Ambala - Haryana Agriculture University

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Transcript

DRAFT PLAN
COMPREHENSIVE
DISTRICT AGRICULTURE PLAN
(C-DAP)
DISTRICT AMBALA
HARYANA
COMPREHENSIVE DISTRICT AGRICULTURE PLAN (C-DAP)
FOR RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA
OF XITH FIVE YEAR PLAN
CONTRIBUTORS
DR. MOHD. SULEMAN, HORTICULTURE
DR. S. K. THAKRAL, PLANT BREEDING
DR. J. N. BHATIA, PLANT PATHOLOGY
DR. ANIL RATHI, AGRIL. ECONOMIST, KVK SONEPAT
DR. RAMESH SHARMA, SOIL SCIENTIST, KVK SONEPAT
DR. SURENDER SINGH DAHIYA, AGRONOMIST, KVK SONEPAT
&
DISTRICT’S OFFICERS OF LINE DEPARTMENT
DISTRICT AMBALA
HARYANA
CONTENTS
CHAPTER -I Introduction 1
CHAPTER-II General Description of the District 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Location and Geographical Units 6
2.3 District at a Glance 6
2.3 The Vision 9
CHAPTER-III SWOT Analysis 13
CHAPTER-IV Development of Agriculture Sector 16
4.1 Introduction 16
4.2 Land use : 16
4.3 Soil Health 18
4.4 Water Resource and management. 18
4.5 Farm Mechanization : 19
4.6 Major crops and varieties in the district. 20
4.7 Input management 20
4.9 Constraint Analysis : 22
4.11 Recommended interventions for the district with detailed
action Plan with costs
41.
4.12 Projected outcome and growth rate during the plan period: 42
4.13 Research Issues 42
4.14 Integrated pest management (IPM) 42
4.15 Integrated nutrient management (INM) 43
CHAPTER-V Allied agriculture Sectors 53
5.1 Horticulture Development 53
5.1.1 Constraints analysis in Horticulture 59
5.2 Social Forestry 60
5.3 Animal Husbandry 61
6 Fisheries development 66
6.1 Introduction and present status 66
6.2 Development of Fisheries Water Resources: 66
6.3 Strengthening of National Fish and Seed Programme 67
6.4 Establishment of Fish seed farm/units by Fish Farmers : 67
6.5 Financial Assistance to the Fish Farmers: 68
6.7 Fisheries Education, Training & Extension: 68
CHAPTER-VI District Plan 75
6.1 Introduction 75
6.2 Growth drivers 75
6.3 Innovative Schemes: 77
6.4 Vision of XI Plan 82
6.5 Financial Proposals for XI plan in Agriculture and Allied
Sectors
83
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Area, Production and Yield of Major Crops in Irrigated/Rain fed
Conditions during Kharif Season 2007-08.
17
Table 2 Depletion of Under ground water status in Ambala District. 18
Table 3 Spectrum of rice varieties and hybrids (H) grown by farmers in
district Ambala
20
Table 4 Spectrum of wheat varieties grown by farmers in district Ambala 20
Table 5 Crop wise NPK Consumption 21
Table 6 Sustainability issues and gap analysis of Productivity of different
crops and resources. in District Ambala
25
Table 7 Proposal for Seed Planning 43
Table 8 Proposal or Demons on R.C.T. 44
Table 9 Proposal for Water Management Demons 44
Table 10 Proposal for SSNM 45
Table 11 Proposal for IWM 45
Table 12 Proposal for Extension activities on timely spraying of Wheet 45
Table 13 Proposal for Demons on hybrid rice and transplanter 46
Table 14 Proposal for Demons on SugarCane 46
Table 15 Proposal for Demons on Sun flower 46
Table 16 Seed and Seed treatment chemical requirement 47
Table 17 Proposal for Seed Treatment (Rs. in Lacs) 47
Table 18 Proposal for Seed Replacement Strategy 47
Table 19 Proposal for Seed Replacement in wheat & paddy (Rs. in Lacs) 48
Table 20 Proposal for Land Levelling through laser leveler (Rs. in Lacs) 48
Table 21 Proposal for INM demons 49
Table 22 Proposal for IPM Demons 49
Table 23 Proposal for Green manuring through Dhaincha 50
Table 24 Proposal for Summer Moong 50
Table 25 Proposal for Zero Tillage Machine (Rs. in Lacs) 50
Table 26 Roposal for Bed Planter (Rs. in Lacs) 51
Table 27 Proposal for Capacity Building of Agriculture Staff (Rs. in Lacs) 51
Table 28 Proposal for Capacity building of Agriculture farmer (Rs. in Lacs) 51
Table 29 Projected Out Come and growth rate during the Plan Period
(Horticulture & Vegs) (Area - ha, Production – Q/ ha, Productivity --Q/Ha.)
52
Table: 30 Area, Production and Yield of Major Horticulture Crops. 54
Table: 31 Area Expansion Plan of Horticulture Crops(Including vegetable
crops)
55
Table 32 Rejuvenation Plan of Horticulture Crops 55
Table 33 Mushroom information 2007-08, District Ambala 55
Table: 34 Proposed Physical and Financial Targets Mushroom for XI Plan 56
Table 37 Expenditure/layout plan proposed for next five year plan is as follows 66
Table 38 Projected Outlay for Fisheries Development during XI Plan 69
Table 39 Proposal for Demons on Hort & Veg Crops (Rs. in Lacs) 70
Table 40 Proposal for Capacity Building Horticultural staff (Rs. in Lacs) 70
Table 41 Proposal for Capcity Building of Hort. Farmer (Rs. in Lacs) 70
Table 42 Proposal for Bee Keeping Training (Rs. in Lacs) 71
Table 43 Proposal for Mushroom Training (Rs. in Lacs) 71
Table 44 Proposal for Vermi compost (Rs. in Lacs) 72
Table 45 Projected Out Come and growth rate during the Plan Period
(Horticulture & Vegs (Area - ha, Production – Q/ ha, Productivity --Q/Ha.)
73
Table 46 Tools Utilized for improving Crop Production 79
Table 47 Financial outlays for different crops in XI Plan 83
Table 48 Financial outlays for Resource Conservation Technologies in XI Plan 84
Table 49 Financial outlays for different management activities(crops) in XI
Plan
84
Table 50 Financial outlays for different other activities(crops) in XI Plan 84
Table 51 Financial outlays for different horticulture crops and subsidiary
occupations in XI Plan
84
Table 52 Financial outlays for Animal Husbandry in XI Plan 85
Table 53 Financial outlays for Fisheries in XI Plan 85
Table 54 Financial outlays for Forestry in XI Plan 86
Table 55 Financial outlays for Agriculture and allied sectors in XI Plan 86
Table 56 Consolidated Plan of Distt. Ambala (Rs. in Lacs) 87
1
CHAPTER -I
Introduction
The economic reforms commenced in 1991 has successfully put the economy in a higher
growth orbit with more than 8 percent growth rate in total Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
especially during the recent years. However, the agriculture sector which accounted for more
than 30 percent of total GDP at the beginning of reforms failed to maintain its pre-refarm
growth. On the contrary, it witnessed a sharp declaration in growth after the mid 1990s as the
per annum growth in agriculture sector dropped to 1.9 percent during 1996-97 to 2001-2002
from 3.2 percent in the period 1980-81 to 1995-1996. This happened despite the fact that
agricultural productivity in most of the States was quite low, as it were, and the potential for
the growth of agriculture was high. The Tenth five year plan target of growth of 4 percent per
annum in agriculture and allied sectors, set to reverse the sharp deceleration of 1996-1997 to
2001-2002 has not been achieved. A sustained and wide spread agricultural growth is a precondition of development in India as more than 50 percent of country’s work fare still
depends upon agri. for its livelihood. This slow growth in agriculture (including allied
sectors) can be of great strain far the economy. Concerned over this pace of growth in
agriculture and allied sectors, the National Development Council (NDC), in its meeting held
on 29th May, 2007 resolved that a special Additional Central Assistance Scheme i.e. National
Agriculture Development Programme/ Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) be launched
with following main objectives .
The main objectives of the scheme are:
► To incentivise the States for increasing public investment in agriculture and allied
sectors
► To ensure that agricultural plans of Districts/States are prepared and are based on
agro- climatic conditions, availability of technology and natural resources.
► To reduce the yield gap in important crops and increase production and productivity
in agriculture and allied sectors through forcused and holistic initiatives.
2
► To ensure that local needs/crops/priorities are better reflected in the agricultural plans
of the Districts/States.
► To provide flexibility and autonomy to States in planning and implementation of
agriculture and allied sector schemes.
► To maximize income of farmers in agriculture and allied sectors.
The eligibility for assistance from the Centre under the scheme would depend upon the State
Government providing amounts in the Plan Budget of the State for agriculture and allied
sectors over the baseline expenditure.
As per the NDC resolution Government of India introduced a new Additional Central
Assistance Scheme to incentivise States to draw up plans for their agriculture sector more
comprehensively, taking agro-climatic conditions, natural resource issues and technology
into account, and integrating livestock, poultry and fisheries etc. This involves a new scheme
for Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to State Plans, administered by the Union ministry
of Agriculture over and above its existing centrally sponsored schemes, to supplement the
state-specific strategies. In order to rejuvenate the agriculture during XI th plan a growth rate
of 4 percent per annum has to be achieved (as per NDC commitment) by reorienting
development strategies that meet the needs of the farmers. The agriculture growth being
essential element of the strategy of making growth more inclusive, the NDC advised the
State Governments on preparation of Comprehensive District Agriculture Plans (C-DAP)
which includes allied agriculture sectors with full and efficient utilization of available
resources. The concept of integrated local area plans (to raise living standard in rural area and
over come food shortage) based on specific endowments and needs of each area mooted in 1st
Five year plan in 1951, could not be materialized in true sense as only sporadic efforts and
isolated cases of such planning were practically attempted. For success of local area or
District level plans the underlying constraints needed to be identified and required
infrastructural investment, extension (and research system) revamping and market reach with
the system’s conduct and performance have to be synchronized through a holistic policy
approach. Keeping this in view the C-DAP of district Ambala is prepared far achieving
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sustainable agricultural growth with improved farmers’ income through participatory process
involving stakeholders and various organizations. By establishing strong linkages with
required institutional support services the plan will ensure optimum utilization of scarce
national, physical and financial resources.
The Agriculture in the district (as in the state too) can’t possibly achieve same growth
as in the past without recognizing the role of farmers’ participatory approach for formulating
strategies and finding solution to new and emerging problems. Similarly due to globalization,
trade in agriculture will expand and the farmers of the district can hugely benefit when the
trade expands and our farmers start making best use of such changes by becoming as
secondary producer rather than a primary producer of agriculture commodities. The district is
facing host of new problems related to decrease in total factor productivity and problems of
unemployment. Hence reforms based on globalization can now pave the way for subsidiary
occupations along with farming. Issues related to soil health, decline in water table and
emergences of new weed flora and herbicides resistance in rice-wheat cropping system.
Although there are number of reasons for the falling aggregates yield growth rates are many
but the integrated crop management has come out as the key variable to improve farm
productivity considering the climatic resources there is a possibility of closing the
exploitable gap in favor of technologies like intercropping water management, soil surface
residues, direct seeded Paddy etc. along with suitable and profitable diversifications system
for sustainable soil health and productivity.
Methodology
The C-DAP was prepared as per the process and methodology suggested by the planning
Commission, Government of India. The approach followed in preparation of the document
was necessarily of Participatory Appraisal mode. CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hissar, Haryana was identified as Technical Support Institute (TSI). The TSI, under the
guidance of Director, Extension Education, Provided all necessary technical help to planning
units and support groups for preparation of this plan through participatory bottom-up process.
The TSI trained the planning Units/ Groups in Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques,
Designed formats for data collection, guided in data collection and analysis and conducted
4
regular workshops and meeting and did hand holding where ever needed for plan preparation.
The responsibility of preparing C-DAP of Ambala district was given to Krsihi Vigyan
Kendra, Amabala City .The KVK team, after receiving proper training from TSI held wide
consultations with District/ Block/Village Agriculture Planning Units of the district. The TSI
conducted two days orientation workshop-cum-training programme on 27-03-2008 and 2803-2008 Ambala City. The following specific aspects were covered in the programme.
• Issue and challenges in Agriculture sector.
• Planning concepts and district Planning.
• Basic features and planning process of RKVY.
• Vision, methodology and process of preparing C-DAP.
• Participatory Rural Appraisal.
• Farming system approach.
• Farming situation based extension.
• INM, IPM, NRM, HRD, Marketing and other important aspects.
Data Collection and consultation: The KVK team, after receiving proper training from TSI
held wide consultations with district/ Block/Village Agriculture Planning Units of the district
(Different/Institutional arrangements under ATMA scheme). Formal and informal meeting
with Agriculture and line department staff, Panchayati Raj institution’s members and farmers
were conducted at different levels. Collected secondary data and related statistics needed for
planning from different departments and other sources.
Primary Data:- For in depth Farm/ village level study covering important aspects of
agriculture and allied fields, the district was divided into two distinctively Agro-ecosituations (AESs) as was done for SREP preparation under ATMA scheme. From each AES
one representative village sakraon from AES-I and Rachedde from AES –II) was selected for
collecting required information on modified semi-structured through PRA.
Con-current review and verification of data: The primary as well as secondary data
collected was cross-checked through triangulations and verified from information/reports
5
available with different government departments and PRA based exercises (earlier conducted
by KVK and other agencies.) The district plan (draft), SREP and PLP of Ambala district and
other related documents/reports of different departments were consulted for preparing the CDAP.
The possible changes in the management practices targeted were• Adoption of resources conservation technologies at large scale.
• Farm productions system for land owing families.
• Soil health sustainslity through the applications of fertilizers & other mgt practices.
• Effective pest management strategies including weed & nematodes based on
economic threshold value.
• Decline in water table calls for augmentation of the existing water applications
through rain water conservation and demand management.
• Farmer and scientist came to general agreement on what to do to fill the gap on crops
and allied activities.
System approach keeping in view the following:
1. Profitability and sustainability of cropping system and return.
2. Market infrastructure and marketing opportunities, custom hiring services and some
of the policy issue related to subsidy.
3. Farmer inability to invest in the productivity enhancement as majority of farmers
belongs to resources poor category.
