
 it
 was
 a
 more
 
expensive
 method
 it
 was
 “perhaps
 the
 most
 satisfactory”
 in
 thoroughly
 mixing
 the
 clay.74
 The
 
mixed
 clay
 was
 then
 allowed
 to
 rest
 for
 a
 twenty-­‐four
 hour
 period,
 allowing
 moisture
 to
 evenly
 
disperse.75
 
 
Molding
 Methods
 
  Once
 the
 clay
 was
 tempered
 and
 mixed,
 it
 was
 ready
 to
 be
 worked
 into
 brick
 molds.
 The
 
two
 methods
 used
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 were
 hand
 molding
 and
 machine
 molding.
 Within
 
each
 category
 are
 sub-­‐categories
 used
 for
 different
 circumstances.
 
 
  Hand-­‐molded
 brick
 is
 a
 more
 rudimentary
 method
 of
 molding
 clay
 and
 was
 used
 earliest
 
in
 Milwaukee.
 Hand-­‐molded
 brick
 can
 either
 be
 sand-­‐molded
 or
 slop
 molded.
 In
 sand-­‐molding,
 
wooden
 brick
 molds
 are
 dipped
 in
 water,
 filled
 with
 sand,
 then
 emptied.
 A
 thin
 layer
 of
 sand
 
remained
 in
 the
 mold,
 helping
 the
 clay
 avoid
 becoming
 stuck
 in
 the
 mold.
 Slop-­‐molded
 brick
 is
 
placed
 into
 metal
 molds
 that
 are
 first
 dipped
 into
 water,
 rather
 than
 sand.
 In
 both
 cases,
 the
 
molds
 contained
 one
 to
 four
 brick
 compartments.76
 The
 bricks
 varied
 greatly
 in
 size
 and
 shape
 
and
 often
 had
 softer
 corners
 than
 those
 made
 by
 machine.77
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

74
 Ibid.,
 46.
 
75
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 15.
 
76
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 48.
 
77
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 16.
 
 
 
35
 

 
 

Figure
 2.8:
 Soft-­‐mud
 machine
 at
 left
 and
 stiff-­‐mud
 machine
 at
 right
 in
 typical
 use
 at
 the
 
 
turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century78
 
 
  Machine
 made
 bricks
 were
 produced
 with
 soft-­‐mud,
 stiff-­‐mud,
 or
 dry-­‐press
 methods.
 
Soft-­‐mud
 brick
 are
 produced
 by
 plunging
 clay
 into
 six-­‐compartment,
 sanded
 molds.
 The
 clay
 
used
 for
 these
 molds
 is
 generally
 softer
 than
 that
 of
 stiff
 mud.79
 Stiff-­‐mud
 bricks
 are
 produced
 
 
from
 clay
 with
 less
 water
 content.
 They
 are
 extruded
 through
 a
 machine
 into
 ribbon
 shape,
 
where
 they
 are
 cut
 with
 tightly
 stretched
 metal
 wires.80
 These
 are
 distinguishable
 as
 having
 five
 
smooth
 sides,
 with
 the
 side
 cut
 by
 the
 wires
 being
 rougher.
 Stiff-­‐mud
 bricks
 are
 a
 higher
 quality
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

78
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 55,
 58.
 
79
 Ibid.,
 48.
 
80
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 16.
 
 
 
36
 

than
 soft-­‐mud
 and
 are
 used
 commonly
 for
 interior
 faces
 of
 buildings.81
 Dry-­‐pressed
 bricks
 are
 
the
 highest
 quality
 bricks,
 primarily
 used
 as
 facing
 or
 veneer
 bricks.
 Owing
 to
 costs
 involved
 in
 
production,
 they
 were
 also
 the
 least-­‐frequently
 produced
 and
 most
 expensive
 to
 purchase.
 This
 
method
 uses
 clay
 with
 the
 lowest
 water-­‐content.
 The
 clay
 is
 subjected
 to
 high
 pressure
 in
 
molds,
 which
 produces
 a
 very
 hard
 and
 durable
 brick.
 In
 addition
 to
 producing
 very
 hard
 bricks,
 
this
 method
 is
 beneficial
 for
 not
 having
 to
 dry
 the
 bricks
 prior
 to
 firing.
 
 
Drying
 of
 Brick
 
  Three
 methods
 of
 drying
 were
 used
 in
 brickyards
 in
 Wisconsin
 –
 open-­‐yard
 (hack
 
drying),
 pallet-­‐racks
 and
 artificial
 heat
 dryers.
 The
 first
 method
 was
 most
 widely
 used,
 as
 it
 
required
 the
 least
 expense.
 These
 bricks
 were
 taken
 from
 their
 molds
 and
 placed
 flat
 in
 the
 
yard
 to
 dry
 for
 about
 a
 day,
 after
 which
 they
 were
 stacked
 on
 edge
 in
 piles
 known
 as
 hacks.82
 
These
 hacks
 were
 ten
 to
 twenty
 courses
 of
 brick
 in
 height
 and
 allowed
 to
 dry
 for
 a
 period
 of
 one
 
to
 two
 weeks,
 depending
 on
 weather
 conditions.
 The
 hacks
 were
 covered
 with
 wooden
 tops
 
and
 canvas
 sides
 to
 protect
 them
 from
 inclement
 weather.
 Because
 bricks
 tended
 to
 crack
 
when
 exposed
 to
 direct
 sun,
 rain,
 or
 freezing
 temperatures,
 many
 thousands
 of
 bricks
 annually
 
were
 lost
 in
 open-­‐yard
 drying.83
 A
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 article
 from
 1880
 noted
 that
 the
 brick
 
production
 season
 that
 year
 was
 especially
 hard
 hit
 because
 frequent
 rain
 showers
 made
 drying
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

81
 Ibid.
 
82
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 50.
 
83
 Ibid.,
 51.
 
 
 
37
 

the
 brick
 impossible.
 One
 of
 the
 yards
 produced
 ten
 million
 bricks
 that
 year,
 when
 a
 typical
 year
 
produced
 sixteen
 million.84
 
 
  Pallet
 drying
 was
 another
 method
 used
 for
 drying.
 Green
 bricks
 were
 placed
 on
 wooden
 
pallets
 under
 sheds.
 These
 bricks
 tended
 to
 dry
 in
 a
 more
 uniform
 manner
 than
 open-­‐yard
 
drying
 but,
 although
 protected
 from
 rain
 and
 extreme
 heat,
 were
 as
 frequently
 destroyed
 by
 
frost
 as
 open-­‐yard
 bricks.85
 
  Drying
 brick
 with
 artificial
 heat
 was
 a
 process
 developed
 later
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 
It
 was
 beneficial
 because
 of
 the
 ability
 to
 be
 used
 in
 cold
 weather,
 allowing
 for
 brick
 to
 be
 dried
 
regardless
 of
 weather.
 Artificial
 heat
 usually
 required
 twenty-­‐four
 to
 thirty-­‐six
 hours
 for
 the
 
brick
 to
 pass
 through
 the
 drier
 before
 they
 were
 ready
 for
 firing.86
 However,
 this
 method
 was
 
more
 expensive
 due
 to
 added
 fuel
 costs.
 These
 were
 negated
 at
 some
 of
 the
 largest
 yards,
 
which
 constructed
 driers
 recycling
 heat
 from
 firing
 kilns.
 
 
Burning
 
  The
 final
 step
 in
 the
 production
 of
 brick
 is
 the
 burning
 of
 the
 dried
 clay.
 The
 earliest
 
brick
 in
 Milwaukee
 was
 burned
 in
 temporary
 kilns
 called
 “clamps.”
 As
 with
 other
 processes
 in
 
the
 production
 of
 brick,
 technological
 advances
 made
 more
 efficient
 and
 reliable
 kilns
 possible
 
by
 the
 latter
 half
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 Three
 general
 kiln
 types
 were
 used
 in
 the
 burning
 
of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 –
 up-­‐draft
 kilns,
 down-­‐draft
 kilns,
 and
 continuous
 kilns.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

84
 "Milwaukee
 Brick-­‐Makers,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 30
 September
 1880.
 
85
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 51.
 
86
 Ibid.,
 52.
 
 
 
38
 

 
Figure
 2.9:
 Scove
 kiln,
 the
 most
 typical
 
burning
 method
 in
 use
 in
 Milwaukee87
 
 
Figure
 2.10:
 Circular
 down
 draft
 kiln88
 
 
 
Figure
 2.11:
 Continuous
 kiln
 at
 Burnham
 Brothers’
 Wauwatosa
 yard89
 
 
  The
 up-­‐draft
 kilns
 were
 the
 simplest
 used
 in
 brick
 production
 and
 were
 found
 in
 two
 
varieties
 –
 a
 temporary
 kiln
 (also
 known
 as
 a
 clamp)
 and
 a
 permanent
 kiln,
 or
 scove.
 Clamps
 
were
 kilns
 temporarily
 constructed
 of
 the
 green
 brick
 about
 to
 be
 fired.
 A
 wood
 fire
 in
 the
 
center
 of
 the
 structure
 was
 used
 to
 burn
 the
 brick,
 with
 the
 exhaust
 exiting
 the
 top
 of
 the
 kiln.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

87
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 45.
 
88
 Ibid.
 
89
 Ibid.,
 47.
 
 
 
39
 

The
 inability
 to
 control
 the
 temperature
 and
 wind
 drafts
 often
 resulted
 in
 wildly
 variable
 
production.
 Bricks
 at
 the
 center
 of
 the
 kiln
 tended
 to
 be
 melted,
 whereas
 bricks
 at
 the
 edges
 
 
were
 often
 left
 unburned.90
 
 
 
  The
 permanent
 up-­‐draft
 kiln
 was
 constructed
 in
 a
 circular
 shape,
 made
 of
 fired-­‐brick
 
walls.
 The
 1906
 report
 on
 the
 clay
 industry
 in
 Wisconsin
 noted
 that
 about
 five-­‐sixths
 of
 brick
 
made
 in
 the
 state
 was
 fired
 in
 these
 scove
 kilns.91
 Again,
 green
 brick
 was
 placed
 inside
 the
 kiln
 
with
 a
 wood
 fire
 most
 often
 used
 to
 burn
 the
 brick.
 This
 was
 a
 more
 reliable
 method
 due
 to
 the
 
permanent
 mature
 of
 the
 kiln,
 but
 it
 still
 resulted
 in
 uneven
 results.
 
 
  Down-­‐draft
 kilns
 differed
 from
 up-­‐draft
 kilns
 in
 that
 their
 heat
 source
 was
 located
 at
 the
 
top
 of
 the
 structure,
 and
 exhaust
 carried
 through
 flues
 at
 the
 bottom
 of
 the
 kiln.
 As
 the
 fire
 
source
 never
 touched
 the
 bricks
 and
 was
 easier
 to
 control,
 this
 method
 produced
 a
 more
 
reliable
 product.
 The
 kilns
 were
 either
 square
 or
 circular
 in
 shape
 and
 were
 generally
 
constructed
 out
 of
 brick.
 Coal
 was
 the
 preferential
 fuel
 source,
 rather
 than
 wood.
 
  A
 continuous
 kiln
 contained
 a
 series
 of
 separated
 chambers,
 each
 stacked
 with
 brick.
 
The
 fire
 was
 started
 at
 one
 end
 of
 the
 kiln
 and
 allowed
 to
 slowly
 progress
 down
 the
 kiln
 as
 fuel
 
was
 added
 from
 holes
 above
 the
 structure.
 This
 method
 was
 beneficial
 in
 a
 number
 of
 ways.
 
The
 fire
 was
 always
 maintained,
 allowing
 for
 control
 of
 the
 temperature.
 Additionally,
 as
 fire
 
progressed
 through
 the
 kiln,
 heat
 from
 neighboring
 chambers
 dried
 green
 brick
 in
 such
 a
 way
 
that
 prior
 drying
 was
 unnecessary.
 Finally,
 by
 incorporating
 separate
 chambers
 that
 could
 be
 
loaded
 and
 unloaded
 independently,
 the
 kiln
 allowed
 for
 brick
 to
 be
 burning
 in
 one
 chamber,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

90
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 19.
 
91
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 45.
 
 
 
40
 

drying
 in
 another,
 and
 burned
 brick
 removed
 and
 reloaded
 in
 another.92
 Continuous
 kilns
 were
 
expensive
 to
 purchase
 and
 operate
 and
 most
 often
 found
 at
 large
 yards.
 They
 were
 found
 at
 
numerous
 yards
 in
 Milwaukee
 but
 they
 were
 not
 found
 in
 high
 numbers
 outside
 of
 the
 city.
 
 
Brick
 Grading
 
  One
 peculiarity
 of
 brick
 manufacture
 in
 Milwaukee,
 and
 Wisconsin
 generally,
 is
 the
 lack
 
of
 a
 recognized
 standard
 size
 for
 finished
 brick.
 The
 National
 Brick
 Manufacturer’s
 Association’s
 
agreed
 upon
 specifications
 for
 brick
 sizing
 in
 1901
 were
 8
 ¼”
 x
 4”
 x
 2
 ¼”
 for
 common
 brick
 and
 
 
8
 3/8”
 x
 4”
 x
 2
 3/8”
 for
 pressed
 brick.93
 However,
 Milwaukee
 producers
 did
 not
 commonly
 adhere
 
to
 these
 standards.
 Rather,
 they
 sorted
 burned
 brick
 according
 to
 their
 finished
 characteristics
 
before
 being
 sold.
 These
 included
 categories
 such
 as
 hard,
 soft,
 chimney,
 well,
 and
 veneer.94
 No
 
explanation
 has
 been
 given
 as
 to
 exactly
 why
 the
 city’s
 producers
 did
 not
 produce
 bricks
 of
 
standard
 size.
 One
 reason
 could
 be
 the
 high
 demand
 for
 Milwaukee
 brick
 negated
 any
 need
 to
 
produce
 a
 uniformly
 sized
 product.
 E.R.
 Buckley
 noted
 in
 The
 Clays
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 in
 
Wisconsin
 that
 brick
 of
 differing
 sizes
 were
 produced
 at
 one
 brickyard
 and
 often
 within
 one
 
kiln.95
 Brickmakers
 often
 used
 the
 same
 molds
 for
 all
 production,
 regardless
 of
 the
 type
 of
 clay
 
(and
 thus,
 differing
 shrinking
 values).
 He
 also
 noted
 that
 while
 this
 was
 not
 a
 detrimental
 
problem
 for
 common
 brick,
 pressed
 brick
 used
 for
 facing
 buildings
 needed
 smooth
 faces,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

92
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 55.
 
93
 Ibid.,
 58.
 
94
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 21.
 
95
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 58.
 
 
 
41
 

squared
 corners,
 and
 a
 uniform
 size.
 It
 was
 common
 for
 manufacturers
 to
 retain
 about
 half
 the
 
brick
 produced
 in
 a
 summer
 season
 to
 be
 sold
 in
 the
 winter
 off-­‐production
 months.96
 
 
Characteristics
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 
  While
 generally
 referred
 to
 as
 “cream
 brick,”
 a
 variety
 of
 shades
 of
 brick
 were
 produced
 
at
 the
 brickyards
 in
 Milwaukee.
 This
 was
 due
 to
 differing
 methods
 of
 firing
 the
 brick,
 as
 well
 as
 
where
 clay
 was
 mined
 and
 how
 it
 was
 mixed.
 As
 noted
 above,
 insufficient
 heat
 could
 result
 in
 a
 
red
 or
 pink
 brick,
 whereas
 that
 same
 clay
 fired
 at
 a
 higher
 temperature
 would
 have
 gone
 
through
 the
 reaction
 necessary
 to
 negate
 the
 presence
 of
 iron
 and
 produce
 a
 cream
 brick.
 
While
 many
 yards
 mixed
 their
 clay
 to
 achieve
 the
 desired
 cream
 color,
 others
 simply
 mixed
 and
 
fired
 separate
 layers
 of
 clay.97
 This
 would
 result
 in
 red
 brick
 produced
 from
 the
 upper
 level
 of
 
clay.
 Mixing
 brick
 at
 other
 ratios
 could
 also
 result
 in
 shades
 varying
 from
 white
 to
 pink
 to
 
salmon
 to
 light
 red.
 Bricks
 with
 shades
 of
 yellowish-­‐green
 and
 grey
 were
 also
 possible,
 
depending
 on
 the
 clay
 mixtures.98
 
  The
 bricks
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee
 were
 noted
 for
 durability
 and
 strength
 as
 well
 as
 
their
 beauty.
 While
 the
 bricks
 were
 hailed
 as
 being
 exceptionally
 strong
 as
 early
 as
 the
 1840s,
 
no
 tests
 prior
 to
 the
 1890s
 have
 been
 located
 to
 quantify
 this
 assessment.
 Tests
 conducted
 in
 
1894
 by
 Edward
 P.
 Allis
 Company
 on
 behalf
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 Brick
 Manufacturers
 appear
 to
 be
 
the
 first
 examining
 these
 characteristics.
 Additional
 tests
 were
 conducted
 on
 Wisconsin
 bricks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

96
 "Milwaukee
 Brick-­‐Makers."
 
97
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 9.
 
98
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 107.
 
 
 
42
 

 
Figure
 2.12:
 Wall
 showing
 various
 shades
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 in
 Milwaukee99
 
 
 

at
 the
 University
 of
 Wisconsin
 in
 the
 early-­‐1900s.
 Brief
 summaries
 of
 their
 results
 are
 included
 
below.
 
  The
 first
 tests
 on
 Milwaukee
 brick
 were
 done
 at
 the
 behest
 of
 Milwaukee
 Brick
 
Manufacturers,
 a
 brick-­‐making
 conglomerate
 predating
 the
 later
 Milwaukee
 Building
 Supply
 
Company
 conglomerate.
 They
 requested
 tests
 following
 the
 bitter
 loss
 of
 a
 contract
 for
 sewer
 
brick
 to
 Chicago
 brickmakers.
 The
 Milwaukee
 group
 argued
 that
 while
 cheaper,
 in
 awarding
 the
 
contract
 for
 Chicago
 brick,
 the
 Milwaukee
 Board
 of
 Public
 Works
 had
 accepted
 a
 product
 
inferior
 to
 theirs.
 
 The
 tests
 were
 conducted
 in
 February
 1894
 and
 reprinted
 in
 an
 editorial
 in
 
the
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel.
 
 
 The
 tests,
 as
 certified
 by
 Louis
 Allis
 for
 the
 Edward
 P.
 Allis
 Company,
 show
 that
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 superior
 to
 that
 from
 Chicago.
 The
 February
 24,
 1894
 tests
 showed
 
Milwaukee
 dry
 pressed
 bricks
 crushed
 at
 ninety-­‐five
 tons
 of
 pressure,
 while
 Chicago
 sewer
 brick
 
crushed
 at
 forty-­‐five
 tons.
 A
 February
 27th
 test
 found
 that
 Chicago
 sewer
 brick
 crushed
 at
 sixty-­‐
three
 tons
 pressure
 and
 Milwaukee
 brick
 at
 one
 hundred
 twenty-­‐three
 tons.
 An
 absorption
 test
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

99
 Photo
 by
 author,
 December
 2014.
 
 
 
43
 

was
 also
 conducted.
 Following
 submersion
 in
 water
 for
 twelve
 hours,
 Milwaukee
 brick
 
absorbed
 nine
 ounces
 of
 water,
 while
 Chicago
 brick
 absorbed
 nearly
 seventeen-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half
 
ounces.100
 
  Tests
 conducted
 in
 1906
 were
 intended
 to
 be
 included
 in
 the
 second
 part
 of
 E.R.
 
Buckley’s
 1901
 bulletin
 on
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin.
 However,
 Buckley’s
 
departure
 from
 the
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 Society
 delayed
 their
 completion.
 These
 tests
 were
 
conducted
 at
 the
 University
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 used
 to
 determine
 crushing
 strength,
 transverse
 
strength,
 and
 absorption
 properties
 of
 Wisconsin
 brick.
 These
 results
 appear
 in
 The
 Clays
 of
 
Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses
 by
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 Ph.D.
 The
 crush
 test
 measured
 the
 pressure
 per
 
square
 inch
 at
 which
 bricks
 would
 crush,
 transverse
 strength
 measured
 the
 pressure
 at
 which
 a
 
brick
 would
 break
 in
 two
 while
 exposed
 only
 to
 pressure
 at
 the
 center
 of
 the
 sample,
 and
 
absorption
 tested
 the
 amount
 of
 water
 absorbed
 by
 a
 sample
 after
 a
 forty-­‐eight
 hour
 
immersion.
 These
 tests
 included
 different
 burning
 clays
 from
 around
 the
 state
 and
 were
 
compiled
 as
 statewide
 averages.
 These
 averages
 are
 included
 in
 the
 table
 on
 the
 following
 
page.
 
 
 
  The
 crush
 test
 determined
 that
 the
 strength
 of
 stiff-­‐mud
 and
 dry-­‐press
 bricks
 was
 
substantially
 higher
 than
 soft-­‐mud
 brick.
 Ries
 attributed
 this
 to
 stiff-­‐mud
 and
 dry-­‐press
 bricks
 
primarily
 being
 cream
 bricks
 that
 required
 them
 to
 be
 fired
 harder
 than
 red
 brick.
 He
 
concluded,
 “manufacturers
 of
 cream
 brick
 fire
 their
 product
 as
 hard
 as
 possible,
 while
 the
 red-­‐
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

100
 "Accept
 Inferior
 Chicago
 Brick,"
 Milwaukee
 Journal,
 05
 March
 1894.
 
 
 
44
 

brick
 manufacturers
 knowing
 that
 their
 clays
 fire
 easily,
 do
 not
 take
 the
 trouble
 to
 fire
 them
 
hard.”101
 
 
Table
 2.3:
 Brick
 tests
 conducted
 by
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 Ph.D.,
 1906102
 
Crushing Test
(lbs./in2) Minimum Maximum Average
Soft-mud 1,074 5,838 2,829
Stiff-mud 1,304 7,060 4,224
Dry press 993 5,558 3408
Transverse Strength
(lbs./in2)
Soft-mud 157 1,438 575
Stiff-mud 442 1,861 1027
Dry press 256 702 512
Absorption (percent weight gained following 48 hour
immersion)
Soft-mud 5.8 28 18.6
Stiff-mud 13.05 24 20.26
Dry press 12.9 33 21.47
 
  Ries
 deemed
 transverse
 strength
 as
 a
 more
 important
 quality
 in
 a
 brick,
 as
 bricks
 were
 
rarely
 exposed
 to
 pressures
 at
 which
 they
 would
 crush
 but
 were
 often
 subjected
 to
 the
 limits
 of
 
their
 elasticity,
 subsequently
 cracking.103
 Results
 of
 the
 tests
 found
 that
 stiff-­‐mud
 bricks
 were
 
the
 most
 elastic,
 followed
 by
 soft-­‐mud
 and
 dry-­‐pressed
 brick.
 No
 explanation
 is
 explicitly
 given,
 
although
 it
 is
 likely
 that
 due
 to
 their
 highly-­‐compacted
 nature,
 dry-­‐press
 bricks
 would
 be
 less
 
likely
 to
 bend
 and
 would
 subsequently
 more
 readily
 break
 under
 this
 type
 of
 pressure.
 The
 
presence
 of
 pebbles
 or
 lumps
 of
 clay
 drastically
 decreased
 the
 transverse
 strength
 of
 the
 brick.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

101
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 183.
 
102
 Ibid.,
 183-­‐84.
 
103
 Ibid.,
 177.
 
 
 
45
 

Harder
 burning,
 such
 as
 that
 necessary
 for
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 was
 found
 to
 increase
 both
 the
 
crushing
 and
 transverse
 strength.104
 
 
  The
 absorption
 test
 found
 that
 soft-­‐mud
 brick
 shows
 the
 lowest
 minimum
 and
 average
 
absorption,
 while
 stiff-­‐mud
 showed
 the
 highest.
 This
 was
 attributed
 to
 stiff-­‐mud
 and
 dry-­‐
pressed
 bricks
 primarily
 being
 made
 from
 cream
 burning,
 calcareous
 clay.105
 Full
 descriptions
 of
 
these
 tests
 and
 results
 are
 available
 in
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses
 by
 Heinrich
 Ries,
 
Ph.D.
 
 

  This
 absorption
 by
 the
 brick
 was
 one
 noted
 drawback,
 however,
 as
 it
 readily
 absorbed
 
pollutants
 and
 presented
 a
 soiled
 appearance.
 While
 the
 physical
 makeup
 of
 the
 brick
 provided
 
the
 source
 of
 the
 problem,
 it
 was
 indeed
 not
 helped
 by
 the
 fact
 that
 pollutants
 were
 much
 
more
 evident
 against
 the
 cream-­‐colored
 surface
 of
 the
 brick.
 While
 not
 impairing
 the
 strength
 
of
 the
 brick,
 the
 soiling
 does
 dull
 the
 otherwise
 bright
 appearance
 of
 buildings.
 Buildings
 
located
 in
 urban
 areas
 are
 especially
 susceptible
 to
 this
 type
 of
 soiling.
 A
 number
 of
 
Milwaukee’s
 oldest
 remaining
 Cream
 City
 brick
 structures
 display
 signs
 of
 pollution
 so
 severe
 
that
 the
 brick
 appears
 almost
 completely
 blackened.
 Steps
 can
 be
 taken
 to
 mitigate
 noticeable
 
pollution
 from
 the
 bricks
 and
 restore
 their
 appearance
 without
 exhorting
 to
 damaging
 
treatment
 methods.
 
 A
 number
 of
 successful
 brick
 restorations
 have
 occurred
 in
 Milwaukee,
 
including
 recent
 examples
 at
 the
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 Building
 and
 Pabst
 Brewery
 Brewhouse
 
rehabilitation.
 Conservation
 issues
 will
 be
 addressed
 in
 the
 fifth
 chapter
 of
 this
 thesis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

104
 Ibid.,
 186.
 
105
 Ibid.,
 184.
 
 
 
46
 

Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Producers
 
  Like
 many
 other
 industries
 in
 Milwaukee,
 the
 city’s
 brick
 industry
 started
 from
 modest
 
beginnings
 and
 rose
 to
 become
 economically
 successful
 and
 highly
 regarded.
 Yet
 in
 many
 ways,
 
the
 brick
 industry
 in
 the
 city
 was
 on
 the
 front
 edge
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 industrial
 awakening.
 The
 
brick
 produced
 in
 the
 city’s
 yards
 quite
 literally
 provided
 the
 building
 blocks
 for
 Milwaukee’s
 
other
 successful
 industries.
 Aided
 by
 technological
 advances
 and
 an
 ever-­‐increasing
 reputation,
 
entrepreneurial
 businessmen
 as
 diverse
 as
 the
 color
 of
 the
 product
 they
 created
 helped
 the
 
industry
 rise
 from
 humble
 beginnings
 to
 great
 fame.
 Yet
 the
 millions
 of
 brick
 produced
 annually
 
were
 not
 enough
 to
 satiate
 the
 overwhelming
 demand
 for
 the
 product
 in
 some
 years.
 However,
 
by
 the
 end
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 changes
 in
 architectural
 tastes
 and
 depletion
 of
 clay
 led
 
to
 a
 decline
 in
 the
 product
 that
 had
 helped
 put
 Milwaukee
 on
 the
 map.
 The
 industry
 would
 
continue
 into
 the
 twentieth
 century
 but
 not
 with
 the
 prominence
 so
 recognized
 in
 the
 century
 
before.
 This
 section
 examines
 the
 history
 of
 the
 brickmaking
 industry
 in
 Milwaukee
 and
 the
 
men
 responsible
 for
 it.
 Because
 the
 rise
 of
 the
 brick
 industry
 in
 many
 ways
 goes
 hand-­‐in-­‐hand
 
with
 that
 of
 the
 city,
 the
 previous
 history
 of
 Milwaukee
 provides
 a
 context
 for
 the
 production
 
increases.
 Figure
 2.19
 provides
 a
 contextual
 map
 noting
 the
 location
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 
brickyards
 referred
 to
 in
 this
 section.
 
 
 
 

Humble
 Beginnings
 
  As
 noted
 in
 the
 history
 of
 Milwaukee,
 the
 first
 Cream
 City
 brick
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee
 
likely
 occurred
 in
 fall
 of
 1835.
 Credit
 is
 generally
 given
 to
 brothers
 Nelson
 and
 Thomas
 Olin
 for
 
firing
 the
 first
 25,000
 brick
 at
 Solomon
 Juneau’s
 urging.
 The
 Olin
 brothers
 were
 born
 in
 the
 
 
 
47
 

town
 of
 Canton,
 St.
 Lawrence
 County,
 New
 York
 –
 Nelson
 in
 1809
 and
 Thomas
 in
 1811.106
 The
 
pair
 traveled
 west,
 arriving
 in
 Green
 Bay,
 Wisconsin
 in
 1835.
 There
 they
 met
 Solomon
 Juneau
 
and
 were
 persuaded
 to
 follow
 him
 to
 Milwaukee
 on
 the
 promise
 of
 better
 employment
 
 
opportunities.
 They
 arrived
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 June
 1835,
 when
 only
 fifty
 non-­‐Native
 Americans
 
occupied
 the
 city.107
 
 
  According
 to
 Nelson
 Olin,
 the
 first
 brick
 was
 burned
 in
 September
 of
 that
 year
 at
 the
 
foot
 of
 Huron
 Street
 along
 with
 help
 from
 his
 brother
 Thomas,
 George
 Reed
 and
 a
 Mr.
 
Loomis*.108
 Olin,
 then
 86,
 corroborated
 the
 story
 in
 an
 1895
 article
 in
 the
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel:
 
 
  In
 September,
 1835,
 my
 brother
 and
 I
 put
 up
 a
 kiln
 containing
 25,000
 brick
 at
 the
 foot
 of
 
Huron
 street,
 that
 being
 the
 first
 kiln
 of
 brick
 made
 in
 Milwaukee.
 Nowadays
 people
 
would
 laugh
 to
 see
 the
 way
 we
 made
 brick
 then.
 We
 excavated
 a
 large
 hole
 in
 the
 
ground,
 which
 we
 filled
 with
 sand
 and
 clay,
 and
 then
 set
 our
 oxen
 to
 treading
 the
 
mixture
 until
 it
 was
 worked
 fine
 enough
 to
 mould
 well.109
 
 
 
The
 clay
 was
 then
 fired
 in
 a
 clamp
 measuring
 24
 by
 8
 feet
 and
 12
 feet
 high.110
 This
 first
 brick
 
was
 used
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 chimneys
 for
 Juneau’s
 eastside
 residence
 and
 a
 small
 handful
 of
 
other
 residences.
 Mason
 William
 Sivyer,
 who
 also
 built
 the
 first
 brick
 residence
 in
 the
 city,
 laid
 
the
 brick.
 
