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© Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Warsaw, 2016; © Institute of Technology and Life Sciences (ITP) in Falenty, 2016
BRGM© Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Land Reclamation JOURNAL OF WATER AND LAND DEVELOPMENT
and Environmental Engineering in Agriculture, 2016 2016, No. 31 (X–XII): 3–10
© Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, 2016 PL ISSN 1429–7426
Available (PDF): http://www.itp.edu.pl/wydawnictwo/journal; http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jwld
Received 25.07.2016
Reviewed 03.08.2016
Accepted 10.10.2016
A – study design
B – data collection
C – statistical analysis
D – data interpretation
E – manuscript preparation
F – literature search
Degradation of water quality:
the case of plain west of Annaba
(northeast Algeria)
Badra ATTOUI ABCDEF, Nabila TOUMI ABE,
Saloua MESSAOUDI BF, Samia BENRABAH F
Badji Mokhtar University of Annaba, Geological Laboratory, Route Sidi Amar, B.P. 12 Annaba, 2300, Algeria;
e-mail: att.badra@yahoo.fr, toumi_nabila@yahoo.fr, saloua_mess@yahoo.fr, hydroaanaba@hotmail.fr
For citation: Attoui B., Toumi N., Messaoudi S., Benrabah S. 2016. Degradation of water quality: the case of plain west of
Annaba (northeast of Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 p. 3–10. DOI: 10.1515/jwld2016-0031
Abstract
In the world, the water quality is undergoing deterioration due to urban and industrial wastes, and intensive
use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. Unfortunately, as in most countries of the world, Algeria is experiencing a severe crisis of its environment apart from the problem of depletion of water resources. The plain west of
Annaba is particularly subjected to a general industrial pollution. The pollution problem in this region has really
started to become worrying not earlier than in 1980, when the economic crisis has led some industrial units to
sacrifice the “Environment” criterion for the benefit of the production. We were particularly interested in this
work in waters of the superficial aquifer and wadis like Boudjemaa, Bouhdid, Sidi Harb, and Forcha whose waters are most often used to irrigate the surrounding agricultural land. Comparison of analytical results from two
periods – 2006–2016 for the: EC, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl–, NO2 and 2006–2010 for the: Fe, Cr, Cu2+, Pb+ show
a degradation of water quality in this region, which represents a very vulnerable area with a risk to pollution of
groundwater.
Key words: degradation, plain - west of Annaba, pollution, water quality
INTRODUCTION
Water resource protection is one of the most essential concerns of any environmental policy, these
resources being identified as paramount for the future.
Account is taken of the use of these: Power catchments (drinking water, industrial, agricultural).
A simplified diagram of water resource pollution scenario comprises a source of pollution (deposit leak
discharge), a transfer process: a vertical migration in
the soil and the subsoil to the aquifer (groundwater),
a surface migration to a river (surface water) runoff
for example. The target: water resources (food,
swimming).
General context of the study area. The study
area is limited to the north by the Mediterranean Sea
to the west the massive Edough, south eastern Numidian chain, to the east by the river Seybouse.
The geomorphology of the site is characterized
by a flat topography across all the plain, marked by
tilting bordering the plain, on the western and southern parts due to the anticline of metamorphic massif
Edough, and Bellelieta, that the numidian chain. The
geology of the property chain is composed mainly by
primary base: to the west in the mountains of Jebel
Edough, Bellelieta and Boukhadra, consisting of crystallophyllian rocks and Quaternary formation occupies the entire plain [MESSAOUDI, TOUMI 2006].
According hydrogeological cut (Fig. 2), two
types of aquifers characterize the study area.
