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Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 654
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ STANDARD BAGS &
THEIR SKELETON DISORDERS IN AHWAZ
4Sedigheh Alizadeh and 3Rouhollah Arab Mokhtari, 2Simin Moein Aldini * ,1Alireza Rabieezadeh
1Faculty of Humanities, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169, Iran
2The physical Education & Sports Science Teacher in Ahvaz Education, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Scientific panel, Iran Shahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran Shahr, Iran
4The physical Education & Sports Science Teacher in IranShahr Education, IranShahr, Iran
*Author for Correspondence
ABSTRACT
The main goal of doing this research is surveying on the relationship between students’ Skeleton disorder
of ergonomic bags in Ahwaz. The population includes 50000 male & female students in elementary
schools & by using random-cluster methods was selected 30 classes that average 25 students studied in
each of them (as sample). The dimensions of bag were surveyed as standard rules. The data collection
included; scales, tape measure, stadiometer, grid plate & for analysis the data was used descriptive
statistic; mean, frequency, percentage & deductive statistic; correlation coefficient & chi-square test for
surveying anomalies. The results of research showed that there is significant relationship between back
lordosis anomaly & forward head posture & drooping shoulders abnormalities & torticollis anomaly &
abnormal kyphosis & students’ ergonomic bags. Discussion: regarding to the results of research & same
studies of heavy students’ bags & put up in incorrect way that moreover the backache due to long term
complication such as changes in the angles of the spine and neck, problems standing and walking, and
hazardous waste, such as a herniated disc. Ministry of Health and Medical Education emphasize on the
producing the standard bags, standard health in schools.
Keywords: Skeleton Abnormalities, Upper Limb, Ergonomic, Student, Bag
INTRODUCTION
The prevalence of neck pain with no known cause between 67 to 71% has been reported in human society
shows that about two-thirds of society experienced neck pain during their life. In the other countries the
researches showed that the personal characteristics (physical status) & weight & the frame of their bags
are the basic factors of musculoskeletal disorders. The weight, frame & kind of carrying of bag as unappropriate caused to change in individual posture & physical activities in next times of life. Regarding to
importance of neck pain as second common musculoskeletal & has high costs, the goal of this research is
surveying on the role of harmful factors in students’ neck pain to providence aches among adolescences
& youth. All of us worry because of our children’s health especially when we are not near them & school
is where that our children are at it. In current decades most students tend to backpacks & since paid more
attention to their efficiency that their appearance so carrying the heavy bags with in-correct ways increase
in America (1999) recognized 6000 persons suffered because of it (Wang, 2013)
Now, most of persons (students & individuals) who have improper habits, they have skeleton disorders.
Correct usage of standard facilities & equipments in schools & eliminate the false physical habits can be
effective to prevent the disorders.
Children & paying attention to their healthy are one of the tickling of families, schools & authorities.
Most of done researches showed the lack of correct growth of children in developing countries that the
main reasons are because of lack of attention to the bag, shoes, chairs & other facilities that children need
especially in the elementary schools.
Always, researchers pay attention to the weight of bag & the way of the carrying ways to their bodies &
its standard such as longitude & width of shoes, length & comfortable of chairs in elementary schools &
their effects of skeleton & muscles. Heavy bags, unsuitable shoes & abnormal desks & chairs caused to
various disorders on students’ skeleton & muscles.
Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 655
The standard weight of backpacks must be 10-15 percentage of students’ weight; it means if a student is
20Kg, his bag’s weight must be 2-3 Kg (Parivash Halm Seresht, 1998).
Of the weight of bag is higher that standard, it causes to pressure on neck, head, shoulders & spine & also
causes to scoliosis & bend the neck & body subnormal that then due to the changes in their skeleton. If
the shoes are not appropriate cause to main harm to spine, upper & limber extremities. The shoes must be
have 2-3Cm heels & be soft & lightweight & closed the front & behind & flat in toes (Marofi and
Akbari).
Body Posture
There are various understanding & definition in body posture & is taken many interpretations of this
concept. The body posture of persons is determined based on the size of body & dimensions & size of
equipment. So that the body in this way is limited to the number and nature of the relationship will
depend on the person & work space. This relationship can be physical (seating, job level, etc.) & shortterm or long-term consequences it may have on a person's health is extremely poor (Pisint, 2007).
There is a common postural abnormality among Iranian students. That many factors are involved in the
development of this disorder, many of them rooted in the culture & lifestyle of people. The habits such as
carrying bags or backpacks, wear unsuitable shoes & no-standard seats were used in the school. The main
causes of postural abnormalities are among students. These disorders are acquired & they made because
of false habits & usage the standard equipment.
The Causes of Congenital Malformations Caused by Improper Carrying Bags
Carrying the improper subjects such as bags caused to abnormalities in skeletal and muscular structure of
the body. School is one of the most important organized institutes that must be provided the students’
physical & mental growth in the healthy places. If do not provide a suitable environment for the growth &
development of students, they face to developmental disorders and diseases of childhood. This is not only
cause to obstacles in their education & learning but also cause to basic & main reasons for physical &
mental disorders & diseases (Javadipor, 2011).
