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IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS)
e-ISSN: 2319-2380, p-ISSN: 2319-2372. Volume 3, Issue 1 (May. - Jun. 2013), PP 50-59
www.iosrjournals.org
www.iosrjournals.org 50 | Page
Economics of Areca nut Cultivation in Karnataka, a Case Study Of Shivamogga
District.
DR. B.T. Ramappa
I. Introduction:
The arecanut palm, Areca catechu L. is the source of the common masticatory nut,popularly known as
arecanut. Arecanut is one of the most important commercial crops in the Southeast Asia. The cultivation of
arecanut can be traced back to Vedic periods. Arecanut was even used in Ayurvedic and Ethane veterinary
medicines. Popularly known as betel nut or supari, arecanut grown in India, China, Bangladesh, Myanmar,
Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines & Srilanka. India ranks first in arecanut production in the world. In
India the cultivation of arecanut is mostly confined to Karnataka, Kerala & Assam.It is also cultivated to a small
extent in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Maharastra, Andra Pradesh, Meghalaya,Goa,Tripura,
Puducherry,Mizoram,Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The share of Karnataka,Kerala & Assam in terms of total
area under cultivation and production is around 83 percent. Karnataka stands first both in terms of area &
production followed by Kerala & Assam. The area under arecanut cultivation has increased more rapidly in
Shimoga district as compared to Dakshina Kannada & Uttara Kannada districts.
II. USES
1. Masticatory and Socio-Religious uses: The practice of chewing the arecanut either alone or in combination
with betel leaves of pan ,lime,tobacco,camphor of spices,the combination then being called “tambula” has
been in existence from time immemorial. Chewing is to increase the production of saliva and gastric juices
and thus aid in the digestion.It is belived to strengthen the gums & the teeth & cleanses & deodorizes the
mouth.It is also an appetizer & a stimulant. The offering of betelnuts & flowers,placed on a few leaves of pan,
in pujas or worship is a very common,traditional time honoured practice.Persons held in esteem are offered a
few pieces of arecanut with betel leaves as a sign of respect and welcome,while entering the
house.Again,exchange of betelnut with betel leaves between marriage contracting parties is an important part
of betrothel ceremonies throughout India.It was also a common practice for long,among the cultivating
tenants in Kerala & Karnataka & perhaps in other states as well,to offer the landlord a few arecanuts while
paying the rent.
2. Medicinal Uses: Arecanut is used against leucoderma,leprosy,cough,fits,worms,anaemia and obesity,as a
purgative & as a stimulant & an appetizer
According to FAO estimation, the total area under arecanut crop in the world is 468316 hectares and the
production is 593275 tonnes.Of this India‟s contribution in terms of area and production is 57 percent and
percent 53 respectively. In terms of area and production the share of Indonesia is 16 percent & 5 percent,
China 16 percent & 29 percent, Bangladesh 8 percent & 5 percent, Myanmar 6 percent & 5 percent, Thailand
2 percent each & Malaysia 1 percent each.
The area under arecanut is around 4 lakh hectares with a production of around 4.78 lakh tons in
India. Karnataka and Kerala together account for 70 percent of area and production of arecanut. In
Karnataka, around 2.15 lakh hectares are under arecanut cultivation. Chickmangalore district stands
first in both area and area followed by Shimoga,Davanagere districts. At present, arecanut is
cultivated in 140 out of 175(80percent) of the taluks in Karnataka,with Kadur taluk ranking first in
both area and production, followed by Channagiri and Bhadravathi taluks. The area under
Shivamogga district arecanut is 94077.50 hectares with a production of around 52781 Metric tonns.
Objectives
 Arecanut production in the world and in India.
 Socio-economic background of sample farmers
 Problems of Arecanut Cultivators for selected area in Shivamogga District.
 To make suitable policy recommendations in the light of the analysis to influence the public policy
Methodology
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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Associate Professor & Head, Dept of Economics, Tunga Mahavidyalaya,Thirthahalli 577432 Shivamogga district ,Karnataka .
ramappaeco@gmail.com
Selection of the sample villages & Farmers.
