World Water Week In Stockholm

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2014
OVERARCHING
CONCLUSIONS
World Water Week
in StockholmWorld Water Week is organised by
ENERGY AND WATER
Key collaborating partners
STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL
WATER INSTITUTE
We are closing the books on a hugely successful World Water
Week in Stockholm. During the week, we welcomed over 3,000
participants from more than 140 countries.
With increased income levels in many countries, a growing
world population, and intensified competition for our finite
water resources, it has become ever more urgent to understand
the links between energy and water so that we can fully develop
synergies, strengthen much needed partnerships, and develop
smarter solutions for using water more efficiently in the future.
The results of our work will have consequences for all humanity.
With this we strongly feel that 2014 World Water Week managed to take a few steps in the right direction.
During the Week four teams, each consisting of two lead and
five junior rapporteurs, covered all workshops and seminars,
over 100 in all, and in these pages you will read about the
messages and recommendations that were distilled from
the presentations and discussions. The reporting from the
week has been divided into four themes: Equitably Balancing
Competing Demands; Managing Energy and Waters across
Borders; Integrating Water and Energy Policy; and Responding
to Global Change. The rapporteurs’ findings are preceded by
SIWI’s own conclusions.
Exploring this year’s theme of energy and water has equipped
us very well for next year, when we will focus on water for
development. Access to modern energy and clean water is
fundamental for human development, and we hope that new
insights and collaborations will prove useful when we move
Cover photo: iStock
Design: Elin Ingblom, SIWI
This Overarching Conclusions is published by the Stockholm International Water Institute and printed by Ineko, Stockholm, Sweden.
The printing process has been certified according to the Nordic Swan label for environmental quality.
Content
Welcome 2
Convening Organisations 3
Prizes and Awards 6
Overarching Conclusions: Energy and Water 8
2014 World Water Week in Stockholm: Reporting Back
Equitably Balancing Competing Demands 10
Managing Energy and Waters across Borders 12
Integrating Water and Energy Policies 14
Responding to Global Change 16
Social Media 18
2015 World Water Week in Stockholm: Dates 19
Energy and Water for Development
into 2015. It is a year of tremendously important decisions – on
a new development agenda as well as on climate – that will steer
our global future.
Herewith I present you with the Overarching Conclusions
from the 2014 World Water Week. Enjoy the read!
Mr. Torgny Holmgren
Executive Director
Stockholm International Water Institute
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CONVENING ORGANISATIONS
2030 WRG 2030 Water Resources Group
3GF Secretariat Global Green Growth Forum Secretariat
7th World Water Forum Secretariat
A, B, C, D
A4A Aqua for All
AA Federal Foreign Office, Germany
ABDIB Brazilian Association of Infrastructure and Basic
Industries
ADB Asian Development Bank
adelphi
AEii The Applied Energy Innovation Institute
AFD French Development Agency
AFEID-ICID Agence Francaise pour l’Eau, l’Irrigation
et le Drainage
Africa AHEAD
Agualimpia-Suizagua
AGWA Alliance for Global Water Adaptation
Alstom
AMCOW African Ministers’ Council On Water
ANEAS Asociación Nacional de Empresas de Agua
y Saneamiento
ANU Australia´s National University
ASI Adam Smith International
AUC African Union Commission
AUSA Association of the U.S. Army
AWF African Water Facility
AWS Alliance for Water Stewardship
BCC Benguela Current Commission
BEF Bonneville Environmental Foundation
BGR Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural
Resources, Germany
BMUB Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature
Conservation, Building and Nuclear, Germany
BMZ Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and
Development, Germany
BORDA Bremen Overseas Research &
Development Association
Botswana DWA Department of Water Affairs, Botswana
BPD Building Partnerships for Development in Water
and Sanitation and Sanitation and Hygiene
Applied Research for Equity
BuZa Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
The Netherlands
CAALCA Water Center for Latin America and
the Caribbean
CAF Development Bank of Latin America
Cap-Net UNDP
CARE CARE International
CAREC Regional Environmental Center for Central Asia
CEDARE Center for Environment and Development for the
Arab Region and Europe
CEDREN Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable
Energy
Ceres
cewas International Centre for Water
Management Services
China Europe Water Platform
China Water Risk
CI Conservation International
CIRAD French Agricultural Research Centre for
International Development
Circle of Blue
CNSS China Node for Sustainable Sanitation
The Coca-Cola Company
CONAGUA National Water Commission, Mexico
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
CRS Catholic Relief Services
CSD Engineers
CWC Columbia Water Center at Columbia University
Delta Alliance
DFID Department for International
Development, UK
DGIS Directorate-General for International Cooperation,
The Netherlands
DHI
DIE Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik
DWA German Association for Water,
Wastewater and Waste
DWFI Daugherty Water for Food Institute
E, F, G, H
E.ON
Earthwatch
Eawag
EC European Commission
EDF Electricité de France
eFlowNet Global Environmental Flows Network
Elsevier
EPM Empresas Públicas de Medellín
ESA European Space Agency
Eskom Eskom Holdings SOC Limited
ETH Zürich Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich
EWRI Environmental and Water Resources Institute
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations
FDFA Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Germany
FEMSA Foundation
First Climate Markets AG
Forest Trends
Fortum
FWF Finnish Water Forum
FWP French Water Partnership
GSMA GSM Association
Gates Foundation Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
GDF SUEZ
GE General Electric
German WASH Network
GETF Global Environment and Technology Foundation
GIWEH Global Institute for Water, Environment and
Health
GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale
Zusammenarbeit
GlashusEtt
Government of Hungary
Government of the Netherlands
GPOBA Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid
Green Cross International
Group E
Growing Blue
GSF The Gold Standard Foundation
GTO German Toilet Organization
4
GU Georgetown University
GWC Global Water Challenge
GWOPA Global Water Operators’ Partnerships Alliance at
UN-Habitat
GWP Global Water Partnership
HKR Kristianstad University
HSBC
I, J, K, L
IADB Inter-American Development Bank
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies
ICA The Infrastructure Consortium for Africa
