Trace Metal Pollution From Traffic In Denizli-Turkey During Dry ...

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BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 19, 254-261 (2006)
Trace Metal Pollution From Traffic in Denizli-Turkey During Dry Season1
UMIT DIVRIKLI#,*, DURALI MENDIL†, MUSTAFA TUZEN†, MUSTAFA SOYLAK‡, AND LATIF ELCI#
#Pamukkale University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, 20020, Denizli-Turkey;
†Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250, Tokat-Turkey;
‡Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri-Turkey
Objective To determine the metal contents of date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples in dry season from
Denizli-Turkey for investigation of heavy metal-polluted traffic. Method The levels of iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium,
nickel, chromium, and manganese ions in the leaves of thirty five date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples collected from
various levels of traffic in the streets of Denizli-Turkey were determined by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption
spectrometry. The wet, dry, and microwave digestion procedures for the date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) leaves were compared.
The accuracy of the digestion procedures was checked using a standard reference material (IAEA-336 Lichen, SRM). Results
Microwave digestion procedure for the leaves was preferred because it was more proper with respect to both time and recovery
than dry and wet digestion. The levels of the heavy metal ions investigated were the highest on the samples from high traffic
level. Also correlations between metal levels and traffic volume for all the metals were investigated. Conclusion In the light
of our findings, the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaves are suitable as a biomonitor for atmospheric heavy metal-polluted
traffic. Significant correlations can be obtained between traffic levels and heavy metal concentrations.
Key words: Phoenix dactylifera; Microwave digestion; Atomic absorption spectrometry; Denizli; Turkey
INTRODUCTION
Transition metals are required by plants. Copper,
manganese, and zinc are plant micronutrients. These
elements are essential at low concentrations, but are
toxic at higher levels[1-4]. Lead, cadmium, and
chromium are not natural substances in plant
nutrition. In case of Cd and Pb, toxicity is induced by
mimicking of lighter essential elements in uptake and
biochemical behavior[5-8]. Lead is used in
accumulators, to produce tetraethyl lead, guns,
solders, and X-ray equipment, among other uses.
Lead inhibits biosynthesis and affects the kidneys,
brain cells and liver membrane permeability,
reducing some of their functions. It accumulates in
the body and promotes disturbances such as nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, sweating and, in some cases,
convulsions, coma and death[9]. Lead is a well
documented metal toxicant, exposure to it leads to
many fatal diseases, including the dysfunction of
renal blood and neurological systems[10-12]. Copper is
used in the electrical industries, household, metallic
blends, and pigments. Copper is an essential element
for enzymes, but over a healthy limit it accumulates
in the liver, causing dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea,
transpiration[9].
As a result, the biological monitoring of toxic
and essential metals in biological materials can be an
important approach for the study of influence of
environmental conditions of the human body[13-15].
The main sources of the toxic and essential heavy
metals in the environment are metallurgy industries,
combustion of coal and high traffic density.
Monitoring trace elements to investigate metal
pollution sources is continuously performed for the
cities around world[16-17]. Date Palm (Pheonix
dactylifera) is an important indicator for the
investigation of trace heavy metal ions[18]. Various
works have been performed for the determination of
trace metal pollution from heavy metals after
digestion of the date palm samples. Al-Shayeb[18]
reported that the ability of Phoenix dactylifera
leaflets to retain heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, and
Li) pollutants is compared with the leaves of Nerium
1This work was financially supported by the Units of the Scientific Research Projects of Gaziosmanpasa University, Pamukkale
University and Erciyes University.
*Correspondence should be addressed to Umit DIVRIKLI. E-mail: udivrikli@yahoo.com
Biographical note of the first author: Umit DIVRIKLI, female, born in 1973, Ph. D., majoring in environmental analysis, trace metal
analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, preconcentration techniques, flow injection analysis.
0895-3988/2006
CN 11-2816/Q
Copyright © 2006 by China CDC
254
TRACE METAL POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN DENIZLI
255
oleander. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) has been
tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal
pollution at Antalya, Turkey[19].
Various instrumental methods such as
inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission
spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled
plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), total reflection
x-ray reflection fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF),
isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), neutron
activation analysis (NAA), flame or graphite furnace
atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or GFAAS)
have been used as a determination step for trace
heavy metal ions. The reliability of trace heavy metal
determination in its complex matrices mainly
depends on the dissolution process used. Both the wet
and dry ashing procedures are slow and time
consuming. In recent years, microwave digestion
procedures in closed vessels have been developed as
a rapid and reproducible sample preparation method
for a great variety of complex matrices[20-22].