The total sample size is 54 farmers, 19 farmers from Sagar taluk, villages were Avinahalli and
E.J.Mane , 19 farmers from Thirthahalli taluk villages were Kotegadde and Hosathota and 19 farmers were
selected from Gajanur & Hossalli
Villages in Shivamogga Taluk . With in the taluk out of two villages selected for the purpose 18
farmers are selected randomly from each village equally from different farm categories and from different stages
of areca garden. Accordingly, in the small farmers‟ category, 01 respondent in first stage, 01-second stage & 01
in third stages in each village (total 09) have been selected. In the medium farmers‟ category, 01 respondent in
first stage, 01-second stage & 01 in third stages have been selected in each village (total 09). In the large
farmers‟ category, 01 respondent in first stage, 01-second stage & 01 in third stages (Total 9) have been selected
in each village from the following table 1, 2& 3.
Key words: Arecanut,Production, Productivity,Tambula,Area,Root Grub
III. Selection of Sample Areca Gardens
According CAMPO Reports the life span (economic bearing) of the areca palm as 40 years the present
study has divided this period into three stages.
First Stage 1 to 7 years
Second Stage 8 to 30 years
Third Stage 31 to 40 years.
In the first stage, the areca palm will be in an infant stage & it starts bearing the yield from 6 th year.
The areca gardens between 8 to 30 years are considered as second stage. In this stage, the areca palms start
yielding & the yield of areca palm will go on increasing year after year upto 30 years. In the last stage may be
considered as period of decline stage upto 40 years. After that the plant need to be replaced. In all 12- first stage
gardens, 12-second stage gardens & 12- third stage gardens were selected from each village.
Categorization of Sample Farmers
The respondents of the sample villages were divided into three categories as small, medium & large based
on the size of their land holdings.
Small up to 2 Acre
Medium 2 Acre to 4.00 Acres.
Large above 4.00 Acres.
Table 1Area, Production &Yield of Arecanut in different Countries (Area: „000ha, Production
Tonnes,Productivity:KG/HA)
2001 2009(P)
Country Area Production Produc
tivity
Kg/Ha
Area
Production Produc
tivity
Kg/Ha
„000ha, % to
total
„000
tonne
s %
to tota
l „000h
a, % to
total
„000
tonn
es % to
total
India 315.20 52.84 373.
10
52.
71
1184 400.0
4
54.81 489 56.3
8
1222
Indonesia 102.02 17.10 45.5
9
6.4
4
447 125.0
0
17.13 52 6.11 416
China 51.03 8.55 165.
08
23.
32
3235 59.00 8.08 162 18.6
8
2745
Bangladesh 77.80 13.04 47.0
0
6.6
4
604 79.00 10.82 56 6.46 709
Mynamar 34.98 5.86 51.4
6
7.2
7
1471 36.00 4.93 57 6.57 1583
Thailand 14.00 2.35 23.0
0
3.2
5
1643 16.00 2.19 26 3.51 1625
Malaysia 1.50 0.25 2.50 0.3
5
740 0.80 0.11 1.3 0.15 1625
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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Maldives 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.0
1
- 0.04 0.01 0.33 0.04 8250
Nepal - - - - 2.00 0.27 3.6 0.42 2
Srilanka - - - - 12.00 1.64 20 2.31 1667
Keny 0.00 0.09 0.0
1
- - - 0.09 0.01 -
World 596.50 707.
80
100
.0
1187 729.8
8
867.3
2
100.