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development
ICMM International Council on Mining
and Metals
ICPDR International Commission for the
Protection of the Danube River
ICRAF The World Agroforestry Centre
iDE International Development Enterprises
IEC International Energy Centre
IenM Ministry of Infrastructure and the
Environment, The Netherlands
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural
Development
IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies
IHA International Hydropower Association
IIASA International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis
IIED International Institute for Environment and
Development
IISD International Institute for Sustainable
Development
Imperial Imperial College London
IMTA Mexican Institute of Water Technology
IPIECA The Global Oil and Gas Industry Association for
Environmental and Social Issues
IRC IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
IRD Institut de Recherche pour le
Developpement
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency
ISSA International Strategic Studies
Association
ITAIPU Itaipu Binacional
ITC
ITESM Tecnológico de Monterrey
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
IWA International Water Association
IWC International Water Centre
IWMI International Water Management Institute
Jain Irrigation Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd
JMP World Health Organization/United Nations
Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Programme
JRC European Commission – Joint Research Centre
Justicia Hidrica
KAU University of Karlstad
KfW KfW Development Bank
KVA Royal Swedish Academy of Science
K-water Korea Water Resources Corporation
LI Lahmeyer International GmbH
M, N, O, P
MAE French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MDBA Murray-Darling Basin Authority
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finland
Ministry of Energy and Water Resources, Republic of Tajikistan
Ministry of the Environment, Sweden
Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, Ivory Coast
Ministry of Water Resources, China
Ministry of Water Resources of the Republic of Iraq
MRC Mekong River Comission for Sustainable
Development
MUK Makerere University
NamWater Namibia Water Corporation
NDU National Defense University
Nestlé
NGS National Geographic Society
NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences
NRDC National Resources Defense Council
NWP Netherlands Water Partnership
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development
Oxfam
Pacific Institute
PepsiCo
PHG The Palestinian Hydrology Group
PISCES Foundation
Plan International
Q, R, S, T
Quantis
Rebel Rebel Group
RIHN Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
Rockefeller Foundation
RTI RTI International
RWSN Rural Water Supply Network
Sabesp
SABMiller
Safe Water Network
Sandec
Sanergy
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
SE4All Sustainable Energy for All
SEA Swedish Energy Agency
SEI Stockholm Environment Institute
SHARE Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research
for Equity
Sida Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency
5
SIWI Stockholm International Water Institute
Skat
SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
SoPAS
SRC Stockholm Resilience Centre
STWI Sweden Textile Water Initiative
SUEN Turkish Water Institute
SuSanA Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
SWA Sanitation and Water for All
SwAM Swedish Agency for Marine and Water
Management
Swedish Red Cross
SWH at SIWI Swedish Water House at SIWI
Swiss TPH Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
SWP Swiss Water Partnership
TAMU Texas A&M University
TED-Lesotho Technologies for Economic
Development
The Stimson Center
TNC The Nature Conservancy
U, V, W, X, Y, Z
UAE The Abdel Malik Al Saadi University
UKZN University KwaZulu-Natal
UMU University of Umeå
UN DESA United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs
UN-ESCWA United Nations Economic and Social
Commission for West Africa
UNC The Water Institute at University of North
Carolina
UNDP United Nations Development
Programme
UNDP GAIN UNDP Global Anti-corruption Initiative
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission
for Europe
UNEP United Nations Environment
Programme
UNEP-DHI UNEP-DHI Centre for Water and
Environment
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization
UNESCO-IHE UNESCO – Institute for Water Education
UNESCO-IHP UNESCO International Hydrological Programme
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change
UNGC CEO Water
Mandate
United Nations Global Compact CEO Water
Mandate
UN-Habitat United Nations Human Settlements Programme
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development
Organization
UNIGE University of Geneva
UNIOESTE Universidad Estadual do Oeste do Parana
University of Dundee
UNOSD United Nations Office for Sustainable
Development
UNSGAB United Nations Secretary General’s Advisory
Board on Water and Sanitation
UNU United Nations University
UNU-EHS United Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security
UNU-FLORES United Nations University – Institute for
Integrated Management of Material Fluxes
and of Resources
UNU-INWEH United Nations University-Institute for Water,
Environment and Heath
UN-Water
UNW-DPAC UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy
and Communication
UNW-DPC UN-Water Decade Programme on Capacity
Development
US Department of State
USAID United States Agency for International
Development
USIP U.S. Institute of Peace
USSC United States Studies Centre at the University
of Sydney
USWP US Water Partnership
WASTE
Water for People
WaterAid
WaterLex
Vattenfall
WB World Bank Group
WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable
Development
VEI Vitens Evides International
Veolia
Wetsus
WFN Water Footprint Network
WfW Women for Water Partnership
WGF at SIWI UNDP Water Governance Facility at SIWI
WHO World Health Organization
Wilson Center Woodrow Wilson Center International Center
for Scholars
WIN Water Integrity Network
WLE CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and
Ecosystems led by IWMI
WRC Water Reserach Commission
WRI World Resources Institute
WSP Water and Sanitation Program
WSSCC Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Council
WULCA
WUR Wageningen University
WWAP World Water Assessment Programme
WWC World Water Council
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
WWFKNC The National Committee for the 2015 World
Water Forum Korea
WYN Water Youth Network
XMU Xiamen University
Xylem
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xr ay PRIZES AND AWARDS
STOCKHOLM WATER PRIZE
Professor John Briscoe of South Africa received the 2014
Stockholm Water Prize for his unparalleled contributions to
global and local water management, and for his unwavering
commitment to improving the lives of people on the ground.