Superficial aquifer. It covers most of the plain
of Kherraza. It extends over all the alluvial system of
DOI: 10.1515/jwld-2016-0031
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4 B. ATTOUI, N. TOUMI, S. MESSAOUDI, S. BENRABAH
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
M
E
A
S
study zone
Fig. 1. Situation map of the study area [ATTOUI 2014]
Fig. 2. Hydrogeological section through the study area; 1 = undifferentiated quaternary, 2 = old alluvial deposits, 3 = clays,
4 = conglomerates, gravel and cipolin, cracked gneiss, 5 = metamorphic formations, 6 = section, 7 = fault, 8 = piezometric
level; source: MESSAOUDI, TOUMI [2016]
wadi Boujemaa. It is contained in recent and current
alluvial with asandy clay and sandy liomeneuse texture, its thickness is about 10 m; the water surface of
this aquifer varies depending on precipitation, pumping and irrigation return [DEBIACHE 2002].
The deep aquifer. The depth of the majority of
drilling done in the area is up to a maximum depth. It
is surmounted by a clay layer with a thickness ranging
from 15 to 25 m.
The majority of wells are artesian capturing this
aquifer.
Lithologic of this aquifer is constituted firstly by
training conglomeratic and gravelly resulting from
alterations metamorphic formations [HANI et al.
2007], other hand to cipolin and gneiss heavily fissured.
The artisianisme of this aquifer can be explained
by feeding in from the massive Edough and Bellelieta
respectively located north and south of the plain of
Kherraza, which has a network faille [KINIOUAR
2007], originally from cracking can the favored infiltration of surface water.
wadi Boudjemaa
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Degradation of water quality: the case of plain west of Annaba (northeast of Algeria) 5
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For the hydrochemical study, we have the results
of the chemical analysis of 24 samples for water during the period (2006–2016) distributed as follows
(Fig. 3):
6 samples in wadi Forcha,
4 samples in wadi Sidi Harb,
4 samples in wadi Bouhdid,
10 samples in wadi Boudjemaa.
And during the period (2006–2010), the hydrochemical study is carried out by 8 samples distributed
as follows (Fig. 4):
2 samples in wadi Forcha,
2 samples in wadi Sidi Harb,
2 samples in wadi Bouhdid,
2 samples in wadi Boudjemaa.
Fig. 3. Map inventory of water points in the region for the EC, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl–, NO2 (2006–2016);
source: own elaboration
Fig. 4. Map inventory of water points in the region for the Fe, Cr, Cu2+, Pb+ (2006–2010); source: own elaboration
K down
K uph
F down
F uph
H uph
H down
B down
B uph
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6 B. ATTOUI, N. TOUMI, S. MESSAOUDI, S. BENRABAH
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
The physicochemical parameters T (°C), pH, EC
is measured in situ using two devices: a pH meter and
a conductivity meter immediately after collection of
the water sample.
The analysis of 24 samples for the following parameters:
– physical: pH, T (°C), EC,
– chemicals: Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, NO2, NO3, Ca2+,
Mg2+, Cl–, K+, Na+.
RESULTAT AND DISCUSSION
THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
The conductivity measurement allows rapidly
devalue overall water mineralization and track the
evolution in general. The conductivity increases progressively from upstream to downstream as follows
river: 345 to 1370 μS·cm–1 in 2006 and 260 to 1290
μS·cm–1 in 2016.
These differences are due to rainy contributions
which dilute the concentrations.
Generally the highest concentrations are found
in all the plain of Kherraza in 2006 and the watershed
of wadi Forcha in 2016 (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Variation of the electrical conductivity EC in the
study area (2006–2016); water points as at Fig. 3;
source: own study
THE pH
It is a parameter that determines the acidity or
alkalinity of water and a of equilibrium state of chemical elements.
The histogram shows that the waters of points
are in the range of potability standard but has varying
values.
In 2006 and at the four wadis (Forcha, Sidi Harb,
Bouhdid and Kherraza) the pH between 7 and 8, this
is due to direct contact with air to the wadis and because of the absence of acidic inputs or for alkaline
groundwater (wells). By against pH values in 2016
vary between 5.8 and 8, it is not very variable with
respect to that of 2006 (Fig. 6). This expresses the
variation and increase of the anionic and cationic exchange. It is a parameter that determines the acidity or
alkalinity of water and a of equilibrium state of chemical elements. The histogram shows that the waters of
points are in the range of potability standard but has
varying values.