 
  While
 no
 sources
 exist
 noting
 the
 Olins’
 reaction
 to
 the
 first
 cream
 brick
 in
 Milwaukee,
 
the
 same
 cannot
 be
 said
 of
 the
 proprietor
 of
 the
 first
 proper
 brickyard
 in
 the
 city.
 Benoni
 Finch
 
is
 credited
 with
 starting
 the
 first
 official
 brickyard
 in
 the
 spring
 of
 1836,
 as
 well
 as
 erecting
 the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

*
 Sources
 identify
 Loomis
 as
 either
 Isaac
 C.
 Loomis
 or
 Levi
 G.
 Loomis.
 
106
 Frank
 Abial
 Flower,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin:
 From
 Prehistoric
 Times
 to
 the
 Present
 
Date
 (Chicago:
 Western
 Historical
 Company,
 1881),
 172.
 
107
 Ibid.,
 173.
 
108
 Ibid.
 
109
 "He
 Came
 West
 in
 1835,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 24
 February
 1895.
 
110
 James
 S.
 Buck,
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 1840
 to
 1846,
 Inclusive,
 vol.
 2
 
(Milwaukee:
 Symes,
 Swain
 &
 Co.,
 1881),
 27.
 
 
 
48
 

second
 brick
 house
 in
 the
 city.111
 James
 S.
 Buck
 recalled
 Finch’s
 reaction
 as
 “not
 a
 little
 
disgusted
 when
 he
 saw
 his
 bricks
 were
 not
 red,
 thinking
 they
 were,
 of
 course,
 worthless.”112
 
Finch’s
 yard
 was
 located
 at
 the
 foot
 of
 14th
 Street
 in
 the
 Menomonee
 Valley.
 It
 is
 unclear
 how
 
long
 Benoni
 Finch
 produced
 bricks
 at
 that
 location.
 Classified
 advertisements
 in
 the
 Milwaukee
 
Sentinel
 from
 late
 in
 the
 1830s
 place
 George
 Reed
 as
 having
 a
 brickyard
 at
 that
 same
 location.
 
Whether
 or
 not
 this
 was
 the
 same
 or
 an
 adjacent
 yard
 is
 not
 known.
 
  Four
 early
 brickyards
 were
 recognized
 in
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmerman’s
 article
 on
 Cream
 City
 
brick.
 These
 consisted
 of
 Benoni
 Finch’s
 yard
 at
 the
 foot
 of
 14th
 Street,
 the
 Horace
 Kaffren
 yard
 
used
 to
 produce
 brick
 for
 mason-­‐contractor
 William
 Sivyer,
 John
 A.
 Messenger’s
 yard
 at
 
Chestnut
 Street
 above
 12th
 Street,
 and
 the
 South
 Side
 yard
 operated
 by
 the
 Childs
 Brothers
 
(Sidney
 S.
 and
 Samuel)
 on
 Sixth
 Avenue
 and
 Park
 Street.113
 An
 additional
 search
 of
 Milwaukee
 
Sentinel
 archives
 reveals
 mentions
 of
 at
 least
 two
 additional
 pre-­‐1850
 yards
 –
 a
 Tibbetts
 and
 
McKnight
 yard
 located
 in
 the
 4th
 Ward
 and
 later
 sold
 to
 James
 H.
 Rogers
 and
 Murray’s
 Brick
 
Yard
 located
 near
 the
 Cold
 Spring
 House
 and
 Eagle
 Brewery,
 likely
 near
 what
 is
 now
 8th
 Street
 
and
 Highland
 Avenue.114
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

111
 Buck,
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 the
 First
 American
 Settlement
 in
 1833,
 to
 1841,
 47.
 
112
 Ibid.,
 48.
 
113
 Zimmermann,
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 7-­‐8.
 
114
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 01
 August
 1849;
 "Multiple
 
Classified
 Advertisements,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 29
 June
 1849.
 
 
 
49
 

 
Figure
 2.13:
 Locations
 of
 Milwaukee
 brickyards115
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

115
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 94.
 
 
 
50
 

The
 Burnham
 Brothers
 (and
 Sons)
 
  It
 was
 not
 until
 the
 establishment
 of
 the
 Burnham
 Brothers
 brickyard
 that
 the
 Cream
 
City
 brick
 industry
 in
 Milwaukee
 excelled.
 The
 business
 George
 and
 Jonathan
 L.
 (J.L.)
 Burnham
 
created
 would
 quickly
 eclipse
 other
 brick
 producers
 in
 the
 city,
 moving
 the
 Milwaukee
 brick
 
industry
 from
 a
 localized
 endeavor
 to
 a
 national
 and
 international
 business.
 
 Along
 with
 their
 
 
 
Figure
 2.14:
 George
 Burnham116
 
 
 Figure
 2.15:
 Jonathan
 L.
 Burnham117
 
 
progeny,
 the
 Burnham
 name
 would
 remain
 synonymous
 with
 Milwaukee
 brick
 production
 until
 
the
 decline
 of
 the
 industry
 in
 the
 early-­‐twentieth
 century.
 The
 Burnhams
 helped
 to
 streamline
 
the
 production
 of
 brick
 with
 the
 development
 of
 new
 techniques
 and
 technology.
 They
 also
 
produced
 the
 greatest
 number
 of
 bricks
 in
 the
 city
 –
 those
 used
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 countless
 
buildings
 around
 Milwaukee
 and
 beyond.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

116
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 2,
 263.
 
117
 Ibid.,
 324.
 
 
 
51
 

  The
 brothers
 were
 born
 on
 their
 father’s
 farm
 in
 Plattsburg,
 Clinton
 County,
 New
 York
 –
 
George
 in
 1816
 and
 Jonathan
 in
 1818.
 George
 took
 up
 brick
 making
 at
 age
 15,
 learning
 the
 
profession
 from
 his
 brick
 making
 father,
 Andrus.
 At
 age
 15,
 George
 took
 his
 craft
 to
 Buffalo,
 
New
 York,
 marrying
 there
 in
 1843
 before
 moving
 west
 to
 Milwaukee
 with
 Jonathan
 in
 July
 of
 
that
 year.118
 Following
 their
 arrival
 in
 the
 city,
 the
 brothers
 entered
 into
 business
 together,
 
 
renting
 a
 tract
 of
 land
 from
 another
 brickmaker,
 James
 H.
 Rogers,
 at
 the
 foot
 of
 13th
 Street
 in
 
the
 Menomonee
 Valley
 in
 spring
 1844.
 The
 brothers
 worked
 this
 land
 for
 one
 year,
 reportedly
 
losing
 $1,000
 that
 season.119
 For
 the
 three
 years
 following,
 the
 brothers
 rented
 land
 at
 Grand
 
Avenue
 in
 exchange
 for
 paying
 taxes
 on
 the
 property.
 The
 brothers
 relocated
 to
 Spring
 Street
 
for
 one
 season
 in
 1847
 before
 purchasing
 their
 vast
 150-­‐acre
 South
 Side
 location
 at
 Park
 Street
 
(now
 West
 Bruce
 Street),
 west
 of
 Muskego
 Avenue
 for
 $20
 an
 acre
 in
 1848.120
 This
 land
 would
 
remain
 in
 the
 Burnham
 family
 until
 the
 dissolution
 of
 the
 brick
 industry
 in
 the
 city.
 
  The
 brother’s
 business
 quickly
 excelled
 at
 their
 new
 South
 Side
 location.
 Their
 early
 
operation
 mirrored
 that
 of
 other
 early
 Milwaukee
 producers.
 They
 mixed
 clay
 with
 a
 horse-­‐
powered
 tempering
 wheel,
 and
 their
 bricks
 were
 molded
 by
 hand.
 However,
 the
 brothers,
 
“ingenious
 and
 enterprising,
 not
 content
 with
 following
 beaten
 paths,”
 soon
 produced
 a
 
machine
 that
 would
 put
 them
 far
 ahead
 of
 rivals
 and
 crown
 them
 the
 kings
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 
121
 With
 the
 aid
 of
 their
 employee
 Stoddard
 Martin,
 the
 Burnham’s
 created
 and
 patented
 the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

118
 Les
 Vollmert
 and
 Paul
 Jakubovich,
 “J.L.
 Burnham
 Block,”
 National
 Register
 of
 Historic
 Places
 
Nomination
 Form,
 Washington,
 D.C.:
 U.S.
 Department
 of
 Interior,
 National
 Park
 Service,
 1987,
 
8.
 

119
 Ibid.
 
120
 John
 Goadby
 Gregory,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,
 vol.
 1
 (Chicago:
 S.J.
 Clarke,
 1931),
 
514.
 

121
 Ibid.
 
 
 
52
 

first
 machine
 in
 the
 country
 that
 ground
 and
 tempered
 the
 clay,
 and
 simultaneously
 molded
 the
 
bricks
 with
 steam
 power.
 The
 machine
 “was
 a
 fortunate
 invention
 which
 enabled
 the
 Burnham
 
 
Brothers
 to
 make
 brick
 much
 cheaper
 than
 by
 hand
 and
 brought
 them
 also
 a
 revenue
 of
 one
 
thousand
 dollars
 for
 each
 machine
 sold,
 netting
 them
 a
 large
 sum.”122
 
 
  By
 1853,
 the
 Burnhams
 were
 the
 largest
 producer
 of
 bricks
 in
 the
 city,
 manufacturing
 six
 
million
 bricks
 annually,
 two
 million
 of
 which
 were
 exported
 to
 Chicago
 and
 Michigan.123
 That
 
year
 they
 also
 exported
 300,000
 pressed
 brick
 to
 New
 York
 for
 use
 in
 a
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb
 Asylum
 
 
at
 a
 price
 of
 $12
 per
 thousand
 (but
 costing
 the
 contractors
 $25
 per
 thousand
 with
 shipping
 
costs).124
 Thanks
 in
 part
 to
 the
 success
 of
 the
 Burnham
 Brothers
 and
 the
 almost
 exclusive
 use
 of
 
the
 yellow
 brick
 throughout
 the
 city,
 Milwaukee
 had
 acquired
 the
 nickname
 “Cream
 City
 by
 the
 
Lakes”
 by
 the
 1850s.
 In
 1856,
 the
 brothers
 dissolved
 their
 partnership
 through
 “mutual
 
consent,”
 with
 J.L.
 retaining
 the
 Park
 Street
 brickyard
 and
 George
 purchasing
 a
 nearby
 
Menomonee
 Valley
 parcel.125
 
 
  J.L.
 Burnham
 managed
 production
 at
 his
 yard
 until
 partnering
 with
 his
 sons,
 John
 F.
 and
 
Clinton,
 forming
 J.L.
 Burnham
 &
 Sons.
 Burnham
 was
 responsible
 for
 the
 building
 of
 the
 
Burnham
 Canal
 of
 the
 Menomonee
 River,
 as
 well
 as
 other
 Menomonee
 Valley
 improvements,
 
which
 assisted
 in
 the
 transportation
 of
 finished
 brick.
 Following
 the
 death
 of
 Jonathan
 in
 1891,
 
his
 sons
 continued
 operation
 at
 their
 present
 location.
 By
 the
 mid-­‐1890s,
 their
 production
 
averaged
 around
 ten
 million
 bricks
 annually.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

122
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 2,
 324.
 
123
 "Milwaukee
 Industrial
 Establishments,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 28
 September
 1853.
124
 "Milwaukie
 Brick,"
 Cleveland
 Daily
 Herald,
 03
 October
 1853.
 
125
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 29.
 
 
 
53
 

 
Figure
 2.16:
 Advertisement
 for
 J.L.
 Burnham
 &
 Sons126
 
 
  Likewise,
 George
 Burnham
 continued
 with
 brick
 production
 in
 the
 Menomonee
 Valley.
 
Burnham
 remained
 on
 a
 tract
 of
 land
 near
 his
 brother
 until
 1870
 when
 he
 purchased
 land
 at
 8th
 
Avenue
 and
 Park
 Street.
 In
 the
 spring
 of
 that
 year,
 his
 son
 Charles
 T.
 joined
 the
 business,
 joined
 
by
 another
 brother,
 John
 Q.
 in
 1871.127
 They
 subsequently
 operated
 as
 George
 Burnham
 &
 
Sons.
 In
 1871,
 the
 firm
 fired
 a
 kiln
 containing
 over
 one
 million
 brick,
 the
 largest
 quantity
 to
 be
 
burned
 in
 the
 city.128
 
  Apparently
 still
 not
 satisfied
 with
 the
 technology
 available
 at
 his
 yards,
 George
 
Burnham,
 along
 with
 employee
 Gaylord
 Martin
 (his
 relationship
 to
 previous
 Burnham
 employee
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

126
 W.J.
 Anderson
 and
 Julius
 Bleyer,
 Milwaukee's
 Great
 Industries:
 A
 Compilation
 of
 Facts
 
(Milwaukee:
 Association
 for
 the
 Advancement
 of
 Milwaukee,
 1892),
 333.
 
127
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 31.
 
128
 "City
 Matters,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 24
 November
 1871.
 
 
 
54
 

Stoddard
 Martin
 is
 unknown),
 patented
 an
 “improved”
 brick
 machine
 that
 again
 revolutionized
 
the
 brick
 industry
 and
 propelled
 Burnham’s
 business
 beyond
 levels
 previously
 unimagined.
 The
 
machine
 they
 invented
 ground,
 tempered,
 and
 molded
 the
 clay
 at
 the
 same
 time,
 with
 steam
 
power.129
 An
 1867
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 article
 described
 the
 machine:
 
The
 clay
 is
 thrown
 into
 the
 machine,
 and
 all
 stones
 prevented
 from
 intermixing
 with
 it
 
by
 a
 guard.
 Each
 revolution
 of
 the
 shaft
 moulds
 eighteen
 bricks,
 half
 a
 dozen
 being
 
stamped
 by
 each
 mould.
 The
 bricks,
 which
 are
 taken
 from
 the
 machine
 by
 a
 self-­‐acting
 
moving
 carriage,
 are
 conveyed
 to
 the
 yard
 on
 trucks.
 One
 machine
 will
 make
 from
 3,000
 
to
 4,000
 bricks
 an
 hour
 –
 the
 greatest
 capacity
 ever
 attained
 by
 any
 machine
 ever
 put
 in
 
successful
 operation.
 …
 It
 is
 noteworthy
 that
 no
 brick-­‐maker
 who
 has
 examined
 this
 
machine
 has
 left
 the
 foundry
 without
 ordering
 one
 or
 more.130
 
 
 
 
Figure
 2.17:
 Advertisement
 for
 Burnham’s
 new
 brick
 machine131
 
 
 

  Brick
 from
 the
 Burnham
 yard
 was
 used
 extensively
 throughout
 Milwaukee
 and
 beyond.
 
The
 Burnham
 yard
 received
 orders
 for
 500,000
 bricks
 following
 the
 Great
 Chicago
 Fire
 in
 
1871.132
 Brick
 was
 also
 sent
 to
 places
 as
 far
 away
 as
 New
 York,
 for
 the
 construction
 of
 a
 city
 hall
 
at
 Utica.
 George
 Burnham
 &
 Sons
 produced
 an
 average
 of
 fifteen
 million
 bricks
 by
 1881
 and
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

129
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 2,
 324.
 
 
130
 "Milwaukee
 Brick
 Machine,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 18
 April
 1867.
 
 
131
 "Multiple
 Classified
 Advertisements,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 16
 May
 1867.
 
132
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 32.
 
 
 
55
 

 
Figure
 2.18:
 Burnham
 Brothers’
 Howell
 Avenue
 yard
 as
 seen
 in
 the
 late-­‐1890s133
 
 
employed
 around
 two
 hundred
 men.134
 George
 Burnham’s
 worth
 was
 reported
 at
 two
 million
 
dollars
 at
 the
 time
 of
 his
 death
 in
 1889.
 
 
  Following
 George’s
 death,
 his
 sons
 continued
 the
 business,
 readopting
 the
 “Burnham
 
Brothers”
 name.
 They
 remained
 at
 the
 Spring
 Street
 yard
 for
 three
 years,
 before
 purchasing
 the
 
Howell
 Avenue
 yard
 in
 1892.
 The
 massive
 operation
 produced
 upwards
 of
 thirty
 million
 bricks
 
annually
 and
 employed
 three
 hundred
 men
 in
 1895.135
 The
 brothers
 also
 operated
 a
 
Wauwatosa
 yard
 by
 1901
 that
 produced
 only
 stiff-­‐mud
 brick.
 The
 two
 Burnham
 operations
 
were
 merged
 in
 1910
 by
 J.L.
 Burnham’s
 son,
 John
 F.,
 and
 operated
 as
 Burnham
 Brothers
 Brick
 
 
Company
 until
 at
 least
 1929.136
 Operations
 were
 moved
 to
 South
 Milwaukee
 in
 1923
 due
 to
 the
 
depletion
 of
 raw
 material
 at
 the
 Kinnickinnic
 Avenue
 yard,
 while
 the
 Wauwatosa
 yard
 was
 
abandoned
 during
 World
 War
 I.137
 Their
 expected
 capacity
 at
 their
 South
 Milwaukee
 yard
 was
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

133
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 65.
 
134
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 32.
 
135
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895,
 2,
 441.
 
136
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 34.thesis
 34
 
137
 "Burnham
 Bros.
 Building
 New
 Plant,"
 The
 Clay
 Worker
 1922,
 464.
 
 
 
 
56
 

forty
 million
 bricks
 annually.
 Their
 Howell
 Avenue
 yard
 was
 later
 annexed
 by
 the
 City
 of
 
Milwaukee
 for
 neighboring
 Humboldt
 Park.
 
 
Additional
 Brick
 Manufacturers
 
  While
 the
 Burnham
 family
 certainly
 played
 a
 massive
 role
 in
 the
 evolution
 and
 
recognition
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 they
 were
 not
 the
 only
 producers
 in
 the
 city.
 Other
 notable
 
companies
 operated
 throughout
 the
 period
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 production,
 a
 number
 of
 which
 
will
 be
 briefly
 described.
 
  The
 Colclough
 Brothers
 operated
 a
 yard
 at
 Clybourn
 and
 North
 Canal
 Streets
 between
 
13th
 and
 15th
 streets
 in
 the
 Menomonee
 Valley
 starting
 in
 1849.138
 
 Their
 yard
 was
 composed
 of
 
two
 of
 the
 earliest
 yards
 located
 in
 the
 city
 –
 that
 of
 Benoni
 Finch
 at
 14th
 Street
 and
 the
 yard
 
formerly
 belonging
 to
 James
 H.
 Rogers
 (and
 rented
 to
 the
 Burnham
 Brothers
 in
 1844).
 The
 
Colclough
 Brothers
 operated
 at
 this
 location
 until
 1877.
 The
 land
 was
 subsequently
 leased
 to
 
H.R.
 Bond,
 who
 took
 on
 partner
 William
 H.
 Hanchett
 two
 years
 later
 and
 reorganized
 the
 
business
 as
 Bond
 &
 Hanchett.139
 The
 firm
 was
 producing
 six
 million
 brick
 annually
 by
 1881.
 
Bond
 bought
 out
 Hanchett
 some
 years
 later
 and
 took
 his
 son
 Hiram
 on
 as
 partner
 –
 operating
 
as
 H.R.
 Bond
 &
 Son.140
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

138
 Ciesielksi,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 34.
 
139
 Ibid.,
 35.
 
140
 Howard
 Louis
 Conrad,
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 
1895,
 vol.
 3
 (Chicago:
 American
 Biographical
 Publishing
 Company,
 1895),
 194.Conrad
 vol
 3,
 194
 
 
 
57
 

 
Figure
 2.19:
 Milwaukee
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Companies141
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

141
 Ciesielksi,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 100.
 
 
 
58
 

 
Figure
 2.20:
 1894
 Sanborn
 map
 showing
 the
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Company
 yards142
 
 
  Under
 the
 ownership
 of
 William
 Drake,
 the
 yard
 was
 taken
 over
 in
 1883
 and
 
subsequently
 incorporated
 as
 the
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Company.
 Their
 mid-­‐1890s
 production
 was
 
around
 seven-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half
 million
 pressed
 and
 common
 brick
 annually.143
 The
 company
 provided
 
brick
 for
 such
 notable
 Milwaukee
 buildings
 as
 the
 Pfister
 Hotel,
 Lindsay
 Building,
 and
 
 
Davidson
 Theater.144
 Although
 the
 yard
 employed
 eighty
 men
 in
 1896
 and
 was
 noted
 for
 their
 
spacious
 facilities
 and
 state
 of
 the
 art
 machinery,
 the
 yards
 were
 abandoned
 by
 1901.
 
  Davelaar
 &
 Sons
 brickyard
 was
 established
 in
 1880
 by
 Martin
 Davelaar
 and
 was
 located
 
first
 in
 Chase’s
 Valley
 and
 later
 relocated
 to
 Bay
 View
 at
 Pryor
 and
 Ellen
 Streets.145
 The
 yard
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

142
 "Milwaukee
 1894,
 vol.
 2,
 sheet
 152,"
 (New
 York,
 NY:
 Sanborn-­‐Perris
 Map
 Co.
 Limited,
 1894).
 
143
 Milwaukee,
 a
 Half
 Century's
 Progress,
 1846-­‐1896:
 A
 Review
 of
 the
 Cream
 City's
 Wonderful
 
Growth
 and
 Development
 from
 Incorporation
 Until
 the
 Present
 Time.,
 
 (Milwaukee:
 
Consolidated
 Illustrating
 Co.,
 1896),
 178.
 
144
 Ibid.
 
145
 Memoirs
 of
 Milwaukee
 County:
 From
 the
 Earliest
 Historical
 Times
 Down
 to
 the
 Present,
 
Including
 a
 Genealogical
 and
 Biographical
 Record
 of
 Representative
 Families
 in
 Milwaukee
 
County,
 vol.
 2,
 Part
 2
 (Madison,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 Association,
 1909),
 814.
 
 
 
59
 

produced
 between
 six
 hundred
 thousand
 and
 three
 and
 a
 half
 million
 bricks
 annually
 by
 1894,
 
many
 of
 which
 were
 used
 in
 sewer
 projects
 around
 the
 city.
 They
 were
 equipped
 with
 scove
 
kilns
 and
 molded
 brick
 using
 the
 soft
 mud
 process.
 The
 yards
 were
 leased
 to
 the
 Milwaukee
 
Building
 Supply
 in
 1899,
 at
 which
 point
 they
 sat
 idle
 for
 a
 number
 of
 years.
 They
 resumed
 
operation
 as
 Davelaar
 &
 Sons
 in
 1916,
 switching
 production
 to
 concrete
 block
 before
 
disbanding
 operations
 in
 1923.146
 
  The
 Chase
 Valley
 Brickyards
 were
 established
 in
 1876
 at
 the
 western
 bank
 of
 the
 
Kinnikinnic
 River,
 at
 the
 intersection
 of
 the
 Lincoln
 Avenue
 Bridge.147
 George
 H.
 Chase
 began
 
making
 brick
 in
 the
 1860s.
 He
 later
 entered
 into
 a
 partnership
 with
 his
 well-­‐known
 Milwaukee
 
pioneer
 father,
 Dr.
 Enoch
 Chase,
 and
 brother
 Clarence
 (later
 adding
 another
 brother,
 Clifford).
 
The
 yards,
 known
 as
 the
 Lincoln
 Avenue
 yard,
 rose
 to
 become
 the
 second-­‐largest
 producer
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick.
 They
 produced
 from
 six
 million
 brick
 in
 1890
 to
 up
 to
 seventeen
 million
 bricks
 
by
 the
 end
 of
 the
 decade.
 Nearly
 all
 of
 their
 stock
 was
 sold
 within
 the
 Milwaukee
 vicinity.148
 
 
The
 yards
 were
 leased
 to
 the
 Milwaukee
 Building
 Company
 in
 1899.
 
  Carl
 (Charles)
 Frederick
 Wilhelm
 Kraatz
 founded
 the
 Kraatz
 Estate
 in
 1880
 with
 yards
 
adjacent
 to
 the
 George
 Burnham
 &
 Sons’
 Wauwatosa
 yard.149
 Kraatz,
 along
 with
 brothers
 
Wilhelm
 and
 John,
 worked
 extensively
 as
 builders
 before
 entering
 the
 brick
 business.
 The
 yard
 
contained
 excellent
 clay
 ten
 to
 fifteen
 feet
 in
 depth
 and
 produced
 about
 eight
 million
 bricks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

146
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 36.
 
147
 Ibid.,
 37.
 
148
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 110.
 
149
 Jerome
 A.
 Watrous,
 Memoirs
 of
 Milwaukee
 County:
 From
 the
 Earliest
 Historical
 Times
 Down
 
to
 the
 Present,
 Including
 a
 Genealogical
 and
 Biographical
 Record
 of
 Representative
 Families
 in
 
Milwaukee
 County,
 vol.
 1
 (Madison,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 Association,
 1909),
 181.
 
 
 
60
 

 
Figure
 2.21:
 Clay
 pit
 of
 the
 Standard
 Brick
 Company150
 
 
annually
 in
 the
 1890s.
 While
 Carl
 Kraatz
 died
 in
 1892,
 the
 business
 continued
 at
 least
 through
 
the
 early
 1900s.
 
  The
 Standard
 Brick
 Company
 incorporated
 in
 1883
 with
 Ferdonand
 Vogt
 and
 Otto
 
Zielsdorf
 forming
 the
 company.
 Their
 yards
 included
 fifteen
 acres
 located
 across
 from
 Davelaar
 
&
 Sons
 at
 496
 Clement
 Street.
 Their
 1893
 value
 was
 placed
 at
 $60,000
 with
 production
 of
 
twelve
 to
 fourteen
 million
 bricks
 annually.151
 A
 description
 of
 their
 facilities
 from
 that
 year
 
noted,
 “the
 plant
 includes
 spacious
 sheds,
 kilns,
 dry
 house,
 boiler
 and
 engine
 house,
 etc.,
 and
 
from
 sixty
 to
 eighty
 men
 are
 constantly
 employed.”152
 Their
 bricks
 were
 noted
 for
 their
 
uniformity,
 strength,
 and
 durability
 and
 were
 endorsed
 by
 Milwaukee
 architects
 and
 builders.
 
 
They
 were
 also
 members
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 Building
 Company.
 However,
 by
 1901
 their
 land
 was
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

150
 Ries,
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses,
 42.
 
151
 Milwaukee,
 a
 Half
 Century's
 Progress,
 1846-­‐1896:
 A
 Review
 of
 the
 Cream
 City's
 Wonderful
 
Growth
 and
 Development
 from
 Incorporation
 Until
 the
 Present
 Time.,
 173.
 
152
 Ibid.
 
 
 
61
 

vacant
 and
 had
 not
 been
 operated
 for
 a
 number
 of
 years.153
 This
 property
 was
 later
 acquired
 by
 
the
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 becoming
 Kinnickinnic
 Park.
 
 
  The
 Milwaukee
 Brick
 Company
 was
 one
 of
 the
 last
 yards
 formed
 in
 Milwaukee.154
 Henry
 
Hermann
 owned
 the
 30-­‐acre
 yard,
 located
 slightly
 north
 Wauwatosa.
 
 The
 yard
 contained
 only
 
shallow
 deposits
 of
 clay,
 worked
 to
 about
 ten
 feet.
 In
 1901,
 the
 yard
 was
 equipped
 with
 both
 
dry-­‐press
 and
 stiff-­‐mud
 machinery
 and
 ran
 a
 continuous
 kiln
 with
 fourteen
 chambers,
 each
 with
 
a
 capacity
 of
 28,000
 bricks.155
 
  Milwaukee
 Building
 Supply
 Company
 was
 a
 conglomerate
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 producers
 
formed
 in
 1897
 as
 a
 means
 of
 stabilizing
 brick
 prices.
 The
 idea
 was
 attempted
 in
 1895
 but
 failed
 
after
 a
 short
 time
 due
 to
 infighting
 amongst
 members.156
 Henry
 Hermann,
 Ferdinand
 Vogt,
 and
 
Charles
 T.
 Burnham
 formed
 the
 company
 with
 the
 understanding
 that
 Milwaukee
 brick
 had
 
become
 so
 standardized
 that
 any
 manufacturer
 could
 produce
 brick
 suitable
 for
 any
 job.
 The
 
job
 orders
 were
 received
 at
 a
 central
 office
 with
 the
 closest
 yard
 to
 the
 delivery
 site
 handling
 
the
 brick
 delivery
 in
 order
 to
 reduce
 shipping
 costs.
 The
 company
 was
 able
 to
 control
 prices
 in
 
the
 city
 and
 also
 exclude
 outside
 competition
 from
 bidding
 on
 jobs
 in
 the
 city.
 
 A
 number
 of
 
factors,
 including
 a
 surplus
 of
 building
 supplies,
 an
 increase
 in
 labor
 costs,
 and
 a
 reduction
 in
 
the
 price
 of
 brick
 all
 weakened
 the
 Building
 Supply
 Company,
 which
 was
 disbanded
 in
 the
 
1910s.
 Following
 disbanding,
 a
 number
 of
 member
 brickyards
 once
 again
 returned
 to
 individual
 
production.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

153
 Buckley,
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin,
 110.
 
154
 Ibid.,
 108.
 
155
 Ibid.
 
156
 "Goes
 to
 Pieces,"
 Milwaukee
 Journal,
 03
 February
 1897.
 
 
 
62
 

  The
 companies
 examined
 briefly
 here
 were
 by
 no
 means
 the
 only
 brick
 producers
 that
 
operated
 in
 the
 city.
 They
 did,
 however,
 benefit
 by
 being
 the
 businesses
 still
 in
 operation
 when
 
the
 clay
 and
 brick
 industry
 in
 Wisconsin
 was
 examined
 around
 1900.
 Sources
 prior
 to
 the
 1880s
 
are
 limited,
 with
 only
 brief
 mentions
 of
 production
 techniques,
 capacities,
 and
 prices
 found
 in
 
newspapers.
 
 
  Other
 brick
 producers
 found
 in
 City
 of
 Milwaukee
 directories
 include
 Beckman
 &
 Co.
 
