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TRAINING REPORT
OF
SIX WEEKS SUMMER TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN
AT
ISGEC HEAVY ENGINEERING LIMITED,
YAMUNANAGAR
IN
Trading (CNC MACHINES)
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE
OF
B.TECH
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SUBMITTED BY:
NAME: R. AGHNIHOTRI XYZ
DESIGNATION: DGM B.Tech
Roll No. ********
CONTENTS
Chapter Page No.
Declaration 4
Certificate 5
Acknowledgement 6
Vision 7
Introduction 8
Business Areas 9
Power Sector 9
Industry Sector 10
International Operations 13
Research and Development 13
Human Resource Development 14
Casting 15
Casting Process Simulation 16
Sand Casting 17
Basic Processes 17
Components 19
Design Requirements 22
Mold Materials 25
Types of base sand 27
History 30
Forging 31
History 32
Advantages & Disadvantages 32
Processes 33
Machine Shop 39
Operations Performed 39
Description of Machines 43
Lathe Machine 43
Parts of Lathe 44
Milling Machine 45
Drilling Machine 46
Boring Machine 48
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in this training
report as part of curriculum is an authentic record of my own work, carried
within the premises of ISGEC HEAVY ENGINEERING LIMITED,
YAMUNANAGAR.
XYZ
Dated: 04-08-2013
Place: YAMUNANAGAR
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the six week summer training report which has been
submitted to ISGEC Yamunanagar as part of the curriculum by XYZ bearing
Roll no. ******** of MechaNICAL Engineering Department, M.M.E.C.,
MULLANA is a record of authentic work carried out by his under our
supervision and guidance to the best of our knowledge.
R. Aghnihotri
Chief Training Officer
ISGEC Heavy Engg. Ltd.
Yamunanagar (HR)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am extremely grateful to ISGEC Heavy Engineering Limited,
Yamunanagar for giving me the opportunity to carry out my summer training at
their facility. Special thanks are due to Mr. Rajinder Aghnihotri, Head Training
Officer, ISGEC, for his continuous support and guidance in being my mentor.
And last but not the least, I would also like to extend my gratefulness to all the
engineers and operators, right from the highest to the simplest, for their constant
and enthusiasing support.
XYZ
VISION
ISGEC‟s vision is to become “a world-class engineering enterprise
committed to enhancing stakeholder value”.
INTRODUCTION
ISGEC Heavy Engineering Ltd. is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise
of its kind in India and is one of the leading international companies in the field of
machine manufacture and diversified global engineering. Established in 1933, Isgec
Heavy Engineering Limited is a Rs. 2434 crore multi-product, multi-location public
company providing engineering products to customers across 76 countries. The major
target sectors for the company are: Power, Oil & Gas, Automobiles, Fertilizers, Sugar and
Defence. With a team of over 4000 employees, including 700 qualified engineers and
over 450 designers, the company has its manufacturing plants and design offices spread
across India in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.
It is today a subsidiary company. At the time of the nation's independence, the need for an
Indian capital goods industry was recognized and Isgec was established in 1946. The
initial activity was the manufacture of spares for sugar mills. In 1964 it established a joint
venture with John Thompson of the UK to form Isgec John Thompson.. In 2011, the
company name was changed from Saraswati Industrial Syndicate Ltd. to Isgec Heavy
Engineering Ltd. with all businesses consolidated and now marketed under a common
brand name – Isgec.
ISGEC‟s range of services extends from project feasibility studies to after-sales-service,
successfully meeting diverse needs through turn key capability. The quality and reliability
of its products is due to the emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to
international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from
leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its own R&D
centers. Isgec Heavy Engineering Limited, India and Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Japan
have a joint venture - Isgec Hitachi Zosen Ltd. - for manufacturing specialized and
critical process equipment. The Company has been constantly adapting itself to face the
challenges thrown-up by the business environment. ISGEC has already attained ISO 9000
certification for quality management and all the manufacturing units /divisions have been
upgraded to the latest ISO 9001-2008 version. ISGEC has also secured ISO 14001-2004
certification for environmental management systems & OHSAS -18001-2007 certification
for occupational health and safety management systems for all its units/divisions. ISGEC
is continuing its journey towards Business Excellence. ISGEC has committed to support
the Global Compact & the set of core values enshrined in its ten principles in the areas of
human rights, labour standards and environment.
BUSINESS AREAS
ISGEC has the following business units - Process Equipment, EPC Power Plants,
Boilers, Sugar Plants & Machinery, Mechanical & Hydraulic Presses, Steel & Iron
Castings, Contract Manufacturing, and Trading. This enables ISGEC to have a strong
customer orientation and respond quickly to the changes in the market.
Process Equipment
 Wall thickness upto 300 mm (12 inches)
 Weight up to 1000 MT (Single Piece)
 Materials include Low and High Alloy (with or without cladding), Stainless Steel,
Non Ferrous material and Carbon steel (with or without cladding).
 ISO 9001:2008, ISO14001:2004, OHSAS 18001:1999
 ASME 'U3', 'U2', 'U', 'S' stamps
 'R' and 'NB' certificates of Authorization from National Board of Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Inspectors, USA
 CE Certification
EPC Power Plants
 The demand for energy has never been greater and we are geared up to deliver
solutions for power and energy demands.
 They provide complete EPC solutions from concept to commissioning.
 Customized solutions with our standardized power plant designs to provide
optimum results.
 Skilled manpower available to execute any Greenfield or Brownfield projects
 Collaborative approach with associates for critical bought outs and systems
 Proven experience with boiler technology such as CFBC, AFBC, Traveling Grate,
Oil & Gas Fired Boilers
 Till date executed projects totaling to 275 MW
 Currently executing projects totaling to 460 MW
Boilers
 Over 600 High Capacity and High Pressure Boiler installations across 30
countries.