4. Livelihood support system for landless families.
5. Collected and discussed the feed back regarding on-Farm and Off-Farm activates.
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CHAPTER-II
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Location and Geographical Units
Ambala enjoys the unique privilege to serve as gateway to the states of HP, Punjab
and UT of Chandigarh. With the passage of time its geography has changed no. of times but
its name, basic characteristic and H.Q. continue to be same. Ambala Comprises two SubDivisions Ambala and Nariangarh. There are 495 villages and 430 Panchyats. These have
been grouped into Six development Blocks i.e. Ambala -1, Ambala-2, Saha, Brara,
Nariangarh and Sahajadpur. The District is completely electrified. The literacy rates is also
quite high in comparison to State literacy rate and is among forwarded District. Ambala City
is known for mixing manufacturing, Ambala Cantt for Scientific Instruments. Ambala City
has big cloth marketing which cater to the needs of cloth vendors , retail traders and
individuals. The city known for old Ahatas (complex) like Patiala house, Manali House, Jind
House, Sarihand House which signifies the Princely status of the city in the past.
2.3 District at a Glance
Agricultural description of District Geographical area - 153731 ha
Area under forest - 1174 ha
Barren land - 2470ha
Cultivable waste land - 196ha
Area under pasture - 843h
Area under Tress and Grooves - 196ha.
7
Present Fallow land - 393ha
Cultivable area - 135052ha
Cultivated Area - 133817 ha.
Net Area Sown - 133424 ha.
Area sown more than once - 79000ha
Gross Cropped Area - 299781ha.
Cropping Intensity - 154.2%
Total Irrigated Area - 127350ha.
By Tube well - 111000ha.
By Canal - 14000ha.
Type of Soil - Sandy loam & clay
Soil ph. - 8.59
Annual Rainfall - 1100mm
2.2.2 Demographic profile
A) Population , Density , Male, Female, Ratio, Literacy, Birth rate
i) Population –total persons (2001) 1013660
i) Male 542366
ii) Female 471294
2 Rural Person 656997
i) Male 349765
8
ii) Female 307232
3. Urban Person 356663
i) Male 192601
ii) Female 164062
4 Density of Population (per Sq. K.m) 644
5 Sex Ratio 869
6 Literacy Source 444314
i) Male 263925
ii) Female 180389
7 Persons Per Household 6
2.2.3 Topography and agro-climatic characteristics
The soil of the district and fertile is useful for all kind of crop. The main crops are
Wheat in Rabi Seasons and rice , maize and Sugarcane in Kharif Seasons . Natural resources
like rainfall , climate , texture and fertility of the soil are good and useful. The district is
suitable for growing fruits like Mango, Spota, Guava , Papaya and all sorts of vegetables .
Potato and Onions are also extensively grown in the District.
The Climate of the District is categorized by humid tropical and dry winter, extreme
seasonal temperature , long dry –short wet seasons and potential evapo-transpirations
exceeding precipitation. The annual rainfall of the district is 1100mm. The rain fall in the
reason is mostly in the monsoon season extending from Middle of June to Middle of October.
The rainfall data for last 60 years at Ambala indicated that nearly 79.4% of the annual
precipitation is received in these four months. The day temperature ranges from 20.8 degree
in January to 40.8 degree in may where as the night temperature ranges from 6.8degree in
January to 27.3 degree in June. The RH various from 21% in may to 82 % in August.
2.2.4 Irrigation and ground water
The area under irrigation (127350 ha.) to net sown (133000)ha. is 83.5% against the
state average of 84.1%. Out of Total areas 111 thousand ha. through tube wells while only
9
14000ha. by canal. So the pressure on tubewells water increasing day by day and it is going
to create a disastrous like situation for the firm sector of this district in near future. During
the year 2006-2007 the availability of ground water reached upto depth of 220feet and upliftment of water from this depth is a herculean task and also a very costly affair at the
farmers level due to predominance of rice –wheat cropping system and dependence on under
ground water for irrigation. The Brara and Sehjadpur block has been categorized as dark
zone for ground water resource while rest of the block false under grey zone . There are
22160 tubewells and pumping sets in the districts to irrigate the land under agriculture . As
per the observation of District hydroliogist the water table has gone down to 3 -5 feet in case
of Shallow Tubewell while 10-15feet in case of deep tubewells every year.
2.2.5 Land Utilization Pattern
Out of total geographical area of 153731 hectares, the cultivable area is 135052 ha.
and net sown area is 133424 ha. The percentage of net sown area to total cultivable area is
92.3% which is very much close to State average of 93.1 %.
2.2.6 Farm mechanization:
There are 7753tractors, 12800 harrows, 2500 zero till seed cum fertilizer drills, 5025
power threshers, 36combine harvesters, 12500 sprayers, 100 dusters, 238 straw reapers, 1
laser leveler, 2 bed planters in the district (2007).
2.2.7 Industries
Ambala City is known for mixi manufacturing and Ambala Cantt. For scientific Instruments.
This city also famous for manufacturing of seed processing units and its accessories. There
are 63 rice shellors , 10 units of handmade papers , 16 units of cattle feed , 10 solvent
extraction plant ,5 unit of Jams and sauces , 2 units of pickle and 20 units of straw board.
2.3 The VISION
The Green revolution technology has prompted agricultural scientists to develop high
yielding vars. of wheat and some of good hybrids in paddy . Subsequently the farmers of the
10
Ambala District has also shifted to these varieties and hybrids resulting in covering about
90% areas under them. The adoption of both vars. and hybrids coupled with improved
technology and effecting price support and stocking policies by the Govt. have brought about
significant increase in productivity of wheat and paddy. These developments put the region’s
agriculture on high growth path resulting into fast increase in the area under rice and wheat
crops not only by substituting other crops but also through horizontal and vertical expansion
in the cultivated area. the economic and ecological sustainability of the existing farming
systems of the district are in jeopardy. There are wide concerns about the depletion of ground
water level, degradation in soil fertility, rising problems of insect-pest and disease complex,
decline in bio-diversity, stagnation in yields, rising costs and diminishing economic returns,
decline in factor productivity, declining and fragmented small holdings and narrow economic
base of the farmers.
Keeping in view the unique situation of small fragmented holdings, lack of capital
investment, necessity of recycling, year round employment, risk avoidance and concerns
mentioned above, the farmers of the district started attempting, especially during mid
eighties, to enlarge the concept of crops and animal husbandry (being practiced by them
since long) by incorporating poultry, fish, pig, vermiculture, beekeeping, vegetables and
mushroom etc.. This concept of multiple use of inputs and recycling principle was
inadvertently put in practice based on traditional knowledge, in efficient integration and
without proper market orientation. Sporadic success was achieved by relatively small number
of farmers as the approach of crop enterprise concentration moved towards integration of
some other enterprises. Notables are instances of integration of vegetable and mushroom
cultivation and up to an extent poultry and fish farming where farmers have achieved
commendable success otherwise majority of the farmer are experiencing low productivity
and profitability because of low knowledge, inefficient integration without farming system
technologies which include modern farm management skills that enable farmers to improve
the efficiency, increase cropping intensity and to integrated and diversify into more high
value commodities/ enterprises in conformity with market trends.
For vast majority of small holdings prevailing in the district Integrated farming system
approach especially with multiple crop husbandry in integration with or two allied enterprise
11
with market potential is the sure way for optimum utilization of limited resources with
sustainable income in time with national interest/goal. Instead of single enterprise the coexistence of multiple enterprises (crops and allied) in an integrated way makes optimum
utilization within crop husbandry the plank necessarily be the increased efficiency especially
of water, fertilizers and nutrients, human labour and machinery coupled with cost reduction
measures elaborated in plan document. The scientific integration of certain enterprises is ecofriendly and imparts sustainability to the system with increased income and employment
generation.
The ever increasing cost of production and dependency on purchased inputs can effectively
be reined in by adopting this approach through enhanced use efficiency of different critical
inputs in crop enterprises (multiple) with judicious combination of allied enterprises
complimenting with other through effective recycling of residues, wastes, bi products or the
products itself. The allied enterprises are important part of the farming systems. The pace of
development can be further accelerated through promotion of agro processing and
establishment of manufacturing unit and promoting service sector . Both price and income
elasticity’s of demand for most of these enterprise’s products are high. There is huge
unfulfilled demand for these products. There exists high potential for increasing the yield
rates of these enterprises as the gap between present productivity (in the district) and the
achievable yield and potential yield is quite large. The prevailing infrastructural facilities,
easy access to big markets and up-coming processing, sorting , grading , packing and storing
facilities in and around the district are added advantage for the farmers of this district.
VISION STATEMENT
Improving livelihood of rural households by rebalancing agriculture through
conserving agriculture and an integrated diversified farming system.
Priority setting for the district
• Conservation, development and sustainable management of water resources.
• Soil health improvement
• Popularizing resource conserving technologies.
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• Encourages multiple land use by increasing cropping intensity and intercropping.
• Integration of crop husbandry with vegetable and horticultural crops, animal
husbandry, mushroom cultivation and other non crop based farming.
• Bridging yield gaps of crops, animals and other enterprises.
• Human resources development of rural youths, farm women, other disadvantaged
groups and filed staff.
• Paradigm shift from production oriented farming to market oriented agriculture
with the promotion of Agro processing industries.
During 1970s and 1980s the green revolution technologies provided strong motivation to
diversity crop sector in favour of high yielding cultivars of wheat and paddy in ambala
district. Now the problem resulting from the same technology and near exhaustion of its
growth potential coupled with other factors are pressing for another diversification in the
district. Practically, little scope exists for a major shift to towards diversification but its
steady pace since 1980s needed to be maintained more specifically in the light of new
opportunities.
By adopting a system approach the predominant paddy – wheat cropping system
which now occupies more then 86 percent of the total sown area in the district has
been extending to areas even with marginal quality ground matters continues use of
marginal quality ground waters are of sodic nature, has implications for soil
productivity in the long run.
The district enjoy the advantages of amiability of green fodder, efficient system of
rural transport and road network to more regiorsuly promoting commercial dairy.
Mushroom, poultry, fish farming, sheep-goat and pig farming. The district also enjoys the
locations wise advantage of being near the capital chandigarh which offers vast consumer
market for the agri-produces. This kind of expansion will also be beneficial for improving
soil health through increased availability of organic manure. Here, it is also to be
understood that the increased adoption of less land using enterprises mentioned above are
not the only solution, cutting cost and increasing the productivity is the best way to sustain
the growth in agriculture and allied sectors.
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CHAPTER-III
SWOT Analysis
SWOT as an acronym stands for strength, weakness, opportunity and threats of a
technology or an organisation. These particulars basically serve as management tools for
strategic decision making. SWOT analysis also serves as a diagnostic technique which helps
in solving and strengthening the future projections and applications. Before, 1980’s, this
technique had been used in industrial management, but thereafter, it became an important
exercise in all the fields of life. In the present scenario of agriculture, this technique can be an
effective tool in understanding the emerging challenges of farming and different eco-systems
and integrating them with requirements of agriculture in right perspective.
Major strengths
• Suitable agro climatic conditions for food crops, sugarcane, sunflower, fruits &
vegetables.
• District is strategically located & well connected to major cities.
• Efficient road & Railway Network.
• Dairy & Poultry are integral component of farming system
• Assured Price for rice and wheat
• Well developed infrastructure for marketing.
• Easy access to farm input.
• Liberal Scheme & easy availability of crop loan from NB & financial Institutions.
• Increasing adoption of mechanization
• A good network of extension services
• Farmers are very receptive
• Milk coop. societies at village level.
• Good communication facilities in villages
• Cooperative Sugar mill at Shahajadpur for cane growers.
• Active Participation of women in different enterprises.
• Milk processing plants provide ready market to milk producers.
14
• A hub for manufacturing of mixi, scientific instruments & seed processing
accessories.
Major Weaknesses.
• Over dependence on under ground water in the absence of canal water has put to
dark zone.
• Small land holdings
• Rice-wheat cropping system leading to depletion of soil fertility & organic
carbon.
• Intensive cultivation increases incidence of pests and diseases
• Poor management of cattle waste and farm residues.
• Discriminating Govt. policies towards oil seed & pulses.
• Non-adoption of IPM, INM, over dependence on pesticides
• Uneconomic holding size, Lack of diversification & inability of capital
investment especially on horticultural crops.
• Poor breeding, feeding and management of livestock
• Soils are becoming deficient in micro nutrients
• Lack of water harvesting and management practices
• Lack of infrastructure facilities to avoid post harvest losses in fruits, vegetables
and flowers.
• Rural under employment and due to lack of subsidiary enterprises.
• Diversion of cultivated lands towards urbanization.
• Poor literacy in farming community.
• Farm operations mainly dependent on migrant labourers .
• Poor drainage leads to silting of reservoirs & depletion of sand in agriculture land.
Major Opportunities :
• Suitable agro climatic conditions congenial for horticultural crops.
• Agriculture wastes available in abundance which can be recycled to improve soil
health and mushroom cultivation.
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• Network of cooperatives.
• Good marketing infrastructure
• Better farming practices in capital & adjoining state.
• Integrating Horticulture & integrating live stock.
• Promotion of organic manure & compost.
• Good information and communication system
• Rail and road connectivity is good.
• Demand for milk and milk products and vegetables.
• Cooperative Sugar mill at Shajadpur
• Multiple land use
Threats to the Farming System:
• Herbicide resistance in wheat
• Maximum area under rice-wheat cropping system
• Very less area under horticulture, pulses and oilseed crops
• Indiscriminate use and over exploitation of underground water for irrigation
• Lack of recharging of underground water.
• Continuous and exhaustive rice-wheat cropping system led to loss of soil fertility.
• High residues of pesticides due to indiscriminate use
• Problem of blue bull & wild animals discourages farmers towards pulse cultivation.
• Live stock promotion was limited mostly to breed upgradation.
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CHAPTER-IV
DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE SECTOR
4.1 Introduction
District Ambala has 4.8 %of the total State population which is around 1.014 million
with compound annual growth rate of 2.3% per annum nearly 65% of the population resides
in rural areas. Of the rural worker population main worker constitute 80% of the total rural
workers population of which approximately 43% are agricultural labrores and cultivators and
agriculture is the mainly back bone of the district. In Ambala District rice , wheat and
Sugarcane are the dominating crops which account for 40% , 46% and 8% respectively of the
total sown area. About 2% of the total sown area comes under fruit and vegetables. The
productivity of the most of the crops in the district is slightly higher than the state average
except in case of wheat and oilseeds. Pulses and oil seeds occupies a very small areas in the
District. Live stock rearing has been and important component of farming system in the
district . The main source of dairy products in the district is buffaloes.
4.2 Land use :
There is 133817 ha area under cultivation of different crops. The percentage of net
area sown to total cultivable area is 96.2. Rice, wheat, sugarcane and sunflower are the major
crops grown in the district. The area under different agricultural crops is given in Table. 1
17
Table: 1 Area, Production and Yield of Major Crops in Irrigated/Rain fed Conditions during Kharif Season 2007-08.