One of the most common way of carrying books & notebooks is bag & can be considered it a participants
of children. But its abnormality caused to hard hurt their spine & also to their nerves. If done by a
shoulder carrying backpacks causing a lot of pressure on this side & causes abnormal curvature of the
spine. This although in adults who are carrying heavy bags is also important, but in children beads is
more glaring & underlying scoliosis (abnormal curvature of the spine to the side) because it is still
growing. The strain of carrying bags will be caused to damage the nerve roots of shoulder &neck. Too
heavy bags to carry books & school supplies as a result of a relatively common problem is commonly
seen, carry it with inappropriate & unethical sometimes lasting negative effects on joints and nerve roots
(Noori, 2004).
The beginning of the backpack should end above the shoulders and it should not be lower than the top of
the hip bone.
Bar backpack placed on the shoulders should have a width of 5 cm, & should not raise the arm or
shoulder & arm muscles & the nerves mired affected area.
Lumbar strap bags (backpacks) should be 50 to 70% of the weight off the shoulders & spine to the hip
bone conduction to be equal pressure on the bones, joints & muscles.
The heavier things should be placed close to the central axis of the body so close to the center of gravity.
Heavy backpacks that are much lower than a person's belly leaning forward & putting a lot of pressure on
your back (Showman, 2010)
Standard Bag
One of the particular important school supplies is the backpack that when buying it just pays attention to
its big & beautiful while the most important metric is its standard.
The first issue is the backpack or bag must be standard in weight, size, material in use & color.
Weight of Bag: Backpack weight distribution and the same standard should be enough to have the student
body. Based on this research, a consensus that there is no one hundred percent, but the weight bags to
Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 656
students 8-15 or 10 -15% of body weight is recommended to use their own bags. Backpack should be fit
enough space & it does not focus because otherwise all parts are together.
But seen the students go school with too heavy bags & in long time causes to affect on their spine. The
students force to carrying their books & supplies. If they carry backpacks in correct way & placed in them
standard weight, bags don’t have any harms to them. Hasan Daneshmandi, Assistance professor of
Physical Education & Sport Science University stated that benefits of backpacks than other bags:
Bags that same pressure on the spine caused to the lowest harm, & students who bring heavy bags
because they bend to one side of the body, increases the asymmetric shoulders & crooked neck disorders.
Weight of school bags depend to students' height, weight & physical characteristics of students & cannot
state a specific formula for weighting the bag for all the students.
The backpack must be fitted the age, height & growth of students that needs to bachelor's activities.
Heavy bags & backpacks with long strap cause side effects students’ lumbar & cervical tilt the head-tofront.
Bags on the one shoulder & heavy backpacks which are carried in the long distances cause to
abnormalities shoulder & lumbar are asymmetric. The long term complications may forever remain the
backbone of the students.
Punk (2014) compared the physical dimensions of educational furniture & bags among students in
Yunman primary school. That was consisted of 90 girls & 90 boys of primary school students aged 7-12
years.
The results indicated that improper bags cause abnormalities in body.
Ergonomic Bags
Ergonomic bags are designed to balance the weight is divided on all parts of your body & you do not feel
any extra pressure. Compartments are placed differently, that putting various objects such as laptops,
purses and cosmetics to keep the weight balance. These kinds of bags balanced the weight on the
shoulders, neck & back, evenly.
Kingsley (2012) Studied on determining the proportion of bags with students’ physical dimensions in
Hong Kong. They believed that unsuitable bags due to abnormalities in the body, carrying heavy
backpacks & incorrect technique can also lead to long-term complications such as pain in the spine &
neck angle changes, problems standing & walking, & hazardous waste such as hernia the disc.
Stryker (2008) studied on the anthropometric considerations for designing classroom desks & chairs in
India were in rural schools. The results showed that when compared to children 10 and 15 years old were
more differences were observed (16.12%_ 42.4%). So we can say that designing for children 10 years old
& anthropometric characteristics of children 15 years without follow suit. As a result of these studies is a
step in the prevention of skeletal abnormalities.
Mousavi (2007) also found in another study in 2008 that carrying school bag for more than 30 minutes a
day can increase the risk of neck pain.
Yousefi (2012) surveyed on the relationship between some of ergonomic bags characteristics & male
students’ anthropometric indexes in Kermanshah & also studied on the deformity of the spine and organs
upper skeletal & the results: disproportionate weight of the bag & the body has positive relationship
between students & asymmetric shoulder disorders.
Fariba Tarahani (2010) surveyed on the standard children’s bags in primary schools in KhooramAbad.
The results of research showed that there is significant relationship between carrying the heavy bags on
one shoulder & back pains in children& many students carry the heavier bags than the standard weight &
improperly, leading to pain also other side effects in them.