Fig. 6. pH variation in the study area (2006–2016); water
points as at Fig. 3; source: own study
THE CALCIUM (Ca2+)
The presence of Ca2+ ions in water is generally
due to the dissolution of gypsum formations (CaSO2).
According the maps concentrations of Ca2+ the high
levels that exceed the standards are observed mainly
in the plain of Kherraza. These levels vary between 40
and 360 mg·dm–3 in 2006 and from 16 to 1033
mg·dm–3 in 2016. On the edge of wadi Forcha, the
levels vary between 24 and 232 mg·dm–3 in 2006 and
16–337 mg·dm–3 in 2016 which can be explained by
the proximity of metamorphic formations (cipolin:
rich in calcite CaCO3) [DJABRI 1996].
0
500
1000
1500
F1 F2 F3 F4
F
am on t F
av al B
am on t B1 B2
B
av al K
av al K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8
K
am on t H
a va l H
S1
H
S2
H
a m on t Th e Ca lc iu m C
on ce nt ra ti on s( m g/ l t i t
2016
2006
Fig. 7. Variation of the calcium concentration (standard = 100 mg·dm–3) (2006–2016); water points as at Fig. 3;
source: own study
C
a2 + ,
m g· dm –3
Water points
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Degradation of water quality: the case of plain west of Annaba (northeast of Algeria) 7
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
According to the above histogram (Fig. 7) usually a large increase in Ca2+ due to agricultural activities are observed (fertilizers) to the plains of Kherraza
or because metamorphic formations that are flush in
the Forcha River, and the evolution the pH which
plays a very important role of ion exchange [HANI et
al. 2002].
MAGNESIUM (Mg2+)
Its origins are comparable to that of calcium, because it comes from the dissolution of carbonate formations with high contents of Mg2+ (magnesite and
dolomite).
Comparison of concentrations with standards
shows that the highest levels are observed at the level
of Kherraza plain and bordering the wadi Forcha, they
are greater than 28 mg·dm–3 and can reach 68 mg·dm–3
in 2006 (Fig. 8) and 24 mg·dm–3 to 240 mg·dm–3 in
2016 for watersheds of wadi Sidi Harb and wadi Bouhdid and the contents are lower in both periods 2006
and 2016.
The histogram (Fig. 8) shows a progressive increase in the concentration of this element and most
remarkable at the level of Kherraza plain essentially
due to several factors.
0
100
200
300
F1 F2 F3 F4
F
am on t F
av al B
am on t B1 B2
B
av al K
av al K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8
K
am on t H
a va l H
S1
H
S2
H
a m on t M
g (m g/ l) 2016
2006
Fig. 8. Variation of the magnesium concentration (2006–2016); water points as at Fig. 3;
source: own study
CHLORIDES (Cl–)
The origin of this element is mainly related to
the dissolution of salt-bearing minerals [BRGM
2000]. In groundwater of the plain Kherraza the concentrations are highly variable; they pass 70 to 916
mg·dm–3 in 2006 and 6 to 76.8 mg·dm–3 in 2016. By
against they can be more important 670 and 916
mg·dm–3 in 2006 and 3 to 60 mg·dm–3 in 2016 at some
points to the upstream of wadi Forcha and wadi Bouhdid.
By against are less than 300 mg·dm–3 in 2006
and 33 mg·dm–3 in 2016 in the sampling points in the
Sidi Harb sector (Fig. 9). Very important and we notice a degradation a remarkable allows us to will open
a hydro-chemical investigation of this apparent.