Area (ha) Poduction(q) Yield(q/ha) Crops Block
Irrigated % Rainfed % Total Irrigated % Rainfed % Total Irrigated Rainfed Average
Paddy 25000 100 - - 25000 88750 100 - 50 88750 3550 - 3550
Maize 200 54 200 50 400 453 50 453 50 906 - 2268 2268
S.Cane
Ambala-I
1700 100 - - 1700 11051 100 - - 11051 6501 - 6501
Paddy 16500 100 - - 6500 23075 100 - - 23075 3550 - 3550
Maize - - 100 100 100 - - 226 - - - 2268 2268
S.Cane
Ambala-II
1300 100 - - 1300 8451 100 - - 8451 6501 - 6501
Paddy 11200 100 - - 11200 39760 39760 100 - 39760 3550 - 3550
Maize - - 300 100 300 - - 680 100 680 - 2268 2268
S.Cane
Saha
2200 100 - - 2200 14302 100 - - 14302 6501 -- 6501
Paddy 4200 100 - - 14200 50410 100 - - 50410 3550 - 3550
Maize - - 100 100 100 - - 226 100 226 - 2268 2268
S.Cane
Barara
4000 100 - - 4000 26004 100 - - 26004 6501 - 6501
Paddy 8900 100 - - 8900 31595 100 - - 31595 3550 - 3550
Maize - - 700 100 700 - - 1587 100 1587 - 2268 2268
S.Cane
Shahzadpur
2800 100 - - 2800 18203 100 - - 18202 6501 - 6501
Paddy 9300 99 100 1 9400 33015 100 - - 3315 - 2268 2268
Maize - - 1000 100 1000 - - 1000 100 2668 3550 - 3550
S.Cane
Naraingarh
3200 100 - - 3200 20803 100 - - 20803 - 2268 2268
18
4.3 Soil Health
The soil health of the district is of medium fertility. As per the soil health indices
majority of the soil are low in available Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Organic Carbon and medium
in available potash. Due to intensive cultivation micronutrient status of the soils are also
depleting and reports of deficiency of iron, manganese and zinc have been reported.
4.4 Water Resource and management.
The area under irrigation (127350 ha.) to net sown (133000)ha. is 83.5% against the
state average of 84.1%. Out of Total areas 111 thousand ha. through tube wells while only
14000ha. by canal. So the pressure on tubewells water increasing day by day and it is going
to create a disastrous like situation for the firm sector of this district in near future. During
the year 2006-2007 the availability of ground water reached upto depth of 220feet and upliftment of water from this depth is a herculean task and also a very costly affair at the
farmers level due to predominance of rice –wheat cropping system and dependence on under
ground water for irrigation. The Brara and Sehjadpur block has been categorized as dark
zone for ground water resource while rest of the block false under grey zone . There are
22160 tubewells and pumping sets in the districts to irrigate the land under agriculture . As
per the observation of District hydroliogist the water table has gone down to 3 -5 feet in case
of Shallow Tubewell while 10-15feet in case of deep tubewells every yeare (Table2)
Table 2 Depletion of Under ground water status in Ambala District.
Block June 2006
(mt.)
Oct. 2006
(mt)
Fluctuation
(Meter)
Ambala 1 4.94 3.63 1.31
Ambala -2 6.53 6.19 0.34
Brara 12.25 12.08 0.17
Saha 9.75 9.08 0.66
Nariangarh 11.35 10.73 0.62
Sahajapur 7.82 7.16 0.66
Total 8.77 8.16 0.62
19
4.4.2 Scope for improvement in respect of irrigation
There is need of awareness among the farmers for adopting water saving techniques
as proposed in resource conservation earlier. The micro irrigation systems like drip and
sprinkler irrigation should be popularized. Although a centrally sponsored scheme namely
“National Micro Irrigation Project” has been implemented w.e.f. 1.4.2006 to promote microirrigation in the district. In order to recharge the ground water, rain water harvesting is
necessary as there is about 1000 mm annual rainfall in the district. The focus should be on
water saving techniques like irrigation at critical stages of crop growth, land leveling, green
manuring and bed planting. These are ways to decreased conveyance losses by introducing
folding plastic pipes, pucca channels and sub-surface pipe lines.
4.5 Farm Mechanization :
Farm mechanization has been helpful in improving productivity of different crops,
time saving, reducing drudgery, timely farm operations, resource conservation and protection
from natural calamities. The timely sowing of wheat due to zero tillage seed cum fertilizer
drills has improved the productivity of wheat during the years 2006 to 2008 which is
remarkable achievement in wheat production. Placement of fertilizers under drill sowing
results in higher nutrient use efficiency and likewise higher irrigation efficiency under bed
planting and laser leveling. Use of crop harvesting machines ensures early completion of
harvesting and threshing works which escapes the untimely rainfall and storms hazards
particularly in wheat, rice and potato crops. State department agriculture through govt. of
India Macro Management Mode of Agriculture during the year 2004-07, the subsidy was
provided for 317 zero drills, 208 rotavators, 52potato planters, 19potato diggers, 33straw
reapers, 1reaper binders , 4 post hole diggers, 1 bed planter and 1 power tiller in district
Ambala.
Apart from above there is need to create more awareness among farmers in respect of
proper use of farm machinery for higher efficiency saving human and energy resources.
20
4.6 Major crops and varieties in the district.
Rice, wheat, sugarcane, sunflower and forage crops (berseem and sorghum) are the
major crops of the district. There is 100% area of wheat and 80% area of rice falls under high
yielding hybrids(Table 3 & 4). Similarly, the area of sunflower is also 100% under high
yielding private sector hybrids. The main hybrids of sunflower under cultivation are
Mahyco-8, Mahyco-51, Jawala Mukhi, Divyamukhi, Pioneer 6460, Prosen-9 and NSFH-36.
The varieties of sorghum also belongs to private sector and the lone variety of berseem
grown in the distt. mascavi belong to public sector. The major varieties of sugarcane are COS
8436, COH-119, COS-767, COJ-64, CO-7717, COH 110 , COH 92 and , COH-99.
Table 3 : Spectrum of rice varieties and hybrids (H) grown by farmers in district
Ambala
Year Dwarf varieties / hybrids
2007 HBC -19, CSR-30, PR 11-21 , PUSA -44, PB-1, RH-10, HKR -47, H-71 , H-6111 ,
H-6129, H-6444, Sarbati and Shabnam .
Table 4 : Spectrum of wheat varieties grown by farmers in district Ambala
Years Varieties
2005-06 PBW-343, WH-711, WH-542, HD-2329, HD-2687, HD-2733, WH-147
2006-07 PBW-343, PBW-502, PBW-373, WH-711, PBW -550, UP-2338 C -306,
HD-2687, HD-2733, Raj-3765
4.7 Input management
The major input used in different crops are seed, fertilizers and pesticides.
4.7.1 Seed
The area under rice and wheat constitutes about 86 percent of total cultivable area. At
present the seed replacement rate (SRR) of wheat and rice is 20 and 75 %, respectively.
Thus, there is ample scope of SRR with regards to boost the productivity of major crops.
21
4.7.2 Fertilizers
The adoption pattern of different nutrients (year 2007) in rice and wheat based on the
survey conducted is given below in table 5 and 6
Table 5: Crop wise NPK Consumption (Year 2006-07)
Major crops Fertilizer Consumption (kg/ha) S.
No.
Block
N P K Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Paddy 450 150 150 750
Wheat 522 150 157 829
1 Ambala-I
S. Cane 300 124 140 564
Paddy 144 40 40 224
Wheat 145 45 60 250
2 Ambala-II
S. Cane 93 32 34 159
Paddy 200 40 80 320
Wheat 238 60 87 385
3 Saha
S. Cane 159 53 56 268
Paddy 200 60 87 347
Wheat 238 40 80 358
4 Barara
S. Cane 159 53 56 268
Paddy 200 60 87 347
Wheat 238 40 56 358
5 Shahzadpur
S. Cane 159 53 57 268
Paddy 200 60 80 347
Wheat 238 40 87 358
6 Naraingarh
S. Cane 159 53 56 268
22
4.7.3 Pesticides
The quantity of different pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) used by
farmers in different crops were 569 tonnes in the year 85-86 to 232 tones in the year 20032004
The insect pests and weeds are other major problems is achieving optimum yield for
all major crops in the district. The strategy and methods employed by the farming
community in the district revealed that the farmers are making groups negligence resulting
increased cost of cultivation without corresponding increase in yield and quality. The farmers
are blindly dependence on chemical control ignoring other management practices and
strategies. Hence, urgent steps are required for the control of insect/Pest, Disease and weeds.
The proposed plan for minimizing the pesticides has been proposed in the plan.
Special projects/programmes on going in the district
The following special projects are on going in the district.
a) Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) programme is being
implemented since 2007-08 to strengthen the present extension system.
b) Since 2004-05 the integrated scheme of oilseeds, pulses, & maize (ISOPOM) is
being implemented in the district.
c) Since 2006-07 the Macro management Mode of Agriculture is also being
implemented to strengthen the mechanization in agriculture in the district.
4.9 Constraint Analysis :
4.9.1 Yield gap analysis of major crops with reasons.
The yield gap analysis of major field crops and enterprises was compiled by KVK
resource team by identifying different farming situations with respect to ten progressive
farmers under each AES in the district.
The data pertaining to yield gapes in majors crops of the district has shown in the
23
table 6. The main reasons of yield gape are resistance to herbicides, less , SRR (20)% ,
delayed sowing , application of poor quality water , low fertility and improper water
management, Similarly in case of rice the yield gapes were due to low plant population per
unit area, decreased water and nutrient use efficiency, less awareness about IPM , INM and
IWM, Non adoption of eco-friendly mechanization , non availability of public sector hybrids
leading to confusion among farmers regarding proliferation of private sector hybrids.
The major yield gaps in sugarcane were observed due to poor germination, nonavailability of early varieties, poor seed replacement, poor management of ratoon and less
adoption of IPM practices. Comparatively poor performance of sunflower was due to lack of
quality seed of high yielding hybrids all belonging to private sector. Similar to rice, the
farmers were at a loss to select sunflower hybrids due to non-occurrence of public sector
hybrids. Non-application of sulphur fertilizers, wrong method of sowing (broadcast) and late
sowing of sunflower coinciding the maturity of crop with onset of pre monsoon rains
affecting the harvesting of sunflower.
The major constraint in spreading of pulses in the district is lack of competitiveness
with rice and wheat in terms of net returns. Summer moong is gaining impetus in rice-wheat
cropping system, there is need of high yielding short duration variety to fit in the rice-wheat
system. Blue bull and wild animals problems though seriously hampering the percolation of
pulses in the district .
4.10.2 Research/Extension/Adoption gaps
Varietal fatigue is the major research gap in all the crops. There is need of high
yielding pests resistant varieties for replacement as a particular variety with the passage of
time tends to loose its production potential and disease resistance. Hybrids of rice and
sunflower need attention as the area under hybrids is tremendously increasing which is
desirable even to improve productivity.
Due to limited human resource engaged in extension activities, the transfer of
technology is not adequate as required there by there remains a gap in adoption of any new
technology. The farmers are more in contact with commission agents and pesticide dealers
24
for credit, borrowing of inputs and technological know-how. There exists a parallel private
extension system guiding the farmers about private sector input delivery system.
4.10.3 Processing/Storage/Marketing gaps
There is a good marketing network for disposal for farm outputs. The farmers are
unable to keep the produce for storage due to their poor financial status and over dependent
upon commission agents. Processing facilities of rice and sugarcane are available in the
district and there seems to be no constraint in this case.
4.10.4 Existing Institutional Mechanism in the Government sector
As per above mentioned facts about the role of private sector in input supply, the
supply of the input through institutional arrangement is not sufficient. The farmers are not
sure about the quality of inputs supplied by private sector. The cooperatives role needs to be
enhanced at village level to meet the input requirement .
4.10.5 Income analysis of various categories of farmers
The average annual income from agriculture per hectare of sown areas in Haryana is
Rs. 41323 where as this figures comes to Rs. 43903 in case of Ambala District. As far as the
state per capita income from agriculture in Rural areas at current prices is Rs. 9700 per
annum. Where as it is Rs. 9000 from Ambala. Hence there lies significant scope for
improvement in Ambala which still lies behind the state average. Though a systematic study
on income of various categories of farmers is not available due to poor response of farmers in
providing financial information for the fear of tax imposition, withdrawal of subsidies and
credit facilities. Nevertheless, the majority of farmers are small and marginal having income
for their subsistence. The farmers have low risk bearing capacity and investment.
25
Table 6 Sustainability issues and gap analysis of Productivity of different crops and resources. in District Ambala
Sr.
no.
Gap Existing
problems
Possible solutions Approach Approximate area to be
covered
Sustainability outputs
A. Wheat
1. Timely seeding
of wheat
Delayed
harvesting of
basmati rice.
Availability of
irrigation,
excess/untimel
y rains.
Zero tillage, short duration
varieties of rice, reduced
duration of basmati rice, direct
seeding of basmati.
Research Extension
and dev. Agencies
should jointly
approach in a
farmer’s participatory
approach for each of
possible solution.
Testing of novel
seeders in preparation
for its
commercialization
e.g. happy seeders.
Out of 850000 ha. Area
under wheat, 60 per
cent area to be covered
under timely sown
conditions upto 10th
November.
Remaining areas under
basmati rice and
vegetable will be sown
upto Ist week of
December.
Zero-tillage will help:
a) Improving soil health
including soil biology.
b) Improved environment.
c) Less water use
d) More productivity
e) Less problem of P. minor
& decreased use of
herbicides
f) Reduced cost of cultivation
g) Facilitates sowing under
high soil moisture
conditions.
2. Seed treatment Termites,
fungal diseases
like loose smut,
flag smut and
Karnal bunt
Seed treatment with
insecticides, fungicides and biofertilizers. Seed priming if
sowing is delayed.
Awareness of farmers
regarding importance
of seed treatment by
the Univ. & the State
Deptt. of Agril.
Efforts will be made to
cover the entire area of
wheat under seed
treatment through
special Campaigns with
allied depts.
Productivity growth on
sustainable basis
3. Nutrient
management
through
balance dose
of fertilizer
and biofertilizers
To encourage
farmers for
application
need based
fertilizers and
micronutrients
Introduce more organic
manures, more residue
retension on surface, use of site
specific micro nutrients.
Management of pest disease
and weed problems through
more appropriate nutrient
management.
Experimental
research in different
cropping systems,
relook at soil test
values, change in the
recommendation of
practice
- The residue retension will help
improving soil productivity,
decreased losses of nutrients.
26
Sr.
no.
Gap Existing
problems
Possible solutions Approach Approximate area to be
covered
Sustainability outputs
4 Varietal
improvement
No variety to
tolerate
terminal heat
and frost
injury. Short
duration variety
produces less
yield
Varieties with stray green
characters near maturity, long
duration varieties, varieties
which can fit early sowing
starting from 15th oct. to
manage terminal heat at
maturity.