 Wide Experience in Cogeneration, Captive Power applications and Independent
Power Plants.
 Foster Wheeler, USA Technology for Pulverized Coal Fired, CFBC and Oil & Gas
Fired Boilers.
 Boiler Technologies for Firing Solid and Biomass Fuels:
 Oil / Gas Fired Boiler
 Spent Wash (Slop) / Vinasse Fired Boiler
 Municipality Solid Waste (MSW) / RDF Fired Boiler
 Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (Cement & Sponge Iron Kiln)
 Heat Recovery Steam Generators for GT Exhaust (HRSG)
 Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) Fired Boiler
 World class manufacturing facilities
Iron Casting
 Iron & Alloy Iron Casting conforming to International standards including DIN,
BS, JIS, ASME
 Single piece casting weighing upto 20 tonnes
 Modern Pattern Shop
 Facility for Full Mould Process Castings
 Facility to offer fully machined Castings
 Hydro Pressure tested castings upto 10 Kg /sq. cm
 Can offer equipment under third party inspection by International agencies like
Lloyds, TUV, SGS, Inspectorate Holland
Contract Manufacturing
 Custom job shop specializing in building Heavy Equipments to meet your
Drawing and Design specifications
 45,000 sq. mtrs. of manufacturing space under heavy crane
 Can handle single piece equipment upto 150 tonnes
 Our modern fabrication, machning and assembly facilities allow us to meet your
delivery needs while maintaining International Quality standards at competitive
prices
 Can offer equipments under third party inspection by International agencies like
Lloyds, TUV, SGS, Inspectorate Holland
 Offer extensive drawing capability using Auto CAD & other design packages and
easy electronic transfer of data files via internet
Trading
 CNC Vertical Machining Centres - Single / Double Column
 CNC Horizontal Machining Centres
 CNC Lathe - Slant / Flat Bed
 Automation line for Bearing Industry
 CNC Gear Grinding Machines
 CNC Centerless & Double Disc Grinders
 Surface Grinders
 CNC High Speed Tap Centres
 Heavy Duty Plano Millers CNC Horizontal Borers
 Conventional Milling Machines
 Broaching Machines
 Robots
 Laser Cutting Machines
 Plasma Cutting Machines
 Plate Bending Machines
 Machine Frames
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
The greatest strength of ISGEC is its highly skilled and committed manpower. Every
employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and improve his position.
Continuous training & retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and
participative style of management have engendered development of a committed and
motivated work force ready to take up the challenge of making BHEL a competitive
world-class organization.
As a process of linking HRM to market forces / stakeholder driven policies, an
e-enabled Performance Management System has been established for executives - a
new benchmark in promoting performance-led growth. To encourage individuals for
capability building and for continuous improvement through creativity & innovation in
every sphere of activity, an e-network based Improvement Projects Rewards Scheme‟
(IMPRESS) has been introduced company wide.
National Operations
Isgec has its manufacturing operations across Yamunanagar, Dahej, Bawal &
Muzaffarnagar, with offices in Noida, Pune, Chennai, Mumbai & Kolkata in India.
Spread over 100 Hectares (250 acres), the Company's manufacturing facilities have a
shop floor area of over 55,000 square meters (66,400 square yards) with world class
manufacturing & testing facilities.
International Operations
Isgec products have been supplied to reputed companies across 74 countries, many of
whom have placed repeat orders to them. These include:
 ABB Group, Japan
 Siemens, Germany
 Foster Wheeler, China
 Sumitomo, Japan
 Foster Wheeler, USA
 Valeo, France
 GE Hydro, Canada
 Virginia Tech, USA
 Luk, Germany
 Wesfarmers Group, Australia
Strategic Partnerships
 Foster Wheeler, USA: License Agreement for PC Fired Boilers up to 1000 MW
 Foster Wheeler, Spain: Licensing Agreement for HP & LP Feedwater Heaters &
Condensers
 Bosch Projects, South Africa: Technology Transfer for Chainless Cane Diffusers
 Foster Wheeler, USA: Collaboration Agreement for Power Plants up to 99.99
MWe
 Belleli, Italy: Technology Agreement for manufacture of Breech Lock Heat
Exchangers
 ABB Lummus Heat Transfer, USA: Technology License Agreement for Helix
Heat Exchangers
 Hitachi Zosen Corp., Japan: Technology Transfer Agreement for Chrome-Moly
Vanadium Reactors
 Hitachi Zosen Corp., Japan: Agreement for Critical Heat Exchangers for Fertilizer
industry
International Centres
Isgec has international offices in North America (California, USA) and Germany
(Düsseldorf).
New Joint Venture
Isgec Heavy Engineering Limited, India and Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Japan have a
joint venture - Isgec Hitachi Zosen Ltd. - for manufacturing specialized and critical
process equipment. The new company has a shareholding pattern of 51% (Isgec) to 49%
(Hitachi Zosen Corp.).
CNC MACHINE
CNC is an Acronym for Computer Numeric Control. A CNC is something controlled
using a computer or PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). It‟s a machine tool that uses
programs to automatically execute a series of machining operations. CNC machines offer
increased productivity and flexibility
In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using
computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The
programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to
operate a particular machine via a postprocessor, and then loaded into the CNC machines
for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of
different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a
single "cell". In other installations, a number of different machines are used with an
external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from
machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is
highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.
History
The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that
were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system
on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and
digital computers, creating the modern CNC machine tools that have revolutionized the
machining processes.
CNC, or computer numerical control, allows a computer to dictate the moves a machine
makes to perform cutting function. Originally, all machines were operated manually with
the distinct possibility of mistakes. The CNC machine performs these same actions with
more precision as well as more speed. The first CNC machines were manufactured in the
1970s to speed up production at large manufacturing plants and were very expensive and
difficult to use.
