The City Of Stockholm's Climate Initiatives - Carbonn Climate Registry

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Stockholm, City, with, that, energy, emissions, climate, heating, district, have, city, cent, also, reduce, will, increase, tonnes, more, from, Stockholm’s, greenhouse, environmental, City’s, companies, their, been, renewable, green, clean, Stockholmers


The City of Stockholm’s Climate Initiatives
Photos: Mats Bäcker (page 7), Yanan Li (front
cover and pages 5, 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 27), City of
Stockholm (pages 4 and 11), Mikael Ullén (page 23),
Per Westergård (page 21)
Illustrations: Martin Trokenheim and
the Swedish Transport Agency
Translation: The Bugli Company
Printing: May 2009
ISBN: 978-91-85125-36-4
Winner 2010
The reasons that Stockholm was named Europe’s first
Green Capital include:
The City has an integrated administrative system
guaranteeing that environmental aspects are taken
into account in the budget, operational planning,
reporting and monitoring.
The City has reduced carbon emissions by 25 per
cent per resident since 1990.
The City has established the target of reducing
emissions from today’s 4 tonnes of CO2 equivalent
per Stockholmer to 3 tonnes in 2015.
The City’s aim is also to be fossil fuel-free by

The nominated cities were assessed on several environmental criteria:
climate change,
local transportation,
green areas,
air quality,
water and wastewater,
sustainable land use,
biodiversity and environmental control,
and a preliminary programme for the green capital

European Green Capital 2010
Stockholm – the green capital
he t ar ge t is t ha t gr ee nh ou se g as e m is si on s sh ou ld n ot e xc ee d 3
to nn es o f C
2e p er r es id en t by 2
Stockholm was named Europe’s first Green Capital for 2010 following a
competition with 35 other European cities. Stockholm’s success was partly
due to decades of climate efforts and partly due to the environmental and
climate goals we have established for the future. As Vice Mayor of the
Environmental and Traffic Division at the City of Stockholm, my top
priority is reinforcing Stockholm’s climate efforts and maintaining and
developing Stockholm’s pole position among the world’s cities.
Stockholm is eager to share its experiences with other cities and would
like to cooperate to expand efforts focusing on the capacity of major cities
to reduce climate impact.
Despite its geographic location in the north and its increasing population, Stockholm has very low emissions, 4 tonnes of greenhouse gases per
resident. Through active energy policies, we have established an energy
distribution infrastructure that has few equivalents elsewhere in the world.
Stockholm has district heating production that is 80 per cent renewable,
a district heating network that utilises energy resources rationally and a
system that converts waste into energy. Add to that the City’s expansive
public transport network based on renewable fuel and its tradition of
sustainable city districts with exciting architecture and a comprehensive
perspective on energy, waste and transport. The city’s generous green
areas and densed built structure are also of great significance.
The city’s long-term goal is to be fossil fuel-free by 2050, and the City has
now established the ambitious target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions
to 3 tonnes per resident by 2015. To achieve this target, we must increase
our efforts even more. We are investing in increased biogas production for
vehicles, and our vision is to become an “electric car city” by 2030. We
are developing two new districts with environmental profiles and making
major investments in increasing the energy efficiency of our own property
holdings. We are making a particularly extensive investment in increasing
energy efficiency in social housing units built during the 1960s.
The Green Capital award and the signing of the Covenant of Mayors
have encouraged us to further increase our ambitions.
You are welcome to enjoy our green Stockholm!
Ulla Hamilton
Vice Mayor of the Environmental and Traffic Division, City of Stockholm
Stockholm has a long and unbroken tradition of ambitious environmental efforts. One hundred years ago,
the main goal was to create healthy residential environments. Today, the City works on a broad scale within all
areas to improve the environment.
Toward the end of the 1800s, housing was rejuvenated
in many of the city’s central districts. In conjunction with
the modernisation of infrastructure, with pipe and cable
systems for water, sewage, electricity and gas, the city plan
was completely redrawn. The city then took on an appearance that has mostly been preserved, with many parks
and housing near Lake Mälaren and the banks of Saltsjön.
Today, this means that almost all Stockholmers live less
than 300 metres away from parks and green areas.
During the 1900s, suburbs with single-family homes
were built, with gardens and extensive green structures.
Rental housing was also established with existing natural
areas preserved nearby. Public transport initially comprised tram lines. Today, a wide-ranging network of underground, tram and bus lines connects the entire city.
In the mid-1950s, Vällingby and several other trafficsegregated centres were constructed on the outskirts of
the city, with a mix of workplaces, housing and services
surrounded by tall tower blocks in park landscapes.
During the current decade, the city was built inward.
The denser city is more energy-efficient at the same time
as green areas can be preserved. An example is Hammarby Sjöstad.
Since the 1960s, wastewater treatment facilities have
been expanded to all developed areas. With continuously
refined technology, the water in Stockholm has become
so clean that today it is possible to swim in the middle
of the city. Wastewater sludge is now also an important
resource for biogas production.
Construction of the city’s first district heating system
began at the end of the 1950s. Since the mid-1960s, oil
and coal have been gradually replaced with biofuel.
Waste-sorting began in the 1970s and now includes glass,
plastic, paper, cardboard, metal, electronics and chemicals.
Efforts related to the climate issue have gained an
increasingly prominent role. All of the City’s companies
and administrations have now been instructed to carry
out their operations in a manner that minimises their
impact on the climate.
Long-term, goal-oriented efforts
In 2
t he m in im um t em pe ra tu re (
in F
eb ru ar y) w as -
a nd t he m ax im um t em pe ra tu re (
in Ju ne )
w as 3
Stockholm was mentioned for the first time
in 1252. It was mentioned as a capital city
for the first time in 1436.
Today, the city has about 800,000 residents
and is growing rapidly.
Stockholm’s surface area is 216 km², of
which 188 km² is land and 28 km² is water.