Pre breeding, work
on hybrid wheat
improvement in the
grain size of WH 542
At least 75 % area
should be covered with
varieties which can
yield equal or more
than
WH-542 & PBW-343
More enhanced use of natural
resources.
5. Management
of salinity and
alkalinity
Decreased
yield in the
drought year
because of life
saving
irrigations with
brackish water
in Kharif crops.
Avoid irrigation with brackish
water because it leads to
secondary salinity. Work is
needed to adapt agronomic
practices, especially the timing
and amount of fertilizer and
irrigation in order to increase
ecological sustainability
profitability and yield.
Long term expts. on
salinity and sodicity
build up will be
undertaken in
problematic areas.
Ambala-I, II,
Sahzadpur & Barara
block
Long term productivity of
wheat will sustain by proper
water management in the
system as a whole
6. Weed
management
Phalaris minor
seriously
affects wheat
yield in rice
wheat cropping
system
Improve the efficiency of
existing herbicides Introduce
new herbicide
Distt. level strategic
plan for the mgt. of
weed will be
integrated
Entire District Anticipated economic benefits
are increased, profitability,
increased yield and increased
food security
7. Production of
value added
wheat
Most of the
available wheat
varieties are
poor chapatti
making quality
To identify better quality wheat
cultivars, to improve the quality
through breeding programmes
Research will be
under taken on these
aspectes
Experiment basis only
in seed villages and on
the fields of progressive
farmers
-
27
Sr.
no.
Gap Existing
problems
Possible solutions Approach Approximate area to be
covered
Sustainability outputs
B. Rice
1. Low plant
density
Drudgery of
transplanting
operation, hired
labour, non
availability of
labour
Introduction of paddy
transplanter under zero tillage
and direct seeding in unpuddled
situations
Farmers participated
approach or availability
of paddy trans planter,
custom hire services for
raising nursery
Work will be
undertaken in phases
Improvement in soil health
conditions less water use and
more economic
2. Green
manuring
Storage of
summer moong
and sesbania
seed
Introduction of paddy
transplanter under zero tillage
and direct seeding in unpuddled
situations
Farmers participated
approach, KVK and
farmers
Whole basmati area and
50 % coarse rice will be
undertaken
-do3. Decline in soil
organic carbon
Coarse textured
with high pH
excess
puddling, low
moisture &
high
temperature
By introducing summer moong
enhanced use of FYM, green
manuring, promote 50 % area
under basmati rice, use of leaf
colour chart for slow release
fertilizer
Long terms trials to
study organic carbon
status
Maximum area will
brought
Improved organic contents
4 Decline water
table
More area
under summer
rice,
transplanting
before the
onset of
monsoon
continuous
flooding, pan
information
and percolation
of water
Avoid early transplanting and
introduction of mechanical
transplanting
Both type of research
of farm at farmers
fields are required
Entire district. Improvement in water table.
28
Sr.
no.
Gap Existing
problems
Possible solutions Approach Approximate area to be
covered
Sustainability outputs
5 I P M Heavy losses
due to attack of
diseases &
insects
Seed treatment, timely sowing,
selection of varieties
management of water, balance
dose of fertilizer, clean
cultivation and judicious use of
pesticides
I P M campaign will be
launched, seminar,
camps, and gosthies
would be organized as
well as demonstrations
arranged
Organized in selected
villages in phase
Less disease insect pest
attack, more yield better
quality, less environment
pollution, low input cost
sustainable land use &more
benefits
C. Diversification
1 Reduced
biodiversity
due to large
area under
mono culture
without
legumes
Highly risk
crops, more
disease pests or
highly yielding
varieties than
those of pulses
Develop alternate strategy to
introduce summer moong in the
multiple land use system
Out source variety of
moong, will suited in
rice & wheat system
15 -20 percent area will
be brought
Improvement in soil health
&water use efficiency
2 Inter cropping
of sugarcane &
maize with
other crops
Lack of
mechanical
crops
establishment
Use of bed planter will facilities
inter crop with vegetables
Farmer participatory
approach
More area will be
brought under autumn
planting &inter
cropping
Conservation of resources
&more benefits with less
costs
D Water management
1. Reduce water
use efficiency
Poor rain and
irrigation water
management
poor land
leveling etc.
Shifting transplanting to mid
June, Introduction of Zero
tillage, bed planting, laser land
leveling & manuring
Demonstration, devl. &
research
Whole district. Saving in water improved
water efficiency & better
water nutrients interaction
2. Drainage
congestion
Low lying area,
excessive rain
water, absence
of water
conservation
measuring
Introduce surface or sub surface
drainage device seedling
techniques under relatively wet
situation and dev. Varieties
which can tolerate high
moisture
Research on bio –tech.
for developing varieties
& more research on soil
& water engineering
Water logged of
Ambala 1& 2
Better use of water and other
natural resources
29
Closing the gaps for realising the vision
Activity output matrix
Issues Programs Activities Collaborations Cost
Seed
production
1. Seed planning
2. Seed treatment
Participatory selection of improved
variety at farmers field.
2 motivating. Farmers to produce
the seed of best variety
3. Surveying the yield performance
of varieties/hybrids in each crop.
4. Presenting data of best
performed variety.
5. Deleting varieties/hybrids with
low yields in any current season.
6. Mandatory testing of new
variety hybrids through KVK’s.
1 Chemical treatment and
.non-chemical treatment
2 Capacity building resource
person/extension
agencies/seed companies
3 FARMERS
DDA’s for serial no. 1 2,
and 5
KVK’s for 3, 4.
Data for all activities will
be presented in the officers
workshop
DDA
DDA/HSDC
• 50 ha *per year will be
undertaken
(50x5x5000=12,50,00
0).
• Monitoring 50,000 per
crop.
(50,000x2x5=5,00,00
0)
1158 lakh for Detail Table
18 & 19
30
Issues Programs Activities Collaborations Cost
2. RCT
(i) Zerotillage
Environmental (Carbon sequestration,
soil fertility gains etc.) and economic
benefits (saving in labor, diesel,
machinery wear and tear etc) will be
catalogued and calculated. Zero till
technology will be extended to wheat in
other cropping system and other crops
including rice, sorghum, maize and
pulses.
Assemble district level data and use
them for bio-physical and socio –
economic characterization using GIS.
Evaluate the concept for ecological
intensification of cereal systems.
Improve agronomic efficiency of
nutrients.
Improve recovery efficiency of
nitrogen
Improve crop water productivity and
irrigation water productivity for a
system as a whole
Improve biological activity in the
soil.
Reduce energy budget for rice-wheat
cropping system.
The rate of soil organic matter (increase
and anticipated environmental benefit
including improved soil fertility, soil
structure and reduced leaching of N will
be targeted)
Monitoring of farms where farmers
have practiced zero-tillage for
more than five years. (10 ha)
KVKs & Scientist from main
campus/research station.
KVKs & Scientist from main
campus/research station.
DDAs & KVK
KVK
DDA
Demonstration and long
term trials will be laid out
by KVKs at farmer’s field.
DDAs will ensure visit of
farmers at demonstration
sites.
1600 lakh (Table 16, 17)
Demonstration
10x5x5000= 2.5 lacs
Exposure visit = 2.5 lacs
Zerotillage Machine 30 x
25000x5 = 37.5 Lakh 50%
Subsidy of 37.5/2 = 18.75
(Table 25)
31
Issues Programs Activities Collaborations Cost
(ii) Bed
Planting
Technical and financial constraints
will be studied to arrive at
impediments that stand in the way of
adoption of bed planting.
New scientific knowledge of its
success in water log situation will be
evaluated.
System level integration through
multiple land use will be evaluated
and accelerated to get full benefit
from this technology.
This system will follow different
pathways for system-level changes
leading to ecological intensification
through inter-cropping.
Will target, high yields, high profits
and high resource efficiency (water,
energy, nutrients, labour through
improved management solutions).
Permanent raised bed system would
be evaluated to arrest rate of ground
water decline due to less use of
ground water.
Switching from rice-wheat cropping
system to multiple land use system with
sugarcane, vegetables, maize will be
evaluated for their potential for less use
of ground water.
Dual purpose virtues of technology
will be demonstrated in intercropping based system approach
through University and State
department.(10ha)
KVKs & DDAs
Bed Planter
50x50000= 25 lacs
50 units with 50% subsidy
on machines to be bought
by the farmers.
50x25000= 12.5 lacs
32
Issues Programs Activities Collaborations Cost
(iii) Direct
Seeding
(iv)
Alternate
Wetting &
Drying
(v) Laser –
Leveling
Direct seeded rice, direct seeding by
zero-tillage machine, direct seeding by
drum seeder under wet situation. Green
manuring immediately after wheat
harvest, brown manuring by retaining
residues and then seeding with machine,
use of hybrids under direct seeded rice,
decrease in maturity period, saving in
water. Direct seeding will alleviate labour
problem, will save water. The purpose of
this sub-programme is to develop
strengthen based and farmers driven
direct seeded technology in basmati rice.
Effect of switching from fluid to alternate
wetting and drying method of irrigation
for crop establishment on reduction in
water use without effecting the
productivity will be accessed.
Laser land leveling for water saving, land
saving and improve yields in rice, wheat
and sugarcane.
The improvement in the productivity of
crops
KVKs will lay out demonstrations
on basmati rice. Demonstrations
include direct seeding dry seeded
and direct seeding wet seeded. Dry
seeding will be done by machine
while wet seeding will be done by
drum. (4 ha)
DDAs will lay out demonstrations
on coarse rice in each block. DDAs
will also record data on water
saving. The yield penalty if any
will be recorded while recording
data on yield.
DDAs will organize and monitor
the distribution of laser leveler
specially on custom hire services.
Data on water saving and yield will
be recorded. The data will be
discussed in joint meeting of KVK
and DDAs. The presentation of
data finalized in the meeting will
be made by DDAs.
DDAs and KVKs
Ten per cent area will be
covered.
HSDC/DDAs/HAFED/HL
RDC
DDA/KVK
KVKs & DDAs will
jointly lay out
demonstrations in ten
hectares
Demons 30x5x5000 = 7.5
Lacs (Table 26 & 8)
50x5x10000 = 25 Lacs
(Table 8)
50x5x3000 = 7.5 Lacs
(Table 8)
33
Issues
(vi)Green
manuring
(vii) Sum
mer moong
Programs
Improvement in the soil health.
To ensure timely transplanting of rice and
to sustain the productivity of summer
moong, the sowing should be preferred
up to 20th April.
1.To Protect the Environment
2 To Avoid the degradation of soil.
3. To Protect the beneficial flora and
fauna.
4. To avoid loss of property and human
life.
Activities
DDAs will also ensure the
exposure visit of farmers on sites
already demonstrated by KVKs.
Two way subsidy may be given
farmers who are using custom hire
services, may be given subsidy on
the charges on hour basis. The
service provider can be given
subsidy if it is passed on to the user
farmers.
DDAs will ensure the timely
availability of dhaincha seed at
75% subsidy. 50 per cent area will
be covered during the plan period
of five years.
DDAs and KVKs
Collaborations
Agricultural Economist at
KVKs or group of KVKs
and concerned agronomist
will prepare the data sheet
on the profitability on
different groups of
varieties. Incentives on
quantity of water saved or
enhanced water
productivity will be
suggested.
DDAs will demonstrate and
KVKs will collect yield
data on successful
demonstrations.
Cost
50 units x3.6 lac = 5.40
Lacs
540/2 = 270 lacs (50%
subsidy) (Table 20)
Demonstration
20 ha x5x5000=5 lacs
(Table 8)
34
viii) Avoid
Stubbles
Burning
Deficit irrigation increase water use
efficiency.
Keeping 40-50 per cent area under
basmati rice.
Testing of high yielding basmati
varieties.
Salinity/sodicity stress mitigation at
farmers’ fields
DDAs will ensure the acceleration
of the technology and timely
availability of treated seed. The
suitability of variety to be ensured
through KVKs.
Seed producing farmers may also
be given incentives. Farmers
producing summer moong for
commercial purpose may be given
incentive in the form of MSP and
guaranteed procurement.
Farmers Community will be
educated through holding
seminars/lecturers/gosthis etc.
Deficit irrigation for 15 days in
July or August will be tested for
coarse rice.
Economics of basmati rice in
favour of farmers will be ensured
through technological interventions
and policy frame work.
D.D.A.
D.D.A. & K.V.K.
D.D.A. & K.V.K.
KVKs & DDAs will jointly
lay out demonstrations in
ten Hectares
-----
-----
Please See Table 23
Please See Table 24
20x5000x5= 5.0 lacs
Table 9
35
3. Water
manageme
nt (Depleting
and rising
water table)
Water logging and secondary
salinization
Water harvesting and recharging
Watershed development in rainfed
areas
Utilization of brackish water.
Varieties for traditional basmati for
yield improvement. The price
incentive of a multiple of 1.6 for
traditional basmati and 0.6 for
coarse rice compared to prevailing
price of evolved basmati rice in the
region.
Green manuring and gypsum use.
Tolerant varieties.
Bio-drainage through tree
plantation.
Construction of water harvesting
structures.
Sprinkler/drip irrigation after
creating facility of community
ponds.
Alternate/conjunctive use of water.
Subsidy on gypsum and its
availability will be ensured.
Tolerant varieties like
CSR-30 will be evaluated
with other candidate
varieties.
ASCO and DDAs will
ensure the characterization
of water logged areas and
plantation of useful tree
species.
DDAs/concerned
departments in consultation
with KVKs
DDAs/concerned
departments in consultation
with KVKs
DDAs/concerned
2 lacs x 5 = 10 lacs for
survey
40x1000x5 = 20 lacs
Table 10
36
4. Site
specific
nutrient
management
Ground water testing for nitrate and
sulphate contamination.
Number of split application and timing of
top dress N with reference to irrigation
Bio-fertilizers
Survey of marked sites for nitrate
and sulphate contamination
Characterisation of nitrate and
sulphate contaminated areas.
The project will identify, test and
promote intervention for the
sustainable rice-wheat cropping
system through site specific
nutrient management.
Fertilizer recommendation will be
based on the principles of SSNM.
SSNM will include yield gap
analysis, guidelines for regional
protocol.
departments in consultation
with KVKs
State level designated lab at
Karnal may be
strengthened . Another lab
may be established at
Rewari. (DDAs)
Special provisions need to
be made for creating
regional level designated
labs for quantifying micronutrients deficiencies.
(DDAs)
Existing fertilizer use will
be quantified on the basis
of farmer’s field survey.
The ratio of NPK and
quantity of each
components currently use
by farmers will be
compared with
recommended practices a t
farmer’s field. The data
will be presented in
officer’s workshop for
further research and/or
recommendation. (DDAs)
20x 5000x5 = 5 lacs
(Table 10)
37
5. IPM
6 IWM
Management of bakane disease (Foot rot
disease) through nursery management.