Overview of CNC Setup and Operation
CNC machine setup and operation follows the process shown in Figure
Pre-Start
Before starting the machine, check to ensure oil and coolant levels are full. Check the
machine maintenance manual if you are unsure about how to service it. Ensure the work area
is clear of any loose tools or equipment. If the machine requires an air supply, ensure the
compressor is on and pressure meets the machine requirements.
Start/Home
Turn power on the machine and control. The main breaker is located at the back of the
machine. The machine power button is located in the upper-left corner on the control face.
Load Tools
Load tools into the tool carousel in the order listed in the CNC program tool list.
Set Tool Length Offsets
For each tool used, jog the machine to find and then set the TLO.
Set Fixture Offset XY
Once the vise or other fixture is properly installed and aligned on the machine, set the fixture
offset to locate the part XY datum.
Set Fixture Offset Z
Use a dial indicator and 1-2-3 block to find and set the fixture offset Z.
Load CNC Program
Download the CNC program from your computer to the machine control using RS-232
communications, USB flash memory, or floppy disk.
Run Program
Run the program, using extra caution until the program is proven to be error-free.
Adjust Offsets as Required
Check the part features and adjust the CDC or TLO registers as needed to ensure the part is
within design specifications.
Shut Down
Remove tools from the spindle, clean the work area, and properly shut down the machine. Be
sure to clean the work area and leave the machine and tools in the location and condition you
found them.
Numerical accuracy vs Equipment backlash
Within the numerical systems of CNC programming it is possible for the code generator
to assume that the controlled mechanism is always perfectly accurate, or that accuracy
tolerances are identical for all cutting or movement directions. This is not always a true
condition of CNC tools. CNC tools with a large amount of mechanical backlash can still
be highly accurate if the drive or cutting mechanism is only driven so as to apply cutting
force from one direction, and all driving systems are pressed tight together in that one
cutting direction. However a CNC device with high backlash and a dull cutting tool can
lead to cutter chatter and possible workpiece gouging. Backlash also affects accuracy of
some operations involving axis movement reversals during cutting, such as the milling of
a circle, where axis motion is sinusoidal. However, this can be compensated for if the
amount of backlash is precisely known by linear encoders or manual measurement.
The high backlash mechanism itself is not necessarily relied on to be repeatedly accurate
for the cutting process, but some other reference object or precision surface may be used
to zero the mechanism, by tightly applying pressure against the reference and setting that
as the zero reference for all following CNC-encoded motions. This is similar to the
manual machine tool method of clamping a micrometer onto a reference beam and
adjusting the Vernier dial to zero using that object as the reference.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES
ADVANTAGES
1. CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and only
need to be switched off for occasional maintenance.
2. CNC machines are programmed with a design which can then be manufactured
hundreds or even thousands of times. Each manufactured product will be exactly
the same.
3. Less skilled/trained people can operate CNCs unlike manual lathes / milling
machines etc.. which need skilled engineers.
4. CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the
machines
5. Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use of „virtual software‟. This
is software that allows the operator to practice using the CNC machine on the
screen of a computer. The software is similar to a computer game.
6. CNC machines can be programmed by advanced design software such as
Pro/DESKTOP®, enabling the manufacture of products that cannot be made by
manual machines, even those used by skilled designers / engineers.
7. Modern design software allows the designer to simulate the manufacture of his/her
idea. There is no need to make a prototype or a model. This saves time and money.
8. One person can supervise many CNC machines as once they are programmed they
can usually be left to work by themselves. Sometimes only the cutting tools need
replacing occasionally.
9. A skilled engineer can make the same component many times. However, if each
component is carefully studied, each one will vary slightly. A CNC machine will
manufacture each component as an exact match.
DISADVANTAGES
1. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although
costs are slowly coming down.
2. The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough to
supervise several machines. In years gone by, engineers needed years of training
to operate centre lathes, milling machines and other manually operated machines.
This means many of the old skills are been lost.
3. Less workers are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually
operated machines. Investment in CNC machines can lead to unemployment.
4. Many countries no longer teach pupils / students how to use manually operated
lathes / milling machines etc... Pupils / students no longer develop the detailed
skills required by engineers of the past. These include mathematical and
engineering skills.
Different Types of CNC Machines
When CNC was first invented it was a technology that was adapted to fit existing
machines. Today CNC technology is still being retrofitted to various machine tools but
there are also many machines which are created for the sole purpose of being CNC
machines.
Machines that are Retrofitted
1. Milling Machine :
Milling machines are often retrofitted with CNC technology. This process
involves removing all the mechanisms built into the machine to make it easy for a
human to operate, such as: hand wheels and DRO (Digital Read Out) electronics.
The machine will usually have its old lead screws replaced with new very high
accuracy ball screws and various new mounts built for mounting the actuators to
the machine. These machining centers use computer controls to cut different
materials. They are able to translate programs consisting of specific number and
letters to move the spindle to various locations and depths. Many use G code,
which is a standardized programming language that all CNC machines understand,
while others use proprietary languages created by their manufacturers. These
proprietary languages are often simpler than G code, but not transferable to other
machines.
2. Lathe Machine:
Just like the milling machine, lathes are also commonly retrofitted with CNC
technology in the exact same way. Lathes are machines that cut metal that is often
turning at fast speeds. CNC lathes are able to make fast, precision cuts using
indexable tools and drills with complicated programs for parts that normally
cannot be cut on manual lathes. These machines often include 12 tool holders and
coolant pumps to cut down on tool wear. CNC lathes have similar control
specifications and can read G code as well as the manufacturer's proprietary
programming language.
Machines that are Custom Built for CNC Operation
Router
CNC Routers are a very common piece of machinery. These are machines built
exclusively to be operated by CNC technology and have no human interface other
than through the computer.