0
1188
Source: Directorate of Arecanut and Spice Development,Calicut & Food & Agricultural Organisation,Rome
Table 2 Area, Production &Yield of Arecanut in different States of Indian Union (Area: „000ha, Production
Tonnes,Productivity:KG/HA)
2009-10
State Area
Production Productivity
Kg/Ha
„000ha, % to total „000
tonnes
% to total
Andrapradesh 0.25 0.06 0.19 0.04 754
Assam 69.97 17.49 62.7 12.69 896
Goa 1.85 0.46 2.78 0.56 1503
Karnataka 184.52 21.12 240 48.58 1300
Kerala 97.17 24.29 112.14 22.70 1154
Maharastra 2.2 0.55 3.58 0.72 1626
Meghalaya 12.36 3.09 17.1 3.46 1384
Mizoram 6.58 1.64 8.21 1.7 1248
Nagaland 0.2 0.05 1.3 0.26 6500
Tamilnadu 5.03 1.26 10.39 2.10 2067
Tripura 4.43 1.11 8.36 1.7 1886
West Bengal 11.39 2.85 21.16 4.3 1857
Andaman
Nicobar
4.1 1.02 6 1.2 1463
Pondicherry 0.06 0.01 0.08 0.02 13.06
All India 400.12 100.0 493.98 100.0 1234
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, New Delhi
Table 3 Area, Production &Yield of Arecanut in different Districts of Karnataka (Area: „000ha, Production
Tonnes)
District 1999-00
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
Are
a Prodn Area Are
a Prod
n Are
a Prod
n Are
a Prod
n Are
a Prod
n Area Prod
n Bagalko
te 4 6 4 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bengalu
ru (U)
81 113 81 233 326 274 383 247 346 326 456 315 441
Bengalu
ru (R)
500 699 514 197
5
276
3
209
9
2936 225
7
3157 137
7
1926 1338 1608
Belgau
m 8 11 9 12 9 12 7 9 7 9
Bellary 12 17 19 32 46 58 83 62 89 62 89 62 89
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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Chamar
ajanagar
174 124 329 309 219 311 221 311 221 317 225 317 225
Chikam
agalur
135
06
1547
0
141
86
166
16
190
32
181
92
2083
8
190
46
2181
6
194
53
2228
2
1975
1
2262
3
Chitradu
rga
800
1
7707 982
7
144
98
139
65
126
88
1222
2
148
20
1427
6
153
18
1475
5
1546
5
1489
7
Dakshin
a Kannada
236
02
4210
5
254
47
272
09
485
40
273
38
4877
0
274
81
4902
6
275
32
4911
7
2757
5
4914
1
Davaneg
ere
138
60
1335
1
144
76
220
15
212
06
232
41
2238
7
227
79
2194
2
242
29
2333
9
2693
1
2594
2
Dharwa
d 10 14 17 11 15 15 21 18 25 17 24 9 13
Gadag 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
Hassan 182
5
1783 192
2
348
3
340
3
368
0
3596 381
9
3732 388
0
3791 3928 3838
Haveri 239 334 360 717 100
2
715 999 794 1109 922 1288 1043 1457
Kodagu 117
1
1638 119
8
138
6
193
9
142
3
1991 229
8
3215 285
1
3988 2994 3598
Kolar 111 155 86 54 76 54 76 54 76 0 0 0 0
Mandya 681 952 700 879 122
9
833 1164 868 1213 620 867 653 913
Mysore 503 357 400 676 480 556 395 102
6
728 911 647 1109 787
Raichur 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ramnag
aram
868 1214 2051 2869
Sivamog
ga 211
05
3175
9
239
27
291
50
438
65
311
67
4690
0
329
38
4956
5
354
92
5340
8
3763
1
5662
7
Tumuku
r 820
9
1006
9
104
28
161
97
198
67
190
44
2336
0
195
84
2402
2
199
37
2445
5
2205
8
2705
7
Udupi 383
4
6840 401
2
501
9
895
4
512
7
9146 517
4
9230 529
4
9444 5474 6579
Uttaraka
nnada
999
8
1359
0
111
60
122
87
167
01
143
24
1947
0
148
13
2013
5
149
88
2037
3
1580
1
1899
1
Total 107
426
1470
83
119
093
152
759
203
646
161
151
2149
74
168
401
2239
39
174
404
2317
01
1845
15
2378
08
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Bengaluru.