Management of Sheath blight through
clean cultivation.
Management of blast in basmati rice
Management of false smut in paddy
Management of leaf folder, stem borer
and white backed plant hopper (WBPH)
Biological control of pests in sugarcane.
Agronomic management of borers in
sugarcane.
Integrated soil and crop
management for rehabilitation of
pulse production in rice-wheat
cropping system.
Surface residue management for
improving soil health.
Improving the efficiency of
nutrient utilization.
DDAs will demonstrate the
recommended technologies at
farmers field
DDAs will organize farmer’s field
schools.
KVKs will suggest tolerant
varieties.
By adjustment of planting dates
-------------Do---------------
DDAs will ensure quality
seed of important pulses for
Kharif and Rabi seasons.
The university will ensure
recommendation of
varieties tolerant to various
types of biotic and abiotic
stresses.
Happy seeders and other
machineries for uniform
distribution of residue will
be ensured by DDAs.
Residue retention
machinery, second
generation machinery,
precision and no-till
farming for crops and
cropping system.
DDAs
KVKs
DDAs
KVKs and research
scientists
20x5000x5=5lakh
Table 10
Farm machinery
50 lacs
Demonstration
38
7. Timely
seeding of
wheat
Quantification, characterization and
management of resistance of key pests
against insecticides in vegetables.
Diversification of wheat varieties against
rusts.
Management of wheat aphids
Spraying techniques for improving
efficiency of herbicides.
Monitoring of herbicide resistance.
Strengthening of bio-control lab.
Strengthening of quality of
pesticide lab of state department.
Demonstration of candidate
varieties at farmer’s field.
Survey & demonstrations
Demonstrations
Survey and demonstrations
Research, extension and
development agencies should
jointly approach in a farmers’
participatory approach for each of
possible solution. Evaluating and
refining the technology for a range
of stubbles, developing guidelines
for achieving good establishment
with residue retention, efficient use
of N fertilizer.
KVKs
DDAs
DDAs/KVKs
DDAs/KVKs
DDAs
DDAs/KVKs
10 ha x 5x 5000 = 2.5 lac
(Table 22)
10000 ha x 250x5 = 125
lacs
10 field’s schools x 5
x50000 = 25 lacs.
50 lacs
Please See in Table 11
10ha x5x5000= 2.5 lacs
39
Delayed harvesting of Basmati rice,
availability of irrigation, excess/untimely
rains
Zero tillage, short duration varieties of
rice, reduced duration of Basmati rice,
direct seeding of Basmati, regulation of
canal irrigation water supply
The technology meet to be further
developed for other cropping
systems and other crops.
Testing of novel seeders in
preparation for its
commercialization e.g. Happy
seeders.
50000x5= 2.5 lacs
50000x5=2.5 lacs
50 ha x 5x5000 = 12.5 lac
50000x5= 2.5 lacs
for surveys
10hax5x5000 = 2.5 lacs
For demonstrations
Table 13
8. Rice Introduction of hybrid for both coarse
and basmati rice.
Fertilizer management in hybrid to avoid
lodging and incidence of pest and
diseases
Mechanical transplanting to avoid labor
problem
DDA”s KVK’s and concerned
scientists from research will help
in accelerating the adoption of
hybrids or competing varieties of
coarse rice and basmati. Revise the
recommendation of fertilizer use
for achieving target yields.
Accelerated adoption of paddy
transplanted and direct-seeds rice.
DDA’s and KVK’s will
jointly demonstrate the
virtues of new technologies
under the leadership of
KVK scientists.
Linkage and synergies with
private sector will be
developed for outsourcing
hybrid seeds and/or
developing MOU for seed
20 ha x 5x5000 = 50 Lacs
20 has x 5000x5= 50 Lacs
50 hax 10000x5 = 25 Lacs
(Direct Seeded rice) Table
8)
40
DDA’s will facilities
demonstrations on six nice areas
proposed in coloumn2
production by securing
parent lines.
10 Paddy transplatner =
20 Lac.
50000x5 =2.5 Lac for
survey and monitoring
(Table 13)
9.
Sugarcane
Late planting after wheat harvesting,
lacs of mechanized planting, lacs of
varieties in early group
Less use of potash
DDAs will facilitate autumn
planting of whole sugarcane area
planted after wheat harvesting
facilitate intercropping of Rabi
crops with autumn sugarcane using
baed planting, testing of early
varieties through KVKs and
sugarmil
DDAs cane commissioner,
sugar mills and KVKss
20 ha x 20000 x 5 = 20
Lacs
50% subsidy on bed
planter 50x25000 = 12.5
lacs (Table 14, 26)
10. Other
crops sunFlower
Quality seeds of sunflower hybrid Linkages and synergies with
private sector will be developed for
availability of hybrid seed of
sunflower
DDAs will ensure the
available of quality seeds
of sunflower hybrid
20 ha x 5000x5 = 5 Lacs.
Table 15
41
4.11 Recommended interventions for the district with detailed action Plan with costs.
As discussed in table. 6 (yield gap analysis) the following interventions are required
to bridge the technological gaps for enhanced productivity.
4.11.1 Varietal improvement:
To increase the productivity of rice and sunflower, the testing of different hybrids is
essential to develop the suitable package of practices for further dissemination. For this
purpose trainings and demonstrations will be conducted at farmers fields. This will include
the linkages and synergies with the public sector private sector, NGO’s cooperatives. The
technology will be outsourced wherever needed.
4.11.2 Resource Conservation Technology
Agriculture is entering a new transformation phase to ensure that past gains of
conventional technology can be sustained and further, enhanced to feed the growing
population. Productivity stagnation, deteriorating soil heath and depleting water resources are
the present day concerns of attention. Conservation agriculture has come up a new paradigm
to maintain ecological equilibrium for cost effective regenerative processes like no-tillage,
water and energy saving, nutrient recycling, soil regeneration and protection of natural
enemies of pest and diseases. Such resource conservation technologies (RCTs) have proved
boon to the farmers practiced in the district through farmers participatory approach.
(B) Laser levelers for land leveling :
The water table in the district is going downward approximately 30 cm every year.
The farmers participatory research has shown that use of laser leveler saves 25-30% water,
increases grain yield by 15-20%, increase in area by 3-5% alongwith others invisible
advantages. Thus this technology needs popularization.
(C) Bed planting
Sowing of wheat with bed planter exhibits yield advantage and 21-24% higher water
42
use efficiency. Thus the scarce available water can be efficiently converted into enhanced
output. There are only one bed planters associated with public sector which is are not
sufficient even to demonstrate the technology.
(D) Green manuring with sesbania:
The organic matter status of soil is decreasing and atleast 0.4 per cent organic matter
must be maintained to harvest good crop yields. Therefore, recycling of biological matter is
of utmost importance and green manuing during summer in rice-wheat cropping system
needs to be popularized.
(E) Bringing more area under summer moongbean:
Ground water resource is continuously depleting in Brara and Shajadpur Block that
has been declared as dark zone. Mungbean will provide value addition to rice-wheat cropping
system. Further the productivity of rice improves grown after moongbean.
4.12 Projected outcome and growth rate during the plan period:
The projected outcome of the proposed interventions given at Sr. No. 4.11 can be
assessed by the logical framework matrix (LFM) .
4.13 Research Issues
(i) Development of varieties and hybrids of different crops.
(ii) Strong linkages and synergies with private sector for hybrid development
including outsourcing.
(iii) Technology for recharging of under ground water resource.
(iv) Suitable strategies for IPM.
(v) Herbicide resistance in wheat.
4.14 Integrated pest management (IPM)
The insect, disease and weeds spectra are becoming wide over the years due to spread
43
of non-recommended private sector crop hybrids prone to various biotic stress. Secondly, the
indiscriminate use of non branded pesticides are creating the multifarious problems like
resistance development against pests and environmental as well as ecological hazards. These
issues needs to be addressed through IPM strategies to reduce the pesticide load on crops.
4.15 Integrated nutrient management (INM)
The soil health is towards a declining trend ultimately affecting the productivity of
different crops. The status of organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and sulfur
indicates the imbalances of nutrients which need to be replenished for this purpose.
Integrated nutrient management is essential to harvest production potentials of different
crops.
Table 7 Proposal for Seed Planning
Description 2007-08 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-20012 Total
50 Demons @
Rs. 5000 per
demons
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 12.5
Monitoring 2
Crops @ Rs.
50,000
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
44
TABLE 8 PROPOSAL OR DEMONS ON R.C.T.
Description 2007-08 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 201120012
Total
Demons Trial
of Zero tillage
in 20 Ha @
Rs. 5000 per
ha.
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Exposure
Visit
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Demons on
Bed Planting
30 ha @ Rs.
5000
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 7.50
50 Demons on
Direct Seeded
@ of Rs.
10000 per Ha
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.00
50 Demons on
Alternate
wetting and
drying @ Rs.
3000/ Demons
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 7.50
20 Demons
Laser leveling
@ Rs. 5000
Per Ha.
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Total Rs. In
Lac
10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 55.00
Table 9 PROPOSAL FOR WATER MANAGEMENT DEMONS
Description 2007-08 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 201120012
Total
20 Demons of
Deficit
Irrigation, use
of problematic
water, by
drainages @
Rs. 5000 per
Demons
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
45
Table 10 PROPOSAL for SSNM
40 Demons on
SSNM @ Rs.
10000 per
Demons
4.0 4.0 4.0 4. 4.0 20.00
20 Demons on
bioFertilizer @
Rs. 5000 per
Demons
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Table 11 PROPOSAL for IWM
20 Demons
on Spraying
techniques @
Rs. 5000 per
demons
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
4000 Spray
Booms fo r
each year@
Rs. 250/- .
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
Survey &
Demons on
herbi cide
resistance
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Table 12 PROPOSAL for Extension activities on timely spraying of Wheet
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Campaign,
Camp
Hoarding
posters,
gosthis &
Field days
etc.
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.00
46
Table 13 PROPOSAL for Demons on hybrid rice and transplanter
20 Demons on
hybrid rice @
Rs. 5000 per
Demons
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
20 Demons on
Mechanical
Transplanter @
Rs. 5000 per
Ha 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
Two Paddy
Transplanter @
Rs. 2 Lac per
Paddy
Transplanter
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 20.00
Table 14 PROPOSAL for Demons on SugarCane
20 Demons on
Planting
Techniques @
Rs. 20000 per
Demons
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 20.00
20 Demons on
Nutrient
management
@ Rs. 20000
Per Demons
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 20.00
Survey of
Insect Pest and
biological
control
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.00
Table 15 PROPOSAL for Demons on Sun flower
20 Demons on
hybrid
sunflower
popularization
@ Rs. 5000 per
Demons
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.00
47
Table 16 Seed and Seed treatment chemical requirement
Crop Area Ha Seed Requirement
Tonnes)
Chemical Required for
seed treatment (Kg/Ltr.)
Wheat 85000 8500 Raxil 8500 Kg.
Paddy 72000 720 Emisan 1800 Kg.
Streptocycline 180 Kg.
Sugar cane 15000 1350 Emisan 22000 Kg.
Chloropyriphos – 75000
Ltr.
Table 17 PROPOSAL for Seed Treatment (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 20072008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
2010-
2011
2011-
2012
Total
Paddy 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
Wheat 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0 450.00
Sugger Cane 220.0 220.0 220.0 220.0 220.0 1100.00
Table 18 PROPOSAL for Seed Replacement Strategy
Crop Area Requirement
in 20072008
Replacement
Ratio (%)
Requirement
as per R.R.
2008-2009
2009-2010 2010-
2011
2011-2012
Wheat 85000
Ha 85000 8500 (10%) 17000
(20%)
25500
(30%)
34000
(40%)
42500
(50%)
Paddy 72000
Ha 72000 7200 (10%) 14400
(20%)
21600
(30%)
28800
(40%)
36000
(50%
Sugar
Cane
15000
Ha 15000 1500 (10%) 3000(20%) 4500(30%)( 6000
(40%)
7500(50%)
48
Table 19PROPOSAL for Seed Replacement in wheat & paddy (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 20072008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
2010-
2011
2011-
2012
Total
Seed
Replacement
wheat (Qt)
8500 17000 25500 34000 42500 127500
Subsidy @
25% of seed
cost @ Rs.
1600/ Qt
34.0 68.0 102.0 136.0 170.0 510.00
Seed
Replacement
paddy
7200 14400 21600 28800 36000 108000
Subsidy @
25% of seed
cost @
2400/qt
43.2 86.4 129.6 172.8 216.0 648.00
Table 20 PROPOSAL for Land Levelling through laser leveler (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Machine
required (No)
50 40 30 20 10 150
Present Cost
@ Rs. 3.6
Lace per
machine
180 144 108 72 36 540
Subsidy @
50% per
laveller
90 72 54 36 18 270
49
Table 21 Proposal for INM demons
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Cerels 20 30 40 50 60 200
Cost demons
@ Rs. 5000
each
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 10.00
Sugar Cane 10 15 20 25 30 100
Cost Demons
@ Rs. 10000
per Demons
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 10.00
Vegetable
crops demons
20 25 30 35 50 150
Cost Demons
@ Rs. 5000
per demons
1.0 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.5 8.0
Table 22 Proposal for IPM Demons
Description 20072008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
2010-
2011
2011-
2012
Total
Paddy 20 30 40 50 60 200
Cost Demons
@ Rs. 5000 Per
Demons
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 10.00
Sugar Cane 10 20 30 40 50 150.00
Cost Demons
@ Rs. 10000
per Demons
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 15.00
10 Field School
@ Rs. 50000
per schools
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.00
Establishment
of Plant clinical
lab at KVK
-- 5.0 5.00
50
Table 23 Proposal for Green manuring through Dhaincha
Description 20072008
2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Area Per Ha 7000 10000 13000 15000 25000 70000
Seed
Requirement
@ Rs. 30 Kg.
Per Ha (Qt)
2100 3000 3900 4500 7500 21000
Financial
Assistance
Required @
Rs. 1500 per
Qt.
31.5 45.0 58.5 67.5 112.5 315.00
Table 24 Proposal for Summer Moong
Description 20072008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
2010-
2011
2011-
2012
Total
Area Ha 500 1000 2000 2500 3000 9000.00
Seed
Required @
25 Kg. Per Ha
(QT)
12.5 25.0 50.0 62.5 75.0 225.00
Cost of Seed
@ Rs. 500 per
Qt. (Lacs)
12.50 25.0 50.0 62.50 75.0 225.0
Subsidy
Required @
50%
6.25 12.5 25.0 31.25 37.5 112.5
Table 25 Proposal for Zero Tillage Machine (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
No. of Zero
Tillage
Required
30 30 30 30 30 150.00
Cost @ of Rs.