Slightly more than 160 km of waterfront and
In all, 40 per cent of the land area comprises
parks and green areas.
Average temperature in June-August is 16 °C.
Average temperature in January-March has
increased from -4 to -2 °C in 200 years.

Stockholm at a glance
Climate investments
Emissions in Stockholm are declining
2000 2005 2015 2050
Fossil fuel-free
Target and outcome
expressed in tonnes of
carbon-dioxide equivalents
(CO2e) per resident
he C
lo ng -t er m g oa l i
s to c on tin
ue t o re du ce g re en ho us e ga s em is si on s at t he s am e pa ce a s to d at e. The City of Stockholm has undertaken several ambitious initiatives and driven developments to reduce climate impact. The City’s long-term goal is to continue
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the same rate as
in the past. This will allow Stockholm to become fossil
fuel-free by 2050.
On the way to this unique goal, the City has implemented two action programmes against greenhouse
gases. The target for the first programme (1995-2000)
was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electricity,
heating and transports to 1990 levels, i.e. 5.4 tonnes of
carbon-dioxide equivalents (CO2e)* per Stockholmer
and year. The target was surpassed; by the end of 2000,
emissions were approximately 4.5 tonnes CO2e per resident and year.
The target for the second action programme (20002005) was also achieved; emissions declined to four tonnes
CO2e per Stockholmer and year. Emissions in Stockholm
had thereby decreased by a total of 655,000 tonnes CO2e.
Taking into account the city’s population increase during
this period, annual emissions per resident declined from
5.4 tonnes CO2e to 4 tonnes CO2e, a decrease of slightly
more than 25 per cent. During the same period, total
emissions in Sweden declined by 7 per cent.
Stockholm is now working with citizens and other
stakeholders in the city to achieve the target of 3 tonnes
CO2e per resident and year by 2015.
*Carbon-dioxide equivalents (CO2e) are the
greenhouse gas effects of various gases.
Strategy for reduced emissions
Systematic establishment process
In t he C
ou nc il C
ha m be r of S
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al l w
he re t he C
ou nc il m ee ts , t
ab le li gh tin
g ha s be en r ep la ce d w ith
d io de li gh tin
g. The City of Stockholm is working with industry and
commerce and with government authorities to achieve
the City’s established climate targets.
A success factor for Stockholm’s climate efforts is
the City’s systematic establishment process in advance
of political decisions. Emissions are mapped out and
emission targets proposed based on analyses of which
actions are cost-effective and can be carried out in the
coming years. Because the City Council determines the
climate targets, their impact is evident throughout the
organisation. The targets are then monitored prior to new
political decisions.
The City’s strategy is that companies and administrations
themselves should choose the most cost-effective climate
actions to take to achieve the targets. These can include
avoiding or reducing energy consumption, using energy
more efficiently and using renewable energy. Responsibility for implementing energy-efficiency enhancements is
included in the City’s budget, and all administrations and
companies are obliged to carry out these enhancements.
Following strategic efforts involving analyses and
inventories, the City’s climate efforts have been aimed at
energy-efficiency enhancements in social housing units
built during the 1960s, the expansion of cycle paths, and
an increase in the number of clean vehicles, including
private cars and buses. The action that has been most
significant is the increased proportion of biofuel in district heating production, combined with the expansion
of the district heating network.
As part of the journey toward a fossil fuel-free Stockholm in 2050, an ambitious new emissions target was
established in the City budget for 2009. Emissions are to
be reduced to 3 tonnes CO2e per resident by 2015, which
will entail a 44 per cent reduction from 1990 levels. Prior
to the decision, an analysis was carried out of the most
cost-efficient actions to reduce emissions by 2015.
Climate efforts have been financed by the City itself,
through government subsidies and above all, using the
resources of various stakeholders who are active in
the city.
Inventory of actions Proposal of targets
and actions
Determination of
targets by City Council
Assessment of the
operating environment
of emissions
of actions
Adapting to a warmer,
more humid climate
The disappearance of very cold winter days
(below -10 °C).
It will probably rain as often as it does
today, but much more intensively.
The risk of flooding will increase, with dry
heat waves in the summer.