Table 4 Selection of Sample Farmers in Sagar Taluk
First
stage
Second stage Third stage Tota
l Sagar(T) Sm
all
Mediu
m Large Sma
ll Med
ium
Lar
ge Smal
l Medi
um Larg
e Avinahalli 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
E.J.Mane 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
Total 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 18
Source: Field Study data
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
www.iosrjournals.org 54 | Page
(Root Grub)
Table 5 Selection of Sample Farmers in Thirthahalli Taluk
First
stage
Second stage Third stage Tota
l Thirthalli
(T)
Sm all
Medi
um Larg
e Sm all
Me diu
m Lar
ge Sm all
Med
ium
Larg
e Kotegadde 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
Hosathota 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
Total 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 18
Source: Field Study data
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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(Root Grub)
Table 6 Selection of Sample Farmers in Shivamogga Taluk
First stage Second stage Third stage Total
Shivamogga (T) Sma
ll Mediu
m Large Sma
ll Medi
um Larg
e Smal
l Medi
um Large
Gajanur 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
Hossalli 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 09
Total 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 18
Source: Field Study data
IV.
Socio-economic background of sample farmers
A. The above sample villages are having the basic infractural facilities such as veterinary facility, primary
health centre, and agro service center, primary co-operative credit society, regional rural bank (Gramina
bank), Transport facilities, sub roads, main road, market, school, post & telegraph office, Agricultural
Produce Marketing Committee, Nearby Co-operative Marketing Societies (MAMCOS,CAMPCO&Others)
, Storage etc, all these facilities are available in these villages within a range of 10 km distance or
connecting to the available facilities.
B. Housing Condition of Sample Farmers
Table 7 Housing Condition of Sample Farmers
Farmer category Sagar Taluk Thirthahalli Taluk Shivamogga Taluk
Kutcha Pucca Kutcha Pucca Kutcha Pucca
Small 85 15 88 12 83 17
Medium 84 16 86 14 80 20
Large 11 89 15 85 05 95
Source;Survey Data
It is clear from the table 4 that very large number of small & medium farmers in the study area own
kutcha housesa.It indicates their poor economic condition.In case of large category , majority of them own
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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pucca houses and very few will be owning kutcha houses that large farmers because of large size of land
holdings earn better income & possess better housing facilities.
The inter-taluka comparison of housing conditions of farmers reveal that in Shivamogga taluk all categories of
farmers possess better housing conditions as compared to other two talukas. From this it may be concluded that
majority of small & medium farmers possess kutcha houses in the study area whereas the large farmers mainly
possess pucca houses. The respective conditions are certainly better in Shivamogga taluk as compared to the
other talukas.
D.Family size
Table 8 Average Family Size of Sample Farmers
Farmer category Sagar Taluk Thirthahalli Taluk Shivamogga Taluk
Small 05 06 07
Medium 04 05 06
Large 05 05 06
Source;Survey Data
It is clear from the table 5 that the average size of family is large in case of small farmers category as compared
to medium and large farmers. very large number of small & medium farmers in the study.
E. Educational Status of Sample Farmers in the Study Area.
Table 9 Educational Status of Sample Farmers in the Study Area (percentage)
Farmer category Sagar Taluk (%) Thirthahalli Taluk (%) Shivamogga Taluk (%)
Upto
SSLC
College Upto
SSLC
College Upto
SSLC
College
Small 70 30 65 35 60 40
Medium 50 50 30 70 25 75
Large 10 90 05 95 03 97
Source;Survey Data
It is evident from the Table-6 that educational status of sample farmers seems to be better in the study
area. It concluded the sample farmers in the study area are educated.
Educational Status of Sample Farmers in the Study Area.
In the study area, food & clothing account for nearly half of the total expenditure. The proportion of expenditure
on education & social items is almost same in all categories of farmers in the study area, whereas the percentage
of expenditure on medicine is more in the case of small and medium farmers, & less in case of large farmers.
Unlike field crops & other plantation crops, arecanut has certain unique features in terms of its geographical
limitations, spacing & the type of intercrops grown with it. The average size of arecanut garden was 3.00 acres,
2.00 acres and 4.00 acres respectively in Sagar, Thirthahalli and Shivamogga. The size of the arecanut gardens
was small in Thirthahalli followed by Sagar compared to other region.The number of areca palms per acre were
more in case of Sagar(600),450 in Thirthahalli and 550 shivamogga taluks. The recommended spacing for the
variety in the region is 9‟*9*.