Routers are generally for producing larger work and more commonly built with
the idea of cutting wood, plastics and sheet metal in mind. Router also are most
commonly found in a 3 axis setup (X, Y and Z). This set up will allow cutting of
basic profiles and 3 dimensional relief machining. There are also CNC router
which are 4, 5 or even 6 axis, these machines are more suited towards cutting
more complex shapes or prototype models.
Milling Machine
There are many milling machines today which were built specifically for CNC as
opposed to being retrofitted at a later stage. Some of these machines can be
absolutely massive and have built in tool changers, auto-feed mechanisms for
loading in material and various electrical sensors for safe monitored cutting.
CNC Plasma Cutter
CNC plasma cutters are very similar to CNC routers in size and setup, however
plasma cutters don‟t require as much of a powerful set up because as opposed to
dragging around a spinning tool in material they fly above the table with a plasma
torch. Plasma cutters are made for cutting 2 dimensional profile shapes into sheet
metal.
CNC Laser Cutter
CNC laser cutters follow the same principle as the plasma cutter. However laser
cutters use a much less destructive force than a plasma torch – A laser. Laser
cutters are often good for cutting wood, plastic and metal. Each will need a
different strength of laser suited for the material.
Tools are Used with a CNC Machine
End Mills
Milling tools include flat, ball, bull nose and chamfer.
o Flat nose mills are used for milling 2D contours and pockets.
o Ball nose mills are used for 3D milling.
o Bull nose end mills have a radius corner. They are used to create a fillet on the
bottom of a wall. Because they are sturdier than an end mill they are also
sometimes used for roughing operations.
o Chamfer mills have an angled nose used to create a chamfer or to de-burr parts.
Face Mill
A face mill has cutting inserts that are replaced when worn. They are rigid, may
have up to eight or more cutting edges, and can remove material quickly. They are
often used for the first machining operation to quickly create a flat finished face on
the part.
Corner Radius Tool
Corner radius (also called Corner Round) tools are used to place a fillet on the
outside corner of a part.
Slot Mill / Slotting Saw
Slot mills include side milling cutters, slitting saws, and Woodruff keyset cutters.
Slitting saws and side milling cutters are installed on a special arbor. Woodruff
cutters are single piece tools used for creating slots and undercuts that can be held
in a standard tool holder.
Center-Spot Drills
Center (spotting) drills are short and very rigid drills used to create a conic on the
face of the part. Because they come to a sharp point and resist bending, they locate
the hole precisely. The conic helps prevent the subsequent drill from wobbling and
ensure the drill is located precisely and drills straight down.
Countersink drills are used to create the conical face for a machine screw.
Combined spotting-countersinks are used to create a screw clearance hole and
countersink in one operation.
There are many different sizes and tip angles of center, countersink, and combined
drills. Be sure the tip angle of the countersink matches the included angle of the
machine screw, and that the drill diameter is greater than the screw head diameter.
Twist Drill
Twist drills are available in many diameters and lengths. Usually made of high
speed steel, carbide, or cobalt, they may also be coated with titanium nitride (TiN)
for longer life. The tip angle of most twist drills is 118 degrees.
Taps
Cutting taps form threads by shearing material away. Form taps (roll taps) form
the thread by forming the metal to shape. Form taps produce no chips and are used
for soft materials including aluminum, copper, brass and plastics.
Bottoming taps are used to tap blind holes. Spiral point taps push the chip ahead
and out the bottom of a through hole.
Reamer
Use reamers to create holes of precise shape and excellent surface finish. Reamed
holes are usually accurate within .0002 inches diameter. For example, a reamer is
used for holes used for ground pins and bushings.
Reamers require a specific size hole be drilled before use. Cutting speeds and
feeds are also important. Remove too little or too much material and the hole will
not be the correct size.
Drills
CNC drilling Machine follow specific instructions in the manufacturing of a part. A
software platform can control the position of the cut, as well as the depth of the hole
being drilled. Computer control is used when the work piece requires repeated drilling or
tapping cycles. Certain parameters, such as depth, feed rate, retraction and cancellation of
the cycle control the drilling sequence.
Lathes
A lathe is a machine that spins a part in place while a cutting blade removes excess
material to prepare it for deformation . Lathes can be used for cutting, sanding, drilling,
knurling, or deforming. Cutting fluid may be used to remove the swarf (debris), and to
serve as a lubricant or coolant during the cutting process. CNC lathes are often used in the
production of camshafts and crankshafts.
Electrical Discharge Machining Machines (EDMs)
Electrical discharge machining is a technique for making minute, complex cuts or
contours in hardened materials that would otherwise be difficult to shape. EDM is only
effective on electrical conductors, and is used mainly on ferrous alloys. EDM machines
fire a series of rapid electrical bursts from an electrode to melt or vaporize material. The
remaining debris is flushed away with dielectric fluid.
Milling Machines
Milling machines are used to make complex shapes out of metals and other solids. A work
piece is fixed to a moveable table that guides the material around a stationary rotating
cutter, or, inversely, a moving cutter operates across a stationary table.Some of them also
feature a spindle that can be moved along its Z-axis, thus offering a more adjustable
cutting method. Milling machines are commonly used for planing, drilling, rebating,
routing, and slot cutting. In addition, machines equipped with the Z-axis spindle can be
used to create advanced three dimensional objects, such as relief sculptures. Milling
machines can also be used for die-sinking and engraving projects.
Plasma Cutting Machines
CNC plasma cutters use a plasma torch to cut material under the direction of a software
program. A computerized torch head slices a work piece along the axes of a CNC table,
often preparing welding seams for the manufacture of multi-part components. Plasma
cutting can usually handle thick material, and the process is frequently used in the
production of ducts and vents.