Prof. Briscoe gave numerous thought-provoking lectures
during the Week and discussed critical issues with journalists
and fellow water experts. On September 4, H.M. King Carl XVI
Gustaf of Sweden presented the prize to Prof. Briscoe during
a Royal Award Ceremony at Stockholm's City Hall, followed
by the Royal Banquet.
Stockholm Water Prize is the world’s most prestigious water
prize and is awarded annually to individuals and organisations
who contribute to conserving the world’s water resources
and improving the health of humans and ecosystems.
www.siwi.org/prizes/
stockholmwaterprize
STOCKHOLM INDUSTRY WATER AWARD
eThekwini Water and Sanitation, serving the Durban
metropolitan area, received the Stockholm Industry Water
Award at a ceremony on September 2, for its transformative
and inclusive approach to providing water and sanitation.
The jury stated that “the methods used and results achieved
by eThekwini Water and Sanitation serve as a sterling
example for the many communities worldwide facing similar
challenges.”
Stockholm Industry Water Award honours business sector
contributions to wise use and management of water.
www.siwi.org/prizes/
stockholmindustrywateraward
STOCKHOLM JUNIOR WATER PRIZE
Ms. Hayley Todesco from Canada won the 2014 Stockholm
Junior Water Prize for inventing a method that uses sand
filters to treat oil contaminated water. Ms. Todesco accepted
the prize from H.R.H. Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden
during an award ceremony at Stockholm's Grand Hôtel on
September 3. A Diploma of Excellence was awarded to
Orawan Thasanabenjakul, Pannawat Peanjad and Natthanicha Jairungsr from Thailand. National teams from 29
countries took part in this year’s international final.
Stockholm Junior Water Prize gathers the world’s brightest
young minds for an outstanding competition in the capital
of Sweden.
www.siwi.org/prizes/
stockholmjuniorwaterprize
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WASH MEDIA AWARDS
During the Closing Plenary session, seven journalists
received the 2014 WASH Media Awards for their excellence in reporting on the often neglected issues of drinking
water, sanitation and hygiene.
The journalists are:
• Mr. Marcelo Leite, Brazil: “The Battle of Belo Monte”
• Mr. Seun Aikoye, Nigeria: “Lagosians Shun Public
Toilets as Open Defecation Continues”
• Mr. Umaru Sanda Amadu, Ghana: “Water Wahala”
• Ms. Mbali Chiya, South Africa: “Human Rights to
Water and Sanitation”
• Ms. Ketaki Gokhale, USA and Ms. Natasha Khan,
Canada: “No Menstrual Hygiene For Indian Women
Holds Economy Back”
• Ms. Dilrukshi Handunnetti, Sri Lanka: “Sri Lankan
Girls Miss out on Sanitation Gains”
The biannual WASH Media Awards competition is
sponsored by Stockholm International Water Institute
(SIWI) and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Council (WSSCC).
www.siwi.org/media/wash-media-awards
WORLD WATER WEEK
JOURNALIST GRANT
Five journalists from as many
countries were awarded the
2014 World Water Week
Journalist Grant. They travelled
to Stockholm to network with
leading water and energy
experts and report on the
critical issues discussed during
the Week.
The grant winners were:
• Ms. Ugochi Anyaka, Nigeria
• Mr. Shiba Nanda Basu, India
• Ms. Doreen Chilumbu, Zambia
• Mr. Amantha Perera, Sri Lanka
• Mr. Martin Ssebuyira, Uganda
www.siwi.org/media/
world-water-week-journalist-grant
BEST POSTER AWARD
Mr. Dimitris Mentis from the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, received the 2014 Best Poster Award
during the Closing Plenary session for his poster “Desalination Units using Renewable Energy Sources on the Arid
Islands of Greece”. The jury highlighted that the poster was
well suited to this year’s theme of Energy and Water and
that the research performed has great practical applicability in other arid island situations.
World Water Week workshop abstracts are presented
as posters on digital screens in the exhibition area. The
most informative, innovative and well-designed poster is
awarded with the Best Poster Award.
ALL AWARD CEREMONIES CAN BE VIEWED AT WWW.SIWI.ORG/MEDIAHUB
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Understanding of linkages is central
Water and energy are closely interdependent. At the same
time they rely on vastly different institutional frameworks,
policy settings and governance structures. The energy
sector is to a large extent market-based, run by private
companies acting on global and national markets. The
water sector on the other hand is dominated by public,
small utilities acting within regulated markets at the local,
municipal level.
While water is needed for almost all forms of energy
production, such as cooling, biofuels and hydropower, energy is
an important component in the extraction, treatment and transportation of water. Restraints in one of the resources will often
affect the other. Therefore, there is an increasing recognition
of the importance to understand the energy-water linkages
and strengthen collaboration between the two communities.
Without sustainable energy and water management we cannot
satisfy basic human needs, produce food for a growing
population and achieve sustainable growth.
To successfully develop the water-energy synergies to their
full potential, we must take action on several fronts. There is
no silver bullet. We need to build an understanding of the
overarching water and energy picture and make the effort of
better understanding the critical linkages, in order to efficiently
address the multitude of challenges we face. Unintended consequences of energy development for water, and vice versa, often
have their roots in fragmented policies, e.g. energy subsidies
contributing to unsustainable groundwater overdraft through
excessive pumping.
Further it is essential to translate local knowledge into global
policy. The 2014 Stockholm Water Prize laureate Professor
John Briscoe argues that policy must be formed by practice.
And the same is valid for the other direction: global policy
must be formulated in a way that allows it to be applied on the
local level.
There are, however, substantial differences between the energy
and water sectors, not only in how they are structured, but in
how they are perceived. And here the water community finds
room for development: to counter the challenge of increasing
water demand we must manage it in a far smarter way. There
is a need to create a raised general awareness of water efficiency
and sustainability.