25000
7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 37.5
Subsidy @
50%
3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 18.75
51
Table 26 Roposal for Bed Planter (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
No. of Bed
Planter
Required
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
Cost @ Rs.
50000 Per
Plannter
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.00
Subsidy
Required @
50%
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 12.5
30 Demons
on Bed
Planting @
Rs. 5000 per
Demons
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 7.5
Table 27 Proposal for Capacity Building of Agriculture Staff (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Training of
Agriculture
Staff (No)
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
No. of
Trainees 25
per Training
250 250 250 250 250 1250
Cost per
training @
Rs. 600 per
training per
day
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 7.5
Table 28 Proposal for Capacity building of Agriculture farmer (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Training of
Farmer (No)
30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 150.00
No of
Trainees 30
per training
900 900 900 900 900 4500
Cost of
Training @ of
Rs. 400 per
farmer per
day
3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 18.0
52
Table 45. Projected Out Come and growth rate during the Plan Period (Horticulture & Vegs) (Area - ha, Production – Q/ ha,
Productivity --- Q/Ha.)
Sr.
No.
Name of
Crop
Normal 2004-05 to 200607
2007-08(Projected) 2008-09(Projected) 2009- 10 (Projected) 2010-11 (Projected)
1. Horticulture
crops
A
re a (A
)
Pr od uc tio
n (P
)
Pr od uc tiv
ity
(Y
)
A
P Y
A
P Y
A
P Y
A
P Y
1. Mango 1012 9614 95 1000 9880 98.8 1050 10762 102.5 1060 11342 107 1080 12096 112
2. Guava 77 770 100 75 780 104 80 864 108 80 896 112 85 994 117
3. Sapota 46 322 70 50 365 75 50 380 76 55 434 79 55 451 82
4. litchi 7 581 83 5 430 86 05 445 89 5 460 92 5 475 95
5. Peach 40 475 125 45 585 130 45 607 135 15 700 140 50 725 145
6. Pear 31 532 190 30 591 127 25 512 205 25 532 213 20 444 222
7. Plums 26 427 178 25 462 185 20 384 192 22 440 200 25 520 208
Total 1350 12850 841 1230 1393 803.8 1275 13954 907.5 1297 14804 943 1320 15705 981
Vegetable
crops
1. Potato 235 52150 190 2850 56145 197 2900 59450 205 2900 61770 213 2950 65490 222
2. Onion 1507 27126 180 1550 29158 188 1550 30225 195 1600 32480 203 1600 33920 212
3.. Tomato 1505 11035 80 1550 12865 83 1500 12900 86 150 13950 90 1500 13950 93
4. Radish 1355 24222 180 1400 26320 188 1400 27300 195 1300 26390 203 1300 27456 2112
5. Carrot 2620 25280 100 2650 27560 104 2650 28620 108 2700 30240 112 2700 31590 117
6. Chillies 940 8192 80 900 7470 83 900 7740 86 850 7650 90 850 7905 93
7. Cauliflower 1735 31385 180 1750 32900 188 1750 34125 795 1800 36540 20.3 1800 38160 212
8. bhindi 2165 12255 60 2100 13125 62.5 2100 13650 65 2120 14416 68 2120 15052 71
9. Brinjal 1485 24760 160 1450 24142 166.5 1450 25085 173 1400 25200 180 1400 25900 185
10. Leafy vegs 2240 14847 90 2000 18800 94 2000 19600 98 1800 1810 101 1800 18900 105
11. Cucurbits 3550 23085 70 3550 25915 73 3550 26980 76 3600 28440 79 3600 29520 82
Total 25910 276682 1350 21750 27440
0
1427 21750 28567
5
1482 2262
0
36410
8
1542 21620 30784
3
3504
53
CHAPTER-V
Allied agriculture Sectors
Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Social Forestry are the allied sectors
important in district development of agriculture.
5.1 Horticulture Development
Horticultural has been identified as potential , agricultural enterprise which provides
option for diversification, enhanced revenues and forward linkages for value addition. The
agro climatic conditions of the district are very much congenial for growing fruit and
vegetable crops. The major fruit crops grown in the district comprising mango, guava,
peach, pear, chiku and citrus produced 12850 tonnes (2006-07) from an area of 1350ha. The
major vegetable crops viz. potato, tomato, carrot, cauliflower, radish, onion, pea, chillies,
brinjal, cucurbits and leafy vegetables in 25910ha produced 276662tonnes (2007-08).
Besides this, spices grown in 449 ha had a production of 2441 tonnes. Floriculture in 100 ha
with the production 330 tonnes of loose flowers and 1.8 lacs sticks of gladiolus. Mushroom is
also an important enterprise grown as 25000 trays with the production of 120 tonnes. The
data on present status of horticultural crops are given in Table 26, 53, 54, 55 and 56. National
Horticulture Mission is being implemented from the year 2004-05 in district Ambala.
54
Table: 30 Area, Production and Yield of Major Horticulture Crops.
S.
N
o. B
lo ck C
ro p Ir rig
at ed %
R
ai nf ed %
To ta l Ir rig
at ed %
R
ai nf ed %
To ta l Ir rig
at ed R
ai nf ed A
ve ra ge 1 Ambala-I 1. Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
130 10 65 22 195 850 10 380 22 1230 6.0 5.8 5.9
2 Ambala-II Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
174 13 35 12 209 1139 13 204 12 1343 6.5 5.8 6.15
3 Saha Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
180 14 30 10 210 1180 14 285 16 1465 6.5 9.5 8.0
4 Barara Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
260 20 60 20 320 1705 20 340 20 2045 6.5 5.6 6.05
5 Shahzadpur Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
385 29 55 19 440 2520 30 300 17 2820 6.5 5.4 5.95
6 Naraingarh Mango
2. Guava
3. Chiku
170 14 50 17 220 1119 13 218 13 1337 6.5 4.35 5.42
55
Table: 31 Area Expansion Plan of Horticulture Crops(Including vegetable crops)
(Area in ha)
Existing Cropping
Pattern(2006-07)
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Crops Area Area Area Area Area Area
Fruit Crop
Mango,
Guava, Chiku
168 75 80 80 75 75
Vegetable
Crop
Potato
2835 2875 2890 2890 2900 2900
Pea 1155 1200 1200 1210 1220 1230
Tomato 1505 1300 1350 1360 1360 1400
Carrot 2620 1510 1700 1800 1800 1900
Cucur Bits 2240 3359 3370 3370 3400 3500
Table 32: Rejuvenation Plan of Horticulture Crops
(Area in ha)
Area brought under
Rejuvenation(2006-07)
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Crops Area Area Area Area Area Area
Mango 40 - 10 10 5 5
Guava 05 - - - - Table 33 Mushroom information 2007-08, District Ambala
Average Mushroom
Production(Trays)
GAP in
yield(Tryas)
Reasons
for
GAP in
yield
S.No. Block No.
of units
Area under
Mushroom
(Trays)
District State FLDs District
level
State
level
1 Ambala
I & II
4 2200 12.8
Kg./Trays
- -NA- Nil Nil 2 Barara 6 2500 12.8
Kg./Trays
- -NA- - - -
3 N./garh 2 2300 12.8
Kg./Trays
- -NA- - - -
56
Table: 34 Proposed Physical and Financial Targets Mushroom for XI Plan
Name of Activity Unit
Cost
(Rs.)
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-
12
Total
Ph y. Fi n. Ph y. Fi n. Ph y. Fi n. Ph y. Fi n. Ph y. Fi n. Ph y. Fi n. Mushroom
Cultivation
Size 14’X10’X9
50500
,, 55
55
00
10
50
50
0
10
50
50
00
10
50
50
00
10
50
50
00
10
50
50
00
Table 35: For Bee keeping
Table 36: For Floriculture: No. Scope in Ambala Distt.
Sustainability issues and gap analysis of Productivity of different allied sectors.
57
Table 36
1. Vegetable
production
Non-availability of high
Quality/ Hybrid seeds
Public/private linkage and synergies
either through direct testing of
existing hyvbrid seeds of private
sector or collaborating with private
sector for development of hybrid
seeds at the university farm
Injurious use of pesticides and the use
of contaminated ground water or
sewage/canal.
Survey of current status of pesticides
uses on vegetables for recommended
or unrecompensed
DHO and University
Regulations regarding
disposal of industrial
waste
DHO may collect
random samples and
outsource the residue
analysis alternate
arrangement.
40 ha x5x10000
= 20 Lacs (Table
39)
2. Fruit
Crops
Provision of nutritional
gardens near/around tube
wells
DHO will ensure the distribution of
five grafted plants to farmers for
plantation on or around the tubewells.
Only one species may be given for
each location to facilitate watch and
ward
DHO 40x50000x5 = 10
Lacs Table 39
3. Farming
system
through
dairy
Given in chapter 5 Animal
husbandry (5.3)
Given in Chapter 5 (5.3.3) DDAH and KVK Please See Table
No. 27
4. Improving
milk
Reduction of calving periodby adopting mineral mixture
Private public linkage and synergies
be created. Retails outlets may also
58
productivity feeding and balanced feeding,
deforming, summer
management, unestrus
management, free hormone
therapy for repeat breeder of
resource poor.
be associated with productivity
improvement through A.I. and natural
services.
DDAHs and KVKs
5. Disease
management
in diary
animals
Diagnostic kits for diseases,
vaccination as regular
feature, survey and
surveillance of diseases and
creation of drug banks for
common ailments.
DDAHs and disease diagnostic labs
to formulate common strategies for
disease forecasting and management.
6. Fisheries Water resources for fisheries,
fish seed, education
Renovation of ponds strengthening of
fish seed farm, fisheries trainings.
DDF Financial/cost
factor See Table
38
7. BeeKeeping
Bee-colonies, honey
extracting, education
Supply of bee colonies, honey
extracting and processing, monitoring
and education
DHO and KVK Please see Table
42
8.
Mushroom
Farming
Unit Establishment Training and Monitoring DHO and KVK Please see Table
43
9 VermiComposting
Unit establishment, earth Construction of units. DHO,DDA and KVK Please See Table
44
59
5.1.1 Constraints analysis in Horticulture
a) Productivity gap
Lack of good quality planting material for propagation of fruit plants and non
availability of varieties and hybrids from public sector, in adequate extension services , poor
management, poor marketing infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, lack of post harvest
management technology and export facilities and obviously natural calamities are some of
the major constraints faced by farmers for fruits, vegetables and floriculture.
Potato is the major vegetable crop facing very low seed replacement rate (below
10%) which is in turn encouraging the spread of seed born diseases resulting in low
productivity.
(b) Research/Extension/Adoption gap :
Lack of improved high yielding disease resistant varieties of vegetable crops namely
potato, onion, tomato , chillies and pea. There is scarce human resource for extension of
horticultural crops. And due to which hindrances in transfer of technology in toto to the
horticultural farmers.
(c) Processing/storage/Marketing gaps :
Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable which cannot be kept for a longer time
without the processing and storage facilities. Such facilities are not sufficient in private and
public sector. Lack of multichamber cold storage facilities for vegetables and fruits in the
district leads to immediate disposal of produce at low prices. There is also a wide gap
between producers and consumers prices of vegetables and fruits and there by middleman
enjoys more profits.
(d) Existing Institutional Mechanisms
Though there is Department of Horticulture engaged in extension of horticulture
technology,yet private sector cold storages, regulated markets are available in towns for
60
disposal of produce. Even though There is need of strengthening the existing system to boost
the horticultural sector in the district.
5.1.2 Interventions recommended for the distt. and proposals for XI plan
a) Availability of good quality Saplings .
b) Seed replacement and major corps.
c) Demonstrations and trainings to bridge the adoption gaps.
d) Awareness regarding proper fertilization.
e) Propagation of micro irrigation system required in horticulture crops.
e) IPM and INM in horticulture crops.
f) Need to encourage income generating enterprises like mushroom, bee-keeping,
vermi-composting etc.
g) Popularization of low cost poly house for vegetable nursery in the district.
i) Need to work on most sustainable combination of Horticulture – agro-forestry
crops.
j) Introduction of Commercially viable medicinal crops.
k) Marketing avenues for horticultural crops.
5.2 Social Forestry
Forests are an integral part of agriculture and play an important role in the
maintenance of ecological balance. Forests meet the basic requirement of fuel and timber.
Agro forestry has been emerged as an important farming system there by helping the farmers
in improving their livelihood. There are 3000ha area under forests in district Ambala
constituting 3.25 % of total geographical area of the distt. And the state govt. has decided to
61
raise it upto 10% by 2010. The main forestry species available for potential areas in the distt.
are poplar, eucalyptus, Kikar, Kadam, Shisham , Khairetc. Most of the social forestry is in
govt. and village panchayat lands of institutions located in the district.
5.2.1 Present status of support services
There is a forest department of Govt. of Haryana in the District. This centre produces
quality seedlings of eucalyptus, high tech clonal eucalyptus planting material and these are
supplied to farmers at reasonable price to boost the forestry in the district. Apart from the
research centre, there are 45 govt nurseries in the district and there are private nurseries also
to supply seedlings of poplar and eucalyptus.
5.2.2 Scope of agro forestry in the district
There is a great scope of poplar plantation due to high demand by the plywood
industry existing in the adjoining district Yamunanagar. The farmers can get better
remuneration on additional income from poplar plantation in agro forestry system as
intercrops like wheat, sugarcane, potato, berseem and other vegetables can be successfully
grown during 4-5 years of plantation.
5.3 Animal Husbandry
5.3.1 Introduction
Livestock is an integral part of farming systems in Haryana and it plays a great socioeconomic role in the state. Good infrastructural facilities with readily available inputs and
good climate, marketing facilities for milk & meat and developing entrepreneurship qualities
in farmers particularly dairy farmers are basic key factors for development of animal
husbandry in the state and Ambala in particular. Per capita availability of milk in state is 660
g per day against recommended 250 g per day by ICMR.
5.3.2 Present Status
As per 18th livestock census 2007 the number of buffaloes, cows, sheep, goats and
62
poultry including broilers& layers are 242177, 69588,17435,6429,709304, district Ambala.
Producing milk 1.52lacs litter , meat 437 tonnes and eggs 776lacs annually.
At present there are 32 Govt. veterinary hospital and 98 govt. veterinary dispensaries
in Ambala district. At present there are 30 veterinary graduates and 78 VLDA serving in
district Ambala.
At present Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ambala is carrying out
following activities and new proposals are also being given alongside.
State Cattle & Buffalo Breeding Programme:
(a) During Year 2007-08 Cow A.I : 24400
Buffalo A.I. : 68000
Proposal for year 2008-09 Cow A.I : 30000
Buffalo A.I. : 80000
Artificial insemination by the way of frozen semen technology is done in veterinary
institutions by veterinary surgeons and paravet (VLDA) which are thoroughly trained.
Moreover refresher teaching at distt. Level and state level (TTI Hisar) is also being carried
out.