Majority of the farmers in all the regions had taken up intercrop (banana& pepper) in their areca
gardens particularly during the early stage of arecanut establishment. This has also helped the farmers in
protecting the young arecanut seedlings from sunstroke. After the establishment period, farmers have taken up
the intercrop (banana) in their gardens in order to utilize the space left between the areca palms. The yields of
the intercrops are utilize for home consumption & the surplus is marketed.
Table 10 Arecanut cultivated area in Sagar Taluk Area Hectares
Hobli wise 1999
-00
2000
-01
2001
-02
2002
-03
2003
-04
2004-
05
2005
-06
2006
-07
2007
-08
2008
-09
2009
-10
Kasaba 615 649 649 746 746 804 823 808 808 808 915
Anandapur 594 655 719 638 638 586 630 662 662 662 661
Avinahalli 484 359 357 357 357 569 558 560 560 560 602
Karur 409 419 512 512 512 526 522 539 539 539 650
Barangi 294 310 318 260 260 276 334 341 341 341 336
Thalagoppa 560 599 606 668 668 677 645 727 727 727 743
Total 2956 2991 3161 3181 3181 3438 3512 3637 3637 3637 3907
Source: Field study data-taluk office, Sagar
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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VI.
Arecanut Prices in Shimoga & Sagar market in Karnataka
I.1 Shimoga in the month of March 07, 2013
Bette-- Rs. 13689- Rs. 14059 Edi-- Rs. 12606- Rs. 13136
Gorabalu --Rs.6509- Rs. 9829 Rasi Edi –Rs13100- Rs. 13446
Saraku --Rs.16590- Rs. 20808(Kannada Prabha daily news )
I.2. Sagar in the month of March 07, 2013
Beligotu(White)-- Rs. 7200- Rs. 7669 Challi-- Rs. 9601- Rs. 10655
Red Gotu --Rs.8710- Rs. 9870 Rasi Edi –Rs13189- Rs. 13389
Sippegotu --Rs.4569
(Source: Kannada Prabha daily newspaper in Karnataka P.2).
VII. Varities
There are few local varities known by the name of the place where they are grown and are furnished
below:Table 11 Verities of Arecanut in Different Area
Name of the local verities Place where grown
South Kanara Dakshina kannada district & Kasaragod district of Kerala
Thirthahalli Malnad area of Karnataka
Sreevardhan Coastal Maharashtra
Mettupalayam Coimbatore district
Mahitnagar West Bengal
Kahikuchi Assam
:N.Kumar JBM Md. ABDUL KHADER et all, Introduction to Spices,Plantation Crops,Medicinal & Aromatic
Plants, OXFORD & IBH PUBLISHING CO.PVT.LTD. New Delhi Pp. 15.02-15.03
Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Vittal has released three improved
cultivars, they are:
Table 12 Three Improved Cultivars
Name of the Cultivar Special attributes
Mangala An introduction from China (VTL-3) early bearing, higher fruit set, higher
yield (10 kg ripe nuts/palm/year),semitall variety.
Subangala Aselection from Indonesia 9VTL-11), yield 17.5 kg of nuts/palm at the age of
10 years.
Sreemangala A selection from Singapore (VTL-17), yield 16.5 kg /palm at the 10th year.
Source:N.Kumar JBM Md. ABDUL KHADER et all, Introduction to Spices,Plantation Crops,Medicinal &
Aromatic Plants, OXFORD & IBH PUBLISHING CO.PVT.LTD. New Delhi Pp. 15.02-15.03
VIII. MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY:
PROBLEMS OF ARECA GROWERS:
 Yield Loss Of Arecanut In Sagar & Thirthahalli Taluks
o The per acre yield loss of arcanut that of small,medium & large farms due to different factors . The
estimated yield loss of arecanut of small farms was found to be 100 kgs. While the loss from Koleroga was
75 percent, 7percent of yield loss was due to YLD & the 6 percent yield loss was due to the menace of Root
grub. Other factors made loss of about 12 percent. All together, due to different kinds of pests & diseases
small farms in those two taluks observed 14.98 percent economic loss.In the total yield, loss of medium
farms (120 kgs) 72 percent. Of yield, loss was in the form of Koleroga, 6 percent from YLD & 7 percent
from Root grub. Other factors made 15 percent yield loss to thee total. At the aggregate level, the percent
economic loss due to all kinds of estimated to 13.90. In the total yield, loss of medium farms (120 kgs) 72
percent. Of yield, loss was in the form of Koleroga, 6 percent from YLD & 7 percent from Root grub. Other
factors made 15 percent yield loss to the total. At the aggregate level, the percent economic loss due to all
kinds of estimated to 13.90.
