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Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2014 H A Sayeswara, 2014
H A Sayeswara1*
Research Paper
Phytoplankton diversity is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation
and drinking purposes. Phytoplankton composition of Chikkamalappanakere tank was studied
for a period of six months from July to December 2013. During the period of investigation 45
species of phytoplankton representing five taxonomic groups such Chlorophyceae,
Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Desmids were recorded. Relative
abundance of phytoplankton in Chikkamalappanakere tank showed maximum of Cyanophyceae
(31.1%), followed by Bacillariophyceae (24.4%), Chlorophyceae (20%), Euglenophyceae (13.3%)
and Desmids (11.1%). Scenedesmus quadricauda and Merismopedia glauca were the common
pollution indicators.
Keywords: Phytoplankton, Chikkamalappanakere tank, Shivamogga, Karnataka
*Corresponding Author: H A Sayeswara
ISSN 2250-3137
Vol. 3, No. 4, October 2014
© 2014 IJLBPR. All Rights Reserved
1 Department of Zoology, Sahyadri Science College (Autonomous), Kuvempu University, Shivamogga-577203, Karnataka, India.
Phytoplankton are free floating unicellular,
microscopic and colonial autotrophic organisms
that grow in aquatic environments whose
movement is more or less dependent upon water
currents (Millman et al., 2005). Phytoplankton are
considered as important component of aquatic
flora, play a key role in maintaining equilibrium
between abiotic and biotic components of aquatic
ecosystem (Pandey et al., 2004). Phytoplankton
plays an important role in the biosynthesis of
organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, which
directly or indirectly serve all the living organisms
of a waterbody as food. The clarity of the pond
depends on the presence or absence of
suspended materials such as microscopic clay
particles and phytoplankton. In the absence of
suspended materials and phytoplankton, a tank
will appear almost crystal clear. A number of
researchers have studied the phytoplankton
diversity of lentic water bodies (Pawar et al.,
2006; Tapashi and Mithra, 2011; Sayeswara et
al., 2011; Vasantha et al., 2012).
The plankton study is a very useful tool for the
assessment of water quality in any type of
waterbody and also contributes to understanding
of the basic nature of general economy of the
lake (Pawar et al., 2006). When the algal species
This article can be downloaded from
Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2014 H A Sayeswara, 2014
in the phytoplankton community reproduce, the
phytoplankton will reach a density that can be
characterized as slight cloudiness or turbidity in
the water. Unplanned urbanization, rapid
industrialization and indiscriminate use of artificial
chemicals in agriculture causing heavy and varied
pollution in aquatic environments leading to the
depletion of aquatic biota. Some species of blue
green algae aggregate and make a colony floating
over the surface forming the bloom. Water bloom
besides imparting color to the water also gives a
disagreeable smell and taste to it.
The present study has been carried out to
estimate the phytoplankton diversity of
Chikkamalappanakere tank. This type of a study
is relevant since the Chikkamalappanakere tank
forms the source of water for public distribution
Study Area
Chikkamalappanakere tank is an annual
waterbody situated at about 35 km away from
Shivamogga, located between 15o 63' N latitude
and 14o 4' longitude. The tank received water from
the adjacent paddy fields and rain is the main
source of water. The river basin of the tank is
Krishna river. The total area of
Chikkamalappanakere tank is about 25 acres of
which water spreads over an area of 15 acres
with an average depth of 8-10 feet.
Plankton analysis
A water sample measuring one liter was collected
for studying planktonic composition. They were
collected between 9 to 10 am once a month. One
liter of water sample was fixed with 20 mL of 1%
Lugol’s iodine solution and kept 24 h for
sedimentation. 100 mL of sample is subjected to
centrifugation at 1500 rpm for 20 min and
concentrate was made up to 20 mL with 5%
formalin. Identification of phytoplankton was made
with the help of Deshikachary (1959), Prescott
(1982) and Welch (1952).
Results of Phytoplankton diversity of
Chikkamalappanakere tank water are given in
Table 1 and depicted in Figure 6. A total of 45
phytoplankton species representing f ive
taxonomic groups namely: Chlorophyceae,
Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae
and desmids were reported. Genus composition
of different groups are depicted Figures 1 to 5.
Phytoplankton showed a dominant position of
Cyanophyceae (31.1%), followed by
Bacillariophyceae (24.4%), Chlorophyceae
(20%), Euglenophyceae (13.3%) and Desmids
(11.1%). Kumawat and Jawale (2003) recorded
59 species of phytoplankton from a fish pond at
Anjale, Maharashtra. Sayeswara et al. (2011a)
recorded 55 species of phytoplankton from a
Matthur tank of Shivamogga, Karnataka.