0.000
500.000
1000.000
F1 F2 F3 F4
F
am o n t F
av al B
a m o n t B
1
B
2
B
a va l K
a va l K
1
K
2
K
3
K
4
K
5
K
6
K
7
K
8
K
a m o n t H
a va l H
S1
H
S2
H
a m o n t Th e C
l (m g/ l) The Water Points
2016
2006
Fig. 9. Variation of the chloride concentration (2006–2016); water points as at Fig. 3;
source: own study
THE NITRITE
Represents a less oxygenated form and less stable, it is a form that shows the transition between nitrate and ammonium, it is very toxic [ALLOWAY 1995;
LIONS 2004]. The highest values were observed at the
downstream of the wadis: Forcha, Sidi Harb and Bouhdid are concentrations varies between 0.2–32
mg·dm–3 and 0–65 mg·dm–3 in all the plain of Kherraza, these values are exceeded standards, then be can
say that the study area is largely polluted by nitrites
and highly contaminated in the endorsements of four
watersheds (Fig. 10).
The high concentrations of nitrites are due to the
use of fertilizers in the plain of Kherraza and urban
discharges in other watersheds.
M
g2 + ,
m g· dm –3
Water points
C
l– ,
m g· dm –3
Water points
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8 B. ATTOUI, N. TOUMI, S. MESSAOUDI, S. BENRABAH
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
0
20
40
60
80
F1 F2 F3 F4 F

F
av al B

B
1
B
2
B
a va l K
a va l K
1
K
2
K
3
K
4
K
5
K
6
K
7
K
8 K

H

H
S1
H
S2 H

N
O
2
(m g/ l) water points
2016
2006
Fig. 10. Variation of the nitrite concentration (2010–2006); water points as at Fig. 4;
source: own study
TOTAL IRON
The presence of iron in the water can have various natural origins by leaching of clay soils. In wellaerated water, concentrations of this element are
strong range from 0 to 4.6 mg·dm–3 in 2006 and 0.2 to
1.5 mg·dm–3 in 2010 between downstream and upstream of each watershed (Fig. 11). In general, the
values exceeds the standards.The presence of this element is related to the reduced character of water that
promotes the release of this element.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
to ta l I
ro n m g. dm -3
Water Points
2006
2010
Fig. 11. Variation of the total iron (Fetot) concentration (2006–2016); water points as at Fig. 4;
source: own study
THE CHROME
In nature, the chromium is in the basic rocks
with larger concentrations and in traces in silicates. In
the study area the chromium concentration depends
on the nature of the geological formations. We find
the highest concentrations in West Plain level of
Annaba (wadi Forcha, wadi Sidi Harb and wadi Bouhdid) that does not exceed 0.1 mg·dm–3 or in 2006 or
in 2010 against the low levels are observed in the
plains Kherraza (levels below 0.03 mg·dm–3 in 2006
and 0.04 in 2010) (Fig. 12). They are related to the
effect of urban waste and the effect of stagnant water
in the wadi [MAJOUR 2010].
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
Cr e n m g. dm -3
WaterPoints
2006
2010
Fig. 12. Variation of the chromium concentration (2006–2010); water points as at Fig. 4; source: own study
N
O
2,
m g· dm –3
Water points
C
r, m g· dm –3
ater points
Fe to t, m g· dm –3
Water points
Unauthenticated
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Degradation of water quality: the case of plain west of Annaba (northeast of Algeria) 9
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
THE COPPER
Copper is present in nature in the form of native
copper ores, or oxidized sulfide ores. In the study area
the concentrations are very low (<0.03 mg·dm–3) in
2006. They are below the potability norm of surface
water and irrigation water by against are most remarkable in 2010 it can reach 0.27 mg·dm–3 (Fig. 13).
The relative increase in copper in the water course of
the waters can be attributed to anthropogenic contamination due to emissions [REMITA 2008]. That
empty into water courses. (The copper is entering into
the composition of many alloys [MAJOUR 2010]).
Should be noted that the high Cu concentrations
are toxic to fish, aquatic life by against can be disrupted by lower doses, but the conditions of toxicity
vary according to species and the composition of the
water (dissolved oxygen, dioxide carbonic, temperature, calcium, magnesium etc.).