Water Jet Cutter Machines
Water jet cutting simulates erosion by using a stream of high-pressurized water
(sometimes in combination with an abrasive , such as grit or aluminum oxide) to cut
through material. The process reduces the risk of heat-damaging the work piece, and
though it can be applied to a wide range of materials, some substances are impervious to
it. As in other CNC systems, the table or the jet mechanism are under computer control.
Laser Cutting Machines
Laser cutters use a high-powered laser to shape work pieces. Since the excess material
usually melts, vaporizes, or is blown away from the cut, the process can yield clean, high
quality finishes. CNC lasers can provide improved accuracy due to the precision of
computer controlled cutting.
The Programming and Processes of CNC Machining
Many CNC machines employ a numerical control programming
language that uses preparatory codes, or “G-Codes,” to coordinate
the tool and initiate its work orders. Three dimensional models
generated in computer aided design (CAD) programs are converted
into CNC code through computer aided manufacturing (CAM)
software before work can begin.
There are roughly four stages in the CNC manufacturing process: roughing, semifinishing, finishing, and contour milling. Here is a brief outline of each step:
 Roughing begins with the introduction of the raw stock, or billet, which is cut
into the approximate shape of the final product.
 Semi-Finishing employs raster passes, constant step-over passes, waterline passes,
or pencil milling techniques to hone the material closer to its final shape.
 Finishing initiates a faster spindle rotation speed and a decreased material feed
rate. This step produces applies a finer finish to the piece.
 Contour Milling is usually used on hardware with five or more axes. During
contouring, the work piece is rotated to allow a cutting tool to finish the part with
higher dimensional accuracy. Contour milled components can have greatly
improved surface finish.
As CNC software and computer hardware becomes more cost-efficient, it may be useful
for manufacturers to consider including computer-controlled tools in their shops. The
relative precision, uniformity of products, and standardization of methods that CNC tools
provide can make them a valuable addition to a range machining projects.
CNC Language and Structure
CNC programs list instructions to be performed in the order they are written. They read
like a book, left to right and top-down. Each sentence in a CNC program is written on a
separate line, called a Block. Blocks are arranged in a specific sequence that promotes
safety, predictability and readability, so it is important to adhere to a standard program
structure.
Typically, blocks are arranged in the following order:
 Program Start
 Load Tool
 Spindle On
 Coolant On
 Rapid to position above part
 Machining operation
 Coolant Off
 Spindle Off
 Move to safe position
 End program
The steps listed above represent the simplest type of CNC program, where only one tool
is used and one operation performed. Programs that use multiple tools repeat steps two
through nine for each.
Program Format
The program in Table below machines a square contour and drills a hole.
Block Description Purpose
%
O0001 (PROJECT1)
(T1 0.25 END MILL)
N1 G17 G20 G40 G49 G80
G90
Start of program.
Program number (Program Name).
Tool description for operator.
Safety block to ensure machine is in safe
mode.
Start Program
N2 T1 M6
N3 S9200 M3
Load Tool #1.
Spindle Speed 9200 RPM, On CW.
Change Tool
N4 G54
N5 M8
N6 G00 X-0.025 Y-0.275
N7 G43 Z1. H1
N8 Z0.1
N9 G01 Z-0.1 F18.
Use Fixture Offset #1.
Coolant On.
Rapid above part.
Rapid to safe plane, use Tool Length
Offset #1.
Rapid to feed plane.
Line move to cutting depth at 18 IPM.
Move to
Position
N10 G41 Y0.1 D1 F36.
N11 Y2.025
N12 X2.025
N13 Y-0.025
N14 X-0.025
N15 G40 X-0.4
CDC Left, Lead in line, Dia. Offset #1,
36 IPM.
Line move.
Line move.
Line move.
Line move.
Machine
Contour
N16 G00 Z1. Turn CDC off with lead-out move.
Rapid to safe plane.
N17 M5
N18 M9
(T2 0.25 DRILL)
N19 T2 M6
N20 S3820 M3
Spindle Off.
Coolant Off.
Tool description for operator.
Load Tool #2.
Spindle Speed 3820 RPM, On CW.
Change Tool
N21 M8
N22 X1. Y1.
N23 G43 Z1. H2
N24 Z0.25
Coolant On.
Rapid above hole.
Rapid to safe plane, use Tool Length
Offset 2.
Rapid to feed plane.
Move to
Position
N25 G98 G81 Z-0.325 R0.1
F12.
N26 G80
N27 Z1.
Drill hole (canned) cycle, Depth Z-.325,
F12.
Cancel drill cycle.
Rapid to safe plane.
Drill Hole
N28 M5
N29 M9
N30 G91 G28 Z0
N31 G91 G28 X0 Y0
N32 G90
N33 M30
%
Spindle Off.
Coolant Off.
Return to machine Home position in Z.
Return to machine Home position in XY.
Reset to absolute positioning mode (for
safety).
Reset program to beginning.
End Program.
End Program
G & M Codes
G&M Codes make up the most of the contents of the CNC program. The definition of
each class of code and specific meanings of the most important codes are covered next.
G-Codes
Codes that begin with G are called preparatory words because they prepare the machine
for a certain type of motion. The most common G-codes are shown in Table.
S. NO. FUNCTION / MEANING G-CODE
1 Rapid motion. Used to position the machine for non-milling
moves.