Vasantha Naik et al. (2012) recorded 79 species
of phytoplankton from Ganikere tank at
Anandapura, Karnataka.
Chikkamalappanakere tank supported 7
genera and 9 species of Chlorococcales. If the
diversity of Chlorococcales is considered, the
genus Pediastrum and Scenedesmus was
represented by 2 species each. Crucigenia,
Eudorina, Oocystis, Selanastrum and Tetraedon
were represented by a single species.
The tank comprises of 12 genera and 14
species of blue greens. Species diversity showed
This article can be downloaded from
Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2014 H A Sayeswara, 2014
that genus Merismopedia was represented by 3
species. Anacystis, Anabaena, Aphanocapsa,
Agmenellum, Chroococcus, Nostoc, Oscillatoria,
Phormidium, Rivuleria, Spirulina and
Synechocystis were represented by a single
Chikkamalappanakere tank supported 10 genera
and 12 species of Bacillariophyceae. With regard
to their diversity, the genus Pinnularia was presented
by 2 species. Ditoma, Fragillaria, Gyrosigma,
Melosira, Navicula, Nitrzchia, Surieal, Synedra and
Tabellaria were represented by a single species.
Table 1: List of Phytoplankton in Chikkamalappanakere Tank
Chlorophyceae Euglenophyceae
01 Crucigenia rectangularis 24 Euglena elongata
02 Eudorina legans 25 Phacus curvicauda
03 Oocystis gigas 26 Phacus truqueter
04 Pediastrum duplex 27 Phacus orbicularis
05 Pediastrum tetras 28 Strombomonas gibberosa
06 Scenedesmus quadricauda 29 Trachelomonas robasta
07 Scenedesmus dimorphos Bacillariophyceae
08 Selanastrum westii 30 Diatoma vulgare
09 Tetraedon longispinum 31 Fragillaria crotonensis
Cyanophyceae 32 Gyrosigma tenellum
10 Anacystis sp. 33 Melosira granulata
11 Anabaena sp. 34 Navicula pigmea
12 Aphanocapsa sp. 35 Nitzchia acicularis
13 Agmenellum sp. 36 Pinnularia biceps
14 Chroococcus turgidus 37 Pinnularia major
15 Merismopedia glauca 38 Suriela robusta
16 Merismopedia punctat 39 Synedra acus
17 Merismopedia tenuissima 40 Tabellaria sp.
18 Nostoc microscopium Desmids
19 Oscillatoria viridis 41 Cosmarium sp.
20 Phormidium sp. 42 Cosmarium tumidum
21 Rivuleria sp. 43 Closteriopsis sp.
22 Spirulina sp. 44 Euastrum sublobatum
23 Synechocystis sp. 45 Staurastrum wilde
This article can be downloaded from
Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2014 H A Sayeswara, 2014
Figure 1: Genus Composition of Chlorophyceae
Figure 2: Genus Composition of Cyanophyceae
Figure 3: Genus Composition
of Euglenophyceae
Figure 4: Genus Ccomposition
of Bacillariophyceae
Figure 5: Genus Composition of Desmids
Figure 6: Speceis Composition of Different
Taxonomic Groups
This article can be downloaded from
Int. J. LifeSc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2014 H A Sayeswara, 2014
Desmids were represented by 4 genera and
5 species. Cosmarium was represented by 2
species. Closteriopsis, Euastrum and
Staurastrum were represented by a single
Euglenoids are represented by 4 genera and
6 species. Species diversity showed that genus
Phacus was represented by 3 species. Euglena,
Strombomonas and Trachelomonas were
represented by a single species.
The water samples from Chikkamalappanakere
tank was collected and analyzed for planktonic
composition. The ecological status of the tank
was found to be impoverished in terms of species
composition. A rich algal flora with 14 species of
blue greens, 11 species of diatoms, 9 species of
Chlorococcales, 6 species of Euglenoids and 5
species of desmids were reported.
1. Deshikachary T V (1959), Cyanophyta,
ICAR, New Delhi.
2. Kumawat D A and Jawale A K (2003),
“Phytoplankton of a fish pond at Anjale,
Maharashtra”, Ecology Environment &
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3. Millman M C, Cherrier C and Ramstack J
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Podar S K (2004), “Phytoplankton and its
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parameter of Ramjan river of krishaganj,
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5. Pawar S K, Pulle J S and Shendge K M
(2006), “The study on Phytoplankton on
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India”, International Journal of Chemical
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8. Sayeswara H A, Mahesh Anand Goudar and
Manjunatha R (2011a), “Ecological
characteristics of Matthur tank,
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9. Tapashi Guptha and Mithra Day (2011),
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10. Vasantha Naik, Nafeesa Begum and
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11. Welch P C (1952), Limnology, McGraw-Hill
Publications, New York.

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