(north
 corner
 of
 8th
 Street
 and
 Washington
 Avenues),
 J.B.
 Dieckmein
 (corner
 of
 Lombard
 and
 
Rail
 Road
 Streets),
 Green,
 Watkin
 &
 Co.
 (corner
 of
 Clybourn
 and
 Clermont
 Street),
 W.W.
 
Watkins
 &
 Co.
 (150
 E.
 Water
 Street),
 Franz
 Buellesbach
 (468-­‐470
 16th
 Street),
 Milwaukee
 Brick
 
and
 Cement
 Company
 (65
 Loan
 and
 Trust
 Building).
 Additionally,
 a
 number
 of
 yards
 producing
 
cream-­‐colored
 brick
 operated
 in
 other
 southeastern
 Wisconsin
 areas
 containing
 suitable
 
lacustrine
 clay.
 Medium
 sized
 producers
 existed
 in
 Racine,
 Watertown,
 and
 Green
 Bay,
 with
 
local
 operations
 located
 in
 numerous
 other
 towns
 in
 the
 state.
 While
 these
 yards
 did
 not
 
produce
 anywhere
 near
 the
 capacity
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 yards
 and
 often
 produced
 brick
 of
 
questionable
 quality,
 their
 bricks
 were
 used
 in
 local
 building
 projects.
 However,
 the
 quality
 and
 
quantity
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 manufacture
 meant
 that
 brick
 produced
 there
 was
 also
 exported
 
to
 these
 locations.
 Unless
 otherwise
 known,
 this
 can
 make
 it
 difficult
 to
 pinpoint
 exactly
 where
 
brick
 used
 smaller
 communities
 was
 produced.
 
 
  Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 brick
 industry
 spawned
 numerous
 companies
 and
 produced
 
millions
 of
 Cream
 City
 bricks
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 As
 will
 be
 examined
 with
 greater
 detail
 
in
 the
 next
 chapter,
 these
 bricks
 were
 used
 in
 many
 building
 types
 and
 styles,
 and
 in
 locations
 
local,
 national,
 and
 international.
 However,
 by
 the
 turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century,
 the
 industry
 
 
 
63
 

was
 beginning
 to
 fail.
 Numerous
 factors,
 including
 outside
 competition,
 changing
 architectural
 
preferences,
 and
 the
 disappearance
 of
 suitable
 clay,
 led
 to
 the
 decline
 and
 eventual
 halt
 of
 
Cream
 City
 brick
 production
 in
 Milwaukee.
 These
 factors
 will
 be
 examined
 further
 in
 Chapter
 
Five.
 
 
 
  64
 

 
 
CHAPTER
 3:
 CREAM
 CITY
 BRICK
 ARCHITECTURE
 

Introduction
 
  Cream
 City
 brick
 production
 spanned
 nearly
 the
 first
 one
 hundred
 years
 of
 European
 
settlement
 in
 Milwaukee.
 By
 the
 latter
 half
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 production
 exceeded
 
tens
 of
 millions
 bricks
 produced
 annually.
 Much
 of
 this
 production
 was
 consumed
 in
 the
 
building
 of
 Milwaukee,
 however
 millions
 of
 bricks
 were
 exported
 for
 use
 in
 other
 markets.
 
 
  In
 his
 survey
 of
 Historic
 Wisconsin
 Buildings,
 architect
 and
 author
 Richard
 W.E.
 Perrin
 
notes
 that
 once
 the
 color
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 accepted,
 “it
 was
 used
 in
 and
 around
 
[Milwaukee]
 to
 the
 exclusion
 of
 practically
 all
 other
 materials
 for
 more
 than
 fifty
 years.”157
 Due
 
to
 this,
 brick
 is
 found
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 nearly
 every
 building
 type
 in
 the
 city.
 Majestic
 
mansions,
 lavish
 public
 buildings,
 and
 grand
 cathedrals
 were
 constructed
 of
 cream
 brick,
 as
 
were
 countless
 office
 blocks,
 warehouses,
 industrial
 buildings,
 and
 vernacular
 residences.
 Due
 
to
 the
 span
 of
 time
 it
 was
 used,
 it
 also
 shows
 up
 in
 every
 building
 style
 constructed
 in
 the
 
nineteenth
 century
 –
 from
 early
 Milwaukee
 Federal-­‐style
 buildings
 through
 the
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 
period.
 Photos
 from
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 reveal
 exactly
 why
 Milwaukee
 was
 called
 the
 
Cream
 City
 –
 street
 after
 street
 lined
 with
 cream-­‐colored
 buildings.
 The
 brick
 also
 shows
 up
 in
 
places
 less
 obvious,
 such
 as
 the
 chimneys
 and
 foundations
 of
 frame
 buildings,
 as
 the
 structural
 
element
 in
 buildings
 veneered
 with
 other
 materials,
 and
 in
 Milwaukee’s
 sewers
 and
 roads.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

157
 Richard
 W.E.
 Perrin,
 Historic
 Wisconsin
 Buildings:
 A
 Survey
 of
 Pioneer
 Architecture
 1835-­‐
1870,
 Publications
 in
 History
 
 (Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Museum,
 1962),
 47-­‐48.
 
  65
 

  Use
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 by
 no
 means
 limited
 to
 the
 Cream
 City,
 however.
 The
 
reputation
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 already
 spreading
 east
 by
 the
 time
 the
 city
 was
 incorporated
 
in
 1846.
 Buoyed
 by
 these
 early
 reviews
 (of
 which
 more
 will
 be
 mentioned
 later)
 demand
 for
 
Cream
 City
 brick
 in
 other
 markets
 rapidly
 increased.
 The
 quickly
 expanding
 city
 of
 Chicago,
 
ninety
 miles
 to
 the
 south,
 proved
 an
 eager
 market.
 Chicago
 imported
 Milwaukee
 brick
 as
 early
 
as
 1847
 and
 used
 the
 brick
 in
 great
 numbers
 following
 the
 Great
 Fire
 of
 1871.
 Likewise,
 brick
 
was
 exported
 from
 areas
 ranging
 from
 Minneapolis
 to
 Cincinnati
 to
 New
 York.
 
 
  This
 chapter
 examines
 examples
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 architecture
 found
 in
 Milwaukee
 
and
 beyond.
 Examples
 will
 be
 provided
 in
 chronological
 order,
 divided
 by
 architectural
 style
 and
 
separated
 into
 two
 sections
 –
 Milwaukee
 architecture
 and
 examples
 found
 elsewhere.
 The
 
buildings
 examined
 were
 selected
 with
 several
 considerations
 in
 mind.
 
  Firstly,
 as
 implied
 above,
 there
 were
 thousands
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 buildings
 
constructed
 in
 Milwaukee
 during
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 There
 are
 countless
 examples
 that
 
could
 be
 examined
 in
 greater
 detail
 here.
 
 Unique
 examples
 of
 both
 high
 style
 and
 vernacular
 
buildings,
 as
 well
 as
 examples
 spanning
 the
 entirety
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 are
 represented.
 
Some
 of
 the
 buildings
 most
 representative
 of
 a
 given
 style
 were
 demolished
 decades
 ago
 and
 
prove
 difficult
 to
 examine.
 Generally,
 the
 examples
 chosen
 are
 either
 still
 extant
 or
 have
 
sufficient
 documentation
 to
 warrant
 inclusion.
 The
 buildings
 with
 the
 most
 ample
 
documentation
 tend
 to
 be
 of
 a
 high
 architectural
 style.
 Vernacular
 examples
 have
 been
 
included
 where
 possible.
 
 
  Secondly,
 with
 regard
 to
 examples
 outside
 of
 Milwaukee,
 limited
 sources
 make
 it
 
difficult
 to
 identify
 all
 of
 the
 buildings
 using
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 While
 Milwaukee
 was
 a
 voracious
 
  66
 

consumer
 of
 the
 brick,
 many
 millions
 were
 exported
 to
 other
 markets.
 The
 buildings
 examined
 
here
 appear
 in
 nineteenth-­‐century
 newspapers
 or
 National
 Register
 of
 Historic
 Places
 
nominations
 with
 specific
 mentions
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 use.
 There
 are,
 no
 doubt,
 many
 more
 
examples
 yet
 to
 be
 been
 located.
 
 
  Finally,
 unless
 specified,
 it
 can
 be
 difficult
 to
 ascertain
 whether
 or
 not
 “Milwaukee
 brick”
 
was
 genuine
 brick
 from
 Milwaukee.
 There
 are
 examples
 of
 “fake”
 Milwaukee
 brick
 being
 used
 
in
 New
 York,
 and
 firms
 in
 Chicago
 marketing
 their
 brick
 as
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 Additionally,
 
although
 Milwaukee
 was
 by
 far
 the
 largest
 producer
 of
 cream
 brick,
 the
 abundance
 of
 smaller
 
yards
 around
 the
 state
 make
 it
 possible
 that
 some
 “Milwaukee
 brick”
 buildings
 are
 constructed
 
of
 a
 similar
 product
 produced
 elsewhere.
 In
 general,
 these
 smaller
 yards
 were
 not
 capable
 of
 
providing
 brick
 in
 such
 quantities
 as
 to
 qualify
 them
 as
 being
 suppliers
 for
 the
 buildings
 
examined.
 
 
 
Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 Architecture
 
Earliest
 Examples
 
  As
 mentioned
 in
 Chapter
 Two,
 William
 Sivyer
 laid
 the
 earliest
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 used
 for
 
chimney
 construction,
 in
 1835.
 The
 mason
 was
 also
 responsible
 for
 constructing
 the
 first
 brick
 
house
 in
 the
 city,
 put
 up
 in
 1836.
 William,
 along
 with
 brothers
 Henry
 and
 Samuel,
 operated
 as
 
the
 sole
 brick
 masons
 in
 the
 city
 for
 some
 time.158
 Henry
 Sivyer’s
 obituary
 stated
 that
 there
 was
 
no
 lack
 of
 work;
 once
 the
 brothers
 arrived,
 “they
 were
 kept
 constantly
 engaged
 in
 the
 seasons
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

158
 James
 S.
 Buck,
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 1840
 to
 1846,
 Inclusive,
 vol.
 2
 
(Milwaukee:
 Symes,
 Swain
 &
 Co.,
 1881),
 93.
 
  67
 

that
 followed
 and
 many
 of
 the
 well-­‐known
 buildings
 of
 the
 pioneer
 city
 were
 constructed
 by
 
the
 Sivyer
 brothers.”159
 
 
  James
 S.
 Buck
 compiled
 a
 list
 of
 the
 first
 ten
 brick
 structures
 constructed
 in
 the
 city
 in
 
the
 third
 volume
 of
 his
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee.
 This
 list
 is
 useful
 in
 detailing
 the
 pace
 at
 
which
 the
 city’s
 early
 brick
 buildings
 were
 erected.
 Part
 of
 this
 had
 to
 do,
 no
 doubt,
 with
 the
 
rudimentary
 manufacturing
 process
 in
 place
 at
 the
 first
 brickyards
 in
 the
 city.
 The
 list
 is
 given
 
below:
 
Table
 3.1:
 The
 first
 ten
 brick
 residences
 in
 Milwaukee160
 
DATE
  DETAILS
 

1)
 At
 the
 rear
 of
 447
 Jackson
 Street
 –
 one-­‐story
 house
 erected
 by
 William
 
Sivyer
 in
 May
 1836
 with
 bricks
 from
 the
 Benoni
 Finch
 yard.
 
1836
 
 

2)
 14th
 Street
 &
 Clybourn
 Street
 –
 erected
 by
 Benoni
 Finch
 at
 his
 brickyard,
 
Summer
 1836.
 
1837
  3)
 East
 corner
 of
 Hanover
 and
 Walker
 Streets
 –
 small,
 one-­‐story
 dwelling
 
erected
 by
 Thomas
 Eggleston.
 
4)
 Foot
 of
 Wisconsin
 Avenue
 –
 lighthouse
 and
 dwelling
 
 
5)
 364
 Railroad
 Street
 –
 two-­‐story
 house
 erected
 by
 Aaron
 Herriman
 
1838
 

6)
 461
 Jefferson
 Street
 –
 at
 rear
 of
 William
 Webber
 house
 
1839
  7)
 235
 9th
 Street
 –
 erected
 by
 Henry
 Hubbard
 
1840
  8)
 447
 Jackson
 Street
 –
 constructed
 in
 phases
 between
 1840
 and
 1842
 by
 
William
 Sivyer.
 
1841
  9)
 Rear
 part
 of
 140-­‐142
 Mason
 Street
 –
 erected
 by
 Dr.
 E.
 Porter
 Eastman
 
1842
  10)
 Northwest
 corner
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Jackson
 Streets
 –
 erected
 by
 Rev.
 
Lemuel
 B.
 Hull,
 at
 the
 time
 of
 construction
 it
 was
 the
 finest
 house
 in
 the
 city.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

159
 "A
 Pioneer
 Passes
 Away,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 09
 September
 1902.
 
160
 Milwaukee
 Under
 the
 Charter,
 From
 1847
 to
 1853,
 Inclusive,
 vol.
 3
 (Milwaukee:
 Symes,
 
Swain,
 &
 Co.,
 1884),
 97-­‐101.
 
  68
 

 
 
Figure
 3.1:
 Reverend
 Lemuel
 B.
 Hull
 House
 as
 seen
 in
 the
 1880s161
 
 
  As
 noted,
 the
 earliest
 brick
 structures
 were
 quite
 basic
 in
 design.
 However,
 by
 the
 time
 
Reverend
 Hull
 erected
 his
 residence,
 “high
 style”
 buildings
 were
 becoming
 more
 common
 in
 
Milwaukee.
 The
 earliest
 architectural
 styles
 to
 appear
 in
 the
 city
 generally
 reflected
 the
 tastes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

161
 "Lemuel
 B.
 Hull
 Residence,
 close
 front
 view,"
 Milwaukee
 Historic
 Photos,
 Milwaukee
 Public
 
Library
 Digital
 Collections,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://content.mpl.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/HstoricPho/id/390/rec/1.
 
  69
 

of
 the
 newly
 arrived
 settlers
 from
 New
 England.162
 The
 Federal
 style
 popular
 in
 New
 England
 
was
 one
 of
 the
 earliest
 to
 appear
 in
 Milwaukee,
 remaining
 common
 there
 through
 the
 1850s.
 
Greek
 Revival,
 Italianate
 and
 Gothic
 Revival
 buildings
 were
 also
 constructed
 in
 pre-­‐Civil
 War
 
Milwaukee,
 with
 Cream
 City
 brick
 lending
 itself
 well
 to
 application
 of
 these
 styles.163
 
 
Federal
 Style
 
  The
 Federal
 style
 appears
 often
 in
 early
 Milwaukee
 buildings.
 Although
 few
 of
 these
 
buildings
 remain,
 a
 “considerable
 number
 of
 brick
 buildings,
 including
 dwellings
 and
 stores,
 
which
 show
 Federal
 Style
 characteristics”
 were
 built
 in
 the
 city’s
 earliest
 neighborhoods.164
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 often
 chosen
 because
 it
 “lent
 itself
 admirably
 to
 the
 crisp
 lines
 demanded
 
by
 the
 [Federal]
 style.”165
 Milwaukee’s
 examples
 were
 much
 simpler
 than
 those
 found
 in
 the
 
East.
 Few
 had
 flanking
 pavilions,
 curving
 or
 octagonal
 bays,
 or
 delicate
 ornamentation.166
 
 
  As
 seen
 in
 Figure
 3.1,
 the
 Reverend
 Hull
 House
 was
 an
 example
 of
 early
 Federal
 style
 
architecture
 found
 in
 Milwaukee.
 The
 three-­‐story
 house
 featured
 a
 four-­‐bay
 front
 façade
 and
 
imposing
 pediment
 with
 cornice
 return.
 The
 two-­‐story
 front
 portico
 had
 massive
 square
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

162
 Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 
the
 City
 (Milwaukee:
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1983),
 32.Built
 in
 
MKE,
 32
 

163
 Ibid.
 
164
 Ibid.,
 33.
 
165
 Perrin,
 Historic
 Wisconsin
 Buildings:
 A
 Survey
 of
 Pioneer
 Architecture
 1835-­‐1870,
 48.
 
166
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 "Historic
 Designation
 Study
 Report
 -­‐
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House,"
 
accessed
 02
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://city.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/cityHPC/DesignatedReports/vticnf/BrownDou
bleHouse.pdf.
 
 
  70
 

 
Figure
 3.2:
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House
 following
 a
 2007
 restoration167
 
 
columns
 on
 the
 first
 level
 with
 more
 delicate
 Doric
 columns
 on
 the
 second
 level.
 The
 house
 was
 
described
 as
 the
 first
 brick
 residence
 of
 consequence
 in
 the
 city.168
 It
 is
 no
 longer
 standing.
 
  One
 of
 the
 few
 remaining
 Federal
 houses
 in
 Milwaukee
 is
 the
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 
House
 built
 in
 the
 Yankee
 Hill
 neighborhood.
 Constructed
 of
 solid
 brick
 masonry
 in
 1852,
 the
 
house
 was
 the
 first
 on
 its
 block,
 occupying
 the
 highest
 land
 between
 the
 Milwaukee
 River
 and
 
Lake
 Michigan.
 It
 features
 a
 symmetrical
 arrangement
 with
 rectangular
 windows,
 stone
 lintels,
 
a
 shallow
 pitched
 roof,
 stepped
 side
 parapets,
 mismatched
 dormers,
 and
 a
 wood
 cornice
 with
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

167
 David
 Jones,
 "James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House,"
 LiveMILWAUKEE.org,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 
2015,
 
 http://www.livemilwaukee.org/milwaukee_federal.htm.
 
168
 Andrew
 Carpenter
 Wheeler,
 The
 Chronicles
 of
 Milwaukee
 (Milwaukee:
 Jermain
 &
 Brightman,
 
1861),
 123.
 

  71
 

carved
 brackets.169
 Originally
 two
 separate
 dwellings,
 each
 containing
 three
 bays,
 the
 building
 
has
 been
 connected
 and
 now
 has
 six
 bays
 across
 the
 front.
 Although
 the
 house
 has
 been
 heavily
 
altered
 in
 its
 163-­‐year-­‐old
 existence,
 the
 soft
 yellow
 brick
 is
 bright
 and
 clean,
 accented
 by
 green
 
trim
 and
 the
 white
 stone
 lintels.
 Other
 notable
 examples
 of
 Federal
 style
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
buildings
 in
 the
 city
 include
 Gipfel
 Brewery,
 Layton
 House,
 Abel
 Decker
 Residences,
 and
 Old
 
Cross
 Keys
 Hotel.
 
 
Greek
 Revival
 
  Greek
 Revival
 residences
 in
 the
 city
 were
 often
 built
 of
 the
 unique
 Milwaukee
 cream
 
brick
 and
 this
 style
 was
 dominant
 in
 the
 city
 from
 1840
 to
 1860.
 The
 Greek
 Revival
 style
 suited
 
the
 area’s
 numerous
 farmhouses,
 as
 well
 as
 religious
 buildings.
 Much
 like
 the
 Federal
 style
 
buildings
 in
 the
 city,
 few
 of
 these
 remain
 within
 the
 city.
 
 
 
  The
 Edward
 Diedrich
 House
 (also
 known
 as
 the
 “Lion
 House”)
 is
 one
 of
 the
 few
 
remaining
 cream
 brick
 Greek
 Revival
 residences,
 and
 one
 of
 the
 more
 elaborate
 constructed.
 
Built
 as
 a
 one-­‐story
 residence
 in
 1855,
 the
 stately
 house
 has
 a
 five-­‐bay
 front
 with
 ornamented
 
center
 pediment
 held
 up
 by
 Doric
 columns.
 The
 large
 rectangular
 windows
 are
 decorated
 with
 
window
 hoods,
 pilasters
 are
 located
 between
 bays,
 and
 the
 frieze
 is
 decorated
 with
 triglyphs.
 
The
 house’s
 nickname
 was
 derived
 from
 the
 large
 lion
 statues
 that
 flank
 the
 front
 steps.
 
Numerous
 additions
 have
 occurred
 to
 the
 house,
 including
 the
 addition
 of
 a
 second-­‐story
 in
 
1895.
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

169
 Milwaukee,
 "Historic
 Designation
 Study
 Report
 -­‐
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House".
 
  72
 

 
Figure
 3.3:
 Edward
 Diedrich
 House
 with
 1895
 second-­‐story
 addition170
 
 
Rundbogenstil
 
  Milwaukee’s
 early
 Cream
 City
 brick
 churches
 represented
 the
 most
 notable
 German
 
influence
 over
 the
 city’s
 architecture.
 German-­‐born
 Victor
 Schulte,
 one
 of
 the
 first
 trained
 
architects
 in
 the
 city,
 constructed
 three
 of
 the
 city’s
 first
 Roman
 Catholic
 churches,
 all
 of
 which
 
where
 built
 in
 the
 Rundbogenstil
 style.171
 Rundbogenstil,
 or
 round
 arch
 style,
 was
 a
 revival
 type
 
of
 architecture
 popular
 in
 German-­‐speaking
 lands.
 As
 the
 name
 implies,
 the
 style
 is
 dominated
 
by
 the
 use
 of
 numerous
 round
 arches
 throughout
 the
 facades.
 These
 early
 Schulte
 designed
 
churches
 have
 also
 been
 characterized
 as
 Zopfstil
 architecture.
 This
 style
 also
 originated
 in
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

170
 "Edward
 Diederichs
 House,"
 Wikimedia
 Commons,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_Diederichs_House_Apr10.jpg.
 
171
 Megan
 E.
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture
 (Charleston,
 SC:
 Arcadia
 Publishing,
 2010),
 
14.
 

  73
 

 
Figure
 3.4:
 Old
 St.
 Mary’s
 Church172
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure
 3.5:
 Detail
 of
 St.
 Mary’s
 discolored
 
cream-­‐brick173
 
 
Germany
 as
 a
 “stern
 response
 to
 the
 frivolous
 designs
 of
 late
 German
 Baroque
 and
 Rococo
 of
 
the
 18th
 century.”174
 The
 style
 called
 for
 a
 simpler,
 symmetrical
 and
 orderly
 design.
 Milwaukee’s
 
cream
 brick
 worked
 perfectly
 with
 the
 more
 astute
 and
 simple
 design
 the
 style
 represented.
 
  Old
 St.
 Mary’s
 Church
 was
 the
 first
 constructed
 by
 Schulte.
 Built
 in
 1846
 for
 the
 city’s
 
first
 German-­‐speaking
 Catholic
 parish,
 the
 building
 was
 later
 expanded
 in
 1867.
 The
 two-­‐story
 
building
 has
 three
 well-­‐proportioned
 entrance
 bays,
 large
 round
 arches,
 a
 dentil
 cornice,
 and
 a
 
looming
 central
 clock
 tower.
 The
 church
 is
 the
 city’s
 oldest
 extant
 example,
 although
 years
 of
 
pollution
 have
 caused
 the
 yellow
 cream
 brick
 to
 turn
 a
 dark
 brown.
 
 St.
 John’s
 Cathedral
 (1847)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

172
 "Old
 St.
 Mary
 Church
 in
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,"
 Tang's
 Photo
 Memories,
 accessed
 15
 
February,
 2015,
 
 http://tangsphoto.photoshelter.com/image/I00008N5ja85YkfM.
 
173
 Photo
 by
 author,
 December
 2014.
 
174
 Daniels,
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture.
 
  74
 

and
 Holy
 Trinity
 Church
 (1849)
 also
 display
 cream
 brick
 in
 Rundbogenstil.
 The
 Leonard
 Kowalski
 
designed
 St.
 Stanislaus
 Roman
 Catholic
 Church,
 though
 constructed
 much
 later,
 also
 shows
 
hallmarks
 of
 Rundbogenstil.
 This
 1872
 cream
 brick
 church
 was
 the
 third
 Polish
 congregation
 in
 
the
 United
 States
 and
 features
 limestone
 trim
 and
 two
 imposing
 bell-­‐towers
 at
 the
 corners
 of
 
the
 front
 façade.
 All
 of
 these
 churches
 represent
 the
 overwhelming
 German
 influence
 on
 the
 
city’s
 early
 religious
 architecture.
 
 
Gothic
 Revival
 
  The
 cream
 color
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 also
 well
 suited
 for
 use
 for
 Gothic
 Revival
 
buildings
 throughout
 the
 city.
 Andrew
 Jackson
 Downing,
 one
 of
 the
 leading
 proponents
 of
 the
 
movement,
 advocated
 for
 the
 use
 “smooth
 brick,
 colored
 after
 some
 of
 the
 soft
 neutral
 tints,”
 
in
 his
 designs.175
 In
 his
 Cottage
 Residences,
 he
 further
 went
 on
 to
 decry
 the
 “offensive
 hue
 of
 
red
 brick
 walls
 in
 the
 country.”176
 Downing
 was
 well
 aware
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 writing
 of
 how
 
its
 use
 as
 an
 ornamental
 element
 enlivened
 the
 Eustatia
 House
 of
 John
 Monell
 in
 Beacon,
 New
 
York.177
 Numerous
 Gothic
 Revival
 residences
 and
 churches
 existed
 around
 Milwaukee
 
exemplifying
 the
 qualities
 of
 cream
 brick
 use
 in
 this
 style.
 
  The
 Saint
 John
 de
 Nepomuc
 Rectory,
 built
 in
 1859,
 is
 an
 early
 Gothic
 Revival
 religious
 
building.
 The
 two-­‐story
 building
 has
 a
 limestone
 basement
 with
 cream
 brick
 above
 and
 
decorative
 wood
 trim.
 Red-­‐stained
 brick
 alternates
 with
 the
 cream
 brick,
 providing
 the
 building
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

175
 Andrew
 Jackson
 Downing,
 Cottage
 Residences:
 Or,
 A
 Series
 of
 Designs
 for
 Rural
 Cottages
 and
 
Cottage
 Villas,
 and
 Their
 Gardens
 and
 Grounds,
 Adapted
 to
 North
 America,
 4th
 ed.
 (New
 York:
 
Wiley
 &
 Halsted,
 1856),
 46.
 
176
 Ibid.,
 9.
 
177
 Francis
 R.
 Kowsky,
 "The
 Architecture
 of
 Frederick
 C.
 Withers
 (1828-­‐1901),"
 Journal
 of
 the
 
Society
 of
 Architectural
 Historians
 35,
 no.
 2
 (1976):
 90.
 
  75
 

 
Figure
 3.6:
 St.
 John
 de
 Nepomuc
 Rectory178
 
 
with
 a
 Venetian
 Gothic
 effect.179
 The
 front
 façade
 has
 five
 bays,
 each
 with
 Gothic
 arches.
 The
 
second
 story
 has
 gabled
 dormers
 across
 the
 front,
 with
 a
 larger
 central
 dormer.
 Decorative
 
brickwork
 follows
 the
 ridgeline
 on
 the
 left
 elevation,
 with
 an
 inset
 Greek
 cross
 constructed
 of
 
brick.
 
 
  One
 of
 the
 best
 residential
 Gothic
 Revival
 examples
 existing
 in
 Milwaukee
 is
 the
 Russell
 
Bennett
 house,
 built
 as
 a
 farmhouse
 on
 Kinnickinnic
 Avenue
 in
 1855-­‐56.180
 
 The
 cream
 brick
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

178
 Bobby
 Tanzilo,
 "Gothic
 Milwaukee:
 10
 great
 buildings,"
 OnMilwaukee,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 
2015,
 
 http://onmilwaukee.com/visitors/articles/gothicmilwaukee.html.
 
179
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann,
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook:
 Landmarks
 and
 Historical
 Sites
 in
 
Southeastern
 Wisconsin,
 2nd
 ed.
 (Milwaukee:
 H.W.
 Schwartz,
 1989),
 117.
 
180
 Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 
the
 City
 35.
 
  76
 

used
 in
 construction
 was
 burned
 at
 a
 local
 yard
 set
 up
 for
 the
 construction
 of
 the
 St.
 Francis
 
Seminary
 grounds.181
 Limestone
 lintels
 and
 sills,
 polychrome
 window
 sashes,
 eaves,
 and
 
cornices
 accented
 the
 cream
 brick
 walls.
 The
 house
 features
 a
 number
 of
 gables
 and
 
characteristic
 Gothic
 Revival
 touches
 such
 as
 Gothic
 arch
 windows,
 and
 decorative
 bargeboards
 
and
 finials.
 
 
 
 
 
Italianate
 
  As
 with
 the
 Gothic
 Revival,
 Andrew
 Jackson
 Downing
 was
 an
 early
 advocate
 of
 the
 
Italian
 Renaissance
 Revival,
 or
 Italianate
 style.
 
 The
 earliest
 Italianate
 examples
 appeared
 in
 
Milwaukee
 by
 the
 early
 1850s.
 The
 style
 dominated
 both
 residential
 and
 commercial
 structures
 
until
 the
 1870s,
 coinciding
 with
 the
 rise
 of
 industry
 and
 commerce
 in
 the
 city.
 Numerous
 cream
 
brick
 commercial
 blocks
 in
 Milwaukee’s
 business
 district
 displayed
 Italianate
 details.
 Likewise,
 
many
 of
 the
 city’s
 first
 mansions
 were
 built
 of
 cream
 brick
 in
 the
 Italianate
 style.
 Fortunately,
 
owing
 to
 the
 vast
 number
 of
 buildings
 constructed
 in
 this
 style,
 many
 exemplary
 buildings
 are
 
still
 extant
 and
 easily
 examined.
 
 
  Among
 the
 notable
 early
 Italianate
 residences
 is
 the
 Villa
 Uhrig,
 constructed
 in
 1851
 as
 a
 
summer
 residence
 for
 St.
 Louis
 brewer
 Franz
 Joseph
 Uhrig.
 A
 villa
 Uhrig
 observed
 while
 in
 
Germany
 influenced
 the
 design.
 The
 house
 stood
 on
 top
 of
 a
 hill
 in
 the
 center
 of
 twenty
 acres
 of
 
land
 and
 originally
 included
 many
 outbuildings.182
 The
 main
 house
 was
 roughly
 square
 in
 shape
 
and
 built
 of
 cream
 brick
 on
 a
 limestone
 foundation.
 It
 has
 a
 hipped
 roof
 and
 wooden
 cupola.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

181
 Zimmermann,
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook:
 Landmarks
 and
 Historical
 Sites
 in
 Southeastern
 
Wisconsin,
 175.
 
182
 Zimmermann,
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee
 (Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Museum,
 1987),
 11.
 