G0
2 Line motion at a specified feed rate. G1
3 Clockwise arc G2
4 Counterclockwise arc. G3
5 Dwell. G4
6 Return to machine home position G28
7 Cutter Diameter Compensation (CDC) off. G40
8 Cutter Diameter Compensation (CDC) left. G41
9 Cutter Diameter Compensation (CDC) right. G42
10 Tool length offset (TLO). G43
11 Fixture Offset #1 G54
12 Fixture Offset #2 G55
13 Fixture Offset #3 G56
14 Fixture Offset #4 G57
15 Fixture Offset #5 G58
16 Fixture Offset #6 G59
17 Cancel drill cycle. G80
18 Simple drill cycle G81
19 Simple drill cycle with dwell G82
20 Peck drill cycle. G83
21 Tap cycle G84
22 Absolute coordinate programming mode G90
23 Incremental coordinate programming mode G91
24 Drill cycle return to Initial point (R). G98
25 Drill cycle return to Reference plane (last Z Height) G99
M-Codes
Codes that begin with M are called miscellaneous words. They control machine auxiliary
options like coolant and spindle direction. Only one M-code can appear in each block of
code. The table below lists the most common M codes and their meaning.
S. No. FUNCTION MACHINE CODE
1 Program Stop M00
2 Optimal Stop M01
3 Spindle Forward (CW) M03
4 Spindle Reverse (CCW) M04
5 Spindle Stop M05
6 Automatic Tool Change M06
7 Coolant On M08
8 Coolant Off M09
9 Spindle Orientation M19
10 4
th Axis Clamp M25
11 4
th Axis Unclamp M26
12 Program End M30
13 Tool table Initialize M70
14 POT Down M71
15 ARM 60
0
M72
16 Tool Unclamp M73
17 ARM 180
0
M74
18 Tool Clamp M75
19 ARM Back to Original Position M76
20 POT Up M77
21 ATC ARM Trouble Shooting M95
22 Call Sub Program M98
23 End Sub Program M99
TOS CNC BORING MACHINE
Machine Description:
TOS CNC BORING MACHINE is manufactures by TOS VARNSDORF .
This Horizontal Boring machine is crosswise design machine with Live Spindle movable
column and with movable Rotary table.
WHN/WHQ 13 CNC is characterised by Low Power Consumption, Simple & Quick
Operation, Simple servicing activity between servicing intervals, Long Life of Parts.
WHN/WHQ 13 CNC series are Universal Machine Tools for Jig Boring, Drilling Plane
Milling, Milling of Surface of various shapes & Thread cutting.
Type WHN (Q) 13 CNC
Max. Spindle Revolution 2800 min
-1
Max. Output of main drive 37 Kw
Table Transverse adjustment (X) 3500 mm
Head Stock Vertical (Y) 2500 mm
Column Longitudinal adjustment
(Z)
1250 mm
Spindle Pullout (W) 800 mm
Table Clamping Surface 1800 * 2200 mm
Control System Heidenhain TNC 430 M
Metering Heidenhain
Drives Siemens
Parts of WHN/WHQ 13 CNC Machine:
1. Head Stock & Jib.
2. Magazine and Too changer.
3. Column.
4. Longitudinal Bed and Column Side.
5. Transversal Bed, Table Slide & Table.
6. Operator‟s Plateform & Electrical Cabinet.
7. Electric Cabinet.
SPOTS of Machine Control
i. Main Control Panel
ii. Handwheel Controller
iii. Headstock Panel
iv. Control Elements on Operators platform
v. Panel on Electric Cabinet side
vi. Panel inside the Electric Cabinet
i. Parts of Main Control Panel:
1) Panel of Control & Signalling Elements
2) Screen BF-120 of Heidenhain Control System
3) Keyboard TE 120 Heidenhain Control System
1) Panel of Control & Signalling:
1. Chip conveyor Controller
2. Signal Lamps of diagnostic & Signalling
3. Controller of manual tool cooling
4. Switch “Mode of Spindle control”
5. Lubrication Signal Lamp
6. Oriented Stop Completion Signal Lamp
7. Push button “Clockwise Sense of Rotation”
8. Push button of Soft key bar cell
9. Push button STOP Revolutions
10. Push button “Anticlockwise Sense of rotation”
11. Controller of tool cooling control selection
12. Working Light Switch
13. Correction of Pressure of cooling through Spindle centre
2) Panel Control & Signalling Lower Part:
1. Switch “Machine Group selection”
2. Switch “Rapid Feed”
3. Push button “Sense of rotation”
4. Pish button “START NC”
5. Push button “STOP NC”
6. Push button “ EMERGENCY STOP”
7. Push button “Machine Activation”
8. Push button “Sense of Rotation”
3) Keyboard TE 120
1. Character‟s Keyboard (file names Entering, Comments & other reading,
Programming ISO/DIN).
2. Numerical Keyboard (Numbers Entering, Axis selection).
3. Keys of cursor Control & GoTo Key.
4. Keys of Dialogue Commencement (Programming of travel
movements, Entering tool Parameters cycles, Sub-Programs & reptation
of Program part).
5. Keys of Selection of Programming operational modes.
6. Keys of Selection Machine operational modes.
7. Feeds over ride.
8. Revolution over side.
9. Keys for Program or Files Handling (Program or file selection, MOD
function, Help Function & Calculator).
4) Screen BF-120
1. Key for defination of Screen Partition.
2. Key for Switching over of Softkey bar significance.
3. Softkey for Selection of additional function.
4. Keys for Switching over of SoftKey bar.
5. Key for Switching over between active Machine mode & Programming
mode.
 Machine Control Mode Switch on column of main Control Panel: When the switch is OFF, selected Mode is
MODE 1- automatic control mode.
 When the switch is ON, selected Mode is
MODE 2- setting control mode.
ii. Control Elements on Electric Panel Side:
1) Main Circuit Breaker Coil Switch.
2) Signal Lamp of main Circuit Breaker Coil Activation.
3) Push Button “MACHINE START”.
4) Main Circuit Breaker.
iii. Control Element on HEADSTOCK:
Neutral Control, Tool Clamping & Release
Determination of Control Elements:1) Button “Neutral Shifting”.