The growing season will be extended by
one or two months and the conditions for
Stockholm’s natural environment will change.
The average water level in the Baltic Sea
might rise by 0.5 metres or more during the
next 100 years.

St oc kh ol m ’s
m an y gr ee n ar ea s w ill
m iti
ga te t he e ffe
ct s of t he c lim
at e of t he fu tu re .
We have already seen indications that climate change is
under way. The city must adapt to the climate changes
that are expected to occur even if emissions decline to
the UN-recommended level of 1.5 tonnes of CO2e per
Through climate adaptations, the City of Stockholm
wants to deal with climate change in the best possible
way. This includes how we plan and construct buildings,
parks and other infrastructure systems so that we can
offer a favourable housing environment in Stockholm
even with a changed climate.
It is expected that, by the year 2100, the average
annual temperature in Stockholm will have risen by 2.5
to 4.5 °C, and we will also receive increased amounts
of precipitation and higher water levels in the sea and
lakes. Greater amounts of precipitation could entail environmental and health risks as the burden on rainwater
and sewage systems increases. In addition, changes in
groundwater levels could mean that soil contamination
spreads. A more humid climate will increase the risk of
moisture damage and mould in buildings.
The green areas that surround the city and extend in
wedges into the city’s central districts will contribute to
mitigating the effects of the future climate. They even
out the water flow, filter contaminations, produce oxygen
and provide refreshment.
Norra Djurgårdsstaden and Västra Liljeholmen are
new city districts with environmental profiles that entail
both greenhouse gas emission reductions and an adaptation to the anticipated climate changes. In addition,
the social housing units built during the 1960s will be
refurbished and will gain environmental profiles.
The lock (Slussen) between Saltsjön and Lake
Mälaren will be rebuilt so that the outflow of water from
the lake to the sea can be increased when there is a risk
of flooding.
Cold winter days could become just a memory
Here is what Stockholmers could experience in the future:
Success with district heating and cooling
ol d w at er fr om la ke s an d th e se a is u se d in t he p ro du ct io n of d is tr ic t co ol in g. An increased market share for district heating and
changes in district heating production have been the
greatest contributors to greenhouse gas emission reductions in Stockholm. The city is supplied by four major
production plants. In addition to heat, electricity and
district cooling are produced.
Today, district heating is produced by Fortum Värme,
and comprises nearly 80 per cent renewable fuel or energy
from waste or residual heat. The district heating system
covers nearly 80 per cent of Stockholm’s total heating
needs. The district heating network is being continuously
expanded to further increase the proportion of district heating in the city. The use of district heating is increasing by
200-300 GWh* annually in Stockholm.
The conversion from oil heating to district heating has
reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 593,000 tonnes since
1990. The use of district heating with advanced pollution
control and optimised processes has reduced small, old oil
boilers. This has not only reduced CO2-emissions, but has
also led to reductions in emissions of substances that are hazardous to health. Sulphur dioxide emissions have decreased
by 95 per cent since the beginning of the 1960s.
The larger plants produce both electricity and heat,
known as co-generation. One of the combined power
and heating plants is the Högdalen plant, where the city’s
waste is used for energy production. Heat in wastewater
is also used for the production of district heating.
For the production of district cooling, cold water from
lakes and the sea is used. In addition, the process utilises
the cooling effect that arises in heat pumps that extract
energy from seawater or wastewater. The use of district
cooling reduces carbon dioxide emissions in Stockholm
by about 50,000 tonnes annually. The same heat pumps
can be used for both district cooling and district heating
according to the season.
Fortum Värme’s Stockholm network for district
cooling is the world’s largest network of its kind, and
covers nearly the whole of central Stockholm. District
heating offers the greatest benefit at workplaces with a
large amount of heat-producing technical equipment and
within the food industry. District cooling also replaces
small individual cooling plants that are less efficient.
*1 GWh is equivalent to 1,000,000 kWh.
How district heating works
Heating plant
Hot water
Single-family house
House’s district
heating centre
Cooled water is
returned, to be re-heated
Success with district heating and cooling
Energy-efficient buildings
By 2
t he C
w ill
r ed uc e en er gy c on su m pt io n in it s bu ild
in gs b y 10
p er c en t co m pa re d to 2
Heated building area: total 13 million m².
Average annual energy consumption:
180.8 kWh of energy per m² (2007).
City’s annual energy purchases: about
2.28 TWh* in the form of heating,