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
Cu e n m g/ l Water Points
2006
2010
Fig. 13. Variation of the copper concentration (2006–2010); water points as at Fig. 4; source: own study
THE LEAD
Lead is in the manufacture of solder pigments, it
is found in the form of sulfides, phosphates and carbonates. The low concentrations are observed in the
plain of Kherraza vary between 0 and 0.46 mg·dm–3 in
2006 and 0.2 to 1.2 mg·dm–3 in 2010 (Fig. 14). The
high concentrations were observed at the Basin of
wadi Forcha of period high water from 0.1 to 0.9
mg·dm–3 in 2006 and at wadi Bouhdid and wadi Sidi
Harb and 0.2 to 1.2 mg·dm–3 in 2010. Generally
a significant increase of this element in the study area
is observed [SABOUA 2010].
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Pb m g/ l Water Points
2006
2010
Fig. 14. Variation of the lead concentration (2006–2010); water points as at Fig. 4;
source: own study
CONCLUSIONS
Increasing populations and intense agricultural
and industrial activity have caused serious pollution
of the environment and waters which has caused environmental degradation in the Annaba region.
At the west plain of Annaba, including plain
Kherraza surface and groundwater in this region are
often used to meet the water needs for irrigation and
people's needs.
Three main activities occupy the soil of the region: the agricultural land extending over most of the
surface of the plain Kherraza from the western plain,
rather occupied dwellings. In addition, the industrial
zones are located mainly on the banks of wadis Forcha, Sidi Harb, Bouhdid and Boudjemaa. The main
sources of pollution are represented by direct discharges of urban waste water and fertilizers used in
agriculture.
Discharges of urban waste water are represented
by those agglomerations that occupy the majority of
the western lowland area.
In agricultural areas fertilizers are deposited directly on the floor posing a major risk to the water
quality of the water, with the possibility of alteration
and training of this product by the effect of rain by
infiltration to groundwater.
C
u, m g· dm –3
Water points
P
b, m g· dm –3
Water points
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10 B. ATTOUI, N. TOUMI, S. MESSAOUDI, S. BENRABAH
© PAN in Warsaw, 2016; © ITP in Falenty, 2016; Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 (X–XII)
REFERENCES
ALLOWAY B.J. 1995. The mobilization of trace elements in
soils. In: Contaminated soils: 3rd International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Paris
(France), May 15–19, 1995. Proceeding. Ed. R. Prost.
Paris. INRA p. 133–145.
ATTOUI B. 2014. Etat de la vulnérabilité à la pollution des
eaux des grands réservoirs d’eaux souterraines de la
région de Annaba – El-Tarf et identification des sites
d’enfouissement de déchets [State of the vulnerability of
water pollution from large reservoirs of groundwater in
the region of Annaba and El-Tarf identification of
landfill sites]. PhD Thesis pp. 172.
BRGM, methodological 2000. Guide: Site management
(potentially) polluted Technical Report. Orleáns.
DEBIECHE T.H. 2002. Evolution de la qualité des eaux
(salinité, azote et métaux lourds) sous l’effet de la
pollution saline, agricole et industrielle [Evolution of
water quality (salinity, nitrogen and metalsheavy) due to
salt pollution, agricultural and industrial]. Application to
low plain of the Algerian Seybouse Northeast. PhD.
Thesis. Univ. Franche-Comté pp. 235.
DJABRI L. 1996. Mécanismes de la pollution et vulnérabilité
des eaux de la Seybouse Origine géologiques, industrielles, agricoles et urbaine [Pollution mechanism and
vulnerability of waters Seybouse, geological origins,
industrielles, agricultural and urbaines]. PhD Thesis.
Annaba Univ. pp. 200.
HANI A., DJABRI L., MANIA J., MAJOUR H. 2002. Evolution
des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux souterraines du massif cristallophyllien de l'Edough (Annaba,
Algerie) [Evolution of the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater of massive crystallophyllian of
Edough] (Annaba, Algeria). 19th African geology symposium, El Jaddida (Morocco) pp. 100.