2) Button “Release the Tool”.
3) Button “Clamp the Tool”.
iv. Control Element on Operator‟s Plateform:
Control of Plateform movement & Softkey covers door
Determination of Control Elements:1) Plateform movement crossbar controller.
2) Button “DOOR CONTROL”.
Assignment of Plateform motion direction to the position of crossbar switch
bar
Lever Ahead Plateform Upwards
Lever backwards Plateform Downwards
Lever to Left Plateform Shift Out
Lever to Right Plateform Shift in
v. Control Element Inside Electric Panel:
1) Lever Switch of control system Activation.
2) Lever Switch of Emergency Unclamping.
3) Emergency control of Machine group switch.
4) Button control Emergency STOP group.
5) Reset of Drives.
vi. Handwheel Controller:
1) Button “Emergency STOP”.
2) Handwheel for manual feed.
3) Button for Handwheel Activation.
4) Button for axis selection.
5) Button for “Position Enter”.
6) Button for selection of feed value (fine, normal).
7) Button for selection of sense of Rotation (AntiClock, Stop, clock).
8) Button for selection of feed Direction.
Control of Machine basic functions
Machine Switching On and Activation
 Machine is switched on with the help of control elements situated on
electric cabinet side.
Procedure to Start the machine:
i. Switch the button on by its turn clockwise, then press it and turn anticlockwise –
see arrows. (signal lamp get illuminated)
ii. Get machine connected to the main supply by turning the switch handle down to
lower position and afterwards up to upper position- see arrows.
iii. Activate the machine by pressing of “MACHINE START” push button on side of
electric panel – see arrow
Machine can be activated also by pressing of “ON” button on main control pane.
Together with switching of the main circuit breaker on there is power supply activated to
control system logic unit.
After completion of all internal tests of logic unit, there is message “POWER
INTERRUPTED” displayed on control system screen.
 When this message is activated you shall activate the control system by pressing
of the key “CE” of control system keyboard on main control panel – see arrow.
 If the message is not displayed, it is necessary to check out whether the lever
switch of control system power supply inside the electric cabinet is ON.
If the switch is off, it is necessary, before it‟s switched ON, to discover the reason why
it is off.
If the switch is off and control system has not been activated , it is necessary to call
for service engineer.
If the Machine is activated
 Spindle lubrication pump drive is running, spindle oil cooler drive is
running, and electric motor of main drive fan is running.
 Hydraulic unit drive is running and lubrications of all machine groups is in
progress.
 Menu of reference points evaluation is displayed on control system screen.
 Value of r.p.m. corresponding to the latest engaged gear is logged.
Remedy of causes:
 Releases activation “EMERGENCY STOP” button by slight turn in the arrow
direction.
 Move out the machine group from emergency limit position with the help of
emergency control.
After remedy of the cause, there is the information message “PRESS MACHINE
START BUTTON” displayed on control system screen.
 Activate the Machine by “ MACHINE START” button on main control panel or
on side of electric cabinet -arrow After pressing of “MACHINE START” button following drives are activated:
lubrication pump drive, spindle oil cooler drive, main drive fan electric drive, and
drive of electric cabinet heat exchanger. The information message “PRESS NC
START FOR CONTROL ACTIVATION” is displayed on control system screen
at the same time.
Tool Cooling Control
The machine can be equipped with tool cooling, which can be control by several means
that are identical for both, manual control mode and NC control mode.
Cooling method selection shall be carried out by selectors (switches 1 and 2) on main
control panel and by auxiliary function M71 to M77.
By switching the selector -1- into left hand side position you pre-select the tool cooling
controlled by NC program (using auxiliary M function).
Cooling pump is activated by Auxiliary function M 13, M 14 or M 08.
If the cooling method was not programmed by auxiliary function M 71 to M 77 before,
cooling by two nozzles together is called out. (M 73)
The cooling activated by auxiliary function M 13 and M 14 will be competed only on
spindle continuous run. If the spindle run is stopped, tool cooling procedure is suspended.
You can cancel the tool cooling initiated by auxiliary function M 13 and M 14 by
program end and by auxiliary function M 08 and M 09 as well.
The cooling initiated by auxiliary function M 08 is continuous and is suspended by
neutral gear shift and by auxiliary function M 00, M 06 and M 34.
Tool cooling activated by auxiliary function M 08 can be cancelled by program end and
by auxiliary function M 09, M 14 and M 13.
The control of Chips Conveyor
The machine can be equipped with chips conveyor, which is controlled by selector switch
on main control panel –arrowWhen the selector switch is switched into the middle position, the chip conveyor is OFF.
In other two position of switch, the conveyor is in motion of appropriate direction.
Softkeys
To switch the Softkey bars over to previous meaning you will achieve by pressing of the
softkey for return to previous softkey bar. This softkey is placed at the end of the mostly
used softkey bars.
Termination and Suspension of Softkey bars displaying.
You can terminate displaying of softkey bar by pressing the “END” softkey. This kind of
softkey bar display termination can be done only if softkey for return to previous softkey
bar displayed.
Softkey bar can be suspended by pressing of softkey bar call out button on main control
panel –arrowIf you press the softkey bar call out button on main control panel again, the softkey bar
displaying will be re-established.
 Softkey K1
Calls out the guide surfaces lubrication bar
 Softkey K2
Calls out PLC window showing the list of upto 15 actually displayed error
messages of the machine. The window shall update after each 5 seconds
 Softkey K3
calls out PLC window with information regarding tool numbers of the tools at
Headstock, regarding the tool changer gripper and regarding magazine at the place
of tool change.
 Softkey K4
Calls out the Data concering bearing temperatures, and concerning spindle
dilatation value.
 Softkey K5
Calls out the stage cooling control bar.