 Kolerago:The area palm flourishes in tracts of rainfall especially in Sagar & Thirthahalli but not so well in
shivamogga taluk.
 The first visible symptom is the appearance of water soaked lesions on the surface of affected nuts. The
infected nuts lose their luster. The lesions gradually spread covering the entire nuts, which rot & shed from
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
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the calyx. As the disease advances, the fruit stalks & rachis of inflorescence are also affected. Affected nuts
are lighter in weight, & possess large vacuoles & dark brown radial strands internally. Infections occurring
later in the season results in drying up of nut without shedding.Afart from the quantitative loss by shedding
of nuts at its various stages of development, the infected nuts are also unsuitable for chewing due to
deterioration in quality. The area palm flourishes in tracts of rainfall especially in Sagar & Thirthahalli but
not so well in Shivamogga Taluk. However, it grows but the yield is less. Rain plays an important role in
the initiation & spread of the disease, since low temperature and high humidity are favorable for the growth
of the fungus (Coleman, 1910) .The period of the Koleroga June to September every year in the study area
of Malnad (Source :primary data).
 The Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) remains today as the most serious malady affecting the crop. The malady
does not kill the palm outright but is only debilitating in nature. The disease may affect one or two leaflets
in any part of the crown or the entire foliage. Tips of the chlorotic leaves eventually dry up. Tips and
absorbing regions of young roots turn dark & gradually rot. The affected fruits fall off in large numbers and
at last, stage, the crown topples off leaving a base trunk.
 Anabe Roga The initial visible symptom is the yellowing of outer whorl of leaves, which gradually extends
to the inner whorls. The leaves exhibit wilting symptoms and droop down covering the stem & nuts shed.
At last stage, the crown topples off leaving a base trunk.
 Bud rot affected spindle appear yellow, later changing to brown & finally the whole spindle rots.
 Mites-Adults & young ones suck the lower surfaces of the leaves, causing them to turn yellow & bronzed in
appearance.
 B.K.Chandrashekar KPCC Leader has urged to the Karnataka government, Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) has
been haunting areca growers in Karnataka for decades, agriculturists and researches have failed to find a
solution to the problem. He said, “According to the deputy commissioner of shimoga and chickmagalur
districts, as many as 410 areca growers have committed suicide in the two districts in the past decade.
Frustrated with the failure of the crop, many growers have migrated because of their inability to repay
debts,” (Source: HINDU daily newspaper Karnataka P.4 September 29, 2011).
 Arecanut prices break a decade-old record. Mr. Bawa, who was a former member of Mangalore APMC,
said the banning of sale of tobacco products in plastic sachets had adversely affected the sale of gutka,
comprising both red arecanut & tobacco .Hence; many who had the habit of consuming gutka had shifted to
chewing white arecanut slices(Source: HINDU daily newspaper in Karnataka P.9 August 9, 2011).
 Lack of proper training to the farmers on aspects like grading, storage etc.
 Transportation problem.
 Non-availability of adequate organized local markets, which makes the way for the entry of intermediaries.
 Labour problems
 Uncertainty of demand for arecanut.
 Instability indices of arrivals & prices of arecanut
 In Malnad, animals spoiled the intercrops(banana &pepper).
 The trends in prices are found to be negative for all grades of arecanut for the present during 2011-12 &
were higher in Saraku grade followed by Bette grade.
 The trend in prices for all the grades has been ups& downs. It may be due to the collapse of arecanut prices
in the recent years.
IX.Policy Implications
 Support price needs to be revised to cover the cost of production, it protecting the farmers from loss in the
arecanut production.
 Arrangements should be made to provide the new technologies to the farmers.
 Suitable steps should be initiated by the government to tackle the reasons for fall in prices of arecanut.