How to use less water smarter
Water efficiency was brought forward during World Water Week
as one of the most useful tools to combat poverty and hunger
worldwide. The discussion started with a call from a number of
leading water, environment and resilience experts, urging the
United Nations not to miss a chance to eradicate hunger and
poverty for billions of people living in regions with variable and
scarce rainfall. They said that without better management of
rainwater, the Sustainable Development Goals currently being
discussed are unrealistic.
Some concrete suggestions on more effective water use were
put forward during the week:
• Biofuel crops could be grown in areas that rely on rain rather
than irrigation. It would not only reduce pressure on water
resources, but there would be less need for energy to pump
water for irrigation.
• Encourage more water reuse. Today more than 80 per cent of
wastewater globally is discharged untreated, polluting rivers,
lakes and coastal areas.
• Move away from flushing toilets. A dry toilet would cut
average household water consumption by 30 per cent.
• Extract energy from sludge. Rapidly growing cities depend
on reliable energy and water supply, but must try to reduce
demands, manage trade-offs and optimise resource use by
re-use, recycling and generation of energy from waste, all in
an integrated urban management context:
• In water scarce areas, desalinate.
Better water efficiency in the energy sector would also free up
water for other uses such as manufacturing industry, agriculture
and domestic withdrawals.
As a logical continuation of the discussion about the need
for efficiency, comes the debate on water valuation. The starting
point is a recognition of the human rights to access to safe and
affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation. However,
since water used by households accounts for only some ten per
cent of total water withdrawals, universal access to safe water
and proper sanitation is a matter of resources, governance and
priority rather than a consequence of water scarcity. Especially
for the remaining 90 per cent (energy, industry, and agriculture)
it is necessary to increase the incentives for using the water
resource more wisely and productively. And here is an
OVERARCHING CONCLUSIONS
ENERGY AND WATER
9
opportunity to learn from the energy community: while the tools
for energy appreciation is understood by most – it is monetarised
– the same is not true for water. The discussion is starting if and
how water pricing could be one of many tools for stimulating
more effective use of water.
A water goal
During World Water Week, SIWI launched the Stockholm
Statement in a new form. Five films accompanied by thematic
papers show how a dedicated Sustainable Development Goal
(SDG) on water and clear links to water in other SDGs is a
unique opportunity to holistically address our world’s water
related challenges. This would also avoid potentially fragmented
and unsustainable solutions which can increase competition
between different water users.
Though there seems to be a strong support for a water goal
by member states in the United Nations, nothing is set until
the final decision in 2015, and the message from the water
community must be clear: we will finish what we started.
Special attention must also be put on the implementation
of the future SDGs. We must ensure that goals and targets are
deliverable, that they can translate into action on the ground,
and that indicators and measures are sufficiently fine-tuned.
Deals for our future
2015 will be a year of decisions that will steer our future. The
UN General Assembly will decide on sustainable development
goals within the Post-2015 Agenda.
With the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Climate
Convention (COP 21) in Paris we hope to see a new climate
deal take shape. Another related meeting is the UN World
Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction that will take place in
Sendai, Japan in March 2015.
Those events and conferences all underscore the strong
connection between energy and water management, resilience
and climate change.
Increasing water scarcity and variability pose great risks
to energy production. Water resource management is key to
climate adaptation and sustainable water use is a prerequisite
for building resilience and developing climate friendly energy
solutions.
Water, or the lack of it, such as floods and droughts have
helped form a growing recognition of the need for urgent action
on climate change. As a key component both for the success of
mitigation and adaptation efforts, water should be integrated
in the Sendai and Paris agreements and the knowledge of water
practitioners should inform the policy making.
Climate change and disaster risk reduction must be addressed
in the context of sustainable development and the need for
building long term resilience. Therefore the negotiations on a
new set of SDGs and a new climate agreement must be carried
forward in a coherent manner.
In both processes, we will need leadership, on a global and
national levels, that is courageous and bold enough to do the
job. And once and for all, we need to break out of silos.
Meet, think and act together
The urgent need for a closer relationship between the energy
and water communities was discussed and encouraged during
World Water Week. The global view must be paired with the
local. We must create and facilitate interaction, let the science,
policy and practice communities meet and draw knowledge
from each other. It is an issue going well beyond the water and
energy communities. It is central to our common efforts to
eradicate extreme poverty and our concern for all of humanity.
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EQUITABLY BALANCING COMPETING DEMANDS
Lead Rapporteurs
► Prof. Gustaf Olsson, Lund University, Sweden
► Ms. Dawn McGregor, China Water Risk, Hong Kong
Junior Rapporteurs
► Mr. Godwin Chinemerem, Safe Water & Sanitation
Embassy, Nigeria
► Mr. Luca Di Mario, University of Cambridge, UK
► Mr. Elwuin Edgardo Fiallos Lopez, Zamorano
Panamerican Agricultural School, Honduras
► Ms. Sachiko Ishihara, Uppsala University, Sweden
► Mr. Jonas Torrens, Stockholm Resilience Centre
Energy and Water: For what and by whom?
Resource constraints, be it due to water scarcity or water quality
issues, are already impacting the functioning of water and energy
systems. Moreover, with the global demand for water expected
to increase by 55 per cent between 2000 and 2050, and electricity
demand expected to increase by 50 per cent by 2030, there is
an urgent need to achieve an equitable balance between the
competing demands for water and energy.
The consensus among delegates and speakers was that the
energy community holds sway in current discussions with governments and other stakeholders but that leaders from the energy
sector are beginning to realise the need to balance their demands
with those of the water sector. The results of a survey of CEOs
by the Global Electricity Initiative, revealed during World Water
Week, showed that 60 per cent of energy industry leaders now
consider water availability as their number one challenge.
The global population is getting thirstier, hungrier and more
demanding. An increase in urban populations and migration to
cities, in particular, is putting greater competing demands on
water and energy than ever before and obliging national governments, business leaders and local community representatives to
balance water and energy demands to assure water, energy and
food security for all.