 Softkey K6
Calls out the data regarding LD 650 faceplate on small PLC window.
 Softkey K9
Activates lubrication of all guide surfaces of all machine groups.
 Softkey K10
Activates lubrication of guide surfaces of machine group X.
 Softkey K11
Activates lubrication of guide surfaces of machine group Y.
 Softkey K12
Activates lubrication of guide surfaces of machine group Z.
 Softkey K13
Activates lubrication of guide surfaces of machine group W.
 Softkey K14
Activates lubrication of guide surfaces of machine group B.
 Softkey K26
Sets the cooling control to minimum value
 Softkey K27
Decreases the cooling control by 1 stage.
 Softkey K28
Sets the cooling control to programmed value
 Softkey K29
Increases the cooling control by 1 stage.
 Softkey K30
Sets the cooling control to maximum value.
Tool Change
Tool Change Procedure:
1) Hold the tool by your hand and simultaneously press “RELEASE THE TOOL”
button on machine headstock –arrowHydraulic distributor shall be activated after pressing of the button. Distributor
will push out the clamping mechanism and tool will be released.
As the confirmation of tool release completion, the signal lamp inside the
“CLAMP THE TOOL” button shall start to illuminate.
2) Pull out the tool from the hollow of working spindle in arrow direction.
3) Insert new tool into the hollow of working spindle
4) Press illuminating “CLAMP THE TOOL” button on machine headstock.
After clamping command the Hydraulic distributor shall put the clamping device
back to basic position and the tool inserted in hollow of working spindle shall be
clamped by the force of Disc springs.
Condition under which it is impossible to make the tool change:
 Spindle tipping is active.
 Spindle continuous run is active.
 Gear shifting is in progress.
 Some additional M-function is under execution.
 “EMERGENCY STOP” button is pressed.
 Some of the machine groups is at emergency limit position.
Diagnostic Messaging
Error and information messaging
PLC ERROR 00 -- MAJOR OVERLOAD TRIPPED
PLC ERROR 01 -- OVERLOAD TRIPPED
PLC ERROR 02 -- TOOL COOLING FAILURE
PLC ERROR 03 -- SPINDLE DRIVE FAN OFF
PLC ERROR 04 -- GOVERNOR NOT READY
PLC ERROR 06 -- SPINDLE MAX. TORQUE EXCEEDED
PLC ERROR 07 -- SPINDLE DRIVE TEMPERATURE HIGH
PLC ERROR 08 -- MAIN BEARING ASSEMBLY TEMPERATURE HIGH
PLC ERROR 09 -- STOP! LIMIT MAIN BEARING ASSEMBLY TEMP.
PLC ERROR 10 -- GOVERNOR NOT READY
PLC ERROR 11 -- FEED CONTROLLER NOT READY
PLC ERROR 12 -- FEED OVERLOADED
PLC ERROR 13 -- MACHINE AT LIMIT SWITCH
PLC ERROR 15 -- GROUP CLAMPING FAILURE
PLC ERROR 16 -- GROUP RELEASE FAILURE
PLC ERROR 17 -- FEED CONTROLLER TEMP. HIGH
PLC ERROR 18 -- HYDRAULIC UNIT PRESSURE HIGH
PLC ERROR 19 -- PRESSURISING OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM TOO LONG
PLC ERROR 20 -- HYDRAULIC OIL LEVEL LOW
PLC ERROR 21 -- HYDRAULIC UNIT FILTER CHOKED
PLC ERROR 22 -- HEADSTOCK LUBRICATION FAILURE
PLC ERROR 24 -- COOLANT LEVEL HIGH
PLC ERROR 25 -- COOLANT LEVEL LOW
PLC ERROR 26 -- LUBRICATION PRESSURE ON FAILURE
PLC ERROR 27 -- LUBRICATION PRESSURE OFF FAILURE
PLC ERROR 28 -- LUBRICANT LEVEL LOW
PLC ERROR 30 -- +24 V POWER SUPPLY FAILURE
PLC ERROR 32 -- TOOL NOT CLAMPED ON TIME
PLC ERROR 33 -- TOOL NOT RELEASED IN TIME
PLC ERROR 34 -- GEAR SHIFTING NOT DONE IN TIME
PLC ERROR 35 -- GEARSHIFT COMPLETED
PLC ERROR 46 -- IMPOSSIBLE TOOL CLAMPED
PLC ERROR 47 -- NO GEAR ENGAGED
PLC ERROR 49 -- SPINDLE MOTION DISABLED
PLC ERROR 50 -- RPM OUT OF RANGE
PLC ERROR 51 -- IMPOSSIBLE! CONDITIONS NOT FULFILLED
PLC ERROR 54 -- REFERENCE POINT NOT EVALUATED
PLC ERROR 56 -- PRESET OUT OF RANGE
PLC ERROR 57 -- ILLEGAL FUNCTION
PLC ERROR 58 -- AXIS DISABLED IN NC (MP10)
PLC ERROR 59 -- W AXIS DISABLED
PLC ERROR 60 -- THIS FUNCTION IN MANUAL MODE ONLY
PLC ERROR 61 -- PLATFORM NOT AT POSITION
PLC ERROR 62 -- SAFETY COVER OPENED
PLC ERROR 64 -- LACK OF FILTRATION WEB
PLC ERROR 65 -- SPINDLE CENTRE COOLING FILTER CHOKED
Machine Legend:
X - Transversal feed
Y - Spindle vertical shift
Z - Table slide longitudinal shift
W - Working spindle shift
B - Table rotation
C - Working spindle rotation
Inspection and refilling of oil fills
It shall be done at following locations:
1- Machine Jib 4- Lubrication unit
2- Machine Headstock 5- Table Drive Gearbox
3- Hydraulic unit 6- Operator‟s Platform

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