 Alternate use of arecanut should be looked for & promoted.
 The import duty on arecanut was increased from 35% to 100% to safeguard the interest of the farmers by
the government of India. The arecanut is brought as a dry fruit. Arecanut should not be covered under dry
fruit category. Appropriate action may be instituted so that the unscrupulous import should not take place.
 President of Sringeri taluk Rita sangha demanded to the government implemented Dr. Gorakh Singh
recommendation & others demand to the leaf disease of the palm (Source: Chalagara daily local newspaper
in Thirthahalli taluk P.2 January 04, 2012).
 Alternative uses of Arecanut
 The by products from nuts can be used for tanning leather.
Economics Of Arecanut Cultivation In Karnataka, A Case Study Of Shivamogga District
www.iosrjournals.org 59 | Page
 From Husk-From fibre, for making thick board, plastics, wrapping papers can be prepared from areca pulp
& bamboo.
From leaf sheath- For making paperboards for packing purpose, Ply boards, for teachers for long
distance transport, it cut downs the use of softwood timber for this purpose, used as a cheap substitute for
leather in house chapples & as a cheap summer wear chappels etc.
 From Arecanut Stem & Leaf- Nails made of areca stem widely used in furniture industry, from leaves are
good source of organic manure.
In view of the numerous uses for which arecanut has been put to, it is to be assumed that it will have an
impact in future also, possibly through developing suitable alternative technology for its utilization.
References
[1]. Shanmugavelu K.G.,Kumar N. 7 Peter K.V.(2012), Production Technology of Spices & Plantation Crops, AGROBIOS (INDIA)
Publication,Jodhpur-315-342
[2]. Bhandari,D.K.,(1974), Study of Inter & Associated Crops in Areca Gardens of Malnad Tract of Karnataka, Arecanut & Spices
Bulletin,5(3):76-77.
[3]. Government of India (2003), Indian Horticultural Database, National Horticultural Board, Ministry of Agriculture.
[4]. Hazell,P.B.R., Jaramilla, M & Williamson,A., (1990) The Relationship between World Price Instability & Prices Farmers
receive in Developing Countries. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 41(3);9-12.
[5]. Rajashekarappa, M.T., (2001), Impact of crop losses due to pests& diseases on cost structure of arecanut cultivation. An
economic analysis in traditional malnad region of Karnataka. M.Sc(Agriculture) Thesis(unpublished),University of Agriculture
University Bangaluru.
[6]. Prabhakara Shetty T.K. & Vishveshwara Gowda B.L. (2003), Areca nut Cultivation & Its Alternative use. Published by UAS,
Bengaluru, Areca nut research center, Regional Research Station, Shivamogga.
[7]. Statistics of Shimoga (2008-09), District Statistical Office Shimoga.
[8]. Arecanut (2009), Government of Karnataka Department of Horticulture, Shimoga
[9]. Ananda K.S. et.al(2000), Growth & Yield Performance of Areca nut Verities in Malnad Region of Karnataka, Journal of
Plantation Crops. Vol.28 No 2 105-109.
[10]. Shimoga district administrative appeal to the government Problems of Arecanut. (Source: Kannada prabha daily newspaper in
Karnataka P.2 Januvery 2, 2012).
[11]. Acharya, S.S. & Agarwal, N.L., (1994), Agricultural Price Analysis-Theory & Policy.Oxpord & IBH publishing co.pvt.Ltd.New
Delhi: 293-341
[12]. Padmini, S.V. (2008), “Economics of Arecanut Cultivation in Karnataka”, Serials Pub,8, xvi, P.304 , New Delhi.
[13]. Sujatha and Ravi Bhat S. (2010), “Agricultural Water Management”, Volume 97, Issue7,July, Directorate of Arecanut and Spices
Development.Pp-988-994
[14]. M Tamilselvan, (2010), “The import of arecanuts peaked”, Dr M Tamilselvan, director of Directorate of Arecanut and Spices
Development. 6 July, Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development.
[15]. Wikipedia®,(2010), “Trends and problems of Arecanut” is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit
organization.6 July Wikimedia Foundation.

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