Some positive reflections are that there are already some water
for energy initiatives in existence, including the World Bank’s
Thirsty Energy initiative and the use by international energy
company Shell of the World Resources Institute’s Aqueduct tool.
Electricité de France (EdF) is leading an ambitious international
programme, Water for Energy Framework, paving the way for
the development of a conceptual framework of energy impacts
on water. The results will be launched at the World Water Forum
in April 2015. Still more needs to be done to integrate the two
sectors.
What is clear is that the future of water and energy is crosssectoral and a multi-stakeholder approach is vital given that
the water-energy nexus affects everyone from rural smallholder
farmers to urban dwellers. Novel initiatives revealed during
the week showed how solar power is being used to pump water
for smallholder farms with revenues being raised from using
the solar power to recharge mobile phones to make the system
financially viable.
In terms of developing a strategy for the water-energy nexus,
a flexible framework is needed as it can reduce the complexity
of the nexus by providing global guidelines but allow for local
tailoring and requirements, as delegates had heard many times
during World Water Week that water is both a national and local
issue. National in terms of its effect and importance to energy
generation and food security but local in terms of management,
challenges of the ecosystem, and availability.
Energy and Water: Roadblocks and bridges
The consensus from 2014 World Water Week is that we are just
scratching the surface of the water-energy nexus, both in terms
of policy and integration. What we need is more data and more
concrete examples of what works and what doesn’t work, at
different scales and across sectors.
11
Some innovative examples of data gathering were presented
including the use of sensors on water pumps to collect data
on water management, which removes the need for personal
surveys and when there are technical issues, these can be
analysed and rectified over the internet. Mobile phones also
offer great potential for gathering data.
But case studies are still scarce and not shared sufficiently and
while data on water scarcity or risk have become increasingly
available, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge on
the impacts of energy technologies on water resources.
The role of technological change in the water-energy nexus
also needs to be explored more; innovations are still depicted as
a “one size fits all”, and little attention is paid to how practices,
technologies and business models need to co-evolve in order to
effectively change these systems.
Identifying and quantifying the pressures on water and
energy resources is critical: we need to know how much we are
using and how much there is, before we can determine how
we can apply the resources. This can be done internally and
at the basin level to determine the competing demands for
different users.
A benefit of quantifying the resources in this way is that it
assists with education of stakeholders on the water-energy nexus
and through this education we can build a common language
for all actors across different sectors. This education also needs
to trickle down into school education, so that the water-energy
nexus is integrated into the education of future generations.
Energy and Water: Way forward
While the sessions stressed the need for cross-sectoral collaboration and the removal of silos, it is important to remember
that not all sectors have to be present at all times. Delegates
heard how a sectoral approach to tackling corruption, which
has worked in the field of energy and mining, could also work
in the water sector provided the right actors are brought to the
table with a legal means to enforce the standards agreed among
stakeholders.
Full life-cycle assessments are a must for any water-energy
strategy but we need to be aware that different sectors operate
under different time frames. While the private sector may move
quickly, the public sector is slower, but on all sides, we need
strong leadership.
We need to lead at all levels and across all sectors but in
particular, at the intersection between knowledge and action.
Many of the decisions regarding the allocation of resources are
not simply technical but also political. We should not be afraid
of trade-offs and these need to be built into short and long-term
strategies and debated at the political level as well as at the
practical level. As Prof. Tony Allan, a Stockholm Water Prize
laureate, pointed out at during a session at 2014 World Water
Week, the work of scientists needs to be politically feasible and
political will is the key to establishing a successful strategy for
the water-energy nexus.
Ph ot o: iS to ck 12
MANAGING ENERGY AND WATERS ACROSS BORDERS
Lead Rapporteurs
► Ms. Carol Chouchani Cherfane, UN-ESCWA
► Dr. Susanne Schmeier, GIZ
Junior Rapporteurs
► Ms. Kata Molnar, Lund University, Sweden
► Ms. Shen-Hui Yang, Asia Pacific Youth Parliament
for Water
► Ms. Maja Hemlin-Söderberg, Stockholm University,
Sweden
► Ms. Aamira Fatima, Stockholm University, Sweden
► Ms. Emma I Lyngedal, Stockholm University, Sweden
Energy and Water: For what and by whom?
Three major challenges face the water-energy nexus in a crossborder context. First, water and energy needs and priorities
differ across communities and countries, and their management
can thus require trade-offs and compromise across stakeholder
groups to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. For instance,
the needs of upstream users for water for irrigation or industry
may threaten the availability of water resources further downstream for other user groups. Needs also differ between rural
and urban communities, hilltop and ocean ecosystems, as well
as mountain and coastal settlements, noting that mountain
communities have often been neglected when considering
management schemes aimed at balancing development along
a watercourse. Addressing these concerns in an international
transboundary context is particularly sensitive, as currently
evidenced in the Nile River Basin or Central Asia.
Second, water and energy resources endowments are
often not located in the same place. Some users have plentiful
freshwater resources, while others enjoy energy surpluses. The
situation results in significant transaction costs being spent on
securing the water needed for cooling, cleaning or use by the
energy sector, and securing the energy needed to pump, treat
and transfer water. In China, for example, large amounts of
electricity are expended to pump water from the south of the
country to the north, although most of the country’s energy
resources are originally extracted from its northern areas. In the
Arabian Gulf, energy is needed to ensure water security through
desalination. Furthermore, there is a need to be mindful that
the energy sector is often the biggest and most influential sector
in development circles and that the energy sector is managed as
an economic good, while the water sector tends to be viewed
as a social good.
Third, it is necessary to recognise that the water-energy
nexus must also consider the cross-border effects of other nexusrelevant sectors, such as food security. The development of hydropower, for instance, can have severe effects on food production
and food security by affecting fish habitats and fish migration routes along a watercourse. The situation can be further
aggravated by climate change.