 
  77
 

 
 
Figure
 3.7:
 Villa
 Uhrig,
 with
 later
 side
 addition183
 
 
Hand-­‐cut
 scrolls
 support
 an
 overhang,
 with
 drop
 finials
 and
 a
 fascia
 board
 between
 them.184
 
Corinthian
 columns
 support
 the
 porch,
 and
 the
 rounded
 windows
 are
 decorated
 with
 elaborate
 
wooden
 window-­‐hoods.
 
 
  The
 James
 S.
 Peck
 House
 represents
 one
 of
 the
 city’s
 most
 intact
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
residences.
 The
 house
 was
 designed
 by
 noted
 Milwaukee
 architect
 Edward
 Townsend
 Mix
 and
 
constructed
 beginning
 in
 1870.
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann
 noted
 in
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee
 that
 
while
 there
 are
 hundreds
 of
 intact
 Italianate
 residences
 in
 Milwaukee,
 this
 one
 stands
 out
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

183
 "Franz
 Joseph
 Uhrig
 House,"
 Wisconsin
 Historical
 Society,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=N:4294963828-­‐
4294963814&dsNavOnly=N:1159&dsRecordDetails=R:HI16376.
 
184
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee,
 12.
 
  78
 

because
 of
 its
 “elegant
 proportions,
 superbly
 designed
 details
 and
 the
 finest
 craftsmanship.”185
 
The
 pressed
 cream
 brick
 stands
 over
 a
 rock-­‐faced
 stone
 base.
 The
 eaves
 extend
 forty
 inches,
 
decorated
 by
 carved
 wood
 rope
 molding.
 The
 house
 has
 six
 different
 window
 shapes,
 with
 a
 
variety
 of
 surrounds.
 Salmon-­‐colored
 terra
 cotta
 and
 painted
 moldings
 are
 highlighted
 against
 
the
 bright
 cream
 color
 of
 the
 brick.
 
 
 
Figure
 3.8:
 James
 S.
 Peck
 House186
 
 
  There
 are
 numerous
 other
 notable
 examples
 including
 the
 Dr.
 Robert
 J.
 Faries
 Residence
 
(1850),
 Francis
 E.
 McGovern
 Residence
 (1852),
 George
 W.
 Peckham
 Residence
 (1855),
 Matthew
 
Keenan
 House
 (designed
 by
 E.T.
 Mix,
 1860),
 Robert
 Patrick
 Fitzgerald
 Residence
 (E.T.
 Mix,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

185
 Ibid.,
 38.
 
186
 John
 December,
 "Peck
 House,"
 December.com,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.december.com/places/mke/album/peckhouse.html.
 
  79
 

1874),
 John
 Dietrich
 Inbusch
 Residence
 (1874),
 and
 Dr.
 Henry
 Harrison
 Button
 Residence
 
(1875).
 
 

  The
 Italianate
 style
 is
 probably
 best
 observed
 in
 the
 numerous
 Milwaukee
 commercial
 
blocks
 displaying
 Italianate
 features
 such
 as
 overhanging,
 bracketed
 eaves
 and
 rounded
 
windows.
 Photographs
 showing
 the
 city
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 show
 block
 after
 block
 of
 
downtown
 buildings
 constructed
 of
 this
 style.
 While
 urban
 “renewal”
 and
 neglect
 have
 greatly
 
diminished
 the
 number
 of
 these
 still
 standing,
 fine
 examples
 are
 still
 present
 in
 the
 city.
 
 
  The
 John
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 Company,
 built
 in
 1874
 with
 later
 additions,
 is
 
representative
 of
 this
 Italianate
 business
 block.
 The
 four-­‐block
 complex
 has
 a
 cast-­‐iron
 
storefront
 with
 three
 cream-­‐brick
 stories
 above.
 The
 building’s
 motifs
 include
 rounded
 windows
 
with
 limestone
 sills
 and
 keystones,
 brick
 pilasters,
 corbelled
 brickwork
 below
 the
 cornice,
 and
 a
 
heavy
 bracketed
 cornice.
 Recently
 restored,
 the
 red
 terracotta
 sills
 and
 trim
 stand
 out
 
distinctively
 against
 the
 bright
 cream-­‐brick.
 Italianate
 commercial
 buildings,
 including
 brick-­‐
maker
 J.L.
 Burnham’s
 block,
 are
 still
 found
 throughout
 many
 areas
 of
 Milwaukee.
 
  80
 

 
Figure
 3.9:
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 prior
 to
 restoration187
 
 
 
Figure
 3.10:
 Pritzlaff
 Hardware
 following
 restoration188
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

187
 "Old
 Pritzlaff
 Buildings
 Reborn
 as
 the
 Life
 of
 the
 Party,"
 Milwaukee
 Journal
 Sentinel,
 
accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 http://www.jsonline.com/multimedia/photos/historic-­‐pritzlaff-­‐
buildings-­‐find-­‐new-­‐life-­‐b99118655z1-­‐228044131.html.
 
  81
 

High
 Victorian
 Gothic
 
  Cream
 City
 brick
 was
 particularly
 suited
 for
 use
 in
 High
 Victorian
 Gothic
 buildings.
 The
 
cream
 brick
 provided
 an
 excellent
 base
 pallet
 on
 which
 to
 pair
 with
 a
 wide
 variety
 of
 materials
 
and
 colors,
 providing
 them
 a
 “distinctive
 luminosity.”189
 Polychromy,
 pointed
 arches,
 and
 steep
 
gables
 were
 all
 characteristics
 of
 these
 buildings.
 This
 style
 is
 found
 in
 residential,
 commercial,
 
and
 institutional
 use
 in
 Milwaukee.
 
 
  While
 many
 examples
 of
 this
 style
 still
 stand
 in
 the
 city,
 the
 National
 Soldier’s
 Home
 
best
 exemplifies
 its
 application
 in
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 The
 overall
 complex
 sits
 on
 four
 hundred
 
acres
 of
 land
 and
 consists
 of
 over
 twenty-­‐five
 buildings
 and
 a
 National
 Cemetery,
 built
 for
 
veterans
 following
 the
 Civil
 War.
 Edward
 Townsend
 Mix
 designed
 the
 first
 five
 of
 these
 
buildings,
 with
 later
 contributions
 from
 renowned
 Milwaukee
 architect
 Henry
 C.
 Koch.
 The
 vast
 
majority
 of
 the
 buildings
 are
 constructed
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 many
 with
 unique
 polychromy.
 
The
 focal
 point
 of
 the
 complex,
 known
 as
 “Old
 Main,”
 provides
 the
 best
 example
 of
 High
 
Victorian
 Gothic
 architecture
 on
 the
 campus.
 
 
  Old
 Main
 was
 designed
 by
 E.T.
 Mix
 and
 constructed
 between
 1867
 and
 1869.
 The
 
imposing
 building
 was
 designed
 to
 house
 many
 functions,
 including
 dormitories,
 chapel,
 dining
 
hall,
 and
 administrative
 offices.
 It
 has
 a
 four-­‐story
 main
 block
 over
 a
 raised
 basement,
 with
 
three-­‐story
 hyphens
 and
 four-­‐story
 end
 pavilions.
 A
 massive
 six-­‐story
 tower
 provides
 the
 center
 
focus
 of
 the
 building.
 A
 variety
 of
 Gothic
 arches
 are
 present
 on
 the
 façade,
 including
 the
 two-­‐
story
 arched
 entrance.
 Elaborate
 brickwork
 is
 found
 throughout
 the
 façade,
 including
 arches
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

188
 "Hack
 Furniture/Pritzlaff
 Hardware,"
 Urban
 Milwaukee,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://urbanmilwaukee.com/2010/07/09/cream-­‐city-­‐brick-­‐showcase/dsc_0652/.
 
189
 Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 
the
 City
 42.
 
  82
 

 
Figure
 3.11:
 National
 Soldier’s
 Home,
 Old
 Main
 Building190
 
 
 
Figure
 3.12:
 Old
 Main,
 tower
 in
 detail191
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

190
 Dori
 Zori,
 "a.MKE,"
 88Nine
 Radio
 Milwaukee,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.radiomilwaukee.org/amke/amke-­‐national-­‐soldiers-­‐home-­‐tour-­‐app-­‐kohls-­‐cares-­‐
gulf-­‐mexico-­‐explosion-­‐and-­‐mcc-­‐72413.
 
  83
 

and
 heavy
 corbelling.
 Polychromy
 is
 found
 throughout
 the
 building.
 The
 main
 block
 of
 the
 
building
 is
 a
 slight-­‐yellow
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 with
 a
 lighter
 limestone
 rubble
 foundation
 and
 
brown
 slate
 Mansard
 roof.
 Bright
 red
 accents
 are
 found
 in
 the
 window
 sashes
 and
 dormers,
 
with
 light
 limestone
 sills
 throughout.
 The
 Mansard
 roofs
 found
 on
 the
 center
 block
 and
 hyphens
 
have
 decorative
 red,
 yellow,
 and
 green
 slate
 accents.
 The
 building
 has
 been
 listed
 on
 the
 
National
 Register
 of
 Historic
 Places
 and
 as
 a
 National
 Landmark.
 
  Other
 examples
 of
 High
 Victorian
 Gothic
 include
 the
 National
 Historic
 Landmark
 
designated
 Dr.
 Fisk
 Holbrook
 Day
 House
 (1870),
 Milwaukee
 News
 Building
 &
 Milwaukee
 
Abstract
 Association
 Building
 (1879),
 Harry
 B.
 Walker
 House
 (1878),
 Fourth
 District
 School
 
(1885),
 and
 Trinity
 Lutheran
 Church,
 amongst
 others.
 
 
Second
 Empire
 
  Further
 architectural
 eclecticism
 hit
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 1860s
 and
 lasted
 into
 the
 1890s.
 
European
 influences
 were
 often
 seen
 in
 these
 revivalist
 trends,
 and
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 often
 
chosen
 to
 execute
 these
 designs.
 The
 residence
 of
 banker
 and
 financier
 Alexander
 Mitchell
 
started
 as
 a
 humble
 Cream
 City
 brick
 dwelling
 before
 gaining
 substantial
 additions
 designed
 
Edward
 Townend
 Mix
 beginning
 in
 1870.
 Mix
 designed
 a
 sprawling
 Second
 Empire
 estate
 
complete
 with
 a
 ballroom,
 card
 room,
 conservatory,
 and
 belvedere.
 Mansard
 roofs
 and
 a
 five-­‐
story
 tower
 were
 added
 to
 the
 main
 house,
 as
 were
 numerous
 wings.
 Polychrome
 trim
 of
 blue
 
and
 grey
 around
 the
 windows
 and
 dormers
 are
 accented
 against
 the
 cream
 brick
 masonry.
 
Distinctive
 painted
 brackets
 and
 scrollwork
 are
 also
 easily
 discerned
 against
 the
 yellow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

191
 Tanzilo,
 "Gothic
 Milwaukee:
 10
 great
 buildings".
 
  84
 

 
Figure
 3.13:
 Alexander
 Mitchell
 Mansion
 circa
 1905192
 
 
background
 of
 the
 house.
 The
 style
 was
 also
 used
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 some
 of
 the
 city’s
 
commercial
 blocks
 and
 finer
 mansions,
 although
 there
 are
 few
 examples
 remaining
 in
 the
 city.
 
The
 Mitchell
 mansion
 remains
 the
 best
 intact
 high-­‐style
 residential
 example
 in
 the
 city.
 
 
Richardsonian
 Romanesque
 
  A
 number
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 best-­‐known
 buildings
 were
 constructed
 in
 the
 Richardsonian
 
Romanesque
 style
 using
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 usually
 paired
 with
 a
 stone
 foundation.
 Turner
 Hall
 
(Henry
 C.
 Koch,
 1882-­‐83)
 is
 a
 massive
 four-­‐story
 cream
 brick
 block
 on
 a
 limestone
 foundation,
 
with
 dark
 red
 brick
 used
 in
 belt
 courses
 and
 decorative
 arches.
 The
 Fourth
 Street
 School
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

192
 "Deutscher
 Club,
 Milwaukee,
 Wis.,"
 University
 of
 Wisconsin-­‐Madison
 Libraries,
 accessed
 01
 
March,
 2015,
 
 http://search.library.wisc.edu/items/WHO_MkePostcards_201_bib.
 
  85
 

 
Figure
 3.14:
 Turner
 Hall,
 designed
 by
 Henry
 C.
 Koch193
 
 
(renamed
 in
 1979
 the
 Golda
 Meir
 School,
 after
 the
 Israeli
 Prime
 Minister
 who
 attended
 there
 
from
 1906-­‐1912)
 was
 designed
 by
 Henry
 Koch
 and
 completed
 in
 1890.
 
 The
 majestic
 Pfister
 
Hotel
 (1892-­‐93),
 designed
 by
 Henry
 C.
 Koch
 and
 Hermann
 J.
 Esser,
 features
 a
 three-­‐story
 
limestone
 base
 and
 cream
 city
 exterior
 supplemented
 with
 terracotta
 trim
 and
 stained
 glass
 
windows.194
 The
 German-­‐English
 Academy
 (1890-­‐91),
 designed
 by
 Crane
 and
 Barkhausen,
 was
 
“lavishly
 decorated
 with
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 and
 terracotta.”195
 Other
 notable
 buildings,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

193
 "Turner
 Hall
 (Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin),"
 Wikipedia,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_Hall_%28Milwaukee,_Wisconsin%29.
 
194
 Zimmermann,
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook:
 Landmarks
 and
 Historical
 Sites
 in
 Southeastern
 
Wisconsin,
 52.
 
195
 Ibid.,
 65.
 
  86
 

including
 the
 city’s
 first
 skyscraper,
 the
 Pabst
 Building
 (Solon
 Spencer
 Beman,
 1891,
 demolished
 
1980),
 and
 the
 venerable
 Pabst
 Theater
 (Otta
 Strack,
 1895)
 were
 built
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 
  Even
 one
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 most
 recognizable
 and
 well-­‐loved
 buildings
 was
 constructed
 of
 
Cream
 City
 brick,
 although
 it
 is
 not
 immediately
 obvious.
 Milwaukee
 City
 Hall,
 designed
 by
 
Henry
 C.
 Koch
 and
 constructed
 in
 1893-­‐1895,
 is
 in
 an
 immaculately
 decorated
 eclectic
 
Romanesque
 style.
 At
 353
 feet
 tall,
 the
 building
 was
 the
 tallest
 in
 America
 from
 its
 completion
 
until
 1899.
 The
 exterior
 is
 constructed
 of
 Berea
 sandstone,
 terracotta,
 and
 St.
 Louis
 red
 
pressed-­‐brick.
 However,
 behind
 the
 red
 brick
 veneer,
 carrying
 the
 weight
 of
 the
 building
 is
 
Milwaukee
 brick.
 The
 building’s
 National
 Historic
 Landmark
 nomination
 notes,
 “The
 inner
 
backup
 masonry
 behind
 the
 press
 brick
 (as
 well
 as
 the
 terra
 cotta
 and
 sandstone)
 is
 a
 cream-­‐
colored
 brick
 generally
 referred
 to
 as
 Milwaukee
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 The
 face
 brick
 is
 tied
 to
 the
 
backup
 brick
 with
 a
 press
 brick
 header
 at
 every
 fifth
 course.”196
 Architect
 Henry
 Koch
 designed
 
many
 buildings
 in
 the
 city
 using
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 It
 is
 curious
 why
 he
 decided
 to
 use
 St.
 Louis
 
brick
 as
 the
 exterior
 material
 for
 what
 is
 perhaps
 his
 greatest
 design
 -­‐
 perhaps
 as
 a
 way
 to
 
distinguish
 it
 from
 the
 countless
 cream
 brick
 buildings
 found
 throughout
 the
 city.
 Editorials
 in
 
the
 city’s
 newspapers
 commented
 on
 this
 slight
 towards
 Milwaukee
 brick
 as
 well.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

196
 Quinn
 Evans
 Architects,
 "Milwaukee
 City
 Hall
 National
 Landmark
 Nomination,"
 accessed
 02
 
February,
 2015,
 
 http://www.nps.gov/nhl/find/statelists/wi/Milwaukee.pdf.
 
  87
 

 
Figure
 3.15:
 Milwaukee
 City
 Hall197
 
 
Queen
 Anne
 
  Much
 as
 with
 the
 High
 Victorian
 Gothic,
 Cream
 City
 brick
 was
 well
 suited
 for
 use
 in
 the
 
eclectic
 Queen
 Anne
 style.
 Popular
 in
 the
 city
 from
 the
 1880s
 into
 the
 early
 part
 of
 the
 next
 
century,
 the
 style
 incorporated
 many
 different
 materials
 with
 a
 penchant
 for
 exuberant,
 
asymmetrical
 designs.
 Modest
 residential
 examples
 were
 usually
 constructed
 of
 wood
 in
 the
 
city,
 with
 masonry
 examples
 reserved
 for
 commercial
 or
 high
 style
 buildings.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

197
 Andy
 Tucker,
 "Milwaukee
 City
 Hall,"
 Flickr,
 accessed
 01
 March,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mspdude/3469357399.
 
  88
 

  One
 of
 the
 city’s
 grandest
 Queen
 Anne
 buildings
 constructed
 of
 cream-­‐brick
 was
 the
 
Edward
 Townsend
 Mix
 designed
 Industrial
 Exposition
 Building
 (1881,
 destroyed
 by
 fire
 1904).
 
The
 building
 occupied
 an
 entire
 city-­‐block
 and
 featured
 a
 massive
 center
 dome,
 numerous
 
arches,
 dormers,
 turrets,
 and
 finials.
 Polychrome
 terracotta,
 limestone,
 wood
 trim,
 iron
 and
 
glass
 complimented
 the
 building’s
 brick
 exterior.
 
 
 
  Figure
 3.16:
 Industrial
 Exposition
 Building
 prior
 to
 the
 1905
 fire198
 
 
  One
 of
 the
 city’s
 finest
 cream-­‐brick
 Queen
 Anne
 residences
 belonged
 to
 Schilitz
 Brewery
 
President
 Henry
 Uihlein.
 The
 mansion
 was
 designed
 by
 Henry
 C.
 Koch
 and
 built
 in
 1882
 
(demolished
 1973).
 Cream
 brick
 is
 mixed
 with
 a
 stone
 foundation,
 red
 terracotta,
 spindled
 
woodwork,
 and
 decorative
 shingles.
 There
 are
 numerous
 window
 shapes
 and
 arches,
 stone
 
arches,
 a
 turret
 and
 prominent
 chimney.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

198
 "Exposition
 Building,
 three
 quarter
 close
 view
 from
 southeast,"
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://content.mpl.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/HstoricPho/id/294/rec/12.
 
  89
 

 
 Another
 representative
 Queen
 Anne
 examples
 include
 the
 “completely
 original
 and
 
pure
 Victorian”
 mansion
 of
 George
 P.
 Miller
 (August
 Fiedler,
 1885).199
 The
 building
 includes
 a
 
variety
 of
 materials,
 including
 pressed
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 pink
 quartz,
 buff
 terracotta,
 hammered
 
copper,
 stained
 glass,
 wrought
 iron,
 brass,
 wood,
 and
 gray
 slate.200
 The
 building
 has
 an
 
asymmetrical
 design
 with
 a
 large
 arched
 entrance,
 various
 dormers,
 domed
 turret,
 and
 a
 
number
 of
 chimneys.
 
 
Beaux-­‐Arts
 
  The
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 style
 of
 architecture
 gained
 prominence
 in
 Milwaukee
 following
 the
 
World’s
 Columbian
 Exposition
 held
 in
 neighboring
 Chicago
 in
 1893.
 The
 style
 was
 primarily
 
found
 on
 institutional
 buildings,
 often
 faced
 with
 marble
 and
 stone
 rather
 than
 brick.
 A
 small
 
number
 of
 buildings
 incorporating
 Cream
 City
 brick
 are
 found
 in
 the
 city,
 however.
 The
 Beaux-­‐
Arts
 style
 represents
 the
 last
 architectural
 style
 of
 note
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century,
 
and
 thus
 the
 last
 style
 examined
 in
 this
 section.
 
  Two
 fine
 examples
 of
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 residential
 architecture
 in
 the
 city
 using
 Milwaukee
 
brick
 are
 the
 Fred
 Pabst,
 Jr.
 Residence
 and
 the
 George
 J.
 Koch
 Residence,
 both
 built
 in
 1897.
 
Both
 retain
 a
 stately,
 almost
 institutional,
 quality.
 The
 Pabst
 residence
 sits
 on
 a
 limestone
 
foundation
 with
 fluted
 Ionic
 columns
 supporting
 a
 grand
 portico
 done
 in
 cream-­‐brick.
 
 Edward
 
V.
 Koch
 designed
 the
 George
 Koch*
 Residence
 of
 cream
 brick
 over
 a
 limestone
 foundation.
 Two
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

*Relationship
 unknown.
 
199
 Zimmermann,
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee,
 55.
 
200
 Ibid.
 
  90
 

 
Figure
 3.17:
 Frederick
 Pabst,
 Jr.
 Mansion201
 
 
lion
 statutes
 flank
 the
 stairway,
 which
 leads
 to
 a
 Corinthian
 portico.
 White
 columns,
 gold
 
capitols,
 red
 terracotta
 trim,
 and
 limestone
 trim
 and
 cornice
 contrast
 with
 the
 pressed
 cream
 
brick.
 Cream
 brick
 was
 also
 found
 in
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 examples
 such
 as
 the
 Layton
 Art
 Gallery,
 
Edward
 C.
 Wall
 Rowhouse,
 and
 the
 Lake
 Lodge
 and
 Auditorium.
 
 
 
Industrial
 Buildings
 
  Numerous
 factories,
 warehouses,
 and
 industrial
 buildings
 were
 also
 constructed
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 As
 the
 de
 facto
 masonry
 material
 used
 for
 these
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

201
 "3112
 W.
 Highland
 Blvd,"
 Wisconsin
 Historical
 Society,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/Content.aspx?dsNav=Nrc:id-­‐1079,N:4294963828-­‐
4294963814&dsNavOnly=N:1160&dsRecordDetails=R:HI42071.
 
  91
 

buildings,
 cream
 brick
 was
 ubiquitous
 in
 industrial
 areas
 of
 the
 city,
 forming
 a
 veritable
 sea
 of
 
massive
 cream
 brick
 buildings.
 This
 is
 perhaps
 most
 evident
 in
 the
 large
 brewery
 complexes
 
around
 the
 city.
 
 
  Miller,
 Best
 (Pabst),
 Schlitz,
 and
 Blatz
 Breweries
 all
 used
 cream
 brick
 for
 the
 construction
 
of
 their
 production
 complexes.
 The
 breweries
 were
 usually
 built
 up
 over
 a
 period
 of
 decades,
 as
 
production
 increases
 demanded
 more
 space.
 However,
 cream
 brick
 was
 used
 in
 the
 
construction
 of
 virtually
 all
 buildings.
 The
 Pabst
 Brewery
 complex
 includes
 twenty-­‐five
 
buildings,
 many
 with
 Rundbogenstil,
 Italianate,
 Flemish
 Revival,
 or
 Gothic
 details
 built
 of
 cream
 
brick
 between
 1870
 and
 1900.202
 Miller
 Brewery
 includes
 many
 cream
 brick
 buildings,
 with
 a
 
brewhouse
 built
 in
 Romanesque
 style
 with
 polychrome
 terracotta
 and
 wood
 trim.
 Schlitz
 
Brewery’s
 cream
 brick
 buildings
 largely
 date
 to
 the
 1880s
 and
 1890s
 and
 were
 built
 in
 German
 
Renaissance
 and
 Rundbogenstil
 style,
 with
 grand
 domes,
 large
 parapets,
 stone
 and
 terracotta
 
trim.
 Schlitz
 often
 featured
 their
 glowing
 Cream
 City
 brick
 complex
 on
 their
 promotional
 
postcards.
 
 Likewise,
 the
 Valentin
 Blatz
 Brewery’s
 downtown
 complex
 dates
 to
 the
 1890s
 and
 
included
 acres
 of
 industrial
 cream
 brick
 buildings,
 many
 of
 which
 remain.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

202
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 "Historic
 Designation
 Study
 Report
 -­‐
 Pabst
 Brewing
 Company,"
 accessed
 
02
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/cityHPC/DesignatedReports/vticnf/hdpa
bst.pdf.
 
  92
 

 
Figure
 3.18:
 Pabst
 Brewery
 complex
 as
 depicted
 circa
 1900,
 constructed
 almost
 entirely
 of
 
Cream
 City
 brick
 buildings203
 
 
 
 
Figure
 3.19:
 The
 Pabst
 complex
 in
 2014
 with
 the
 rehabilitated
 brewhouse
 
 
and
 unrestored
 building204
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

203
 "Pabst
 Brewery
 Postcard,"
 Pabst
 Mansion,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.mbtmag.com/news/2014/04/milwaukee-­‐group-­‐wants-­‐bring-­‐pabst-­‐blue-­‐ribbon-­‐
home.
 
204
 Photo
 by
 author,
 December
 2014.
 
  93
 

Figure
 3.20:
 Schlitz
 Brewing
 postcard
 from
 the
 mid-­‐twentieth
 century205
 
 
 
 
Figure
 3.21:
 Miller
 Brewery
 Complex,
 with
 newer
 brick
 buildings
 evident206
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

205
 "Schlitz
 Park
 History,"
 Schlitz
 Park,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.schlitzpark.com/categories/5-­‐history.
 
206
 "Miller
 Brewery,"
 Flickr,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/josepha/15020284715/in/photostream/.
 
  94
 

Utilitarian
 Use
 
  In
 addition
 to
 its
 use
 as
 a
 facing
 material
 Cream
 City
 brick
 was
 used
 extensively
 in
 the
 
foundations
 and
 chimneys
 of
 nineteenth
 century
 Milwaukee
 houses.
 Because
 of
 this,
 nearly
 all
 
of
 the
 houses
 built
 in
 the
 city
 contained
 Milwaukee
 brick
 in
 some
 capacity.
 As
 Paul
 Jakubovich
 
noted
 in
 his
 guide
 to
 rehabilitating
 Milwaukee
 homes,
 “a
 typical
 brick
 foundation
 under
 an
 
older
 Milwaukee
 wood
 frame
 house
 is
 an
 impressive
 piece
 of
 masonry
 work
 being
 about
 14
 
inches
 thick
 and
 containing
 more
 than
 18,000
 bricks
 for
 an
 average
 sized
 24
 by
 44-­‐foot
 
house.”207
 The
 bricks
 are
 part
 of
 the
 architectural
 character
 of
 the
 houses
 and
 often
 contrast
 
with
 the
 pained
 wooden
 sheathing
 above.
 This
 is
 particularly
 evident
 in
 the
 so-­‐called
 “Polish
 
flats”
 of
 Milwaukee
 that
 have
 unusually
 tall
 basements
 stories.
 Unfortunately,
 the
 exposed
 
basements
 on
 many
 of
 these
 houses
 have
 been
 painted
 and
 no
 longer
 expose
 the
 cream-­‐brick.
 
Cream-­‐brick
 was
 used
 extensively
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 chimneys
 for
 residences
 in
 Milwaukee.
 
Many
 are
 distinctively
 corbelled
 and
 visually
 striking
 against
 the
 roof
 cladding.
 Even
 when
 no
 
longer
 functional
 the
 cream-­‐brick
 chimneys
 contribute
 to
 the
 architectural
 character
 of
 the
 
structures.
 
 
  The
 previous
 examples
 show
 the
 breadth
 of
 uses
 and
 styles
 in
 which
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
was
 employed
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 in
 Milwaukee.
 Many
 other
 unnamed
 and
 unexamined
 
blocks
 and
 residences
 were
 constructed
 either
 wholly
 or
 partially
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 Despite
 
the
 ravages
 of
 urban
 renewal,
 many
 of
 these
 structures
 remain,
 tying
 them
 to
 Milwaukee’s
 
Cream
 City
 image.
 The
 following
 section
 examines
 Milwaukee
 brick
 examples
 found
 outside
 of
 
the
 city.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

207
 Paul
 J.
 Jakubovich,
 As
 Good
 As
 New:
 A
 Guide
 to
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 
Milwaukee
 House
 (Milwaukee:
 The
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1993),
 93.
 
  95
 

Cream
 City
 Brick
 Use
 Outside
 of
 Milwaukee
 
  A
 drive
 through
 Southeastern
 Wisconsin
 reveals
 the
 prevalence
 of
 cream
 brick
 used
 in
 
pre-­‐twentieth
 century
 architecture.
 It
 is
 easy
 to
 locate
 the
 early
 downtown
 cores
 in
 the
 
numerous
 small
 towns
 of
 the
 state
 by
 finding
 their
 cream
 brick
 commercial
 buildings.
 Similarly,
 
it
 is
 common
 to
 see
 the
 familiar
 red
 barns
 and
 silos
 in
 the
 rolling
 landscape,
 only
 to
 come
 upon
 
the
 accompanying
 cream-­‐brick
 farmhouse
 when
 getting
 closer.
 Whether
 or
 not
 these
 buildings
 
are
 constructed
 of
 the
 famed
 Milwaukee
 brick
 or
 a
 like
 product
 produced
 at
 a
 small
 local
 
brickyard
 is
 hard
 to
 discern.
 By
 the
 1850s,
 the
 railroads
 were
 bringing
 goods,
 including
 brick,
 to
 
many
 regions
 throughout
 the
 state.
 As
 the
 Milwaukee
 Journal
 pointed
 out
 in
 1932,
 many
 
farmhouses
 existed
 throughout
 Southeastern
 Wisconsin
 constructed
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 The
 
article
 noted
 that
 area
 farmers
 “hauled
 loads
 of
 wheat
 to
 this
 then
 great
 wheat
 market
 and
 
frequently
 took
 a
 return
 load
 of
 brick
 from
 the
 Burnham
 yards.”208
 This
 section
 will
 examine
 
some
 of
 the
 examples
 found
 throughout
 Wisconsin
 but
 will
 primarily
 look
 at
 known
 Cream
 City
 
brick
 use
 throughout
 the
 United
 States.
 
  The
 state
 capital
 of
 Madison,
 Wisconsin,
 contains
 many
 notable
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
houses.
 The
 bricks
 produced
 near
 Madison
 were
 a
 very
 soft,
 red
 variety
 and
 their
 use
 was
 
superseded
 after
 1854
 when
 a
 rail
 connection
 to
 Milwaukee
 allowed
 for
 the
 transport
 of
 heavy
 
materials
 such
 as
 Cream
 City
 brick.209
 The
 grand
 Keenan
 House
 (August
 Kutzbock,
 1857),
 an
 
Italianate
 meets
 Rundbogenstil
 with
 later
 Second
 Empire
 additions,
 elegantly
 displays
 intricate
 
brickwork
 and
 dark
 wood
 trim.
 