electricity and cooling.
Annual cost: approximately € 270 million.
Identified annual savings potential:
328,000,000 kWh, 30,000 tonnes of CO2
and € 28 million.

Stockholm Energy Centre, the City’s internal energy
advisory service, works to reduce energy consumption
and thereby operational costs in Stockholm.
To reduce energy consumption, the City surveys
which energy-efficiency enhancements are the most costeffective. Actions are then taken, such as investments in
more energy-efficient technology and façade insulation.
It is often most cost-effective to improve control and
regulation systems for ventilation and heating.
To encourage an increase in energy efficiencyenhancement measures, the City has increased allocations for investments and decreased allocations for the
operation of its own building stock.
According to surveys in Sweden, large-scale, longterm energy-efficiency enhancements are seldom carried
out for properties, although they are profitable in the long
term. Accordingly, the City is setting aside funds for the
municipal housing companies to make these investments.
It is now planning comprehensive actions for energy
efficiency in the city’s social housing units built during
the 1960s, including improved façade insulation.
The City is testing a new model for implementing largescale energy-efficiency enhancement in its property holdings. The contractors who are making the investments are
also responsible for operation, maintenance and follow-up
for a number of years. The City and contractors will share
the profits of the energy efficiency-enhancement efforts.
Another example of such actions is the installation
of diode lighting (LED) in schools, offices and parks.
LED provides a more natural light and reduces energy
consumption by at least 25 per cent.
Stockholm is also working to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in private properties.
In cooperation with all municipalities in the Stockholm
region, the City provides free advisory services to residents and companies regarding how they can decrease
their energy consumption and climate impact while
reducing their costs.
The City has also worked with targeted information
regarding alternatives to oil and direct electric heating
for single-family homes. In addition, it has arranged
energy efficiency-enhancement training for tenant-owner
The City also uses the facilities provided by environmental legislation to check whether property owners have sufficient knowledge about their energy consumption and their opportunities to increase energy
Energy consumption in the city’s own building stock
*1 TW= 1,000,000,000 kW
More Stockholmers are travelling together
Transportation by car, bike
and public transport to
the city centre
Since 1998, the number of cyclists
has seen an increase of 75 per
cent. Winter cycling on the other
hand (December-March), has
experienced a sharp upsurge of
over 100 per cent since 2005.
St oc kh ol m is in ve st in g in m or e cy cl e pa th s. Several steps have been taken to make Stockholm’s
transportation system more environmentally friendly and
to increase the proportion of pedestrians, cyclists and
users of public transport. For example, public transport
now uses more alternative fuels, and more cycle paths
have been laid out.
Stockholm Public Transport (SL) is responsible for
the county’s public transport. Nearly 75 per cent of SL’s
traffic now runs on renewable energy. For example, railbound traffic runs on electricity generated by wind power
and hydropower. In Stockholm’s city centre, all buses
run on renewable energy, while the corresponding figure
for the county is 30 per cent. SL has about 400 ethanol
buses, meaning that it has the world’s largest fleet of
ethanol buses, and approximately 100 biogas buses.
SL is constantly testing new technology to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. From 2003 to 2005, fuel cell
buses were tested, and in 2009, electricity/ethanol hybrid
buses will be tested. Through an increased investment
in biogas buses, 50 per cent of the buses in Stockholm