Energy and Water: Roadblocks and bridges
Due to the large number of actors and interests, a number of
challenges arise that affect the management of these resources
across borders. These require consideration of technical, developmental and foreign policy perspectives in a more integrated
manner.
Water and energy resource managers should move away
from the planning of individual dams to a more systems-based
approach that examines the siting of dams along a watercourse.
This requires reflection of a broader set of outcomes via scenario
building that could help to determine which option results in
the least possible loss of biodiversity, fisheries and flows, while
securing the highest possible level of generated power. This
would help to achieve a better set of outcomes for the environment and society in terms of resource conservation, cultural
preservation, and satisfaction of the needs of upstream and
downstream water users.
Different interests and development priorities of upstream
and downstream countries complicate the management of
transboundary water resources. Bilateral agreements along a
transboundary watercourse are often more easily achieved than
comprehensive multilateral approaches that require agreement
between all riparian countries, or at least a sub-set of riparian
countries. At the same time, basin-wide agreements can ensure
13
MANAGING ENERGY AND WATERS ACROSS BORDERS
more integrated management schemes. For instance, the Mekong
River Commission has developed a basin-wide Rapid Sustainability Assessment Tool (RSAT) that allows for assessing the
impacts of different developments (including hydropower) on
an entire sub-basin or basin, and aims to ensure more beneficial
outcomes for all stakeholders while reducing the costs. The
International Hydropower Association is also promoting the
use of a sustainability assessment tool, which aims to encourage long-term thinking about hydropower development by
evaluating social and environmental outcomes of a proposed
hydropower project through a set of performance guidelines.
However, investments in large scale technologies have sometimes overshadowed the value of indigenous knowledge and
hybrid knowledge that can support the transfer of appropriate technologies. Balanced management schemes cognisant of
local conditions are thus needed to operationalise the multipurpose use of a shared resource. This includes consideration of
ecosystems in allocation decisions across borders and sectors,
as is being pursued through voluntary partnerships fostered by
CONAGUA in Mexico.
Ineffective communication and insufficient shared understanding across these sectors is a further roadblock. Similarly,
there is the need to translate science more effectively and clearly
to the policy community in order to inform decision-making.
Energy and Water: Way forward
Building trust between communities and countries sharing water
resources can foster cooperation in transboundary river basins.
Governments’ foreign policies play a central role in conflict
prevention and regional integration. Development activities
supported by donors should be coordinated, and through their
foreign policy, governments should seek to enhance cooperation
on shared waters, drawing upon science to provide the options
and preferred outcomes based on different scenarios.
Joint monitoring and sharing of data and information can
build mutual trust. Finland and Russia jointly monitor water
quality along a shared surface water resource. Likewise, the
Action Plan for Source to Sea Management in the Danube
River aims to support policy coherence and dialogue among
the riparian countries on a common vision.
Strengthening legal and institutional frameworks can
assist. According to the WWF, 60 countries have signed the
1997 UN Watercourses Convention or the 1992 UNECE Water
Convention, but there are still 133 countries that have not signed
either. These legal instruments can guide the forging of bilateral
agreements and the establishment of basin-level commissions.
Priority setting and goal setting related to the management of a
shared water resource, however, should take into consideration
the local context when applying these international conventions.
Building the technical skills of foreign policy officials and relevant stakeholders in hydro-diplomacy and international water
law can strengthen the capacity to forge mutually beneficial
transboundary water agreements.
Achieving consensus on common goals, while respecting each
other’s interests; building a shared knowledge base; establishing
a common legal framework; applying integrated planning and
management tools; supporting sustainability and the use of
appropriate technologies; improving communication; and adopting supportive hydro-diplomacy frameworks are ways to improve
the management of water and energy resources across borders. If
disagreement continues after applying these measures, stakeholders need to revert to the beginning and re-identify the benefits
of cooperation to mitigate the potential for conflict within the
context of our planetary boundaries.
Ph ot o: J
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14
INTEGRATING WATER AND ENERGY POLICIES
Lead Rapporteurs
► Mr. Stefano Barchiesi, IUCN
► Ms. Angela Klauschen, Global Water Partnership
Junior Rapporteurs
► Ms. Katrin Eitrem Holmgen, IWA
► Ms. Viviane Passos Gomes, University of Sevilla, Spain
► Ms. Lesley Poires, Water.org
► Mr. Benjamin Roberts-Pierel, University of East Anglia, UK
► Ms. Line Maj Thomsen, Wageningen University,
The Netherlands
Energy and Water: For what and by whom?
With increasing competing demand for energy and water
resources, policymakers are being forced to rethink the ways in
which we produce, obtain and use both energy and water. There
is now an increased realisation of resource scarcity and the need
for better use and efficiencies. Hence, the emerging concept of
a ‘circular economy’ where waste is minimised and water and
energy consumption is reduced.
There is a need to focus on cross-sectoral planning and
design, risk assessment, resource/benefit-sharing, and demand
management. The desired outputs will be synergy identification,
trade-offs and option optimisation, which take different
segments of society into account, to address the uncertainties
still embedded in some of the metrics, and understanding of the
linkages. Ultimately a regenerative, sustainable economy will be
the final outcome of these processes becoming mainstreamed.
A number of presentations at World Water Week looked at the
water footprint of energy sources as well as technological advances
in the fields of water cleaning, desalination and wastewater reuse
coupled with biogas generation. Most of the power generation
across the world is water intensive and some “new kids on the
block” (for example shale gas and tar sands) seem to be not only
dirty, but also thirsty processes.
Consumers are important decision-makers but currently have
no accountability for their behaviour. A geographical digression
was made on the dilemma for some Middle East and North African
countries between using their energy endowments to secure food
through importing virtual water or increasing their domestic
production through changes in crops and irrigation efficiency
gains. This speaks to the need to gauge local benefits with the
larger geographical scope of certain solutions and interventions.