 Much
 like
 Milwaukee,
 houses
 and
 mansions
 in
 a
 variety
 of
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

208
 Bill
 Hooker,
 "Glimpses
 of
 an
 Earlier
 Milwaukee,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Journal,
 23
 January
 1932,
 4.
 
209
 Planning
 Division
 City
 of
 Madison,
 "Madison
 Landmarks,"
 accessed
 15
 January,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.cityofmadison.com/planning/landmark/madison%20landmarks.htm.
 
  96
 

 
Figure
 3.22:
 Keenan
 House,
 Madison,
 Wisconsin210
 
 
architectural
 styles
 were
 constructed
 of
 the
 brick
 in
 Madison.
 Some
 of
 the
 city’s
 other
 pre-­‐
twentieth
 century
 Cream
 City
 landmarks
 include
 the
 Nathanial
 W.
 Dean
 House
 (1856),
 Brown
 
House
 (1863),
 Bush
 House
 (1867),
 Thompson’s
 Block
 (1868),
 Kircher
 House
 (1876),
 and
 Fess
 
Hotel
 (1883).
 
  A
 great
 number
 of
 lighthouses
 built
 along
 Lake
 Michigan
 were
 constructed
 of
 
Milwaukee’s
 cream
 brick.
 The
 regional
 headquarters
 of
 the
 United
 States
 Lighthouse
 Board
 was
 
located
 in
 Milwaukee,
 an
 important
 trading
 port.
 In
 part,
 the
 board
 was
 responsible
 for
 the
 
purchase
 of
 supplies
 used
 for
 constructing
 new
 lighthouses.211
 Because
 of
 this,
 brick
 for
 
construction
 was
 purchased
 from
 Milwaukee
 yards
 and
 shipped
 to
 locations
 throughout
 the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

210
 "The
 George
 Keenan
 House,
 Madison,
 WI,"
 The
 Picturesque
 Style:
 Italianate
 Architecture,
 
accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://picturesqueitalianatearchitecture.blogspot.com/2013/05/the-­‐george-­‐keenan-­‐house-­‐
madison-­‐wi.html.
 
211
 "WAKE
 UP!,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Journal,
 19
 July
 1910.
 
  97
 

Great
 Lakes.
 Among
 the
 lighthouses
 constructed
 using
 Cream
 City
 brick
 are
 the
 Grand
 Traverse
 
Lighthouse
 (1858),
 Kenosha
 Light
 (1866,
 Kenosha,
 Wisconsin),
 Eagle
 Bluff
 Lighthouse
 (Fish
 
Creek,
 Wisconsin,
 1868),
 McGulpin
 Point
 Light
 (Straights
 of
 Mackinac,
 Michigan,
 1869),
 Grosse
 
Point
 Lighthouse
 (Grosse
 Point,
 Illinois,
 1874),
 and
 Old
 Mackinac
 Point
 Light
 (Mackinaw
 City,
 
Michigan,
 1892).
 
 
  Outside
 of
 Wisconsin,
 Chicago
 provided
 a
 market
 eager
 to
 use
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 Already
 
in
 the
 1840s,
 brick
 was
 being
 sent
 the
 ninety
 miles
 south
 for
 use
 in
 Chicago.
 In
 1846,
 the
 Daily
 
Sentinel
 and
 Gazette
 reported
 approvingly
 that
 Chicago
 was
 about
 to
 erect
 buildings
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick,
 noting
 that
 this
 was
 sure
 to
 start
 a
 trend
 in
 Chicago.212
 The
 following
 year,
 the
 
Chicago
 Democrat
 reported,
 in
 a
 section
 entitled
 “IMPORTANT
 ARRIVAL,”
 that
 one
 of
 the
 city’s
 
best
 masons
 had
 just
 received
 ten
 thousand
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 which
 “it
 should
 be
 remembered,
 
are
 of
 a
 cream
 color.”213
 Other
 reports
 from
 that
 early
 period
 note
 that
 both
 houses
 and
 
commercial
 blocks
 were
 being
 constructed
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 famed
 brick.
 So
 in
 demand
 was
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 that
 Chicagoans
 began
 attempting
 to
 produce
 a
 similar
 product
 in
 the
 city
 
around
 that
 time.214
 However,
 they
 remained
 importers
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 with
 imports
 
topping
 five
 hundred
 fifty
 thousand
 in
 one
 month
 alone
 in
 1853.215
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

212
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 18
 May
 1846.
 
213
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 09
 June
 1847.
 
214
 Julius
 Ferdinand
 Feiring,
 "Some
 Phases
 of
 Chicago's
 Early
 Development,
 1832-­‐1852"
 
(master's
 thesis,
 University
 of
 Wisconsin-­‐Madison,
 1914),
 31.
 
215
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann,
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 Historical
 Messenger
 of
 the
 
Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society
 26
 (1970):
 8.
 
  98
 

 
Figure
 3.23:
 Arcade
 Building,
 Riverside,
 Illinois,
 following
 a
 2010s
 restoration216
 
 
  Following
 the
 Great
 Chicago
 Fire
 the
 Chicago
 Tribune
 chose
 Milwaukee
 brick
 for
 the
 
front
 of
 their
 new
 building.
 
 Edward
 Burling
 and
 Dan
 Adler
 designed
 the
 stately
 five-­‐story
 
building
 that
 stood
 at
 S.
 Dearborn
 and
 W.
 Madison
 Streets
 until
 1901.217
 Another
 notable
 
Cream
 City
 brick
 building
 is
 the
 Arcade
 Building
 in
 Riverside,
 just
 outside
 of
 Chicago.
 The
 
building
 was
 designed
 by
 Frederick
 C.
 Withers
 and
 constructed
 in
 1871.
 Its
 cream-­‐brick
 exterior
 
is
 enhanced
 with
 red
 brick
 used
 in
 window
 arches,
 red
 terracotta
 stringcourses,
 and
 red
 
terracotta
 tracery.
 In
 1890,
 the
 largest
 church
 yet
 constructed
 in
 Chicago,
 The
 Church
 of
 Our
 
Lady
 of
 Sorrows,
 was
 erected
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 with
 brown
 stone,
 iron,
 and
 terracotta
 trim.218
 
The
 Vatican
 declared
 the
 Italian
 Renaissance
 building
 a
 basilica
 in
 1956.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

216
 "Landmarks
 Illinois
 honors
 Arcade
 Building
 owner
 for
 restoration,"
 Riverside
 -­‐
 Brookfield
 
Landmark,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 http://www.rblandmark.com/News/Articles/9-­‐19-­‐
2014/Landmarks-­‐Illinois-­‐honors-­‐Arcade-­‐Building-­‐owner-­‐for-­‐restoration/.
 
217
 Frank
 A.
 Randall,
 History
 of
 the
 Development
 of
 Building
 Construction
 in
 Chicago
 (Urbana,
 IL:
 
University
 of
 Illinois
 Press,
 1949),
 58.
 
218
 "The
 Largest
 Church
 in
 the
 City,"
 Daily
 Inter
 Ocean
 1890,
 5.
 
  99
 

 
 
Figure
 3.24:
 Grain
 Belt
 Brewery,
 Minneapolis,
 Minnesota219
 
 
  Perhaps
 inspired
 by
 the
 beauty
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 breweries,
 brick
 was
 exported
 to
 
Minneapolis
 for
 use
 in
 the
 Minneapolis
 Brewing
 Company
 (also
 known
 as
 Grain
 Belt)
 Brewery.
 
Construction
 on
 the
 brewery
 started
 in
 1891
 with
 numerous
 buildings
 added
 for
 the
 next
 
twenty
 years.
 The
 more
 architecturally
 significant
 of
 these
 were
 built
 in
 the
 1890s.
 The
 Brew
 
House
 (1891-­‐92)
 is
 a
 five
 and
 six
 story
 L-­‐shaped
 Romanesque
 building
 constructed
 of
 load-­‐
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

219
 "Grain
 Belt
 Brewery
 Renovation,"
 Meyer,
 Borgman,
 Johnson,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.mbjeng.com/home/projects/renovation-­‐adaptive-­‐reuse/grain-­‐belt-­‐brewery-­‐
renovation.
 
  100
 

bearing
 Milwaukee
 brick.220
 The
 building
 sits
 on
 a
 stone
 foundation,
 with
 numerous
 stone
 
arches
 on
 the
 first
 floor
 and
 numerous
 round
 arches
 throughout
 the
 façade.
 There
 is
 ornate
 
corbelling
 throughout
 the
 building
 and
 a
 number
 of
 blind
 arches.
 The
 roofline
 contains
 paired,
 
hipped
 towers
 on
 one
 end
 and
 a
 large
 Mansard
 domed
 roof
 with
 cupola
 on
 the
 other.
 While
 
this
 is
 the
 most
 notable
 building
 in
 the
 complex,
 the
 Office
 (1893),
 Bottling
 House
 (1906),
 
Warehouse
 (1910),
 and
 a
 number
 of
 buildings
 now
 demolished
 were
 also
 constructed
 of
 Cream
 
City
 brick.
 
  The
 brick
 found
 its
 way
 to
 other
 Midwestern
 cities
 during
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 
Dubuque,
 Iowa’s
 L.D.
 Randall
 Block
 (1857)
 was
 constructed
 with
 a
 Milwaukee
 brick
 front,
 and
 
the
 brick
 was
 found
 as
 a
 decorative
 element
 in
 the
 city’s
 1st
 Congregational
 Church
 (1856).221
 
The
 Academy
 of
 the
 Sacred
 Heart
 in
 St.
 Louis,
 Missouri
 was
 faced
 with
 Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 
stone
 dressings.
 The
 Second
 Empire
 building
 was
 designed
 by
 Chicago
 architect
 Gurdon
 P.
 
Randall
 in
 1868
 and
 includes
 an
 impressive
 center
 tower
 with
 cupola,
 Mansard
 roofs,
 and
 a
 
façade
 dominated
 by
 round
 arches.
 The
 Italianate
 style
 Kossuth
 County
 Courthouse
 (1874)
 in
 
Iowa
 was
 faced
 with
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 as
 were
 the
 Muskegon
 Michigan
 Courthouse
 (1870)
 and
 
the
 beautiful
 Second
 Empire
 polychrome
 Houghton
 County
 Courthouse
 (1886)
 in
 Houghton,
 
Michigan.
 Detroit
 received
 Milwaukee
 brick
 by
 1851,
 at
 which
 point
 the
 Detroit
 Advertiser
 
remarked
 on
 the
 beauty
 and
 uniformity
 of
 the
 brick.222
 By
 1852,
 Milwaukee
 brick
 buildings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

220
 Michael
 Koop,
 Minneapolis
 Brewing
 Company
 Historic
 District
 ed.
 National
 Register
 of
 
Historic
 Places
 Nomination
 Form
 (Washington,
 D.C.:
 U.S.
 Department
 of
 the
 Interior.
 National
 
Park
 Service,
 1988),
 5.
 
221
 James
 E.
 Jacobsen,
 "Architectural
 and
 Historial
 Survey
 Report
 -­‐
 Downtown
 Dubuque,"
 
accessed
 15
 January,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.cityofdubuque.org/DocumentCenter/Home/View/2935.
 
222
 "Milwaukee
 Brick,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 17
 September
 1851.
 
  101
 

were
 constructed
 in
 Cleveland.
 A
 reporter
 from
 Cincinnati
 wrote
 after
 visiting
 Cleveland
 that
 
the
 “quality
 of
 brick
 is
 only
 to
 be
 obtained
 at
 Milwaukee”
 despite
 costing
 more
 and
 implored
 
his
 brethren
 to
 build
 with
 the
 Milwaukee
 product.223
 Specific
 examples
 of
 buildings
 in
 some
 of
 
these
 cities
 have
 been
 difficult
 to
 locate
 and
 it
 is
 unclear
 if
 they
 are
 extant
 or
 not.
 
  Bricks
 made
 it
 to
 New
 York
 by
 the
 1850s.
 One
 of
 the
 earliest
 complexes
 mentioned
 in
 
nineteenth
 century
 newspapers
 is
 the
 Institution
 for
 the
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb,
 located
 in
 Washington
 
Heights,
 Manhattan.
 The
 Italianate
 complex
 was
 constructed
 by
 1854,
 the
 main
 building
 of
 
which
 featured
 a
 large
 center
 pavilion,
 towers,
 and
 a
 great
 dome.
 New
 York
 Times
 reported
 at
 
the
 time
 that
 “the
 yellow
 Milwaukee
 brick
 is
 in
 favor
 for
 heavy
 buildings,
 like
 the
 Trinity
 block
 in
 
Broadway
 and
 the
 new
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb
 Institution
 at
 the
 foot
 of
 One
 Hundred
 and
 Fifty-­‐fifth
 
street,
 -­‐
 in
 both
 of
 which
 places
 it
 is
 employed
 with
 good
 effect.”224
 A
 later
 view
 remarked
 that
 
the
 Milwaukee
 brick
 both
 saved
 the
 expense
 of
 having
 to
 paint
 the
 building
 and
 contrasted
 
agreeably
 with
 the
 granite
 copings
 and
 foundation.225
 The
 Burnham
 Brothers
 provided
 the
 
300,000
 pressed
 brick
 used
 at
 a
 price
 of
 twelve
 dollars
 per
 thousand,
 but
 costing
 the
 
contractors
 a
 total
 of
 twenty-­‐five
 dollars
 after
 shipping
 considerations.226
 The
 company
 also
 
sent
 a
 reported
 30,000
 to
 Buffalo,
 New
 York
 in
 1852.227
 A
 report
 from
 Buffalo
 in
 1860
 
mentioned
 these
 bricks,
 stating,
 the
 “beauty
 of
 finish
 equals
 anything
 of
 the
 kind
 in
 the
 city,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

223
 Mr.
 Starbuck,
 "Milwaukee
 Brick.,"
 ibid.,
 02
 September
 1852.
 
224
 "The
 Building
 Stones,"
 The
 New
 York
 Times,
 16
 November
 1854.
 
225
 Appletons'
 Journal:
 A
 Magazine
 of
 General
 Literature,
 Volume
 2
 
Library
 of
 American
 civilization
 
Publisher
  D.
 Appleton,
 1869,
 p
 393
 
226
 "Milwaukie
 Brick,"
 Cleveland
 Daily
 Herald,
 03
 October
 1853.
 
227
 "Milwaukee
 Brick,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 24
 July
 1852.
 
  102
 

 
Figure
 3.25:
 New
 York
 Institute
 for
 the
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb
 in
 1856228
 
 
while
 the
 soft,
 subdued
 color
 of
 the
 material
 imparts
 an
 appearance
 which
 is
 in
 pleasing
 
contrast
 to
 those
 built
 of
 the
 sickly
 [emphasis
 original]
 red
 brick
 of
 this
 city.”229
 
 
  An
 example
 of
 a
 later
 prominent
 New
 York
 City
 building
 constructed
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
was
 the
 James
 W.
 Wilson
 designed,
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 style,
 Manhattan
 Criminal
 Courts
 Building
 
(1894).
 The
 six-­‐story
 structure
 has
 a
 granite-­‐faced
 basement
 level
 with
 Milwaukee
 brick
 above
 
and
 brownstone
 and
 terracotta
 trim.
 It
 has
 heavily
 ornamented
 pediments
 and
 numerous
 
round-­‐arched
 and
 flat-­‐arched
 windows.
 
 
  An
 example
 outside
 of
 New
 York
 City
 was
 found
 in
 Utica,
 New
 York.
 The
 Utica
 City
 Hall
 
was
 an
 Italianate
 building
 designed
 by
 Richard
 Upjohn
 and
 constructed
 in
 1853-­‐54.
 The
 building
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

228
 New
 York
 Institution
 for
 the
 Instruction
 of
 the
 Deaf
 &
 Dumb,
 
 (New
 York,
 NY:
 The
 Fanwood
 
Press,
 1918).
 
229
 "A
 Letter
 From
 Buffalo,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 16
 January
 1860.
 
  103
 

 
Figure
 3.26:
 Levi
 Leiter
 Mansion
 during
 construction
 in
 1893230
 
 
had
 a
 five-­‐story
 corner
 tower
 with
 a
 four-­‐faced
 clock
 and
 upper
 triple-­‐arched
 arcade.
 The
 rest
 
of
 the
 brick
 exterior
 consisted
 of
 arched
 windows,
 brick
 belt
 courses,
 and
 overhanging
 eaves.
 
The
 building
 was
 demolished
 in
 1968.231
 
  Other
 examples
 located
 include
 The
 Orchard,
 a
 house
 designed
 in
 1873
 for
 Col.
 George
 
Fearing
 of
 Newport,
 Rhode
 Island,
 by
 George
 Champlin
 Mason
 &
 Son.
 At
 the
 time
 of
 its
 
completion,
 the
 local
 press
 noted
 that
 the
 mansion
 was
 “the
 only
 new
 house
 in
 the
 city
 built
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick.”232
 The
 Chandler
 House
 (1890)
 was
 the
 first
 to
 introduce
 Milwaukee
 brick
 to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

230
 "What
 Once
 Was,"
 TheInTowner,
 accessed
 15
 February,
 2015,
 
 
http://intowner.com/2013/09/18/parvenus-­‐and-­‐buccaneers-­‐the-­‐leiters-­‐of-­‐dupont-­‐circle/.
 
231
 "Landmarks,"
 Oneida
 County
 Historical
 Society,
 accessed
 15
 January,
 2015,
 
 
http://www.oneidacountyhistory.org/landmarks/landmarks.asp.
 
232
 James
 L.
 Yarnall,
 Newport
 Through
 Its
 Architecture:
 A
 History
 of
 Styles
 From
 Postmedieval
 to
 
Postmodern
 (Newport,
 RI:
 Salve
 Regina
 University
 Press,
 2005),
 124.
 
  104
 

the
 Nation’s
 capital.
 A
 writer
 for
 the
 New
 York
 Sun
 wrote,
 “the
 effect
 of
 an
 immense
 house
 built
 
of
 this
 material
 in
 the
 midst
 of
 the
 piles
 of
 red
 brick
 which
 abound
 on
 K
 and
 Sixteenth
 Streets
 
will
 no
 doubt
 be
 quite
 startling.”233
 The
 Levi
 Leiter
 Mansion
 (1893)
 in
 Washington,
 D.C.,
 a
 grand
 
Beaux-­‐Arts
 mansion,
 was
 faced
 with
 150,000
 selected
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 
 Upon
 completion,
 a
 
report
 called
 it
 out
 as
 being
 one
 of
 the
 most
 beautiful
 houses
 in
 the
 city.
 234
 The
 Frank
 Smith
 
House
 (1893)
 in
 Wayne,
 Pennsylvania
 had
 a
 Queen
 Anne
 style
 that
 mixed
 gray-­‐blue
 stone
 with
 
yellow
 shingles,
 green
 trim,
 and
 Milwaukee
 brick.235
 An
 1892
 article
 on
 the
 brick
 industry
 noted
 
that
 it
 had
 found
 a
 market
 in
 New
 Orleans,
 Connecticut,
 and
 Dakota
 but
 that
 as
 much
 as
 ninety
 
percent
 was
 used
 locally.236
 
  Milwaukee’s
 famed
 brick
 also
 made
 it
 to
 overseas
 markets.
 In
 June
 1859,
 the
 M.S.
 Scott
 
left
 port
 in
 Milwaukee
 bound
 for
 Hamburg,
 Germany.
 Among
 the
 cargo
 items
 being
 sent
 to
 the
 
Mayor
 of
 Hamburg
 were
 samples
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 best
 products
 including
 lager
 beer
 and
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 from
 the
 Burnham
 yards.237
 It
 is
 unclear
 if
 or
 when
 other
 shipments
 of
 brick
 
were
 sent
 overseas,
 however
 various
 sources
 mention
 the
 use
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 in
 German
 
cathedrals
 and
 other
 European
 buildings.238
 
  All
 of
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 usage,
 both
 within
 Wisconsin
 and
 abroad,
 helped
 to
 spread
 
the
 glowing
 reputation
 for
 both
 the
 brick
 and
 the
 city
 that
 produced
 it.
 As
 Milwaukee
 grew,
 
descriptions
 of
 the
 city’s
 bright
 appearance
 spread
 throughout
 the
 country.
 By
 the
 late-­‐1840s
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

233
 "Mrs.
 Chandler's
 New
 Home,"
 Daily
 Inter
 Ocean,
 05
 June
 1890.
 
234
 "Leiter
 House,"
 San
 Francisco
 Call,
 05
 March
 1893.
 
235
 "A
 Residence
 at
 Wayne,
 Delaware
 Co.,
 PA,"
 Scientific
 American
 -­‐
 Architects
 and
 Builders
 
Edition
 1893,
 46.
 
236
 "A
 Year's
 Business,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 02
 January
 1889,
 6.
 
237
 "The
 City.
 Sailing
 of
 the
 M.S.
 Scott
 for
 Hamburg,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 03
 June
 1859.
 
238
 Jakubovich,
 As
 Good
 As
 New:
 A
 Guide
 to
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 Milwaukee
 
House,
 73.
 
  105
 

Milwaukee
 was
 already
 known
 as
 the
 “City
 of
 Bricks,”
 and
 later
 by
 a
 number
 of
 other
 brick
 
related
 names
 such
 as
 “Cream
 City
 by
 the
 Lakes.”
 The
 next
 chapter
 examines
 the
 ways
 that
 
brick
 helped
 to
 bring
 national
 attention
 to
 Milwaukee
 and
 produce
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 city
 in
 the
 
nineteenth
 century.
 
 
 
 
  106
 

 
 
CHAPTER
 4:
 THE
 LEGACY
 OF
 CREAM
 CITY
 BRICK
 

  Milwaukee
 brick
 provided
 the
 city
 with
 more
 than
 just
 a
 material
 to
 be
 used
 in
 the
 
construction
 of
 houses
 and
 businesses.
 The
 brick
 supplied
 the
 city
 with
 its
 first,
 and
 in
 many
 
ways
 most
 lasting,
 identity.
 Long
 before
 the
 German
 lager
 began
 flowing,
 the
 city
 shipped
 off
 
record
 wheat
 harvests,
 or
 the
 industrial
 centers
 were
 churning
 out
 manufactured
 goods,
 the
 
cream-­‐colored
 brick
 brought
 renown
 to
 the
 city.
 The
 brick
 piqued
 the
 interest
 of
 those
 who
 
both
 visited
 and
 resided
 in
 the
 city
 and
 brought
 notice
 to
 it.
 Already
 by
 the
 time
 Milwaukee
 
incorporated
 in
 1846,
 the
 city’s
 reputation
 as
 the
 “city
 of
 bricks”
 was
 being
 noticed.
 The
 
ubiquitous
 cream-­‐brick
 earned
 the
 city
 titles
 such
 as
 the
 “Fair
 City
 of
 the
 West,”
 ”Cream
 White
 
City
 of
 the
 Unsalted
 Seas,”
 and
 “Cream
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes.”
 By
 the
 1860s
 Milwaukee
 settled
 upon
 
its
 most
 recognized
 moniker
 as
 the
 “Cream
 City.”
 Numerous
 social
 groups
 and
 businesses
 
branded
 themselves
 with
 the
 Cream
 City
 name,
 firmly
 associating
 themselves
 with
 the
 city
 of
 
Milwaukee.
 
  This
 chapter
 examines
 the
 ways
 Milwaukee’s
 identity
 was
 tied
 to
 its
 brick.
 This
 story
 is
 
largely
 told
 through
 firsthand
 accounts
 written
 for
 nineteenth
 century
 newspapers,
 magazines,
 
and
 travel
 accounts.
 Milwaukee’s
 newspapers,
 in
 particular,
 often
 reprinted
 articles
 recounting
 
visitors’
 experiences
 and
 impressions
 of
 Milwaukee.
 These
 provide
 a
 practical
 account
 of
 the
 
prevailing
 view
 of
 how
 Milwaukee
 was
 seen
 nationally.
 No
 matter
 how
 brief,
 these
 articles
 
invariably
 describe
 the
 color
 or
 use
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick.
 The
 writing
 at
 times
 is
 self-­‐aggrandizing
 
or
 self-­‐promoting,
 but
 it
 nonetheless
 reveals
 how
 the
 city
 promoted
 itself
 and
 how
 others
 
  107
 

observed
 it.
 The
 first
 part
 of
 this
 chapter
 is
 divided
 into
 two
 distinct,
 yet
 connected,
 narratives
 
tying
 Milwaukee’s
 identity
 with
 cream-­‐brick
 –
 the
 reputation
 of
 the
 brick
 itself
 and
 the
 
appearance
 of
 Milwaukee
 because
 its
 of
 cream-­‐brick
 use.
 The
 final
 section
 of
 the
 chapter
 more
 
closely
 examines
 the
 city’s
 most
 lasting
 nickname,
 Cream
 City.
 This
 name
 has
 transcended
 
others
 as
 the
 most
 lasting
 moniker
 for
 the
 city.
 The
 origins
 of
 the
 name
 will
 be
 investigated,
 as
 
will
 the
 ways
 the
 name
 was
 appropriated
 for
 numerous
 other
 purposes,
 becoming
 in
 effect
 the
 
nickname
 for
 Milwaukee.
 
 
 

Milwaukee
 Brick
 
  As
 examined
 in
 the
 previous
 chapters,
 Milwaukee
 brick
 production
 and
 use
 rose
 
markedly
 in
 the
 1840s.
 The
 decade
 provided
 the
 earliest
 accounts
 of
 the
 brick’s
 use
 and
 
budding
 reputation
 abroad.
 By
 the
 end
 of
 the
 1840s,
 the
 brick’s
 use
 was
 so
 noted
 that
 
Milwaukee
 had
 gained
 its
 first
 significant
 nickname
 as
 “the
 city
 of
 brick.”
 This
 section
 tells
 the
 
story
 of
 how
 the
 brick’s
 reputation
 developed
 locally
 and
 abroad.
 Arrival
 of
 the
 brick
 in
 other
 
markets
 was
 often
 accompanied
 with
 excitement
 and
 glowing
 reviews
 of
 the
 product.
 At
 a
 time
 
when
 the
 city
 was
 just
 developing
 and
 little
 else
 was
 known
 of
 the
 small
 town
 along
 the
 shores
 
of
 Lake
 Michigan,
 these
 mentions
 helped
 to
 spread
 the
 name
 of
 the
 city
 throughout
 the
 United
 
States.
 The
 larger
 context
 of
 how
 Milwaukee
 itself
 was
 viewed
 in
 light
 of
 the
 brick
 will
 be
 
examined
 in
 detail
 in
 the
 next
 section.
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

  108
 

 
 

Figure
 4.1:
 Newspaper
 article
 on
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 typical
 of
 the
 late-­‐1840s239
 
 
  The
 first
 mentions
 about
 the
 qualities
 of
 the
 brick
 appeared
 in
 print
 in
 Milwaukee
 as
 
early
 as
 1845,
 at
 a
 time
 when
 only
 a
 handful
 of
 brick
 buildings
 were
 yet
 constructed.
 Of
 the
 new
 
United
 States
 Hotel,
 the
 Sentinel
 wrote
 it
 would
 be
 “built
 of
 the
 best
 Milwaukie
 brick
 (and
 there
 
is
 no
 better
 anywhere).”240
 Upon
 the
 brick’s
 use
 in
 Chicago,
 the
 Milwaukee
 paper
 noted,
 “the
 
peculiar
 color
 and
 excellent
 texture
 of
 this
 material
 cannot
 fail
 to
 bring
 it
 into
 general
 favor
 
along
 the
 Lake
 shore.”241
 The
 sentiment
 soon
 spread
 beyond
 Milwaukee.
 Further
 west
 in
 
Wisconsin,
 the
 Watertown
 Chronicle
 wrote
 of
 the
 brick
 in
 1847,
 “The
 Milwaukee
 brick
 are
 very
 
deservingly
 winning
 the
 public
 favor
 abroad,
 as
 well
 as
 at
 home.
 
 They
 are
 already
 exported
 in
 
considerable
 numbers
 to
 different
 towns
 on
 the
 lake,
 and
 this
 trade
 must
 increase
 as
 the
 
qualities
 of
 the
 article
 become
 better
 known.”242
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

239
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 19
 May
 1848.
 
240
 "The
 United
 States
 Hotel,"
 Milwaukie
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 20
 October
 1845.
 
241
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 18
 May
 1846.
 
242
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Watertown
 Chronicle,
 07
 July
 1847.
 
  109
 

  Milwaukee’s
 southern
 neighbor
 already
 knew
 of
 their
 qualities
 by
 this
 time.
 Following
 
the
 brick’s
 arrival
 and
 use
 in
 Chicago,
 the
 Prairie
 Farmer
 noted
 in
 1847
 that
 the
 brick
 were
 “by
 
far
 the
 most
 beautiful
 we
 have
 ever
 seen.
 They
 are
 so
 even
 that
 at
 a
 very
 little
 distance
 they
 
seem
 as
 perfect
 as
 if
 made
 in
 a
 cabinet
 shop.
 …
 Their
 color
 is
 a
 uniform
 cream,
 rather
 dark,
 but
 
which
 cannot
 be
 improved
 by
 paint.”243
 It
 is
 of
 note
 to
 point
 out
 that
 rail
 service
 between
 the
 
two
 cities
 did
 not
 exist
 for
 the
 first
 number
 of
 years
 that
 the
 brick
 was
 imported
 there.
 The
 
brick’s
 demand
 was
 such
 that
 that
 they
 were
 sent
 by
 boat
 from
 Milwaukee
 at
 considerable
 
cost.
 