HANI A., DJORFI S., DJABRI L., LAMOUROUX C., LALLAHEM
S. 2007. Impact of the industrial rejection on water aquifer of Annaba (Algeria). European Water. Iss. 19/20 p.
3–14.
LIONS J. 2004. Etude hydrogéochimique de la mobilité de
polluants inorganiques dans des sédiments de curage
mis en dépôt. Expérimentations, étude in situ et modelisations [Hydrogeological study of the mobility of inorganic pollutants in the repository layout dredged sediment (experimentation, in situ and modeling)]. PhD
Thesis. Paris. National School of Mines of Paris Suparieur pp. 100.
KINIOUAR M.B. 2007. Mise à jour des connaissances sur les
éléments biologiques et persistants des minéraux dans
les boues des eaux usées des stations de traitement. Impact sur la santé publique [Update of knowledge of the
biological and persistent mineral elements in the sludge
of wastewater treatment plants]. Impact on public
health. Maisons – Alfort. École nationale vétérinaire
d’Alfort pp. 147.
MAJOUR H. 2010. Qualité des eaux du massif de l’Edough et
de son piedmont sud «Berrahal»: apport des éléments
majeurs et traces dans l’identification d’une pollution
industrielle [Quality of the waters of the Edough massif
and its southern piedmont «Berrahal»: contribution of
the major elements and traces in the identification of an
industrial pollution]. PhD Thesis pp. 135.
MESSAOUDI I.S., TOUMI N. 2006. Impact des rejets urbains
sur l’environnement dans la plaine ouest Annaba
[Impact of urban discharges on the environment if the
west plain of Annaba]. Ingéniorat memory pp. 60.
REMITA A. 2008. Remmobilisation des métaux dans les
eaux de l'Oued Boudjemâa et ses affluents [Immobilization of metals in the waters of Oued Boudjemaa
and its tributaries]. These of magister. Annaba Univ. pp.
126.
SABOUA T. 2010. Origines de la pollution hydrique et
atmosphérique dans la plaine Ouest de la région
d’Annaba [The origin of the water and air pollution in
the plain west of D'Annaba region]. These of magister.
Annaba Univ. pp. 95.
Badra ATTOUI, Nabila TOUMI, Saloua MESSAOUDI, Samia BENRABAH
Pogorszenie jakości wody: przykład równiny na zachód od Annaby w północno-wschodniej Algierii
STRESZCZENIE
Pod wpływem ścieków miejskich i przemysłowych oraz intensywnego stosowania nawozów w rolnictwie
pogarsza się jakość wody w skali całego świata. Niestety, jak większość krajów, Algieria doświadcza ostrego
kryzysu środowiskowego połączonego z kurczeniem się zasobów wodnych. Równina na zachód od miasta Annaba jest szczególnie podatna na zanieczyszczenia przemysłowe. Problemy środowiskowe rozpoczęły się dopiero w roku 1980, kiedy to kryzys ekonomiczny doprowadził niektóre firmy przemysłowe do poświęcenia walorów środowiskowych na rzecz korzyści produkcyjnych. Obiektem szczególnego zainteresowania w niniejszej
pracy były powierzchniowe poziomy wodonośne i uedy, tj.: Boudjemaâ, Bouhdid, Sidi Harb i Forcha, których
wody są często wykorzystywane do nawodniania okolicznych pól. Porównanie wyników z lat 2006–2016 w odniesieniu do: EC, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl–, NO2 i z 2006–2010 w odniesieniu do: Fe, Cr, Cu2+, Pb+ ujawniło pogorszenie jakości wody tego regionu, który reprezentuje obszary bardzo podatne na zagrożenie wód podziemnych
na zanieczyszczenia.
Słowa kluczowe: degradacja, jakość wody, równina na zachód od Annaby
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