Another topic that was covered by fewer presentations but is
still relevant for the nexus was the food sector’s perspective. At
the intersection with energy was the role of smallholder farmers
in influencing penetration of large- vs. small-scale irrigation
infrastructure. Farmers are important as they manage huge
quantities of water yet are not included in the decision-making
and policy-shaping phase. Extension of services, access to capital
and guidance on equipment investment will empower farmers
and lift them from poverty.
Energy and Water: Roadblocks and bridges
In order to overcome existing barriers to integration in a nexus
context, there is a need to build on existing institutions to
address the “silo” approach, instead of creating new ones. This is
achieved through cross-sectoral cooperation as well as increased
communication. Of course, the technical strengths of each
sector need to be further developed but it is through both
vertical and horizontal integration that the best results will
be attained.
More work on footprinting in energy systems and the
water footprint of energy sources is needed. Many different
stakeholders work on segmented pieces while water is more
circular than any other resource. The private sector has an
interest in joining governments willing to lead the discussion
and prepared to mediate with civil society.
Global drivers such as food prices will be affected by
attempts to implement and mainstream solutions for more
water smart agriculture. A big part of the debate around agriculture and farmers touched upon the junction the world is at
between investing in growth and productivity, and more resilient systems that build on quality food and access to markets.
15
INTEGRATING WATER AND ENERGY POLICIES
The other element is the development of hydropower and
pumped storage needs in a nexus context, considering other
renewables. Moving from daily and predictable hydropower
needs to increasingly variable needs, especially with a mix of
other renewables, requires the time to adjust systems, as the
need is growing bigger and more precise technology is required.
Finance and financial mechanisms were an important part
of discussions, with output-based aid or ‘pay-as-you-go’ options
through mobile technology being put forward as examples of
possible solutions for addressing the gap between donors and
beneficiaries.
Output-based aid aims to provide/allocate funds based on
outputs as opposed to inputs. It is basically a performancebased subsidy. It works at the service provider level to transfer
risk from the development bank to a third party and increase
stakeholder involvement. Output-based aid is helpful for leveraging other financing and getting commercial banks on
board to mitigate risk.
It can be hard to get financial institutes to lend because
they do not want to take on the risk. Also, service providers
are not supported financially for feasibility studies or to find
funding. Examples were given from the Philippines, Kenya
and Colombia. They showed how output-based aid can work
on a number of different projects. Risks include the fact that
people need to have a willingness and/or ability to pay.
Energy and Water: Way forward
The underlying message on ways forward was the need for a
paradigm shift, due to technological progress proving insufficient when adoption does not follow from innovation. The
other main view to be challenged was whether the water sector
needs to move from a hydro-centric to a more holistic approach.
The water sector needs to share the weight and let the
energy sector lead the discussion at times. The energy sector
has powerful stakeholders with capacities that can help water
managers. Through collaboration, the strengths of each sector
can be used to achieve better coordination while working
practically to solve common problems.
One of the new specific paradigms called upon was to
promote an ‘ecosystem of innovation’ helping technologies to
cross-fertilise each other and to reach the market and new ways
of thinking to emerge. This approach should foster start-ups
and smart solutions at local level. It is expected to also tackle
the design failures of some field projects and the behavioural
change that needs to follow for societal uptake beyond technology development.
To make the nexus a reality, there is a need for projects that
bring public and private solutions together, that demystify
the notion of nexus, and come up with simple projects for an
energy company and a water company to work together. When
the right signal is sent from the public sector, the private sector
can and will respond. Only by testing and working together
can you see if the partnership will work.
Another element seen as important was the fourth dimension of the water-energy-food-nexus, the ecosystems and the
services they provide. Nature will be among the many issues
that must be included in practical solutions for managing the
nexus. It is always a mistake to ignore the role that nature
plays, as it is in forests, wetlands and floodplains that water
enters our economies, not where it comes out of the tap. But
further progress needs to be made to fully value these services
and internalise the costs of ecosystem degradation.
Ph ot o: iS to ck 16
RESPONDING TO GLOBAL CHANGE
Lead Rapporteurs
► Ms. Antonia Sohns, The World Bank Group
► Dr. Paul T. Yillia, IIASA & SE4ALL
Junior Rapporteurs
► Mr. Simon Damkjaer, Water Youth Network
► Ms. Rafaela Flach, Linköping University, Sweden
► Mr. Jakub Kocanda, SWECO Environment
► Ms. Silvia Lohfink, Södertörn University, Sweden
► Mr. Francisco Mieres, KTH, Sweden
Energy and Water: For what and by whom?
With continued global population growth, it is expected that
by 2030, three billion people will be rising out of poverty into a
middle-income class, placing additional pressure on the world’s
finite resources as living conditions improve and more people
move into urban areas. Furthermore, climate change is causing
additional challenges and uncertainties. At current rates of investment, water, energy and food all face a supply-demand gap
in the coming decades. While the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) have given water time in the spotlight, national
and local leaders will need to carry the momentum forward for
the Post-2015 Development Agenda in order to ensure sustainable
water and energy for all.
It must be understood that all economies run on water, and
that if the water and energy sectors can identify and coordinate
their response to common problems, they will find synergistic
solutions. Politicians will need to take the lead and work
together with the private sector and research institutions. Local
partnerships can also play a role.
As the MDGs draw to a close in less than a year, the Post2015 Development Agenda should prepare global leaders and
governments worldwide for the upcoming challenges they
must face. It must stem from the MDGs and must be seen
as a continuation of the MDGs, in addition to responding
to the future challenges we must address. Therefore, the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should not be developed
independently from this context, i.e. the MDG environment.
The MDGs have worked well to guide national governments
and helped UN bodies to cooperate and keep track of progress.
These partnerships must now continue for developing and
implementing successful SDGs in the Post-2015 period.
SDG targets need to be universal, integrated, practical and
ambitious, yet it is equally important to find valid and reliable
indicators to monitor and evaluate progress.