  Chicago
 and
 Milwaukee
 were
 also
 involved
 in
 two
 incidents
 that
 served
 as
 the
 opening
 
volleys
 of
 what
 escalated
 into
 their
 brick
 war
 of
 the
 1890s.
 As
 briefly
 mentioned
 in
 Chapter
 
Three,
 Chicago
 began
 to
 produce
 their
 own
 local
 product
 by
 the
 early
 1850s,
 a
 light
 brick
 that
 
tended
 towards
 pink
 rather
 than
 cream
 or
 yellow.
 When
 the
 Chicago
 Democrat
 reported
 in
 
1852
 that
 the
 brick
 produced
 there
 was
 the
 same
 color
 and
 a
 better
 quality
 than
 Milwaukee
 
brick,
 the
 Milwaukee
 paper
 retorted,
 “they
 certainly
 do
 not
 exceed,
 or
 even
 equal
 [Milwaukee
 
brick]
 in
 quality.”244
 Chicago
 later
 backed
 off
 of
 this
 claim,
 stating,
 “Our
 Milwaukee
 friends,
 it
 
must
 be
 acknowledged,
 are
 great
 on
 brick.
 They
 manufacture
 one
 of
 the
 best
 articles
 in
 the
 
States,
 and
 are
 now
 supplying
 our
 builders
 freely.”245
 That
 same
 year,
 there
 was
 a
 reported
 
“new
 kind
 of
 brick”
 called
 “Chicago
 brick,”
 being
 imported
 heavily
 in
 New
 York.
 The
 news
 article
 
on
 the
 brick
 praised
 their
 beautiful
 cream
 color
 and
 went
 on
 to
 describe
 how
 the
 bricks
 were
 
manufactured
 in
 Milwaukee,
 sent
 to
 Chicago,
 and
 then
 forwarded
 on
 to
 New
 York
 by
 rail.
 It
 is
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

243
 Milwaukie
 Brick,
 vol.
 7,
 Prairie
 Farmer
 
 (Chicago:
 Prarie
 Farmer
 Publishing
 Company,
 1847),
 
231.
 

244
 "Chicago
 Brick
 -­‐
 Important
 Discovery,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 07
 June
 1852.
 
245
 "Milwaukee
 Brick
 -­‐
 Chicago
 Democrat,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 18
 June
 1853.
 
  110
 

unclear
 how
 long
 Chicago
 attempted
 to
 market
 Milwaukee
 brick
 as
 their
 own;
 however,
 as
 the
 
reputation
 of
 proper
 Milwaukee
 brick
 spread,
 it
 is
 unlikely
 they
 could
 have
 kept
 up
 the
 charade
 
for
 long.
 
 
  Other
 early
 praise
 for
 the
 brick
 from
 around
 the
 Midwest
 included
 a
 glowing
 review
 
from
 Cleveland
 in
 1847.
 The
 Cleveland
 paper’s
 account
 of
 the
 “infant
 city
 of
 the
 territory”
 
devoted
 the
 longest
 paragraph
 to
 Milwaukee’s
 famed
 brick.
 In
 part,
 it
 read:
 
 
The
 brick
 made
 at
 Milwaukee
 are
 superior
 to
 any
 other
 in
 the
 West,
 if
 not
 the
 Union,
 
and
 give
 freshness
 of
 appearance
 and
 uniformity
 of
 taste
 to
 every
 part
 of
 the
 city…the
 
contrast
 is
 exceedingly
 favorable
 to
 the
 eye
 which
 has
 been
 accustomed
 to
 the
 garish,
 
fashionable
 red
 of
 most
 cities.
 …
 We
 think
 Clevelanders,
 who
 admire
 really
 fine
 fronts,
 
would
 do
 well
 to
 import
 Milwaukee
 brick
 for
 their
 construction.246
 
 
 
  Those
 Clevelanders
 must
 have
 listened.
 By
 1852,
 the
 Cleveland
 Herald
 wrote
 of
 being
 
“pleased
 to
 note
 that
 [Milwaukee
 brick]
 are
 about
 to
 be
 introduced
 to
 the
 Forest
 City”
 with
 
32,000
 of
 the
 best
 bricks
 arriving
 in
 August
 of
 that
 year.247
 A
 visitor
 from
 Cincinnati
 wrote
 about
 
those
 first
 cream-­‐brick
 buildings
 in
 Cleveland:
 
 
[The
 brick]
 presents
 an
 appearance
 equal
 to
 the
 finest
 marble,
 it
 being
 of
 a
 cream-­‐color,
 
and
 I
 should
 judge,
 more
 capable
 of
 withstanding
 frost
 than
 the
 common
 brick.
 This
 
quality
 of
 brick
 is
 only
 to
 be
 obtained
 at
 Milwaukie,
 and
 although
 the
 cost
 of
 
transportation
 is
 double
 that
 of
 the
 common
 brick,
 it
 is
 greatly
 cheaper
 than
 the
 stone
 
fronts
 would
 be,
 and
 much
 handsomer.248
 
 
 
 

  By
 1860,
 the
 Cleveland
 Morning
 Leader
 noted,
 “Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 Milwaukee
 lager
 
beer
 enjoy
 a
 broad
 fame
 –
 the
 only
 difficulty
 being
 that
 many
 of
 the
 citizens
 from
 too
 freely
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

246
 "Editorial
 Correspondence,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 22
 July
 1847.
 
247
 "Milwaukie
 Brick,"
 Cleveland
 Herald,
 03
 February
 1852.
 
248
 "Dr.
 Palte's
 Block—College,"
 Cleveland
 Herald,
 28
 August
 1852.
 
  111
 

imbibing
 of
 the
 latter
 fall
 into
 the
 singular
 habit
 of
 carrying
 several
 of
 the
 latter
 in
 their
 hats
 
[emphasis
 original].
 This
 is
 probably
 owning
 to
 the
 ‘force
 of
 circumstances.’”249
 
 
 
 

 
Figure
 4.2:
 Newspaper
 article
 describing
 Milwaukee
 brick
 on
 display
 in
 Albany,
 New
 York250
 
 
 

  Knowledge
 of
 the
 brick
 had
 already
 spread
 back
 East
 before
 the
 close
 of
 the
 1840s.
 In
 
1847,
 an
 editor
 of
 the
 Albany
 Journal
 in
 New
 York
 kept
 a
 Milwaukee
 brick
 on
 his
 desk
 to
 display
 
to
 curious
 visitors.251
 This
 prompted
 the
 Sentinel
 in
 Milwaukee
 to
 speculate
 that
 numerous
 
orders
 from
 Albany
 would
 be
 forthcoming.
 The
 brick
 had
 already
 been
 used
 in
 a
 number
 of
 
buildings
 in
 the
 East
 by
 the
 time
 the
 New
 York
 Times
 reported
 about,
 “How
 Milwaukee
 Grows,”
 
in
 1855.
 They
 wrote,
 “Milwaukee
 brick
 (much
 used
 in
 the
 East,
 and
 somewhat
 so
 here
 in
 New
 
York,
 for
 public
 buildings,)
 is
 a
 large
 business
 –
 upwards
 of
 three
 millions
 and
 a
 half
 having
 been
 
exported
 last
 year.
 And
 this
 is
 a
 story
 that
 shows
 better
 every
 year.”252
 The
 fact
 that
 many
 
Easterners
 were
 accustomed
 to
 red
 brick
 used
 for
 houses
 and
 businesses
 may
 have
 led
 to
 some
 
of
 the
 early
 notoriety
 for
 the
 product.
 The
 cream
 bricks
 were
 so
 unusual
 that
 their
 appearance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

249
 "Wisconsin
 Correspondence,"
 Cleveland
 Morning
 Leader,
 18
 August
 1860.
 
250
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Daily
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 11
 August
 1847.
 
251
 Ibid.
 
252
 "How
 Milwaukee
 Grows,"
 New
 York
 Daily
 Times,
 14
 April
 1855.
 
  112
 

often
 elicited
 comment.
 This
 could
 help
 explain
 the
 vast
 number
 of
 articles
 written
 specifically
 
about
 the
 “unusual”
 brick
 in
 the
 earliest
 days
 of
 its
 use.253
 
  Another
 case
 of
 imposter
 Milwaukee
 brick
 appeared
 in
 New
 York
 in
 the
 1850s.
 In
 
anticipation
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 being
 sent
 to
 New
 York
 for
 use
 in
 the
 Deaf
 and
 Dumb
 Asylum
 in
 
1853,
 the
 New
 York
 Evening
 Mirror
 wrote
 of
 excitement
 for
 arrival
 of
 “the
 handsomest
 and
 the
 
best
 article
 of
 this
 kind
 in
 the
 universe.”
 But,
 the
 paper
 wanted
 real
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 “and
 not
 
such
 wretched
 libels
 upon
 their
 beautiful,
 clear
 and
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 as
 may
 be
 seen
 in
 the
 
Trinity
 Buildings
 –
 brick
 which
 never
 came
 from
 Milwaukee
 any
 more
 than
 we
 came
 from
 the
 
moon.”254
 The
 Milwaukee
 papers
 later
 wrote
 that
 the
 offending
 products
 were
 Buffalo
 made
 
and
 sold
 as
 Milwaukee
 brick.255
 
 
  In
 addition
 to
 the
 praise
 from
 abroad,
 Milwaukee
 remained
 innately
 proud
 of
 their
 
famed
 export.
 The
 first
 full-­‐length
 history
 of
 Milwaukee,
 The
 Chronicles
 of
 Milwaukee,
 appeared
 
in
 1861.
 In
 it
 a
 section
 was
 dedicated
 to
 Milwaukee’s
 brick,
 stating,
 “Milwaukee
 has
 long
 been
 
celebrated
 for
 the
 beauty
 and
 superiority
 of
 its
 bricks,
 which
 are
 of
 a
 light
 cream
 or
 buff
 color,
 
admirably
 adapted
 to
 the
 ornate
 modern
 architecture
 of
 cities,
 as
 being
 more
 pleasing
 to
 the
 
eye
 and
 in
 reality
 more
 durable
 than
 the
 red
 bricks
 of
 the
 eastern
 kilns.”
 He
 concluded,
 “The
 
esteem
 in
 which
 Milwaukee
 bricks
 are
 held,
 is
 evident
 from
 the
 fact
 that
 orders
 from
 New
 York
 
and
 other
 eastern
 cities,
 as
 well
 as
 Chicago,
 have
 been
 filled
 here
 since
 the
 opening
 of
 the
 
works,
 and
 several
 of
 the
 finest
 buildings
 in
 New
 York
 and
 other
 cities
 are
 constructed
 of
 this
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

253
 "A
 Year's
 Business,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 02
 January
 1889,
 6.
 
254
 "Milwaukee
 Brick,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 14
 September
 1853.
 
255
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 19
 June
 1854.
 
  113
 

material.
 Indeed,
 we
 believe,
 in
 one
 or
 two
 instances
 Milwaukee
 bricks
 have
 been
 sent
 to
 
Europe.”256
 
 
  That
 same
 year,
 the
 Wisconsin
 Farmer
 and
 Northwestern
 Cultivator
 reported
 on
 the
 
state
 of
 brick-­‐making
 in
 Milwaukee,
 noting
 “The
 manufacture
 of
 Brick
 is
 carried
 on
 to
 a
 greater
 
extent,
 probably,
 than
 in
 any
 other
 city
 in
 the
 whole
 county.
 …
 When
 finished
 they
 have
 a
 
peculiar
 creamy
 tint,
 almost
 inimitable
 by
 paint,
 which
 has
 won
 for
 Milwaukee
 the
 title
 of
 ‘Fair
 
White
 City,’
 and
 even
 secured
 their
 importation
 at
 a
 large
 cost
 for
 transportation,
 into
 several
 
cities
 East
 and
 West.”257
 
  The
 brick
 was
 also
 known
 in
 the
 Far
 West
 and
 able
 to
 be
 sent
 there
 after
 completion
 of
 
the
 transcontinental
 railroads.
 In
 1874,
 the
 San
 Francisco
 Daily
 Evening
 Bulletin
 wrote
 of
 the
 
demand
 for
 brick
 and
 a
 need
 to
 import
 brick.
 They
 wondered
 if
 it
 would
 not
 pay
 to
 import
 
Milwaukee
 brick,
 which
 were
 “very
 fine
 looking,
 and
 eminently
 adapted
 to
 this
 dusty
 city.”258
 In
 
1880,
 a
 visitor
 from
 San
 Francisco
 wrote
 of
 visiting
 Milwaukee
 to
 try
 the
 beer
 and
 see
 the
 brick,
 
the
 latter
 of
 which
 he
 pointed
 out
 were
 the
 best
 in
 the
 world.
 Because
 of
 the
 brick,
 “the
 
architecture
 of
 the
 city
 is
 grand
 and
 imposing;
 and,
 viewed
 from
 almost
 any
 near
 point
 of
 
approach,
 is
 attractive,”259
 The
 San
 Francisco
 Morning
 Call
 reported
 on
 a
 mansion
 faced
 with
 
Milwaukee
 brick,
 noting,
 “The
 effect
 of
 these
 bricks
 is
 that
 of
 marble,
 or
 rather
 of
 a
 delicate
 
Ivory,
 and
 the
 house
 is
 more
 beautiful
 than
 any
 marble
 palace
 [the
 reporter
 had]
 ever
 seen.”260
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

256
 Andrew
 Carpenter
 Wheeler,
 The
 Chronicles
 of
 Milwaukee
 (Milwaukee:
 Jermain
 &
 Brightman,
 
1861),
 296-­‐97.
 

257
 The
 Wisconsin
 Farmer,
 and
 North-­‐Western
 Cultivator,
 vol.
 8
 (Madison,
 WI:
 J.W.
 Hoyt
 &
 Co.,
 
1861),
 234.
 

258
 "Merchandise
 Market,"
 San
 Francisco
 Daily
 Evening
 Bulletin,
 04
 November
 1874.
 
259
 "A
 Thrifty
 Western
 City,"
 San
 Francisco
 Evening
 Bulletin,
 13
 October
 1880.
 
260
 San
 Francisco
 Call,
 Volume
 73,
 Number
 95,
 5
 March
 1893
 
  114
 

  As
 the
 brick
 became
 in
 common
 use
 throughout
 the
 states,
 some
 commentators
 viewed
 
its
 use
 as
 a
 prerequisite
 for
 becoming
 a
 “proper
 city.”
 After
 visiting
 Springfield,
 Illinois,
 one
 
reporter
 noted
 that
 the
 “principal
 deficiency”
 observed
 in
 the
 town
 was
 “the
 absence
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 for
 private
 residences,”
 with
 residents
 of
 the
 town
 declaring
 that
 obtaining
 the
 
brick
 was
 “essential
 to
 a
 well
 conducted
 city.”261
 
  In
 one
 of
 the
 more
 interesting
 anecdotes,
 thinking
 of
 the
 brick
 as
 the
 backbones
 of
 the
 
city
 is
 not
 an
 entirely
 unfounded
 thought.
 One
 of
 the
 city’s
 earliest
 cemeteries
 was
 located
 on
 
land
 George
 Burnham
 later
 purchased
 for
 a
 brickyard
 on
 the
 south
 side
 of
 the
 Menomonee
 
Valley.262
 While
 many
 of
 the
 bodies
 were
 later
 moved
 to
 Forest
 Home
 Cemetery,
 it
 appears
 not
 
all
 of
 them
 made
 the
 journey.
 An
 1881
 article
 in
 the
 Sentinel
 noted,
 “George
 Burnham’s
 brick-­‐
makers
 were
 again
 exhuming
 bones
 in
 the
 old
 cemetery
 grounds
 they
 are
 now
 converting
 into
 
building
 material.
 The
 have
 doubtless
 ground,
 and
 baked
 the
 dust
 of
 many
 of
 the
 pioneer
 
citizens
 who
 were
 laid
 to
 rest
 in
 that
 cemetery.”263
 This
 was
 confirmed
 a
 few
 years
 later,
 when
 
a
 well-­‐known
 builder
 in
 Milwaukee
 came
 out
 in
 the
 paper
 saying,
 “Many
 of
 the
 bricks
 in
 some
 
of
 the
 finest
 buildings
 in
 the
 city
 are
 partly
 composed
 of
 human
 bones.
 …
 I
 have
 actually
 seen
 
small
 pieces
 of
 bone
 pressed
 into
 these
 bricks.”264
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

261
 "From
 Illinois,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 07
 July
 1871.
 
262
 James
 S.
 Buck,
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 the
 First
 American
 Settlement
 in
 1833,
 to
 
1841,
 Revised
 Edition
 (Milwaukee:
 Swain
 &
 Tate,
 1890),
 87.
 
263
 "Local
 Brevities,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 28
 July
 1881.
 
264
 "Bones
 in
 Bricks,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 20
 June
 1886.
 
  115
 

Milwaukee
 to
 a
 Stranger
 
  It
 was
 not
 just
 the
 brick
 that
 was
 gaining
 praise
 throughout
 the
 country.
 As
 the
 Midwest
 
and
 later
 the
 West
 were
 opened
 up
 through
 settlement
 and
 the
 establishment
 of
 railroads,
 
visitors
 from
 throughout
 the
 country
 traveled
 to
 or
 through
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 
century.
 Among
 these
 visitors
 were
 correspondents
 for
 newspapers,
 who
 provided
 accounts
 of
 
their
 travels
 and
 experiences
 for
 the
 readers
 back
 home.
 Many
 of
 these
 accounts
 were
 
reprinted
 in
 the
 Milwaukee
 papers,
 providing
 an
 account
 of
 how
 the
 city
 was
 viewed
 by
 
outsiders.
 
 These
 accounts
 are
 often
 full
 of
 praise
 for
 the
 “city
 of
 bricks”
 and
 describe
 how
 the
 
light
 appearance
 of
 the
 brick
 produces
 a
 clean
 and
 healthy
 looking
 city.
 It
 is
 interesting
 to
 note
 
just
 how
 quickly
 Milwaukee
 became
 associated
 with
 brick
 and
 how
 quickly
 this
 association
 
provided
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 city.
 
 
 In
 an
 apt
 preview
 of
 things
 to
 come,
 the
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel
 as
 early
 as
 1845
 
described
 the
 brick,
 noting
 “the
 richness
 of
 color,
 durability
 and
 the
 neatness
 of
 manufacture
 
elicits
 the
 admiration
 of
 all
 visitors.”265
 This
 was
 certainly
 true
 of
 a
 visitor
 from
 Watertown,
 
some
 fifty
 miles
 to
 the
 west
 of
 Milwaukee,
 who
 visited
 in
 1848.
 In
 the
 Watertown
 Chronicle,
 he
 
wrote
 of
 Milwaukee,
 “For
 a
 city
 of
 her
 age,
 Milwaukee
 contains
 more
 handsome
 and
 
substantial
 buildings
 than
 any
 in
 the
 country.
 The
 ‘city
 of
 brick,’
 brick
 is
 making
 the
 city.
 In
 every
 
direction
 in
 which
 the
 eye
 is
 turned,
 scarcely
 any
 thing
 is
 to
 be
 seen
 save
 brick
 piled
 upon
 brick,
 
while
 under
 foot
 there
 is
 ‘nothing
 else’
 than
 brick.”266
 
  This
 sentiment
 was
 excelled
 in
 an
 account
 of
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 1840s
 found
 in
 the
 
Wisconsin
 State
 Archives
 and
 later
 reprinted
 in
 The
 Clay
 Worker.
 The
 article
 provides
 a
 striking
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

265
 "The
 Nebraska
 House,"
 Milwaukie
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 06
 August
 1845.
 
266
 Watertown
 Chronicle,
 "Milwaukee,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 29
 December
 1848.
 
  116
 

account
 of
 just
 how
 prevalent
 the
 brick
 was
 and
 how
 brick
 provided
 a
 hearty
 discussion
 in
 the
 
town:
 
We
 were
 much
 surprised,
 also
 pleased,
 to
 see
 many
 thousands
 of
 these
 articles
 of
 every
 
size,
 shape
 and
 dimension
 laying
 in
 piles
 at
 every
 corner
 ready
 to
 “go
 up,”
 and
 
stretching
 their
 slow
 length
 by
 what
 are
 to
 be
 sidewalks,
 ready
 to
 “go
 down.”
 There
 are
 
carts
 and
 wagons
 labeled
 “brick,”
 which
 haul
 brick
 and
 nothing
 but
 brick.
 Men
 who
 have
 
nothing
 to
 do
 or
 say
 about
 brick
 are
 not
 to
 be
 found
 in
 the
 Queen
 City.
 Do
 you
 see
 two
 
or
 more
 men
 or
 boys,
 women
 or
 girls
 engaged
 in
 conversation
 –
 the
 subject
 is
 “brick.”
 If
 
anybody
 is
 trading,
 buying
 or
 selling,
 the
 commodity
 is
 “brick.”
 Go
 where
 you
 will,
 you
 
see
 nothing,
 hear
 nothing,
 feel
 nothing
 but
 “brick,
 “brick,”
 “brick.”267
 
 
 

 
 

Figure
 4.3:
 Milwaukee
 in
 the
 late
 1860s,
 when
 older
 wooden-­‐framed
 
 
structures
 were
 being
 replaced
 with
 brick
 buildings268
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

267
 The
 Clay-­‐Worker,
 vol.
 68
 (Indianapolis:
 T.A.
 Randall
 &
 Co.,
 1917),
 529.
 
268
 "Yesterday’s
 Milwaukee,
 Market
 Square,
 Late
 1860s,"
 Urban
 Milwaukee,
 accessed
 17
 
February,
 2015,
 
 http://urbanmilwaukee.com/2014/11/19/yesterdays-­‐milwaukee-­‐market-­‐
square-­‐late-­‐1860s/.
 
  117
 

  A
 common
 topic
 of
 conversation
 with
 regards
 to
 Milwaukee
 was
 the
 light
 and
 clean
 
appearance
 of
 the
 city,
 on
 account
 of
 their
 brick
 architecture.
 The
 Chicago
 Tribune
 wrote
 in
 
1848
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 buildings
 being
 in
 fashion
 there,
 with
 their
 “Quaker
 hue”
 very
 
becoming,
 “we
 almost
 wish
 we
 had
 an
 interest
 in
 a
 Milwaukee
 brick-­‐yard,”
 the
 review
 
concluded.269
 Captain
 Willard
 Glazer
 echoed
 this
 thought
 nearly
 forty
 years
 later
 in
 his
 1886
 
book,
 Peculiarities
 of
 American
 Cities.
 In
 the
 chapter
 on
 Milwaukee,
 he
 wrote
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 
nickname
 as
 the
 “Cream
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes,”
 and
 added,
 “[The
 brick]
 gives
 to
 the
 streets
 a
 
peculiar
 light
 and
 cheerful
 aspect.
 The
 whole
 architectural
 appearance
 of
 the
 city
 is
 one
 of
 
primness
 rather
 than
 of
 grandeur,
 which
 might
 not
 inappropriately
 suggest
 for
 it
 the
 name
 of
 
the
 “Quaker
 City
 of
 the
 West.’”270
 
  There
 appeared
 a
 marked
 difference
 in
 the
 Milwaukee
 of
 old
 and
 the
 new,
 brick-­‐laden
 
town.
 Having
 not
 been
 to
 Milwaukee
 since
 1836,
 surveyor
 and
 editor
 J.
 Ambrose
 Wright
 wrote
 
in
 1849
 about
 the
 differences
 he
 observed.
 
 The
 early
 Milwaukee,
 he
 noted,
 was
 filled
 with
 
“sundry
 half-­‐finished
 buildings”
 and
 “very
 dirty
 and
 whiskey
 perfumed
 taverns,”
 while
 the
 
Milwaukee
 of
 1849
 he
 called
 “a
 finer
 place
 to
 look
 at
 than
 our
 own
 metropolis
 [Chicago].”271
 He
 
went
 on,
 “Milwaukie
 presents
 a
 fine
 appearance
 as
 a
 new
 town,
 from
 the
 fact
 that
 so
 many
 of
 
her
 buildings
 are
 constructed
 of
 brick.
 These
 have
 been
 often
 described.
 They
 are
 of
 a
 dull
 drab
 
color,
 very
 hard
 and
 perfect
 in
 make,
 and
 have
 a
 softened
 and
 soothing
 effect
 to
 the
 eye.
 That
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

269
 "Multiple
 News
 Items."
 
270
 Willard
 W.
 Glazier,
 Peculiarities
 of
 American
 Cities
 (Philadelphia:
 Hubbard
 Bros.,
 1886),
 225.
 
271
 Bayrd
 Still,
 "Milwaukee
 in
 1836
 and
 1849:
 A
 Contemporary
 Description,"
 The
 Wisconsin
 
Magazine
 of
 History
 53,
 no.
 4
 (1970):
 295.
 
  118
 

fierce,
 fiery
 glare,
 enough
 to
 give
 the
 beholder
 a
 fever
 in
 a
 hot
 day,
 common
 to
 brick
 buildings,
 
is
 wanting.”272
 
  The
 praise
 for
 the
 appearance
 of
 the
 city
 continued
 on,
 often
 with
 similar
 compliments.
 
The
 1852
 article,
 “Milwaukee
 as
 Judged
 by
 a
 Stranger,”
 said
 of
 the
 city,
 “One
 of
 the
 most
 
striking
 features
 in
 the
 appearance
 of
 Milwaukee
 is
 the
 color
 of
 the
 brick.
 All
 the
 buildings
 of
 
this
 material
 are
 of
 a
 light
 yellow
 or
 cream
 color,
 which
 gives
 the
 streets
 a
 cheerful
 aspect,
 quite
 
different
 and
 far
 more
 pleasing
 to
 the
 eye
 than
 the
 red
 brick
 so
 common
 in
 other
 cities.”273
 The
 
Detroit
 Advertiser
 agreed
 in
 1853,
 writing,
 “The
 fine
 cream
 colored
 brick
 so
 extensively
 
manufactured
 here
 give
 to
 the
 structures
 built
 with
 them
 an
 appearance
 of
 cleanliness
 and
 
solidity
 that
 no
 traveler
 can
 fail
 to
 admire.”274
 
  This
 thought
 continued
 to
 prevail
 as
 the
 city
 continued
 to
 build
 with
 their
 cream-­‐brick.
 
The
 Sheboygan
 Chronicle
 in
 1853
 introduced
 the
 city
 to
 readers
 who
 may
 not
 have
 ever
 been
 
there,
 “The
 general
 appearance
 of
 Milwaukee
 is
 quite
 prepossessing.
 The
 buildings,
 both
 public
 
and
 private,
 are
 built
 of
 that
 beautiful
 cream
 colored
 brick,
 which
 in
 our
 own
 ‘Gotham’
 are
 so
 
highly
 prized
 both
 for
 their
 beauty
 and
 their
 superior
 quality.”275
 In
 1856,
 a
 visitor
 from
 Buffalo,
 
New
 York
 described
 the
 “substantial
 beauty”
 of
 Milwaukee,
 adding,
 “Her
 cream-­‐colored
 brick,
 
the
 envy
 of
 the
 world,
 give
 her
 a
 unique
 and
 very
 attractive
 appearance.”276
 Frank
 Leslie’s
 
Illustrated
 Newspaper,
 based
 in
 New
 York
 City,
 did
 a
 feature
 on
 Milwaukee
 in
 1856.
 The
 paper
 
noted
 how
 the
 city
 had
 been
 “poetically
 baptized
 the
 Fair
 White
 City”
 because
 of
 the
 brick,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

272
 Ibid.,
 295-­‐96.
 
273
 "Milwaukee
 as
 Judged
 By
 a
 Stranger,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 15
 September
 1852.
 
274
 Correspondence
 of
 the
 Detroit
 Advertiser,
 "Milwaukee
 to
 a
 Stranger,"
 ibid.,
 15
 March
 1853.
 
275
 "Milwaukee
 to
 a
 Stranger.,"
 ibid.,
 13
 December.
 
276
 "Milwaukee,
 by
 a
 Stranger,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 18
 August
 1856.
 
  119
 

 
 

Figure
 4.4:
 Downtown
 Milwaukee
 circa
 1867
 showing
 numerous
 
 
Cream
 City
 brick
 commercial
 buildings277
 
 
adding,
 “Built
 of
 a
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 (for
 which
 Milwaukee
 has
 attained
 so
 great
 a
 celebrity),
 
and
 containing
 for
 so
 young
 a
 city
 a
 marvelous
 number
 of
 fine
 buildings,
 it
 is
 not
 at
 all
 surprising
 
that
 its
 attractiveness
 impresses
 a
 stranger
 favorably.”278
 A
 traveler
 from
 St.
 Louis
 wrote
 of
 his
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

277
 "Sherman’s
 Photographic
 Gallery,
 1867,"
 Urban
 Milwaukee,
 accessed
 17
 February,
 2015,
 
http://urbanmilwaukee.com/2014/05/20/yesterdays-­‐milwaukee-­‐shermans-­‐photographic-­‐
gallery-­‐1867/
 
278
 "Milwaukee,
 Queen
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes,"
 Frank
 Leslie's
 Illustrated
 Newspaper
 21
 May
 1859.
 
  120
 

time
 there,
 “It
 is
 a
 beautiful
 city.
 ...
 It
 is
 built
 principally
 of
 the
 well-­‐known
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 
cream
 colored.
 A
 traveler
 for
 pleasure
 may
 well
 spend
 a
 few
 days
 there.”279
 
 
  Milwaukee
 had
 in
 fact
 become
 a
 well-­‐known
 destination
 and
 would
 remain
 so
 through
 
the
 end
 of
 the
 century.
 Many
 wealthy
 Chicagoans
 summered
 “up
 north,”
 while
 the
 mineral
 
springs
 in
 Waukesha,
 just
 to
 the
 west
 of
 Milwaukee,
 also
 attracted
 numerous
 visitors
 to
 the
 
area.
 An
 1873
 pamphlet,
 Guide
 to
 Summer
 Resorts
 in
 Wisconsin,
 Minnesota,
 Michigan,
 wrote
 of
 
vacationing
 in
 Milwaukee:
 
  The
 stranger
 who
 visits
 Milwaukee
 is
 at
 once
 struck
 by
 its
 neat
 and
 clean
 appearance.
 
  This
 is
 due
 to
 the
 care
 taken
 in
 keeping
 the
 streets
 in
 excellent
 order
 but
 largely,
 also,
 to
 
  the
 cream-­‐colored
 brick,
 widely
 known
 as
 “Milwaukee
 brick,”
 of
 which
 the
 buildings
 are
 
  almost
 exclusively
 constructed.
 These
 facts
 together
 with
 the
 width
 of
 the
 streets,
 give
 
  the
 place
 a
 most
 charming
 and
 delightful
 look,
 affording
 a
 pleasing
 variation
 to
 the
 
  monotonous
 rows
 of
 glaring
 red
 bricks
 met
 with
 in
 the
 large
 eastern
 cities.280
 
 
 
  Construction
 with
 Milwaukee
 brick
 was
 so
 common
 and
 desired
 that
 buildings
 
constructed
 of
 other
 materials
 became
 a
 topic
 for
 public
 discourse
 in
 the
 city.
 In
 1869,
 a
 new
 
courthouse
 faced
 with
 stone
 was
 proposed,
 which
 prompted
 an
 immediate
 backlash.
 