County will be fossil fuel-free by 2011. The goal is for
all public transport in Stockholm County to be fossil
fuel-free by 2025.
During the most intensive hour of the morning rush
hour, 78 per cent of journeys to the city centre take place
with public transport, and during the day, the average
figure is 60 per cent. In 2006, SL’s share of fossil carbon
emissions from road traffic in Stockholm County was
only 5.3 per cent. Within the city itself, the figure is
becoming even lower.
SL is actively working to increase the number of Stockholmers using public transport, through such strategies as
providing environmental information and increasing the
frequency of services. SL is also attempting to encourage
the region’s companies to increase the number of business journeys made using public transport.
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
om m ut er s in t ho us an ds p er w ee kd ay Cyclists
Public transport
Goal 2011
Stockholm’s Environmental Programme
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008*
*Period January-August
Pr op or tio
n of n ew c ar s al es Energy-efficient petrol
and diesel cars, maximum
120 g CO2/km
Electricity and combinations
of electricity and other fuels
Sweden as a whole
according to the Swedish
Road Administration
Stockholm is investing in clean vehicles
or e th an h al f o
f t
he C
re fu se lo rr ie s ar e dr iv en o n re ne w ab le fu el s. Since the mid-1990s, the City has been working to
increase the proportion of clean vehicles in the market
and the use of renewable fuels in vehicles. This occurs
in close cooperation with manufacturers and retailers of
renewable fuels and clean vehicles and with stakeholders
who have large fleets of vehicles. The aim is to increase
the number of filling stations for renewable fuels and
increase the availability of environmental fuel.
The City of Stockholm drives clean vehicles. The target is for 100 per cent of the City of Stockholm’s vehicles to be clean vehicles by 2011. Stockholm has also
consciously focused on motivating and assisting companies and organisations to purchase clean vehicles.
Overall, the approximately 70,000 clean vehicles
in Stockholm County at year-end 2008 had the annual
potential to reduce emissions by more than 140,000
tonnes of CO2e if they were 100 per cent driven on
renewable fuel.
All petrol sold in Stockholm contains 5 per cent ethanol. In 2007, this low-blend fuel comprised more than
half of the county’s use of renewable fuels. However,
in the long term, low-blend fuel will not be sufficient
to achieve Stockholm’s goal of being fossil fuel-free by
2050. Instead, completely renewable fuels are required.
Ethanol cars reduce CO2e emissions by at least 65 per
cent when they are driven using only ethanol instead of
petrol. Ethanol is produced using sugarcane, Swedish
trees and Swedish wheat. Biogas vehicles reduce CO2e
emissions by 85 per cent. In Stockholm, biogas is mainly
produced from wastewater sludge, but there are also
plans to produce biogas from agricultural by-products
and food waste. In cooperation with biogas producers
and distributors, the City is working to increase the market share for biogas.
Since 2008, the City has been particularly involved in
the establishment of infrastructure for electric cars and
testing of plug-in hybrids that can be both charged and
driven on various fuels.
Proportion of clean vehicles in sales of new cars
During the period 2001-2008 in Stockholm County
Congestion tax reduces
greenhouse gas emissions
he c on ge st io n ta x ha s re du ce d ca r tr af fic
in t he c ity
c en tr e by 1
p er c en t. Better air and reduced congestion
Surveys commissioned by the City of
Stockholm after the congestion tax was
implemented indicate that…
Nearly 75 per cent of Stockholmers
now experience reduced congestion at
entrances and exits and in the city centre.
More than 70 per cent feel that the air
has improved.
65 per cent say that traffic noise has
More than 50 per cent believe that traffic
safety has increased.