Existing support networks can be utilised and emboldened
to assist in this process, and to help fill the gaps in monitoring.
Data sharing, and strengthening or building new networks and
institutions that are innovative can enhance existing structures
and promote good policy and governance.
Gathering public support, through raising awareness and
local ownership, is key to increasing capacity, transparency, and
ensuring that citizens will recognise the value of integrated energy
and water management.
Corporate partnerships are playing a role with farmers and in
mitigating climate change. One example from PepsiCo’s water
stewardship work is helping lower business risk to water variability. The company is building agricultural resilience to protect
consumers and PepsiCo’s shareholders from high price volatility.
New models of corporate and public engagement in flow
restoration is also developing. For example, by trading water
permits, the Colorado River basin restored more than 250,000
cubic metres of water to the river. Although currently only focused
on farmers, the basin’s future challenge will be to scale up similar
projects and incorporate other sectors.
Energy and Water: Roadblocks and bridges
The SDGs, as currently proposed, fall short in several critical
areas. For example, there are currently no joint (nexus) targets
on water, energy, food and health, even though these sectors are
closely related. Businesses must increasingly consider water as a
risk to their investments or operations and employ solutions that
are innovative and economically sound. For this to happen, the
17
RESPONDING TO GLOBAL CHANGE
right enabling environment must be present, which can be done
without necessarily using public funding. Currently, investments
in this are not strong enough.
A business case should not be forgotten particularly in regard
to sanitation, as donors will not continue to invest forever. A more
market-based approach and assessment is desired, as is increased
customer focus in order to bring costs down in a low-margin
business.
The nexus thinking and analysis needs to be applied to the
SDGs so that targets are developed in coordination, considering
the needs of other sectors and resources. A bridge exists in the
guise of the 2015 World Water Day, whose theme is sustainable
development and water. This will align with the CEO Water
Mandate that subscribes to the Global Compact, providing a
special link with the private sector that can outline how this
sector can contribute to implementing the SDGs.
For monitoring the Goals, large data gaps still exist in
developing nations. Existing data should be shared, capacity
and monitoring emboldened, and analytic tools must be
implemented for quality control and verification of the data. Two
main questions will have to be kept in mind in the context of data
requirements for monitoring SDG indicators: What is essential?
And what is globally feasible?
Energy and Water: Way forward
The World Development Report 2014 outlines the key focus areas
for integrated investments, urban planning and agriculture efficiency, provision of incentives for green industry, and the need
to innovate ecosystem valuation.
The media has a role to play to spread messages, best practices,
and change attitudes. A more media savvy approach of ‘telling
the story’ can help. However, some key questions remain for this
future cooperation with the media: How do we define the most
important stories of our era? How do we use the media effectively?
Do the people that have to be reached really understand what is
being communicated?
Stories need to be told that catch the audience, spread awareness
and create impact. These ‘products’ should be based on rigorous
scientific evidence, yet remain simple and clear enough to engage
a broad audience.
If we are also to promote global health, water, sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) must be guaranteed, as hygiene is the missing
link in achieving the full benefits of WASH investments. In
particular, menstrual hygiene is still a worldwide taboo facing
stigma and causing discrimination. Developing a specific target
for hygiene will provide better conditions for monitoring and
reporting on the results of hygiene improvements.
We have to better connect water with other sectors through
which the governance models have to be changed in order to
manage the nexus. A holistic approach is necessary to address
the multiple and complex issues. This approach must include
ecosystems, which are at the center of the nexus perspective.
If ecosystems functions are depleted, then the food and energy
sectors will suffer significant losses.
Our future is one of shared responsibility – we must all value
a future where we govern across sectors, with policies that are
more integrated and resilient. Experiences need to be shared
so that what works in one community, in one country can be
replicated or adapted in another. A water and energy secure future
depends on our capacity to turn these resource challenges into
opportunities and we have to act now.
Ph ot o: J
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SOCIAL MEDIA
At this year’s World Water Week, social media activity far
exceeded that of previous years.
The interaction between members of our online network of
nearly 13,000 people (Facebook and Twitter) meant conversations,
ideas and information about water and energy reached over
220,000 people during the Week. The #wwweek hashtag also
gained significantly more traction compared to last year.
The organic nature of the online conversation clearly demonstrated the opportunities presented by digital platforms, and the
enthusiasm of both participants and the wider public. Twitter
Q&A’s, live chats between experts and the public, films, livestreaming of seminars and social media updates all helped
to drive discussions around important topics and increase
participation in events.
Videos, photos, news stories and press releases from the
Week are still available on www.siwi.org/mediahub and
www.worldwaterweek.org and we encourage you to catch up
on those sessions that you missed.
Next year is the Silver Jubilee (1991-2015). We look forward
to the online discussion reaching a whole new level! Follow us
and stay tuned for better ways to engage, inform and share.
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2015: 18 JANUARY
Deadline for submission of abstracts and event proposals
Submit abstracts and proposals online at www.worldwaterweek.org.
2015: FEBRUARY-APRIL
Notification of acceptance of abstracts and event proposals
Nominations for 2015 Stockholm Water Prize open
2015: APRIL-MAY
Registration opens and the Programme is released, providing an overview of 2015 World
Water Week as well as information on how to register. All information of the events can be found
in our online programme at programme.worldwaterweek.org. The online programme will be
updated continuously up to the World Water Week.
2015: JUNE 30
Discounted registration (Early Bird) ends
2015: AUGUST 23-28
2015 World Water Week in Stockholm – Water for Development
www.worldwaterweek.org
2015: WATER FOR DEVELOPMENT
www.worldwaterweek.org
STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL
WATER INSTITUTE, SIWI
Box 101 87 | SE-100 55, Stockholm, Sweden
Visiting address: Linnégatan 87A
PHONE +46 121 360 00
FAX +46 121 360 01
EMAIL siwi@siwi.org • www.siwi.org
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