Prominent
 businessman
 and
 politician,
 Edward
 D.
 Holton,
 wrote
 of
 being
 appalled
 that
 a
 
building
 not
 built
 of
 cream-­‐brick
 was
 being
 erected.
 “I
 beg
 to
 take
 this
 opportunity
 to
 enter
 my
 
protest
 as
 one
 tax-­‐payer
 to
 having
 any
 public
 building
 built
 in
 the
 city
 and
 county
 from
 any
 
other
 material
 than
 that
 which
 the
 Beneficent
 Creator
 has
 given
 us
 at
 our
 door
 in
 such
 
profusion
 and
 excellence.
 …
 Dr.
 Lapham*
 demonstrated,
 twenty
 years
 ago,
 that
 the
 Milwaukee
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

*
 Increase
 A.
 Lapham
 was
 one
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 earliest
 residents
 and
 a
 well-­‐known
 naturalist,
 
surveyor
 and
 scientist.
 
 
279
 "The
 Great
 Northwest,"
 St.
 Louis
 Globe-­‐Democrat,
 20
 July
 1880.
 
280
 Guide
 to
 summer
 resorts
 in
 Wisconsin,
 Minnesota,
 Michigan,
 Etc.,
 Etc.,
 
 (Chicago:
 Rand,
 
McNally
 &
 co.,
 1873),
 8.
 
  121
 

 
Figure
 4.5:
 Milwaukee
 circa
 1875
 with
 the
 second
 courthouse
 and
 St.
 Johns
 Cathedral
 
 
in
 the
 background281
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

281
 "Yesterday’s
 Milwaukee,
 East
 Town
 and
 Second
 Courthouse,
 1875,"
 Urban
 Milwaukee,
 
accessed
 17
 February,
 2015,
 
 http://urbanmilwaukee.com/2014/12/17/yesterdays-­‐milwaukee-­‐
east-­‐town-­‐and-­‐second-­‐courthouse-­‐1875/.
 
  122
 

brick
 was
 equal
 in
 its
 quality
 to
 endure
 the
 ravages
 of
 time
 to
 the
 best
 marble
 in
 the
 world.”282
 
The
 courthouse
 was
 constructed
 of
 the
 stone,
 but
 not
 without
 further
 wrangling
 in
 the
 city’s
 
papers.
 
 
  These
 accounts
 provide
 just
 a
 sample
 of
 the
 material
 written
 about
 Milwaukee
 and
 its
 
brick
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 They
 help
 put
 into
 context
 how
 the
 developing
 city
 was
 seen
 at
 
the
 time
 they
 were
 written.
 It
 is
 striking
 to
 note
 just
 how
 quickly
 the
 city
 developed
 its
 
reputation
 for
 brick
 and
 how
 long
 that
 quality
 of
 the
 city
 was
 the
 subject
 of
 notice.
 A
 cream-­‐
colored
 city
 was
 such
 an
 anomaly
 as
 to
 provide
 fodder
 for
 those
 visiting
 and
 must
 have
 been
 an
 
attractant
 in
 bringing
 people
 to
 the
 city.
 
 
Cream
 City
 
  Milwaukee’s
 first
 city
 nicknames
 referenced
 the
 brick
 produced
 there
 and
 also
 the
 
appearance
 of
 the
 city.
 This
 seems
 logical,
 as
 the
 brick
 provided
 both
 one
 of
 the
 earliest
 and
 
most
 recognizable
 industries.
 Before
 the
 numerous
 breweries
 helped
 create
 Brew
 City,
 there
 
was
 Cream
 City.
 Yet,
 arrival
 at
 the
 Cream
 City
 name
 came
 after
 a
 number
 of
 other
 brick-­‐related
 
nicknames
 were
 bestowed
 upon
 the
 city.
 
 
  Milwaukee
 was
 commonly
 referred
 to
 at
 the
 “City
 of
 Bricks”
 as
 early
 as
 the
 1840s.
 This
 
name
 appeared
 in
 both
 local
 and
 national
 print
 with
 reference
 to
 the
 city.
 Milwaukee
 picked
 up
 
the
 additional
 nicknames
 by
 the
 mid-­‐1850s,
 such
 as
 the
 “Fair
 White
 City.”
 This
 name
 appears
 in
 
the
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel
 as
 early
 as
 July
 1857
 and
 in
 other
 city
 newspapers
 into
 the
 1890s.
 
Eastern
 newspapers
 used
 the
 “Fair
 White
 City”
 name
 as
 early
 as
 1860.
 The
 nickname
 fell
 out
 of
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

282
 "The
 New
 Court
 House,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 07
 January
 1869.
 
  123
 

 
Figure
 4.6:
 Contemporary
 view
 of
 Walker’s
 Point
 Historic
 District,
 Milwaukee283
 
 
 
Figure
 4.7:
 Warehouse
 district
 in
 Walker’s
 Point284
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

283
 "Walker’s
 Point
 Historic
 District,"
 Wikimedia,
 accessed
 17
 February,
 2015,
 
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walker%27s_Point_HistDist_Apr11.jpg.
 
284
 "Warehouse
 District
 in
 Walker’s
 Point,"
 Wikimedia,
 accessed
 17
 February,
 2015,
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._Walker#/media/File:Walker%27s_Point.jpg.
 
  124
 

 
use
 following
 the
 1893
 World’s
 Columbian
 Exposition
 in
 Chicago,
 where
 the
 name
 “White
 City”
 
was
 used
 in
 reference
 to
 the
 architecture
 of
 the
 fair.
 
  However,
 soon
 the
 “cream”
 element
 of
 the
 city
 became
 the
 preferred
 designation.
 It
 is
 
not
 clear
 exactly
 when
 the
 stand-­‐alone
 “Cream
 City”
 name
 was
 first
 applied
 to
 the
 city.
 The
 
earliest
 precursor
 located
 comes
 from
 an
 1849
 article
 referring
 to
 the
 “city
 of
 cream-­‐colored
 
brick.”285
 The
 Rock
 County
 Badger
 newspaper
 the
 following
 year
 wrote
 similarly
 of
 a
 “beautiful
 
city
 of
 cream
 hued
 brick.”286
 Both
 the
 “Cream
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes”
 and
 “Cream
 City
 of
 the
 West”
 
were
 commonly
 bestowed
 names
 by
 the
 1850s,
 as
 was
 the
 longer
 “Cream
 City
 of
 the
 Unsalted
 
Seas.”
 The
 slightly
 shorter
 “Cream
 Colored
 City”
 was
 used
 to
 describe
 Milwaukee
 in
 1857.287
 
 
Finally
 arriving
 at
 a
 shorter
 derivation,
 “Cream
 City,”
 seems
 like
 an
 obvious
 conclusion.
 An
 1889
 
report
 on
 manufacturing
 in
 Milwaukee
 noted
 that
 “Milwaukee
 has
 been
 known
 as
 the
 ‘Cream
 
City’
 for
 over
 fifty
 years,”
 although
 that
 seems
 unlikely
 considering
 the
 city
 had
 but
 a
 smattering
 
of
 brick
 buildings
 erected
 that
 early.288
 The
 first
 definitive
 use
 of
 Cream
 City
 has
 not
 been
 
located,
 but
 regardless
 of
 when
 it
 was
 first
 used,
 the
 term
 has
 been
 a
 constant
 companion
 to
 
Milwaukee
 since.
 
  By
 using
 the
 Cream
 City
 name,
 the
 business
 or
 group
 it
 was
 attached
 to
 became
 
branded
 and
 identified
 as
 being
 from,
 or
 associated
 with,
 Milwaukee.
 By
 1860,
 the
 name
 was
 
beginning
 to
 be
 used
 in
 this
 capacity,
 appearing
 first
 with
 reference
 to
 Cream
 City
 Extra
 flour.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

285
 "Internal
 Improvements,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel
 and
 Gazette,
 28
 June
 1849.
 
286
 Rock
 Co.
 Badger,
 "Milwaukee,"
 ibid.,
 12
 June
 1850.
 
287
 Green
 Bay
 Advocate,
 "Something
 About
 Milwaukee,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 15
 May
 
1857.
 

288
 "A
 Year's
 Business,"
 
 6.
 
  125
 

The
 flour
 was
 regularly
 sold
 in
 places
 as
 far
 away
 as
 Boston
 by
 the
 early
 1860s.289
 The
 Sentinel
 
reported
 in
 1862
 that
 Sands’
 Cream
 Ale
 beer
 might
 have
 been
 known
 as
 Cream
 City
 beer
 
abroad
 before
 the
 flour
 brand’s
 usage
 of
 the
 phrase,
 although
 this
 has
 not
 been
 verified
 in
 
print.290
 
  The
 shipping
 vessel,
 the
 bark
 Cream
 City,
 was
 regularly
 hauling
 shipments
 from
 
Milwaukee’s
 port
 by
 1862.291
 Newspaper
 articles
 place
 it
 throughout
 the
 Great
 Lakes,
 and
 as
 far
 
away
 as
 Buffalo,
 New
 York,
 during
 the
 1860s.
 Hauling
 a
 regular
 cargo
 of
 wheat
 from
 Milwaukee,
 
the
 bark
 helped
 spread
 not
 only
 the
 Cream
 City
 name
 in
 relation
 to
 the
 city.
 The
 vessel
 was
 
operating
 in
 the
 Great
 Lakes
 as
 late
 as
 the
 mid-­‐1880s.
 
 
  Starting
 in
 1865,
 the
 Cream
 City
 name
 appeared
 with
 regular
 usage.
 A
 Cream
 City
 Wine
 
Hall
 was
 opened
 at
 the
 end
 of
 that
 year,
 and
 more
 importantly
 the
 first
 professional
 “base
 ball”
 
team
 was
 established.
 The
 city’s
 reputation
 for
 its
 beautiful
 brick
 appearance
 provided
 the
 
obvious
 inspiration
 in
 naming
 the
 Cream
 City
 Base
 Ball
 Club.
 The
 group
 was
 based
 in
 Milwaukee
 
between
 at
 least
 1865
 through
 1889.
 The
 first
 game
 covered
 by
 the
 Sentinel
 was
 in
 November
 
1865,
 with
 the
 Milwaukee
 club
 losing
 to
 Chicago
 by
 a
 score
 of
 30-­‐36
 when
 the
 game
 was
 
suspended
 due
 to
 darkness
 after
 seven
 innings.292
 In
 a
 criticism
 that
 the
 modern
 Milwaukee
 
Brewers
 team
 may
 agree
 with,
 the
 club
 decried
 in
 1887
 that
 reporters
 covering
 the
 team
 “seem
 
to
 labor
 under
 the
 delusion
 that
 their
 club
 ought
 to
 win
 every
 game
 they
 play.
 ...
 The
 papers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

289
 "Multiple
 Classified
 Advertisements,"
 Boston
 Daily
 Advertiser,
 22
 March
 1861.
 
290
 "Cream
 City.,"
 Milwaukee
 Morning
 Sentinel,
 31
 March
 1862.
 
291
 "Marine
 Intelligence,"
 Milwaukee
 Morning
 Sentinel,
 04
 July
 1862.
 
292
 "Match
 Game
 of
 Base
 Ball,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 09
 November
 1865.
 
  126
 

 
Figure
 4.8:
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 Base
 Ball
 Club,
 likely
 in
 1868293
 
 
belabor
 the
 home
 team
 unmercifully
 every
 time
 they
 loose
 (sic)
 a
 game
 and
 declare
 they
 
cannot
 play
 ball.”294
 The
 team
 played
 throughout
 the
 Midwest
 and
 into
 the
 East
 and,
 much
 like
 
 
 
the
 bark
 Cream
 City,
 represented
 Milwaukee
 by
 carrying
 the
 Cream
 City
 name
 throughout
 the
 
country.
 
 
  Whether
 seeking
 to
 follow
 the
 trends
 set
 by
 both
 a
 successful
 baseball
 club
 and
 shipping
 
vessel,
 or
 just
 due
 to
 civic
 pride,
 many
 other
 businesses
 in
 Milwaukee
 soon
 branded
 themselves
 
with
 the
 Cream
 City
 name.
 City
 directories
 from
 the
 mid-­‐1860s
 through
 the
 end
 of
 the
 century
 
reveal
 the
 multitude
 of
 businesses,
 clubs,
 buildings,
 and
 social
 groups
 branded
 with
 the
 Cream
 
City
 name.
 Businesses
 ranging
 from
 advertising
 companies,
 breweries,
 brickyards,
 hat
 
companies,
 and
 insurance
 companies
 incorporated
 the
 name
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 
Establishments
 such
 as
 the
 Cream
 City
 House
 and
 Cream
 City
 Hotel
 operated
 in
 the
 city.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

293
 Dennis
 Pajot,
 The
 Rise
 of
 Milwaukee
 Baseball:
 The
 Cream
 City
 From
 Midwestern
 Outpost
 to
 
the
 Major
 Leagues,
 1859-­‐1901
 (Jefferson,
 NC:
 McFarland
 &
 Company,
 Inc.,
 2009),
 13.
 
294
 "Multiple
 News
 Items,"
 Wisconsin
 State
 Register,
 17
 September
 1887.
 
  127
 

 
Figure
 4.9:
 Cream
 City
 Hotel
 and
 Restaurant,
 with
 cream-­‐brick
 blocks
 surrounding295
 
 
Numerous
 social
 clubs,
 including
 cycling
 clubs,
 athletic
 organizations,
 and
 political
 groups
 all
 
adopted
 the
 name.
 The
 name
 provided
 a
 clear
 association
 with
 Milwaukee
 and
 was
 a
 point
 of
 
 
pride
 for
 these
 organizations.
 A
 large
 number
 of
 businesses,
 social
 groups,
 and
 places
 continued
 
to
 incorporate
 the
 Cream
 City
 name
 through
 the
 twentieth
 and
 into
 the
 twenty-­‐first
 centuries.
 
  In
 addition
 to
 being
 used
 extensively
 in
 Milwaukee,
 the
 name
 was
 the
 subject
 of
 many
 
news
 articles
 about
 Milwaukee.
 These
 articles
 helped
 to
 bolster
 Milwaukee’s
 image
 abroad
 
with
 the
 light
 and
 clean
 appearance
 associated
 with
 the
 brick.
 An
 1869
 account
 from
 the
 Free
 
Press
 in
 Iowa
 included
 a
 long
 description
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 Cream
 City
 nickname.
 “The
 name
 was
 
very
 appropriately
 given
 because
 of
 the
 number
 of
 buildings
 built
 of
 the
 beautiful
 cream
 or
 
straw
 colored
 brick
 which
 are
 manufactured
 [in
 Milwaukee].
 It
 is
 the
 first
 thing
 that
 strikes
 the
 
eye
 of
 a
 stranger
 as
 he
 enters
 the
 city,
 every
 building
 of
 any
 pretentions
 being
 built
 of
 these
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

295
 "Cream
 City
 Hotel
 and
 Restaurant
 at
 the
 corner
 of
 E
 Wisconsin
 Ave
 and
 N
 Jackson
 St,"
 
Milwaukee
 Historic
 Photos,
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Library
 Digital
 Collections,
 accessed
 17
 February,
 
2015,
 
 http://content.mpl.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/HstoricPho/id/250/rec/6.
 
  128
 

 
 
 
Figure
 4.10:
 “Cream
 City”
 businesses
 appearing
 in
 the
 1896
 Milwaukee
 directory296
 
 
 

same
 far-­‐famed
 ‘Milwaukee
 brick.’”297
 The
 same
 sentiment
 was
 shared
 by
 a
 Vermonter
 who
 
wrote
 in
 1871,
 “It
 is
 indeed
 a
 beautiful
 city,
 and
 aptly
 called
 the
 ‘Cream
 City
 of
 the
 West,’
 from
 
the
 color
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 brick,
 which
 is
 mostly
 used
 in
 the
 construction
 of
 the
 residences
 and
 
business
 houses
 …
 it
 is
 indeed
 a
 beautiful
 site.”298
 
  A
 long
 report
 about
 Milwaukee
 appeared
 in
 the
 Chicago
 Daily
 Inter
 Ocean
 newspaper
 in
 
1882.
 The
 article
 was
 aptly
 titled,
 “Cream
 City
 –
 In
 Beer,
 Bricks,
 and
 Boats,
 Milwaukee
 Claims
 to
 
Outrank
 the
 World.”
 It
 was
 noted
 that
 while
 Milwaukee’s
 reputation
 for
 beer
 preceded
 it,
 one
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

296
 Wright's
 Milwaukee
 County
 and
 Milwaukee
 Business
 Directory
 1896,
 vol.
 21
 (Milwaukee:
 
Alfred
 G.
 Wright,
 1896),
 354-­‐55.
 
297
 "An
 Iowa
 View
 of
 Milwaukee,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 23
 December
 1869.
 
298
 "The
 Cream
 City,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 10
 January
 1871.
 
  129
 

“only
 needs
 a
 visit
 to
 the
 place
 to
 change
 any
 such
 impressions,
 and
 put
 things
 in
 their
 proper
 
places.
 There
 is
 not
 a
 more
 beautiful
 town
 in
 the
 West
 than
 Milwaukee.”299
 It
 continues:
 
If
 asked
 what
 the
 city
 excels
 in,
 the
 Milwaukeean
 will
 first
 speak
 of
 the
 “Cream
 City”
 –
 
the
 nom
 de
 plume
 –
 and
 tell
 you
 it
 was
 given
 that
 name
 because
 of
 the
 creamy
 color
 of
 
the
 many
 fine
 residences
 and
 business
 blocks
 built
 of
 the
 brick
 manufactured
 here
 and
 
known
 all
 over
 the
 county,
 where
 they
 are
 shopped
 as
 “Milwaukee
 brick.”
 These
 brick
 
are
 sent
 to
 cities
 in
 the
 East
 and
 West
 for
 building-­‐fronts,
 for
 which
 they
 are
 peculiarly
 
adapted,
 because
 of
 the
 hardness
 and
 the
 beautiful
 appearance
 they
 make
 in
 a
 building.
 
The
 brick
 manufactured
 and
 sold
 last
 year
 brought
 to
 Milwaukee
 $1,250,000.
 After
 
hearing
 that
 Milwaukee
 is
 the
 Cream
 City
 you
 will
 next
 hear
 that
 it
 is
 the
 city
 of
 beer
 and
 
bricks
 [emphasis
 added].300
 
 
 
Figure
 4.11:
 Flyer
 for
 the
 semi-­‐centennial
 of
 Milwaukee301
 
 
 

  In
 perhaps
 one
 of
 the
 clearest
 indications
 of
 how
 Milwaukee’s
 identity
 was
 connected
 to
 
its
 Cream
 City
 brick,
 Milwaukee
 mayor
 Emil
 Wallber
 opened
 his
 address
 to
 President
 Grover
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

299
 "The
 Cream
 City,"
 Daily
 Inter
 Ocean,
 05
 July
 1882.
 
300
 Ibid.
 
301
 "1848-­‐Milwaukee-­‐1898,"
 The
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 26
 February
 1898.
 
  130
 

Cleveland
 and
 the
 First
 Lady
 upon
 their
 arrival
 in
 Milwaukee
 in
 October
 1877
 with
 a
 soliloquy
 
about
 Milwaukee’s
 best-­‐known
 attribute.
 “Mr.
 President,
 you
 have
 now
 reached
 ‘Modern
 
Athens,’
 or
 ‘The
 Cream
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes.’
 Either
 name
 is
 characteristic
 of
 our
 town,
 like
 that
 of
 
the
 famous
 city
 of
 ancient
 Hellas
 [Greece].
 …
 And
 in
 passing
 along
 our
 streets
 you
 have
 noticed
 
a
 great
 many
 buildings
 of
 cream-­‐colored
 brick,
 hence
 its
 other
 name,
 ‘the
 Cream
 City.’”302
 
Clearly,
 both
 the
 brick
 and
 the
 identity
 as
 the
 Cream
 City
 were
 of
 such
 great
 importance
 for
 the
 
mayor
 and
 for
 the
 citizens
 of
 Milwaukee
 that
 they
 were
 the
 first
 thing
 mentioned
 to
 the
 visiting
 
president.
 
  An
 article
 originally
 appearing
 in
 the
 St.
 Louis
 Republican
 in
 1879
 so
 eloquently
 sums
 up
 
Milwaukee’s
 then
 two
 best-­‐known
 products.
 
 Of
 the
 “beautiful
 city,”
 the
 paper
 printed:
 
Its
 principal
 productions
 are
 Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 Milwaukee
 beer,
 which
 have
 made
 
the
 place
 and
 made
 Milwaukee
 a
 household
 word
 abroad.
 The
 place
 is
 built
 of
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 Milwaukee
 beer.
 If
 it
 were
 not
 for
 the
 brick
 and
 the
 beer
 there
 
would
 probably
 be
 no
 Milwaukee.
 Milwaukee
 brick
 is
 Milwaukee
 beer
 in
 a
 solid
 state
 
and
 the
 beer
 is
 the
 brick
 liquefied.
 They
 both
 are
 of
 a
 beautiful
 cream
 color
 and
 of
 good
 
body
 –
 combining
 in
 their
 composition
 beauty
 and
 strength.
 One
 does
 not
 need
 to
 be
 
struck
 with
 a
 Milwaukee
 brick
 to
 comprehend
 its
 distinguishing
 qualities.303
 
 
 
 The
 mentions
 of
 both
 the
 appearance
 of
 the
 city
 and
 of
 its
 famed
 brick
 lasted
 through
 
the
 end
 of
 the
 century,
 but
 with
 somewhat
 less
 frequency.
 When
 Cosmopolitan
 published
 a
 
twelve-­‐page
 feature
 on
 Milwaukee
 entitled
 “The
 Cream
 City”
 in
 1890
 it
 certainly
 mentioned
 the
 
city’s
 appearance
 and
 the
 city’s
 bricks
 but
 it
 did
 not
 need
 to
 belabor
 the
 point.
 By
 that
 time
 it
 
was
 taken
 for
 granted
 as
 a
 common
 fact
 about
 the
 city.
 Milwaukee
 was
 the
 Cream
 City;
 
Milwaukee
 was
 cream-­‐brick.
 It
 did
 not
 need
 to
 be
 explained
 and
 elaborated
 upon
 the
 way
 it
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

302
 "Exercises
 at
 the
 Courthouse,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Journal,
 06
 October
 1887.
 
303
 "Yesterday
 in
 the
 City,"
 Milwaukee
 Daily
 Sentinel,
 08
 August
 1879.
 
  131
 

had
 when
 few
 had
 heard
 of
 or
 been
 to
 the
 city.
 And
 while
 the
 beauty
 of
 Milwaukee
 still
 merited
 
numerous
 mentions
 at
 the
 end
 of
 the
 century,
 having
 to
 go
 into
 detail
 about
 what
 Milwaukee
 
brick
 was
 and
 why
 it
 was
 unique
 were
 not
 needed.
 The
 brick
 were
 commonly
 known
 and
 by
 
that
 point
 readily
 emulated
 elsewhere.
 
 
 
  Yet,
 despite
 its
 place
 in
 the
 hearts,
 minds,
 and
 walls
 of
 the
 city,
 Cream
 City
 brick
 
production
 did
 not
 continue
 indefinitely.
 The
 next
 chapter
 examines
 the
 factors
 that
 led
 to
 the
 
decline
 of
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 examines
 the
 lasting
 importance
 of
 the
 brick
 to
 Milwaukee.
 
 
 
 

 
 
  132
 

 
 
CHAPTER
 5:
 CONCLUSION
 

The
 Decline
 of
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 
  Cream
 City
 brick
 production
 continued
 briefly
 into
 the
 twentieth
 century,
 but
 by
 the
 end
 
of
 the
 1920s
 production
 of
 Milwaukee’s
 famed
 product
 had
 ceased.
 Owing
 to
 the
 prominence
 
of
 the
 brick
 in
 the
 city,
 it
 seems
 unfathomable
 that
 the
 Cream
 City
 would
 no
 longer
 produce
 
Cream
 City
 brick.
 However,
 a
 number
 of
 factors
 led
 to
 the
 decline
 in
 the
 industry,
 including
 a
 
prolonged
 brick
 war
 with
 Chicago,
 changes
 in
 architectural
 preferences,
 and
 exhaustion
 of
 clay
 
used
 in
 producing
 Cream
 City
 brick.
 
 
  Chicago
 and
 Milwaukee
 brickmakers
 were
 engaged
 in
 a
 bitter
 brick
 war
 throughout
 
much
 of
 the
 1890s.
 This
 battle
 was
 not
 only
 protracted,
 but
 its
 effects
 were
 amplified
 following
 
the
 depression
 of
 1893.
 The
 Sentinel
 declared
 brickmaker
 were
 at
 war
 in
 both
 1894
 and
 1897,
 
but
 in
 reality,
 the
 two
 markets
 were
 engaged
 in
 battles
 throughout
 the
 decade.
 Chicago
 
brickmakers
 had
 been
 intentionally
 undercutting
 Milwaukee
 brick
 prices
 and
 thus
 able
 to
 
import
 vast
 numbers
 of
 brick
 into
 the
 city.
 Already
 by
 1887
 twenty-­‐five
 percent
 of
 the
 brick
 
used
 in
 Milwaukee
 was
 coming
 from
 outside
 the
 Wisconsin
 city.304
 The
 brick
 that
 was
 being
 
cheaply
 imported
 from
 Chicago
 during
 this
 time
 was
 primarily
 for
 structural
 purposes
 due
 to
 
the
 lower
 quality
 of
 the
 brick.
 In
 an
 attempt
 to
 mitigate
 the
 damage
 caused
 by
 these
 cheap
 
imports,
 the
 Milwaukee
 producers
 formed
 a
 brick
 collective
 in
 1895.
 As
 mentioned
 in
 Chapter
 
Two,
 this
 collective
 quickly
 fell
 apart
 due
 to
 infighting.
 The
 collective
 was
 tried
 again
 in
 1897,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

304
 "Cream
 City
 Notes,"
 Daily
 Inter
 Ocean,
 22
 April
 1887.
 
 
  133
 

with
 incorporation
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 Building
 Supply
 Company.
 However,
 despite
 the
 
company’s
 hoping
 to
 keep
 prices
 stable,
 the
 prolonged
 war
 with
 Chicago
 caused
 prices
 to
 drop
 
to
 their
 lowest
 rate
 in
 twenty-­‐five
 years.305
 Common
 brick
 that
 had
 previously
 sold
 for
 seven
 
dollars
 per
 thousand
 was
 selling
 for
 four
 dollars
 in
 1897.306
 At
 those
 prices,
 it
 was
 not
 profitable
 
for
 the
 brick
 producers
 to
 be
 in
 operation,
 and
 a
 number
 of
 yards
 ceased
 operation.
 When
 E.R.
 
Buckley
 surveyed
 the
 state
 of
 Milwaukee
 brickyards
 in
 1900,
 he
 noted
 that
 numerous
 yards
 had
 
not
 been
 operated
 for
 a
 number
 of
 years
 and
 were
 unlikely
 to
 resume
 operation.
 
 
  Changes
 in
 architectural
 preferences
 also
 affected
 the
 brick
 industry
 in
 the
 city.
 In
 the
 
city’s
 early
 days,
 the
 brick
 was
 used
 extensively
 because
 it
 was
 not
 feasible
 to
 import
 other
 
building
 materials.
 The
 arrival
 of
 railroads
 made
 it
 much
 easier
 to
 import
 products,
 and
 by
 the
 
end
 of
 the
 century
 brick
 of
 many
 different
 colors
 and
 textures
 was
 being
 imported
 for
 use
 in
 
Milwaukee.307
 Additionally,
 the
 popularity
 of
 the
 city’s
 famed
 brick
 had
 started
 to
 wane
 at
 
home.
 Already
 by
 1883,
 it
 was
 observed
 that
 while
 light-­‐colored
 bricks
 had
 been
 preferred,
 
“handsome
 red
 brick
 are
 now
 much
 demanded,
 and
 the
 tendency
 of
 present
 taste
 is
 turning
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

305
 "Brick
 Makers
 at
 War,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 07
 July
 1897.
 
306
 "Reviving
 the
 Combine,"
 Milwaukee
 Sentinel,
 30
 August
 1879.
 
 
307
 Paul
 J.
 Jakubovich,
 As
 Good
 As
 New:
 A
 Guide
 to
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 
Milwaukee
 House
 (Milwaukee:
 The
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1993),
 72.
 
  134
 

somewhat
 in
 that
 direction.”308
 By
 the
 turn
 of
 the
 century,
 this
 preference
 was
 more
 starkly
 
acknowledged
 in
 Architectural
 Record:
 
The
 cream-­‐colored
 brick
 in
 which
 the
 city
 at
 one
 time
 took
 especial
 pride
 has
 fallen
 into
 
disfavor,
 and
 justly
 enough,
 for
 in
 color
 it
 is
 thin
 and
 cold,
 with
 no
 value
 except
 perhaps
 
in
 contrast
 with
 new-­‐fallen
 snow.
 It
 is
 particularly
 ugly
 in
 its
 cheap,
 rough
 grades,
 as
 
used
 in
 blank
 party
 walls
 and
 on
 inferior
 buildings,
 where
 it
 turns,
 when
 stained
 with
 
soot
 and
 weather,
 to
 a
 dreary,
 sickly,
 streaked
 gray
 –
 as
 utterly
 a
 forlorn
 building
 
material
 as
 can
 be
 imagined.
 For
 all
 the
 better
 class
 of
 work
 nowadays
 the
 brown,
 red
 or
 
pink
 brick
 of
 other
 localities
 is
 imported.309
 
 
 
 
 
  By
 the
 end
 of
 the
 nineteenth
 century
 stone
 and
 marble
 became
 the
 preferred
 material
 
for
 use
 in
 public
 buildings
 in
 Milwaukee
 particularly
 Beaux-­‐Arts
 style
 buildings.
 Examples
 of
 
stone
 or
 marble
 buildings
 include
 the
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Library,
 Loyalty
 Block,
 Milwaukee
 
Interurban
 Terminal,
 and
 Germania
 Building.
 Similarly,
 wooden-­‐framed
 structures
 that
 were
 
more
 quickly
 and
 cheaply
 constructed
 had
 become
 the
 standard
 for
 modest
 residences.
 While
 
these
 were
 often
 built
 as
 cottages
 in
 the
 late
 1800,
 by
 the
 turn
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century
 a
 
newer
 wooden-­‐framed
 residence
 began
 to
 gain
 favor
 in
 Milwaukee.
 These
 Milwaukee
 
bungalows
 were
 influence
 by
 the
 American
 Arts
 and
 Crafts
 movement,
 were
 one
 to
 one-­‐and-­‐a-­‐
half
 story
 buildings
 often
 with
 exposed
 rafted
 ends,
 jerkinhead
 roofs,
 wood
 cladding,
 and
 
exterior
 details
 expressed
 with
 stone,
 stucco,
 or
 red
 brick.310
 
 These
 are
 found
 throughout
 
Milwaukee
 in
 numerous
 residential
 subdivisions
 constructed
 from
 the
 late-­‐1890s
 through
 the
 
first
 decades
 of
 the
 twentieth
 century.
 Yet
 Cream
 City
 brick
 was
 regularly
 used
 in
 the
 
foundations
 and
 chimneys
 of
 these
 bungalows
 and
 wooden-­‐framed
 buildings.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

308
 Thomas
 Chrowder
 Chamberlin,
 Geology
 of
 Wisconsin:
 Survey
 of
 1873-­‐1879,
 vol.
 1
 (Madison,
 
WI:
 Commissioners
 of
 Public
 Printing,
 1883),
 670.
 