Proposal of training is Block level training centres should be created which can
become a platform for training of veterinary graduates in service, paravet staff as well as
farmers so as to update their knowledge and skill.
Top quality bulls of HF Cow Bull, crossbred Bull, Murrah Bull with good pedigree
record are available in three semen banks form where from semen shows are transported in
liquid nitrogen jars to different veterinary institutions so as to make sure that top quality bull
semen is available for each and every dairy farmer for use of its diary animal.
Doorstep A.I. services are being provided to farmers who are presently far off from
63
their nearest veterinary institutions.
Proposal is that on a pattern of every two villages a veterinary institution should be
functional. More vaccines of poultry which presently poultry farmers are purchasing of their
own should be made available.
5.3.3 Strategies for Animal Husbandry in XI plan
Upliftment of BPL families : Proposals
1. Free insurance cover for diary & other livestock for all castes.
2. Free A.I. for dairy animals
3. Interest free loan with higher subsidy.
4. Calf rearing feed free of cost for both cow & buffalo calves.
5. Free hormone therapy for repeat breeder of BPL family livestock.
6. Incentive for each BPL family who produces & maintain a viable calf of by
breeding & rearing.
Infertility Management:
Infertility among dairy animals is causing major loss both to farmers as well as to
state economy.
Proposals
1. Mineral Mixture in adequate quantities for each animal
2. Synchronization of estrous in such animals and then their A.I. after 72 hours.
3. Embryo transfer technology for animals.
4. Treatment of intrauterine infections by way of ecbolics and antibioses.
5. Practically implement successfully & conviently each and every policy of state
govt.
64
Health care Aspects
Free health check, treatment policy is functional and deworming, anti-diarrhoeal,
stomachache, antiseptic dressing, vaccination is being given to each and every farmer free of
cost.
Proposal for supply of following medicines in adequate quantities could prove more
useful and will be a boom for dairy farmers.
(a) Antibiotics as Amoxy doaacillim, Ampiloxaciin, emoflorain, Gentamycin,
Amikacin and third generation cephalosporins are need of hour.
(b) Antibiotic, analgesics and anti-inflamnortory drugs viz Keloprogen, meloxicam,
analgin, nimuslide
(c) Antallergic drugs
(d) Anti-ticks both in solution form to be used as spray and injectbles.
(e) Anti diairhoeal
(f) Boluses correcting ruminal atony & summihol pH.
(g) Phenyl, T.T. oil, antibacterial & antifungal applications
(h) Antiprotozoan drugs.
(i) Bandages, cotton, disposable A.I. gloves.
(j) Post mortem set, surgical instruments
(k) Mineral mixture @ 12 kg per animal (adult) per year.
Vaccinations
At present free H.S. vaccination and FMDV vaccination are done in cattle &
buffaloes and sheep pox, ETV, PPR, R2B, FRDR for various species is done. Proposal is to
get post bite rabies vaccination for each animal affect, in govt. veterinary institution.
Commercial High Tech Dairy of 20 milch animals
Ten lacs for advanced high teach dairy commercial with 1.5 lac subsidy.
Generation of employment.
65
1. By way of establishment of mini dairy units, of 2 MA(Milch Animals),, 3MA,
5MA, 10 MA , 20 MA.
2. Training of farmers in poultry field for establishment of poultry units.
3. Training of farmers for sheep, & piggery units.
4. Training of farmers for processing and marketing techniques of milk & meat
products.
5.3.4 Other Schemes in Operation
1. Supply of pedigree bulls to Gram Panchayats at subsidized rates
2. Murrah incentive money programme
3. Calf rearing scheme
4. Sheep unit scheme
5. Piggery unit scheme
6. Mini dairy scheme for widows, S/C case at higher subsidies.
7. S/C insurance: free livestock insurance of S/C farmer dairy animals.
8. Organization of calf rallies
9. Organization of livestock shows
10. Organization of health care camps
11. Women awareness camp: 1 camp per village per year should be held.
66
Table: 37 Expenditure/layout plan proposed for next five year plan is as follows
Sr.No. Particular 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2001-12 Total
1. Artificial insemination
proposed
No. of AI Cow
No. of AI Buff
30000
80000
33000
85000
36000
90000
39000
95000
138000
350000
2. Proposed expenditure on
AI*
COW
Buffalo
30 lacs
80 lacs
32 lacs
85 lacs
35 lacs
90 lacs
40 lacs
95 lacs
137 Lacs
350 lacs
3. Health care aspect proposed
expenditure
300 lacs 325 lacs 350 lacs 375 lacs 1350 lacs
4. Vaccination expenditure
(proposed)
150 lacs 165 lacs 175 lacs 190 lacs 680 lacs
5. Upliftment of B.P.L
families
10 lacs 15 lacs 20 lacs 25 lacs 70 lacs
6. Infertility management 150 lacs 165 lacs 175 lacs 190 lacs 680 lacs
7. Commercial
Dairy of 200 milch animals
15
165 lacs
20
220 lacs
25
275 lacs
30
330 lacs
90
990 lacs
8. Generation of employment 25 lacs 30 lacs 35 lacs 40 lacs 130 lacs
9. Others 50 lacs 60 lacs 70 lacs 80 lacs 260 lacs.
Total 960.00 1097.00 1225.00 1365.00 4647.00
* Artificial Insemination per animal @ Rs. 100/6 Fisheries development
6.1 Introduction and present status
The fish cultivation in the district Ambala is done mainly in village community
panchayat ponds spread in an area of 385 ha. The fish production during the year 2006-07
was 1330 tonnes.
6.2 Development of Fisheries Water Resources:
The fisheries is mainly in the village ponds/community ponds in the district. About
67
385 hectares water spread area of the community ponds are available in the district, out of
which 320 hectares are covered under fish farming. The remaining water area can be covered
under fisheries after technically renovation of the village ponds.
It is a fact that there are multidisciplinary uses of the community ponds in the villages
apart form the fish farming. But unfortunately, these ponds are shrinking year by year
because of silting, pollution, water-weeds and mainly illegal encroachment etc. So,
technically renovation of village ponds is a need based activity which not only promote the
fisheries but also generates the employment, income resources for panchayats, develop a
common water resources/infrastructure for domestic uses/welfare for the people, harvest the
excess rain water and recharge the water table etc. 25 hectare water area can be renovated
every year @ 2.0 lakh per hectare.
6.3 Strengthening of National Fish and Seed Programme
It is assumed that 0.6 ha. of hatchery can produced 20 lacs fingerlings and about 40lacs
fingerlings are required for 1 ha. To meet out the increasing demand of quality fish seed
(Fry, fingerlings, advance fingerlings), it is necessary to have fish seed farm. For this, the
hatchery capacity can be improved with the latest technology. Apart from the improvement
of Hatchery, other main infrastructure of the farm e.i. nursery ponds seed rearing ponds can
be improved to increase their productivity. The maintenance of the seed farm and other
important inputs infrastructure i.e., machinery, equipments, & tools, of latest technology is
very important part of any seed farm to maintain and increase the production capacity of the
seed farm. So these infrastructure at fish seed farm is need based for production of fisheries
and welfare of fish farmers community.
6.4 Establishment of Fish seed farm/units by Fish Farmers :
Some fish farmers may be motivated to establish their own fish seed Hatchery/fish
seed rearing farms to meet out the increasing demand of Fish Seed especially
fingerlings/advance fingerlings. So a project can be prepared to make establishment of two
fish seed rearing hatcheries every year by the farmers in the district. For this, financial and
technical assistance will be provided to the fish seed producers @ 50% portion of the total
68
cost of the project. Training, demonstration/exposure visit etc. will be arranged for fish seed
growers as technical assistance.
6.5 Financial Assistance to the Fish Farmers:
Any person who adopt the fish farming for the first time should be assisted financially
as well as technically. So the fish farmers should be assisted financially for arranging the
fishery inputs (feed & fertilizer), machinery & equipments i.e. aeztors fishing nets,
medicines, water pH testing meter etc. All these items should be supplied to the farmers
during fish farming of first year once a time.50% portion of total expenditure on all these
items can be provided as subsidy to the farmers. Fish seed should be supplied free of cost
during first year.
6.7 Fisheries Education, Training & Extension:
It has a very important role in technical profession like fisheries on the other hand,
fisheries is somehow a new subject though Ambala is a vegetarian area of the country.
Therefore, it need more work in the field of fisheries extension. So, trainings at various level,
demonstrations, exposure visits, Kisan gosthies etc. will be arranged to popularize the fish
farming among the people and to transfer the technology to the fish farmers for increasing
productivity .
69
Table 38: Projected Outlay for Fisheries Development during XI Plan
(Rs.in lakh)
A) Budget required in the existing schemes
Year Total Remarks Sl.
No Name of the
Schemes 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
1. Development of
fisheries water
resources
50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 100 370.00 25 Hect. Water
area will be
renovated per year
@ Rs.2.00
lakh/hect cost may
increase after
two year
2. Strengthening of
National fish
seed Dev.
Program
20.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 30.00 125.00 To increase
hatchery capacity,
maintenance of
well equipped fish
seed farm
3. Establishment
of fish and
farm/units by
fish farmers
15.00 20.00 20.00 25.00 25.00 100.00 Two units every
year will be
established & fully
equipped
5 lakh each (@
50% portion)
4. Financial
assistance to the
fish farmers
20.00 20.00 25.00 25.00 30.00 120.00 25 hect. Water
area will be
assisted every
year @ Rs. 1.00
lakh/hect
5. Fisheries
education,
training and
extension
10.00 15.00 20.00 20.00 25.00 90.00
G.Total 115.00 135.00 160.00 180.00 210.00 800
70
Table 39 Proposal for Demons on Hort & Veg Crops (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Hort. Demons 40 40 40 40 40 200.00
Funds
Required @
Rs. 0.1 Lacs
Per Ha
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 20.00
Vegetable
Demons
40 40 40 40 40 200.00
Funds
Required @
Rs. 0.05 Lacs
Per Ha
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.00
Table 40 PROPOSAL for Capacity Building Horticultural staff (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Training of
Hort. Staff
(No)
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.00
No. of
Trainees 15
per training
75 75 75 75 75 300.00
Cost per
training @
Rs. 600 per
training
0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 2.25
Table 41 Proposal for Capcity Building of Hort. Farmer (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
Number 5 5 5 5 5 25.00
Number of
Trainees 25
per training
125 125 125 125 125 625.00
Cost Per
training @
Rs. 400 Per
trainee per
day
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5
71
Table 42 Proposal for Bee Keeping Training (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
No. of
Trainings for
3 days
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.00
25 Trainees
per training
50 50 50 50 50 250.00
Cost per
trainee @ Rs.
600 per
training per
day
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.5
No of Unit
Establish
10 10 10 10 10 50.00
Cost of Unit
Established
@ Rs. 25000
per unit
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 12.5
Table 43 Proposal for Mushroom Training (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
No. of
Training two
for Five days
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.00
No. of
Trainees 25
per training
50 50 50 50 50 250
Cost of
Training @
Rs. 1000 per
trainees for 5
days
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5
No. of Units
to be
established
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
Cost @ Rs. 1
Lac Per Unit
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 50.00
72
Table 44 PROPOSAL for Vermi compost (Rs. in Lacs)
Description 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total
No. of
trainings for 3
days
2 2 2 2 2 10
No of
Trainees 25
Per Training
50 50 50 50 50 250
Cost of
Training @
Rs. 600 per
trainee per
day for 3 days
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.5
No. of units to
be established
25 35 40 50 50 200
Financial
Help @ Rs.
20000 per
unit
5.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 40.00
73
Table 45. Projected Out Come and growth rate during the Plan Period (Horticulture & Vegs (Area - ha, Production – Q/ ha,
Productivity --- Q/Ha.)
Sr.
No.
Name of
Crop
Normal 2004-05 to
2006-07
2007-08(Projected) 2008-09(Projected) 2009- 10 (Projected) 2010-11 (Projected)
1. Horticulture
crops
A
re a (A
)
Pr od uc tio
n (P
)
Pr od uc tiv
ity
(
Y
)
A
P Y
A
P Y
A
P Y
A
P Y
1. Mango 1012 9614 95 1000 9880 98.8 1050 10762 102.5 1060 11342 107 1080 12096 112
2. Guava 77 770 100 75 780 104 80 864 108 80 896 112 85 994 117
3. Sapota 46 322 70 50 365 75 50 380 76 55 434 79 55 451 82
4. litchi 7 581 83 5 430 86 05 445 89 5 460 92 5 475 95
5. Peach 40 475 125 45 585 130 45 607 135 15 700 140 50 725 145
6. Pear 31 532 190 30 591 127 25 512 205 25 532 213 20 444 222
7. Plums 26 427 178 25 462 185 20 384 192 22 440 200 25 520 208
Total 1350 12850 841 1230 1393 803.8 1275 13954 907.5 1297 14804 943 1320 15705 981
Vegetable
crops
1. Potato 235 52150 190 2850 56145 197 2900 59450 205 2900 61770 213 2950 65490 222
2. Onion 1507 27126 180 1550 29158 188 1550 30225 195 1600 32480 203 1600 33920 212
3.. Tomato 1505 11035 80 1550 12865 83 1500 12900 86 150 13950 90 1500 13950 93
4. Radish 1355 24222 180 1400 26320 188 1400 27300 195 1300 26390 203 1300 27456 2112
5. Carrot 2620 25280 100 2650 27560 104 2650 28620 108 2700 30240 112 2700 31590 117
74
Sr.
No.
Name of
Crop
Normal 2004-05 to
2006-07
2007-08(Projected) 2008-09(Projected) 2009- 10 (Projected) 2010-11 (Projected)
6. Chillies 940 8192 80 900 7470 83 900 7740 86 850 7650 90 850 7905 93
7. Cauliflower 1735 31385 180 1750 32900 188 1750 34125 795 1800 36540 20.3 1800 38160 212
8. bhindi 2165 12255 60 2100 13125 62.5 2100 13650 65 2120 14416 68 2120 15052 71
9. Brinjal 1485 24760 160 1450 24142 166.5 1450 25085 173 1400 25200 180 1400 25900 185
10. Leafy vegs 2240 14847 90 2000 18800 94 2000 19600 98 1800 1810 101 1800 18900 105
11. Cucurbits 3550 23085 70 3550 25915 73 3550 26980 76 3600 28440 79 3600 29520 82
Total 25910 27668
2
1350 21750 27440
0
1427 21750 28567
5
1482 22620 36410
8
1542 21620 307843 3504
75
CHAPTER-VI
District Plan
6.1 Introduction
The proposed district plan includes agriculture, horticulture, forestry, animal
husbandry and fisheries as the major activities undertaken in the district Ambala. The
existing status of these sectors have been issued in detail in the preceding chapters with the
proposed outlays for XI plan.