Map of payment stations surrounding Stockholm city centre.
To deal with congestion and traffic disturbances,
a congestion tax was implemented in Stockholm in 2007.
Since then, traffic to and from the city centre has declined
by an average of approximately 20 per cent, and queuing
times in and around the city centre have decreased by 30
to 50 per cent. Greenhouse gas emissions have declined by
up to 14 per cent in the city centre and by approximately
3 per cent in the entire Stockholm region.
Before the congestion tax was introduced, many people opposed it. Accordingly, a trial of the congestion tax
was carried out in 2006. The trial resulted in an increase
in popular support for the tax because the number of cars
in the city centre decreased and because the system
worked well. The outcome was that the majority of
Stockholmers now have a positive view of the congestion tax.
The congestion tax is national and applicable to Swedish-registered cars that drive in and out of the Stockholm
city centre between 6:00 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. on regular
working days. Each passage costs € 1 to € 2 depending
on the time of day, with a maximum amount of € 6 per
day. Cars are automatically registered at payment stations, and the tax is paid monthly through a notice sent
to the vehicle owner.
Stockholmers are becoming
increasingly climate-smart
In fo rm at io n ca m pa ig ns w ill
in cr ea se S
to ck ho lm er s’ e nv iro
nm en ta l a
w ar en es s. The City of Stockholm has carried out several communications projects pertaining to the climate. The goal is
to increase awareness of what people and companies can
do themselves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
total energy consumption.
From 2008-2010, several campaigns will inform those
who live and work in Stockholm about what the City
does to reduce emissions, the City’s goal of being fossil fuel-free by 2050, and alternatives for reducing their
own emissions. The campaign themes are housing, the
workplace, travel and shopping.
The City runs a network for companies engaged in climate issues. Companies from various industries inspire
others by presenting specific decisions and actions that
reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The City also works to provide support and knowledge for teachers to facilitate their work with the climate
issue. Stockholm’s schools have received teaching material in the form of teacher guidance and facts about the
climate issue. They have also received support to reduce
the climate impact of schools.
Households are responsible for more than half of all
carbon dioxide emissions. One project has focused on
households’ total energy consumption. During the course
of a year, selected households received tips on how they
could reduce their climate impact, while Stockholmers
were able to follow them in the media. The households
succeeded in reducing their climate impact by an average of 20 per cent.
To reduce fuel consumption, Stockholm’s motorists were encouraged to check their tyre pressure in a
series of campaigns. Nearly 25 per cent of Stockholmers noticed the campaigns, which are estimated to have
reduced greenhouse gas emissions by approximately
4,300 tonnes.
The City of Stockholm has taken the initiative
to the Climate Pact. It is open to companies
operating within the city. The companies
commit to work for the same goals as the City,
for instance a 10-per cent reduction of energy
usage between 2008 and 2010.
The Climate Pact provides a platform for the
companies to report on their environmental
work. It is also an opportunity to share best
practices and become inspired. The Climate
Pact started in September 2007 and in May
2009 more than 60 companies have signed it.
The Stockholm Climate Pact
Stockholmers are wellequipped to meet the
future with ambitious
established climate
targets. The City’s long
tradition of focusing on
environmental issues
lays the foundation for
Stockholm’s ability to
perform in line with
the European Green
Capital 2010 title for
many years to come.
Environment Administration, City of Stockholm
Box 8136
SE 104 20 Stockholm
Tel +46 8 508 28 800
Fax +46 8 508 28 808
Visiting address: Fleminggatan 4, Stockholm
City Hall
SE 105 35 Stockholm
Tel +46 8 508 29 000
Fax +46 8 508 29 997
Visiting address: Ragnar Östbergs Plan 1

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