309
 The
 Architectural
 Record,
 vol.
 17
 (Chicago:
 The
 Architectural
 Record
 Co.,
 1905),
 210.
 
 
310
 Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 
the
 City
 (Milwaukee:
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1983),
 66-­‐67.
 
  135
 

  The
 exhaustion
 of
 the
 clay
 needed
 to
 produce
 Cream
 City
 brick
 also
 contributed
 to
 the
 
downfall
 of
 the
 industry.
 While
 the
 deposits
 of
 clay
 in
 the
 Menomonee
 River
 Valley
 had
 been
 
as
 thick
 as
 one
 hundred
 feet
 in
 some
 locations,
 decades
 of
 mining
 had
 depleted
 the
 clay
 
available
 for
 suitable
 brick
 production.
 The
 Clay
 Worker
 reported
 in
 1897
 that
 production
 of
 
true
 Cream
 City
 brick
 had
 ceased
 in
 the
 city.
 While
 a
 light-­‐colored
 brick
 was
 still
 being
 made,
 
“old
 settlers
 aver
 that
 it
 does
 not
 present
 the
 peculiar
 yellowness
 that
 made
 the
 earlier
 output
 
famous
 the
 country
 over.”311
 The
 Cream
 City
 brick
 produced
 in
 the
 Menomonee
 Valley
 had
 
depleted
 the
 necessary
 clay,
 and
 efforts
 to
 find
 similar
 deposits
 had
 failed.
 Additional
 
pressures
 were
 put
 on
 the
 brickyards
 due
 to
 demand
 for
 real
 estate.
 In
 1890,
 it
 was
 noted
 that
 
many
 of
 the
 brickyards
 were
 in
 or
 near
 the
 center
 of
 the
 city
 and
 faced
 encroachments
 for
 real
 
estate
 development.
 “Eventually
 the
 land
 will
 become
 too
 valuable
 for
 use
 as
 brick
 yards,
 and
 
will
 be
 used
 altogether
 for
 building
 purposes,”
 the
 annual
 report
 on
 Milwaukee
 industries
 
reported.312
 These
 numerous
 factors
 led
 to
 the
 collapse
 of
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 industry.
 Brick
 
production
 in
 the
 city
 had
 disappeared
 by
 the
 1930s.
 The
 last
 known
 producer
 of
 brick
 in
 the
 
city,
 the
 Burnham
 Brothers
 Brick
 Supply
 Company
 in
 South
 Milwaukee,
 went
 out
 of
 business
 in
 
1929
 and
 closed
 the
 chapter
 on
 an
 immensely
 important
 industry
 in
 the
 history
 of
 
Milwaukee.313
 Outside
 of
 reuse
 of
 the
 brick,
 the
 closure
 bookended
 the
 period
 of
 Cream
 City
 
brick
 architecture
 in
 the
 city
 that
 lasted
 nearly
 one
 hundred
 years
 from
 1835
 to
 1930.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

311
 The
 Clay-­‐Worker,
 vol.
 28
 (Indianapolis:
 T.A.
 Randall,
 1897),
 183.
 
312
 Chamber
 of
 Commerce,
 Thirty-­‐Third
 Annual
 Report
 of
 the
 Trade
 and
 Commerce
 of
 
Milwaukee,
 For
 the
 Year
 Ending
 December
 31st,
 1890
 (Milwaukee:
 Cramer,
 Aikens
 &
 Cramer,
 
1891),
 65.
 

313
 Christopher
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick"
 (master's
 thesis,
 Art
 Institute
 of
 Chicago,
 2011),
 45.
 
  136
 

Conservation
 of
 Cream
 City
 Brick
 
  Because
 Cream
 City
 brick
 is
 a
 finite
 resource,
 conservation
 is
 important
 for
 maintaining
 
the
 brick.
 The
 most
 obvious
 issue
 with
 regards
 to
 the
 brick
 is
 the
 surface
 soiling
 so
 evident
 
against
 the
 cream
 background.
 As
 noted
 in
 Chapter
 Two,
 while
 Milwaukee
 brick
 is
 highly
 
durable
 it
 is
 also
 highly
 susceptible
 to
 this
 type
 of
 surface
 staining
 and
 soiling.
 In
 his
 book,
 As
 
Good
 as
 New:
 A
 Guide
 for
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 Milwaukee
 Home,
 Paul
 
Jakubovich
 provides
 an
 account
 of
 soiling
 issues
 of
 Milwaukee
 brick
 and
 ways
 to
 conserve
 it.
 
This
 book
 provides
 a
 clear
 and
 concise
 guide
 for
 addressing
 problems
 associated
 with
 brick
 
and
 other
 masonry
 material
 found
 throughout
 Milwaukee
 and
 elsewhere.
 Of
 problems
 with
 
the
 brick
 he
 notes,
 “the
 surface
 of
 porous
 cream
 brick
 acts
 like
 a
 magnet
 for
 soot,
 smoke
 and
 
other
 airborne
 dirt
 and
 over
 the
 years
 much
 of
 the
 original
 golden
 luster
 has
 been
 hidden
 
under
 a
 layer
 of
 black
 grime.”314
 This
 is
 a
 more
 prominent
 problem
 for
 the
 porous
 common
 
brick
 than
 pressed
 brick.
 This
 soiling
 rarely
 causes
 any
 structural
 issues
 but
 is
 primarily
 a
 
cosmetic
 issue.
 However,
 improper
 cleaning
 can
 lead
 to
 damage
 that
 causes
 structural
 
problems
 with
 the
 brick.
 
 
  Much
 like
 the
 National
 Park
 Service’s
 Preservation
 Brief
 #1
 on
 cleaning
 masonry
 
buildings,
 Jakubovich
 advocates
 using
 the
 gentlest
 means
 possible
 to
 clean
 Milwaukee
 brick
 
and
 avoid
 irrevocably
 harming
 it.
 A
 light,
 low-­‐pressure
 wash
 and
 hand
 scrubbing
 is
 suggested
 
for
 buildings
 not
 heavily
 affected
 by
 environmental
 soiling.
 Steam
 can
 also
 be
 used
 to
 help
 lift
 
the
 pollutants
 from
 the
 surface
 of
 the
 brick
 before
 rinsing
 with
 a
 light
 wash.
 For
 more
 urban
 
buildings,
 he
 suggests
 a
 combination
 of
 chemical
 cleaners,
 strippers,
 and
 a
 non-­‐abrasive
 power
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

314
 Jakubovich,
 As
 Good
 As
 New:
 A
 Guide
 to
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 Milwaukee
 
House,
 76.
 
  137
 

wash
 with
 clear
 water.315
 When
 chemical
 treatments
 are
 used
 care
 must
 be
 taken
 to
 avoid
 
chemicals
 that
 will
 cause
 excessive
 damage
 to
 mortar
 or
 other
 historic
 exterior
 materials.
 For
 
instance,
 cleaners
 containing
 hydrofluoric
 acid
 may
 cause
 damage
 to
 glass
 and
 stone.316
 
Sandblasting
 the
 brick,
 while
 once
 an
 accepted
 method
 of
 cleaning,
 should
 not
 be
 used
 to
 
clean
 historic
 brick.
 Sandblasting
 the
 brick
 removes
 the
 outer
 protective
 skin
 of
 the
 brick
 and
 
exposes
 the
 soft
 inner
 clay
 of
 the
 fired
 brick.
 This
 opens
 up
 the
 brick
 to
 additional
 
deterioration
 from
 water
 and
 wind.
 The
 newer
 method
 of
 water-­‐sand
 blasting
 is
 equally
 
destructive
 and
 should
 not
 be
 used
 to
 clean
 brick.
 One
 newer
 method
 of
 cleaning
 surface
 
soiling
 is
 with
 use
 of
 a
 laser
 cleaner.
 This
 method
 is
 attractive
 due
 to
 the
 ease
 of
 use,
 
minimized
 debris
 created,
 lack
 of
 harmful
 chemicals
 needed,
 and
 absence
 of
 damage
 to
 the
 
surface
 of
 the
 brick.317
 However,
 the
 method
 does
 require
 a
 high
 initial
 purchase
 price,
 which
 
makes
 unfeasible
 for
 smaller
 restoration
 projects.
 
  Because
 historic
 lime-­‐based
 mortars
 were
 relatively
 soft
 and
 prone
 to
 deterioration,
 
repointing
 the
 mortar
 is
 often
 necessary
 for
 historic
 walls.
 
 The
 process
 involves
 carefully
 
removing
 failing
 mortar
 with
 the
 aid
 of
 chisels,
 hammers,
 and
 repointing
 rakes
 and
 replacing
 it
 
with
 a
 mortar
 that
 is
 of
 a
 similar
 hardness
 and
 color
 as
 the
 historic
 mortar.
 While
 electric
 tools
 
such
 as
 grinders
 can
 be
 used
 these
 are
 not
 advised
 due
 to
 the
 higher
 likelihood
 of
 damage
 to
 
the
 bricks.
 Test
 patches
 of
 mortar
 should
 be
 applied
 to
 gauge
 compatibility
 before
 the
 entire
 
surface
 is
 repointed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

315
 Ibid.,
 77.
 
316
 Ibid.,
 79.
 
317
 Ciesielski,
 "Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 56-­‐57.
 
  138
 

  If
 historic
 Cream
 City
 bricks
 have
 failed
 beyond
 repair
 replacement
 with
 a
 reclaimed
 
Milwaukee
 brick
 is
 the
 best
 course
 of
 action.
 However,
 this
 method
 is
 not
 without
 issue.
 
Milwaukee
 bricks
 were
 generally
 produced
 without
 adhering
 to
 a
 strict
 set
 of
 dimensions.
 This
 
can
 create
 issues
 in
 matching
 sizes
 for
 replacement
 bricks.
 Likewise,
 the
 color
 of
 the
 finished
 
bricks
 varied
 greatly
 from
 yard
 to
 yard
 and
 locating
 replacement
 bricks
 with
 exactly
 similar
 
colors
 may
 be
 difficult.
 
 
  If
 replacement
 with
 a
 historic
 Cream
 City
 brick
 is
 not
 a
 viable
 option
 newer,
 
commercially
 produced
 cream-­‐colored
 bricks
 can
 be
 used
 as
 replacements.
 However,
 these
 
too
 are
 not
 without
 issue.
 Newer
 bricks
 are
 much
 denser
 and
 harder
 than
 historic
 bricks
 and
 
may
 expand
 and
 contract
 at
 different
 rates.318
 Modern
 bricks
 also
 have
 internal
 voids
 that
 
cause
 issues
 with
 vapor
 transfer
 in
 the
 brick.
 Water
 may
 collect
 in
 the
 voids
 and
 cause
 the
 
bricks
 to
 spall
 and
 fail.
 If
 modern
 brick
 is
 to
 be
 used
 one
 suggestion
 is
 to
 rebuild
 an
 entire
 wall
 
with
 modern
 brick
 and
 reuse
 salvaged
 brick
 for
 spot
 patching
 as
 required.319
 With
 any
 brick
 
cleaning
 or
 replacement
 a
 qualified
 contractor
 or
 specialist
 versed
 in
 historic
 masonry
 
conservation
 should
 be
 consulted
 to
 minimize
 risk
 of
 damage
 to
 the
 historic
 fabric
 of
 a
 
structure.
 
 
 
Analysis
 and
 Conclusion
 
  In
 what
 ways
 did
 the
 Cream
 City
 brick
 produced
 in
 Milwaukee
 create
 an
 identity
 for
 the
 
city
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century?
 The
 arguments
 presented
 in
 the
 previous
 chapters
 have
 
provided
 evidence
 answering
 this
 central
 question
 to
 the
 thesis,
 along
 with
 another
 question,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

318
 Ibid.,
 58.
 
319
 Ibid.
 
  139
 

“What
 is
 Cream
 City
 brick
 and
 why
 is
 it
 unique?”
 These
 questions
 are
 central
 to
 understanding
 
what
 makes
 the
 brick
 more
 than
 just
 a
 building
 material.
 The
 product
 manufactured
 in
 what
 
was
 then
 the
 hinterland
 set
 the
 town
 apart
 from
 other
 budding
 settlements
 on
 the
 Western
 
frontier.
 It
 supplied
 the
 city
 with
 its
 earliest
 notoriety,
 its
 first
 broad
 export
 material,
 and
 most
 
enduring
 city
 nickname.
 On
 the
 practical
 side,
 the
 brick
 provided
 Milwaukee
 with
 decades
 of
 
 
beautiful
 and
 durable
 masonry
 material.
 On
 the
 more
 existential
 level,
 it
 provided
 the
 city
 and
 
its
 residents
 with
 an
 identity.
 
 
  Today,
 city
 slogans
 and
 nicknames
 are
 developed
 by
 advertising
 agencies
 or
 through
 
community
 outreach
 as
 a
 way
 of
 branding
 a
 city
 for
 tourism
 or
 economic
 reasons.
 Milwaukee’s
 
developed
 organically
 in
 the
 mid-­‐1800s.
 Yet,
 the
 reasons
 why
 communities
 today
 desire
 catchy
 
slogans
 have
 been
 inherent
 in
 Milwaukee
 since
 their
 identity
 developed.
 It
 was
 a
 source
 of
 
pride
 for
 the
 city,
 and
 provided
 a
 unified
 sense
 of
 community
 for
 what
 had
 been
 a
 
demographically
 diverse
 population.
 “We
 are
 Cream
 City,”
 was
 the
 sentiment
 expressed
 in
 
Milwaukee
 throughout
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 “Cream
 City”
 so
 eloquently
 tells
 the
 story
 of
 
Milwaukee
 in
 two
 simple
 words.
 
 
  To
 the
 twenty-­‐first
 century
 mind,
 it
 can
 be
 difficult
 to
 comprehend
 just
 how
 
overwhelming
 the
 brick’s
 presence
 would
 have
 been
 in
 the
 nineteenth
 century.
 Modern
 cities
 
are
 composed
 of
 a
 plethora
 of
 materials,
 each
 providing
 different
 textures,
 styles,
 and
 colors
 to
 
a
 cityscape.
 Milwaukee,
 on
 the
 other
 hand,
 was
 simply
 the
 Cream
 City.
 Accounts
 of
 first-­‐time
 
visitors
 are
 filled
 with
 a
 sense
 of
 awe
 over
 the
 appearance
 of
 the
 city.
 And
 for
 those
 who
 had
 
not
 seen
 firsthand,
 Cream
 City
 conjured
 a
 vision
 of
 Milwaukee.
 Based
 on
 written
 accounts
 of
 
the
 city,
 one
 can
 only
 surmise
 that
 the
 Milwaukee
 imagined
 by
 foreigners
 was
 a
 grand,
 
  140
 

sparkling
 city.
 It
 was
 a
 place
 where
 the
 streets
 may
 not
 have
 been
 paved
 with
 gold
 but
 the
 
buildings
 were.
 
 
  While
 the
 number
 of
 historic
 structures
 remaining
 in
 the
 city
 is
 likely
 in
 the
 thousands,
 
this
 is
 far
 from
 the
 number
 of
 buildings
 once
 present
 in
 the
 city.
 A
 comprehensive
 survey
 of
 
existing
 structures
 would
 help
 to
 document
 and
 assess
 the
 number
 and
 condition
 of
 extant
 
structures.
 The
 difficulty
 in
 performing
 such
 a
 survey
 is
 compounded
 by
 the
 fact
 that
 in
 addition
 
to
 buildings
 faced
 with
 the
 brick,
 many
 buildings
 contain
 Cream
 City
 brick
 as
 party
 walls,
 
foundations,
 or
 chimneys.
 Cream
 City
 brick
 is
 so
 indelibly
 linked
 with
 Milwaukee’s
 past
 that
 
each
 additional
 loss
 distances
 the
 city
 further
 and
 further
 from
 its
 own
 history.
 Historian
 H.
 
Russell
 Zimmermann
 so
 eloquently
 concluded
 his
 essay
 on
 Cream
 City
 brick
 with
 the
 same
 
sentiment:
 
 “The
 community
 must
 become
 aware
 of
 its
 priceless
 heritage
 and
 rekindle
 a
 pride
 
in
 what
 examples
 remain
 if
 we
 are
 to
 salvage
 the
 genesis
 of
 ‘Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin,
 Cream
 City
 
of
 the
 Lakes.’”320
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

320
 H.
 Russell
 Zimmermann,
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick,"
 Historical
 Messenger
 of
 the
 
Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society
 26
 (1970):
 13.
 
  141
 

 
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 

Austin,
 H.
 Russell.
 The
 Milwaukee
 Story:
 The
 Making
 of
 an
 American
 City.
 
 Milwaukee:
 
Milwaukee
 Journal,
 1946.
 
Bleyer,
 W.J.
 Anderson
 and
 Julius.
 Milwaukee's
 Great
 Industries:
 A
 Compilation
 of
 Facts.
 
 
Milwaukee:
 Association
 for
 the
 Advancement
 of
 Milwaukee,
 1892.
 
Buck,
 James
 S.
 Milwaukee
 Under
 the
 Charter,
 From
 1847
 to
 1853,
 Inclusive.
 Vol.
 3,
 
 Milwaukee:
 
Symes,
 Swain,
 &
 Co.,
 1884.
 
———.
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 1840
 to
 1846,
 Inclusive.
 Vol.
 2
 Milwaukee:
 Symes,
 
Swain
 &
 Co.,
 1881.
 
———.
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 the
 First
 American
 Settlement
 in
 1833,
 to
 1841.
 
 
Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 News
 Company,
 1876.
 
———.
 Pioneer
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 From
 the
 First
 American
 Settlement
 in
 1833,
 to
 1841,
 
Revised
 Edition.
 
 Milwaukee:
 Swain
 &
 Tate,
 1890.
 
Buckley,
 Ernest
 Robertson.
 The
 Clay
 and
 Clay
 Industries
 of
 Wisconsin.
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 and
 
Natural
 History
 Survey,
 Bulletin
 No.
 7.
 
 Madison,
 WI:
 Published
 by
 the
 State,
 1901.
 
Chamber
 of
 Commerce.
 Thirty-­‐Third
 Annual
 Report
 of
 the
 Trade
 and
 Commerce
 of
 Milwaukee,
 
For
 the
 Year
 Ending
 December
 31st,
 1890.
 
 Milwaukee:
 Cramer,
 Aikens
 &
 Cramer,
 1891.
 
Chamberlin,
 Thomas
 Chrowder.
 Geology
 of
 Wisconsin:
 Survey
 of
 1873-­‐1879.
 Vol.
 1
 Madison,
 
WI:
 Commissioners
 of
 Public
 Printing,
 1883.
 
Ciesielski,
 Christopher.
 "Cream
 City
 Brick."
 master's
 thesis,
 Art
 Institute
 of
 Chicago,
 2011.
 
City
 of
 Madison,
 Planning
 Division.
 "Madison
 Landmarks."
 
http://www.cityofmadison.com/planning/landmark/madison%20landmarks.htm.
 
The
 Clay-­‐Worker.
 Vol.
 28,
 
 Indianapolis:
 T.A.
 Randall,
 1897.
 
The
 Clay-­‐Worker.
 Vol.
 68,
 
 Indianapolis:
 T.A.
 Randall
 &
 Co.,
 1917.
 
Conrad,
 Howard
 Louis.
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895.
 
Vol.
 3,
 
 Chicago:
 American
 Biographical
 Publishing
 Company,
 1895.
 
  142
 

———.
 History
 of
 Milwaukee
 County
 From
 Its
 First
 Settlement
 to
 the
 Year
 1895.
 Vol.
 2,
 
 Chicago:
 
American
 Biographical
 Publishing
 Company,
 1895.
 
Daniels,
 Megan
 E.
 Milwaukee's
 Early
 Architecture.
 
 Charleston,
 SC:
 Arcadia
 Publishing,
 2010.
 
Downing,
 Andrew
 Jackson.
 Cottage
 Residences:
 Or,
 A
 Series
 of
 Designs
 for
 Rural
 Cottages
 and
 
Cottage
 Villas,
 and
 Their
 Gardens
 and
 Grounds,
 Adapted
 to
 North
 America.
 4th
 ed.
 
 New
 
York:
 Wiley
 &
 Halsted,
 1856.
 
Feiring,
 Julius
 Ferdinand.
 "Some
 Phases
 of
 Chicago's
 Early
 Development,
 1832-­‐1852."
 master's
 
thesis,
 University
 of
 Wisconsin-­‐Madison,
 1914.
 
Flower,
 Frank
 Abial.
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin:
 From
 Prehistoric
 Times
 to
 the
 Present
 
Date.
 
 Chicago:
 Western
 Historical
 Company,
 1881.
 
Glazier,
 Willard
 W.
 Peculiarities
 of
 American
 Cities.
 
 Philadelphia:
 Hubbard
 Bros.,
 1886.
 
Gregory,
 John
 Goadby.
 History
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Wisconsin.
 Vol.
 1
 Chicago:
 S.J.
 Clarke,
 1931.
 
Guide
 to
 Summer
 Resorts
 in
 Wisconsin,
 Minnesota,
 Michigan,
 Etc.,
 Etc.
 
 Chicago:
 Rand,
 McNally
 
&
 co.,
 1873.
 

Gurda,
 John.
 The
 Making
 of
 Milwaukee.
 
 Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 County
 Historical
 Society,
 
1999.
 

The
 History
 of
 Racine
 and
 Kenosha
 Counties,
 Wisconsin.
 
 Kenosha,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 
Company,
 1879.
 
Holley,
 I.B.,
 Jr.
 "The
 Mechanization
 of
 Brickmaking."
 Technology
 and
 Culture
 50,
 no.
 1
 (2009):
 
82-­‐102.
 

Ilsley,
 Samuel.
 The
 Architectural
 Record.
 Vol.
 17,
 
 Chicago:
 The
 Architectural
 Record
 Co.,
 1905.
 
Jacobsen,
 James
 E.
 "Architectural
 and
 Historial
 Survey
 Report
 -­‐
 Downtown
 Dubuque."
 
http://www.cityofdubuque.org/DocumentCenter/Home/View/2935.
 
Jakubovich,
 Paul
 J.
 As
 Good
 As
 New:
 A
 Guide
 to
 Rehabilitating
 the
 Exterior
 of
 Your
 Old
 
Milwaukee
 House.
 
 Milwaukee:
 The
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1993.
 
Koop,
 Michael.
 Minneapolis
 Brewing
 Company
 Historic
 District
 edited
 by
 National
 Register
 of
 
Historic
 Places
 Nomination
 Form
 Washington,
 D.C.:
 U.S.
 Department
 of
 the
 Interior.
 
National
 Park
 Service,
 1988.
 
Kowsky,
 Francis
 R.
 "The
 Architecture
 of
 Frederick
 C.
 Withers
 (1828-­‐1901)."
 Journal
 of
 the
 
Society
 of
 Architectural
 Historians
 35,
 no.
 2
 (1976):
 83-­‐107.
 
  143
 

"Landmarks."
 
 Oneida
 County
 Historical
 Society.
 
http://www.oneidacountyhistory.org/landmarks/landmarks.asp.
 
"Landmarks
 Illinois
 honors
 Arcade
 Building
 owner
 for
 restoration."
 
 Riverside
 -­‐
 Brookfield
 
Landmark.
 http://www.rblandmark.com/News/Articles/9-­‐19-­‐2014/Landmarks-­‐Illinois-­‐
honors-­‐Arcade-­‐Building-­‐owner-­‐for-­‐restoration/.
 
Milwaukee
 Department
 of
 City
 Development.
 Built
 In
 Milwaukee:
 An
 Architectural
 View
 of
 the
 
City
 Milwaukee:
 City
 of
 Milwaukee,
 Department
 of
 City
 Development,
 1983.
 
Milwaukee,
 City
 of.
 "Historic
 Designation
 Study
 Report
 -­‐
 James
 S.
 Brown
 Double
 House."
 
http://city.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/cityHPC/DesignatedReports/vticnf/Bro
wnDoubleHouse.pdf.
 
———.
 "Historic
 Designation
 Study
 Report
 -­‐
 Pabst
 Brewing
 Company."
 
http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/cityHPC/DesignatedReports/vticn
f/hdpabst.pdf.
 
Milwaukee,
 a
 Half
 Century's
 Progress,
 1846-­‐1896:
 A
 Review
 of
 the
 Cream
 City's
 Wonderful
 
Growth
 and
 Development
 from
 Incorporation
 Until
 the
 Present
 Time.
 
 Milwaukee:
 
Consolidated
 Illustrating
 Co.,
 1896.
 
"Milwaukee,
 Queen
 City
 of
 the
 Lakes."
 Frank
 Leslie's
 Illustrated
 Newspaper
 21
 May
 1859.
 
Milwaukie
 Brick.
 Prairie
 Farmer.
 Vol.
 7,
 
 Chicago:
 Prarie
 Farmer
 Publishing
 Company,
 1847.
 
New
 York
 Institution
 for
 the
 Instruction
 of
 the
 Deaf
 &
 Dumb.
 
 New
 York,
 NY:
 The
 Fanwood
 Press,
 
1918.
 

Perrin,
 Richard
 W.E.
 Historic
 Wisconsin
 Buildings:
 A
 Survey
 of
 Pioneer
 Architecture
 1835-­‐1870.
 
Publications
 in
 History.
 
 Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Museum,
 1962.
 
Quinn
 Evans
 Architects.
 "Milwaukee
 City
 Hall
 National
 Landmark
 Nomination."
 
http://www.nps.gov/nhl/find/statelists/wi/Milwaukee.pdf.
 
Randall,
 Frank
 A.
 History
 of
 the
 Development
 of
 Building
 Construction
 in
 Chicago.
 
 Urbana,
 IL:
 
University
 of
 Illinois
 Press,
 1949.
 
Ries,
 Heinrich.
 The
 Clays
 of
 Wisconsin
 and
 Their
 Uses.
 Wisconsin
 Geological
 and
 Natural
 History
 
Survey,
 Bulletin
 No.
 15.
 
 Madison,
 WI:
 Published
 by
 the
 State,
 1906.
 
Still,
 Bayrd.
 "Milwaukee
 in
 1836
 and
 1849:
 A
 Contemporary
 Description."
 The
 Wisconsin
 
Magazine
 of
 History
 53,
 no.
 4
 (1970):
 294-­‐97.
 
———.
 Milwaukee,
 History
 of
 a
 City.
 Madison,
 WI:
 State
 Historical
 Society
 of
 Wisconsin,
 1948.
 
  144
 

Walters,
 William
 D.
 "Nineteenth
 Century
 Midwestern
 Brick."
 Pioneer
 America
 14,
 no.
 3
 (1982):
 
125-­‐36.
 

Watrous,
 Jerome
 A.
 Memoirs
 of
 Milwaukee
 County:
 From
 the
 Earliest
 Historical
 Times
 Down
 to
 
the
 Present,
 Including
 a
 Genealogical
 and
 Biographical
 Record
 of
 Representative
 Families
 
in
 Milwaukee
 County.
 Vol.
 2,
 Part
 2,
 
 Madison,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 Association,
 1909.
 
———.
 Memoirs
 of
 Milwaukee
 County:
 From
 the
 Earliest
 Historical
 Times
 Down
 to
 the
 Present,
 
Including
 a
 Genealogical
 and
 Biographical
 Record
 of
 Representative
 Families
 in
 
Milwaukee
 County.
 Vol.
 1,
 
 Madison,
 WI:
 Western
 Historical
 Association,
 1909.
 
Wheeler,
 Andrew
 Carpenter.
 The
 Chronicles
 of
 Milwaukee.
 
 Milwaukee:
 Jermain
 &
 Brightman,
 
1861.
 

The
 Wisconsin
 Farmer,
 and
 North-­‐Western
 Cultivator.
 Vol.
 8
 Madison,
 WI:
 J.W.
 Hoyt
 &
 Co.,
 
1861.
 

Yarnall,
 James
 L.
 Newport
 Through
 Its
 Architecture:
 A
 History
 of
 Styles
 From
 Postmedieval
 to
 
Postmodern.
 
 Newport,
 RI:
 Salve
 Regina
 University
 Press,
 2005.
 
Zimmermann,
 H.
 Russell.
 The
 Heritage
 Guidebook:
 Landmarks
 and
 Historical
 Sites
 in
 
Southeastern
 Wisconsin.
 2nd
 ed.
 
 Milwaukee:
 H.W.
 Schwartz,
 1989.
 
———.
 Magnificent
 Milwaukee.
 Milwaukee:
 Milwaukee
 Public
 Museum,
 1987.
 
———.
 "Milwaukee's
 Cream
 City
 Brick."
 Historical
 Messenger
 of
 the
 Milwaukee
 County
 
Historical
 Society
 26
 (1970):
 2-­‐13.
 
 
 
 

PDF Document reader online

This website is focused on providing document in readable format, online without need to install any type of software on your computer. If you are using thin client, or are not allowed to install document reader of particular type, this application may come in hand for you. Simply upload your document, and Docureader.top will transform it into readable format in a few seconds. Why choose Docureader.top?

  1. Unlimited sharing - you can upload document of any size. If we are able to convert it into readable format, you have it here - saved for later or immediate reading
  2. Cross-platform - no compromised when reading your document. We support most of modern browers without the need of installing any of external plugins. If your device can oper a browser - then you can read any document on it
  3. Simple uploading - no need to register. Just enter your email, title of document and select the file, we do the rest. Once the document is ready for you, you will receive automatic email from us.

Previous 10

Next 10