6.2 Growth drivers
The targets will be achieved using different growth drivers in agriculture and allied
sectors as follows:
6.2.1 Agriculture
a) Increasing area under hybrids in rice, improved varieties in wheat and sugarcane and
high yielding hybrids in sunflower.
b) Adoption of resource conservation technologies at large scale.
c) Mechanization for increasing water use efficiency.
d) Increasing seed replacement rate.
e) IPM, INM and IWM.
f) Enrichment of technical know how through demonstration , training and farmer
participatory approach.
g) Human resource development.
h) Promotion of Agro Processing Industries.
76
6.2.2. Horticulture
a) Availability of good quality saplings.
b) Awareness regarding proper fertilization in orchards.
c) Need to work on most sustainable combination of Horticulture – Agro forestry
crops.
d) rejuvenation of neglecting and old orchards with yielding varieties.
e) Introduction of commercially viable medicinal corps.
f) Marketing Avenues for Horticultural Crops .
g) Development of Eco-friendly IPM strategies for major horticulture corps.
6.2.3 Forestry:
a) Increasing area under forests through plantation in community lands.
b) Free supply of forest plants for creating interest in forestry.
c) Increasing area under value added forestry trees.
6.2.4. Animal Husbandry :
a) Establishing new Govt. Veterinary Hospitals and dispensaries for easy access to
livestock farmers.
b) Encouraging artificial insemination (A.I.) for breed improvement and ultimately milk
yield per animal per unit time.
c) Health care services by providing medicines and free health check camps in villages.
d) Enhancing vaccination programmes to escape the animals from seasonal diseases.
77
e) Infertility management by supply mineral mixture in adequate quaintly for livestock.
f) Establishing commercial dairy farming for income and employment generation.
g) Supply seed of forage crops to provide fodder round the year.
6.2.5 Fisheries :
a) Development of water resources for fisheries.
b) Making availability of good quality fish seed by strengthening the existing fish seed
farm in district.
c) Encouraging fish farmers for fish seed production to meet the requirement.
d) Promoting assistance to farmers in the beginning of fisheries as an enterprise.
e) Education and training to farmers and human resource development of technical staff
of fisheries department.
6.3 Innovative Schemes:
6.3.1 Agriculture
A) Improving irrigation efficiency
B) Linkages and synergies with private as well as public sector for hybrids development
and proliferation in rice and sunflower.
C) Resource conservation technologies including green manuring with dhaincha, sowing
of wheat with zero till seed cum fertilizer drill, laser leveling, bed planting.
D) Multiple land use techniques by infusing summer moong in rice-wheat cropping
system
D) IPM, INM and IWM.
78
E) Demonstrations, trainings and farmer field schools.
F) Integrating live stock with croup cultivation .
G) Strengthing of Extension services for affecting transmission of technologies .
H) More emphases on refinement and standardization of technologies such as direct
seeded Paddy , soil reclamation , sugarcane planting etc.
F) Mechanization
The labour is becoming scarce and for timely farm operations the farmers are
using various types of farm machinery but due to heavy prices of these second
generation machines there is need to provide subsidy on farm machinery. (Table 45)
79
Table 46: Tools Utilized for improving Crop Production
Proposed area under crop production tools(ha) Name
of crop
Area
under
crop(ha)
Type of
crop
production
tools
Area
under crop
production
tools(ha)
2007-
08
2008-
09
2009-
10
2010-
11
2011-
12
Name of the
Persistence
technology
Reason of
shortfalls of
technology
Remedies
suggested for
adoption of
technology
Remarks
85000 Rotavator 10000 10000 1000 2000 2500 3000 Sowing,
Ploughing &
Planting
Not within
reach of
common
farmer
Intial cost of
cultivation is
heavy
Deptt.
may
provide
subsidy
Bed
Planter
- 25 50 100 150 200 Ploughing,
Bed making
Heavy h.p.
machinery is
needed
- Deptt.
may
provide
subsidy
Zero
Tillage
60000 22000 25000 27000 29000 30000 Sowing &
Ploghing
Within the
reach of
common
farmer
- Deptt.
may
provide
subsidy
Wheat
Land
leveller
- - 50 70 100 125 Level the field Not within
reach of
common
farmer
-
78000 Paddy
transplater
- - - 5 10 15 Demonstration
Direct or
seed drill
- - - 5 10 15 Demonstration
Paddy
Bed
Planter
- - - 5 10 15 Demonstration
80
Proposed area under crop production tools(ha) Name
of crop
Area
under
crop(ha)
Type of
crop
production
tools
Area
under crop
production
tools(ha)
2007-
08
2008-
09
2009-
10
2010-
11
2011-
12
Name of the
Persistence
technology
Reason of
shortfalls of
technology
Remedies
suggested for
adoption of
technology
Remarks
16000 Pit
Method
5000 2000 2200 2500 2700 3000 Heavy
labour and
intial cost
expensive
Requirement
of technology
S.Cane
S.Cane
Planter
- - 10 15 20 25 Erratic Rust
85000
&
78000
Reaper
cum
binder
65000 1500 11000 12500 13500 15000 Harvesing
and bundle
making
Intial cost
high
Availabiltity
not easy
Wheat
&
Paddy
Straw
reaper
20000 500 500 650 700 800 Making of
straw after
harvesting
by combine
-do- -do- Govt.
provides
subsidy
81
6.3.2. Horticulture:
a) Production and availability of good quality samplings.
b) Micro-irrigation in fruit crops
c) Mushroom, bee keeping, vermin composting and low cost poly house.
d) IPM and INM
e) Demonstration, trainings and farmer field schools.
f) Seed replacement rate of major vegetables crops.
g) Improvement in marketing infrastructure
h) Encouragement of value added food products.
6.3.3. Forestry :
a) Plantation of valued added
b) Strengthening of forest nursery
c) Agro-forestry for multiple land use
d) Demonstrations and trainings.
6.3.4. Animal Husbandry :
a) Upgradation and promotion of indigenous breeds
b) Artificial insemination
c) Mineral mixture for improving fertility of animals.
d) Commercial dairying
82
e) Vaccination
f) Increasing area under fodder crops.
g) Human resource development of staff.
h) Establishing new hospitals
6.3.5. Fisheries :
a) Renovation of community ponds
b) Fish seed production
c) Training and extension activities for farmers.
d) Human resource development of staff.
6.4 Vision of XI Plan
6.4.1 Agriculture
Increasing productivity of major crops by increasing area under hybrids of rice and
sunflower, improved varieties of wheat and sugarcane while adopting resource conservation
techniques (sowing of wheat with zero drill, bed planting, laser leveling, green manuring) for
saving water resource and improvement of soil health and encouraging multiple land use
(summer moong) by increasing cropping intensity and intercropping.
6.4.2 Horticulture
Promoting fruit, vegetable and floriculture crops and increasing their productivity by
providing good quality planting material of fruit crops and seed for vegetable crops.
Increasing optimal use of irrigation water introducing micro-irrigation in fruit crops and
production of pesticides residue free fruits and vegetable popularizing IPM and INM,
establishment of valued added food processing units in the district will also excel rate the
83
viability of horticultural crops and provide employment to the youth of the district.
Encouraging rural youth for income generating vocations like mushroom, bee- keeping,
vermi- composting and nursery raising in low cost poly house.
6.4.3. Forestry
Providing environmental safety through afforestation and increasing income by
introducing agro-forestry for multiple land use and efficient utilization of resources.
6.4.4. Animal Husbandry
Increasing milk availability per capita per unit time through improving animal
breeding and animal health by decreasing infertility and providing mineral mixture and green
fodder round the year.
6.4.5 Fisheries
Increasing fish production through spread in community ponds by providing
sufficient fish seed and increasing income of Gram Panchayats by proper use of community
ponds creating employment avenues.
6.5 Financial Proposals for XI plan in Agriculture and Allied Sectors.
6.5.1 Financial Proposals for XI plan in Agriculture
Table 47 : Financial outlays for different crops in XI Plan
Crops Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Wheat 5350
Rice 678.0
Sugarcane 50.0
Sunflower 5.0
Total 1268.0
84
Table 48 : Financial outlays for Resource Conservation Technologies in XI Plan
RCTs Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Zero Tillage 18.75
Bed Planter 20.0
Laser Leveler 810.0
Direct seeding of rice 25.0
Alternate wetting and drying in rice 7.5
Green manuring 315.0
Summer moong 112.5
Total 1308.75
Table 49: Financial outlays for different management activities(crops) in XI Plan
Activities Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Intgrated Nutrient Management(INM) 28.0
Intgrated Pest Management(IPM) 52.0
Intgrated Weed Management(IWM) 60.0
Water Management 5.0
Total 145.0
Table 50 : Financial outlays for different other activities(crops) in XI Plan
Activities Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Seed Planning 17.5
Seed Treatment 1600.0
Mechanization 52.5
Capacity Building 29.8
Exposure Visits 25.0
Total 1724.8
6.5.2 Financial Proposals for XI plan in Horticulture
Table 51 : Financial outlays for different horticulture crops and subsidiary
occupations in XI Plan
Crops/Activities Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Vegetable crops 10.0
Fruit crops 20.0
Mushroom 52.5
Bee-keeping 14.0
Vermi-composting 41.5
Total 138.0
85
6.5.3 Proposals ofAnimal Husbandry for XI Plan
Table 52 : Financial outlays for Animal Husbandry in XI Plan
Activities Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Artificial Insemination(A.I.) 487.00
Health care aspects 1350.00
Vaccination 680.00
Infertility management 680.00
Upliftment of BPL families 70.00
Commercial dairying 990.00
Employment generation 130.00
Others(Fodder crops and capacity building) 260.00
Total 4647.00
6.5.4 Projected Outlay for Fisheries Development during XI Plan
Table 53 : Financial outlays for Fisheries in XI Plan
Activities Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Development of
fisheries water
resources
370.00 25 Hect. Water
area will be
renovated per year
@ Rs.2.00
lakh/hect cost may
increase after
two year
Strengthening of
National fish
seed Dev. Program
125.00 To increase
hatchery capacity,
maintenance of
well equipped fish
seed farm
Establishment
of fish and farm/units
by fish farmers
100.00 Two units every
year will be
established & fully
equipped
5 lakh each (@
50% portion)
86
Financial assistance
to the fish farmers
125.00 25 hect. Water
area will be
assisted every
year @ Rs. 1.00
lakh/hect
Fisheries education,
training and extension
90.00
Total 800.00
6.5.5 Proposal for XI Plan for forestry in the district
Table 54 : Financial outlays for Forestry in XI Plan
Activity Fin. (Rs. in lacs )
Free supply of plants to farmers 35.00
Agro forestry 2.50
Total 37.50
SUMMARY OF PROPOSALS FOR XI PLAN IN AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED
SECTORS
Table 55 : Financial outlays for Agriculture and allied sectors in XI Plan
Activity Fin. (Rs. In lacs )
Agriculture 4473.0
Horticulture 30.0
Animal Husbandry 4647.00
Fisheries 800
Forestry 37.50
Allied Enterprises 108.0
Capacity Building 30.25
Exposure Visit & Monitoring 30.0
Total 10155.75
87
Table 56 Consolidated Plan of Distt. Ambala (Rs. in Lacs)
Budget Proposed 20072008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
2010-
2011
2011-
2012
Total
Agriculture 840.45 825.9 881.85 924.05 1000.75 4473.00
Animal
Husbandry
--- 960.00 1097.00 1225.00 1365.00 4647.00
Fishery 115.00 135.0 160.0 180.0 210.0 800.00
Horticulture 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 20.00
Vegetables 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.00
Capacity Building 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 30.25
Exposure Visit
Monitoring &
Evaluation
6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 30.00
Allied Enterprises
a. Bee
Keeping
b. Mushroom
c. Vermi
composting
2.8
10.5
5.3
2.8
10.5
7.3
2.8
10.5
8.3
2.8
10.5
10.3
2.8
10.5
10.3
14.0
52.5
41.5
Miscellaneous 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 37.50
G. Total 999.6 1967.05 2186.00 2378.20 2624.90 10155.75
88
Conclusion
Agriculture is the core sector of Ambala Distt. Econmic with nearly 92% of the geographical
area under plough with a cropping intensity of 154.2% . Rice & wheat cropping system plays
a vital role in the food grain production and along accounts for 86% area in district. Green
revolution varieties contributed to a significant increase in productivity of both rice and
wheat. The productivity gain achieved in post green revolution era through adoption of high
yielding varieties and technology mission programmes has seemed to be plateaued. The
damaging nature of Rice-wheat cropping system led to the second generation problems
related to soil productivity, herbicides resistance, reduced water use efficiency in the system
as a whole have become a major issue. Continued decline in water tables calls for
augmentation of the existing water supplies through rain water harvest and demand
management. There is a feasibility of support higher percent of rice-wheat by reducing
irrigation and increasing water use efficiency by farm mechanization. Further intensification
in agriculture is there fore imperative through technological intervention followed up with
appropriate extension service so as to increase productivity and maintain production in line
with population growth in a sustainable manner. The increase target of eleventh five year
plan could be not only by the greater adoption of efficient higher technology level in all
cropping system. This would required large scale arability machinery for land leveling (Laser
land leveler) tillage (especially Zero tillage machine, bed planter, paddy transplanter etc. it is
also expected that more land will be available on lease and farmers there for would need
more machinery for saving labour and increasing the efficiency on inputs . Goal is to increase
productivity at 4% per year, reduce water consumption by 10% in each cropping system,
energy consumption by 10%. Saving in energy consumption is expected to reduce the
associated carbon dioxide emission for clean healthy environment.
High productivity model would required more pesticides, or hybrids, technologies
requiring more inputs or G.M. Crop. The pesticides residue or risk associated with the
development of resistance in pests or weeds need to be monitored regularly. IPM, IWM,
INM models need to be used friendly. Resistant vars. GM crops and biological control will
define the agents of IPM in the next generation and it is here the role of biotechnology
comes. Labour oriented components will have to be less adopted as the labour in near future
89
is scarce and costly and this will demand still more mechanization for sowing harvesting,
storage and processing.
The farmers have become important competitors in all sorts of agricultural produce,
from cereal to milk, mushroom, honey, vegs. & even fisheries and it has been fully envisaged
that most of the farming family can not drive their income solely from crop based agriculture
and there is urgent need to identify farm entrepreneurs for improving their living standard by
increasing their farm income. Econmic development of rural people and the state depends
upon w best natural resources are to be used. Knowledge and skills of farmer and extension
agencies help us to understand the farming system better. The way urbanization is happening
in Haryana also calls creation of culture that helps farmers to adopt subsidiary occupations.
Last not the least more and more infrastructure, strong linkages between the allied
department coupled with data center may be strengthened and enriched in any aspect so that
the latest and effective technology may be transfer to the farming community in toto for
sustainable growth & production

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