Shams et al., (2010) did a cross-sectional study on 213 students of Tehran found that the weight of school
bags, their relationship has been quite significant neck pain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The method of this is descriptive & correlation. The descriptive method is the kind of after event. The
population included 50000 boy & girls students in primary schools & by using clustered-randomly
Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 657
method are selected 30 classrooms which of them included 25 persons. The tool data included scales, tape
measure, stadiometer, grid plate. After collecting data must be analyzing them & for it was used mean,
frequency, percentage & in deductive statistics was used correlation coefficient & chi-square test for
abnormality. Also all of them are evaluated by SPSS22 & other statistic software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There is relationship between kyphosis abnormal & ergonomics bags among elementary school students.
Table 1: The results of chi-square test between kyphosis abnormal & ergonomics bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 0.98 3 0.00
Regarding to the statistic test p=0.00 & x2=0.98 there is relationship between kyphosis abnormal &
ergonomics bags so this hypothesis is determined
There is relationship between the anomaly drooping shoulders & ergonomics bags
Table 2: The results of chi-square test between the anomaly drooping shoulders & ergonomics bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 30.23 6 0.01
** The α≤0.05 is meaningful
Regarding to the statistic result p=0.01, x2=30.23 there is relationship between the anomaly drooping
shoulders & ergonomics bags so this hypothesis is determined.
There is relationship between torticollis & ergonomic bags
Table 3: The results of chi-square test between lordosis & ergonomics bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 33.09 3 0.02**
** The α≤0.05 is meaningful
Regarding to the statistic result p=0.02, x2=33.09 there is relationship between the lordosis & ergonomics
bags so this hypothesis is determined.
There is relationship between forward head posture abnormality & ergonomics bags primary school
students.
Table 4: The results of chi-square test between forward head posture ablormality & ergonomic
bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 30.84 3 0.04**
** The α≤0.05 is meaningful
Regarding to the statistic result p=0.04, x2=30.84 there is relationship between forward head posture
ablormality & ergonomic bags so this hypothesis is determined.
There is relationship between scoliosis abnormality & ergonomic bags among students in primary schools
Table 5: The results of chi-square test between scoliosis abnormality & ergonomic bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 5.22 3 0.52**
Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 658
Regarding to the statistic result p=0.52, x2=5.22 there is not relationship between scoliosis abnormality &
ergonomic bags so this hypothesis is not determined.
There is relationship between lodosis & ergonomic bags among students in primary schools
Table 1: The results of chi-square test between lordosis & ergonomic bags
Indexes Value Freedom rate p-value
Correlation coefficient 56.41 3 0.00**
** The α≤0.05 is meaningful
Regarding to the statistic result p=0.00, x2=56.41 there is relationship between the lordosis & ergonomics
bags so this hypothesis is determined
Discussion
According to the done researches in about appropriate bags must be standard in size, weight & color.
Backpack weight distribution & the same standard should be enough to have the student body, based on
this research, there is no same negotiation in about the bag weight but it is commented that the weight of
bags must be 8-15 or 10-15 percents of weight of students’ body, the size of backpacks must be normal
space is not concentrated in any way because otherwise all parts are together.
Backpack is designed to fit the physical dimensions of the students in the country which requires a
bachelor's activities.
This research found that the heavy bags & backpacks had used a long strap to carry it from one side & for
settling that problem head-to-front & crooked neck waist deep effect on the students. This research &
other done researches, Eghbali (2003) studied on the male students in guidance schools & found that most
of them carrying in wrong ways & most of them had distorted spine that might cause these problems is
the wrong habits (Darush, Jedali studied on the students’ bodies postures, 2001)- Reza ghara Khanlo,
surveying on the level of abnormalities among male students, 2007)- Morteza (2011) the effects of bags
weight with different weight on EMG muscles among twelve male students, Master thesis, Ahvaz SHahid
Chamran University.
Conclusion
The results of this study and similar studies, many students carry heavy backpacks and incorrect
technique can also lead to long-term complications such as pain in the spine & neck angle changes,
problems standing & walking and hazardous waste, such as a herniated disc.
As awareness of the effects of carrying heavy backpacks can have a significant impact in reducing these
risks, is to inform the parents or guardians of the results of the research schools is necessary. Parents &
schools can consider the closet for students so that fewer daily office work & placed in bags for children
motivate children to use small office & lighter interfere in this matter.
Parents also help children monitor the discharge of backpacks, children & eliminating unnecessary
picking bags & teaching children to use both shoulder strap & can close the son of the spine. Ministry of
Health and Medical Education supervise on standard bags production.
REFERENCES
Australian Physiotherapy Association (2006). Media release: Don't let your education weigh you down!
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Fariba T (2010). Surveying on standard of the children’s bags in primary schools Khoramshahr. Science
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Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online)
An Open Access, Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2015/04/jls.htm
2015 Vol. 5 (S4), pp. 654-659/Rabieezadeh et al.
Research Article
© Copyright 2014 | Centre for Info Bio Technology (CIBTech) 659
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