Denizli lies on the main roads that connect the
regions of Aegean, Central Anatolia, and
Mediterranean Regions of Turkey. Its latitudes are
28.30 and 29.30 whilst the longitudes are 37.12 and
38.12. The City lies 354 m above the sea level. The
highest mountain of the Province, Mount Honaz at
2571, is also the highest mountain in Western
Anatolia. Though located in Aegean Region,
Denizli is not totally affected by the Aegean
climate. Instead, because it is placed on the
transition point between coast line and the inner
parts, Denizli to a certain extent displays a
terrestrial climate. Denizli Province is open to the
winds coming from the sea because of the
perpendicular extension of the mountains. Winter
months are warm and rainy. Denizli is primarily an
agricultural market city with some light industry,
particularly cotton fabric production. Denizli,
according to the census of the year 2000, has a total
population of 850 000. Yearly population growth rate
of the total population is 12.40%. The City of Denizli
has a population increase rate of 20.43 by itself.
In the present work, the levels of some trace
metals in the leaves of date Palm (Pheonix dactylifera)
from Denizli-Turkey were determined by atomic
absorption spectrometry. The correlations between
metal concentrations in the samples and traffic levels
were also investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Reagents
All reagents were of analytical grade unless
otherwise stated. Double deionised water (Milli-Q
Millipore 18.2 MΩ/cm resistivity) was used for all
dilutions. HNO3 and H2O2 were of suprapure quality
(E. Merck, Darmstadt). All the plastic and glasswares
were cleaned by soaking in 10% diluted HNO3 and
rinsed with distilled water prior to use. The element
standard solutions used for calibration were prepared
by diluting stock solutions of 1000 mg/L of each
element from Sigma. The standard reference material
used in the experimental studies was a Lichen
standard reference material (IAEA-336 Lichen).
Apparatus
A Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 700 atomic absorption
spectrometer equipped with a HGA graphite furnace
and a deuterium background corrector was used. For
flame measurements, a 10 cm long slot-burner head,
a lamp and an air-acetylene flame were used. For
graphite furnace measurements, argon was used as
inert gas. The operating parameters for working
elements were set as recommended by the
manufacturer (Table 1). Pyrolytic-coated graphite
tubes (Perkin Elmer part no. B3 001264) with a
platform were used. Samples were injected into the
graphite furnace using Perkin Elmer AS-800 autosampler.
The atomic absorption signal was measured as a peak
height mode against an analytical curve.
Sampling
The leaves of date palm (Pheonix dactylifera)
were collected in various stations from May 2003 to
July 2003 in the dry season of the Denizli City. Each
sampling point is given in Fig. 1. Total number of the
samples was 37. Sampling sites were divided into
four groups as C: control samples, A: low traffic
volume, O: moderate traffic volume, Y: high traffic
volume.
In each sampling site, leaves were detached from
the date palms. Surface dust from leaves was
removed by first washing the freshly collected leaves
with running distilled water. Leaves were then dried
overnight at 110℃ and ground with a blender to a
size less than 1.0 mm. The crushed dried samples
were stored in a labelled plastic bag for further analyses.
Digestion Procedures
Three different types of digestion procedures
were applied to digestion of the leaves of the date
palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples: dry, wet, and
microwave digestions. The procedures were given
below.
a- Dry Ashing
One gram of date palm sample was placed into a
high form porcelain crucible. The furnace temperature
DIVRIKLI ET AL.
256
FIG. 1. The sample locations in the map of Denizli.
was slowly increased from room temperature to 450℃
in one hour. The samples were ashed for about 8 h
until a white or grey ash residue was obtained. The
residue was dissolved in 5 mL of HNO3 (25% v/v)
and the mixture, when necessary, was heated slowly
to dissolve the residue. The solution was transferred
to 10 mL volumetric flask and made up to volume. A
blank digest was also carried out in the same way.
b- Wet Ashing
Wet digestion of palm samples was performed
using an oxi-acidic mixture of HNO3 : H2O2 (2:1) (12
mL for 1.0 g sample). This mixture was heated until
dryness for 4 h and brought to a volume of 10 mL
with deionized water. Blank digestions were also
carried out in the same way.
c- Microwave Digestion
One gram of sample was digested with 6 mL of
HNO3 (65%) and 2 mL of H2O2 (30%) in microwave
digestion system and diluted to 10 mL with deionized
water. A blank digest was carried out in the same way.
All sample solutions were clear. Digestion conditions
for microwave system were applied as 2 min for 250
W, 2 min for 0 W, 6 min for 250 W, 5 min for 400 W,
8 min for 550 W, vent: 8 min, respectively.
Analytical Procedure
Detection limit was defined as the concentration
corresponding to three times the standard deviation of
ten blanks. Detection limit values of elements as
milligram per liter in flame AAS were found to be
0.004 for Cu, 0.005 for Zn, 0.008 for Fe. Pb, Cd, Cr,
Ni, and Mn were below detection limit of flame AAS.
These elements were determined using graphite
furnace AAS by an autosampler. During analyses,
internal argon flow rate through the graphite tube was
250 mL/min; gas flow was interrupted during
atomization. Sample volume, ramp and hold times for
the drying, ashing, atomization and cleaning
temperatures were optimized before analysis to
obtain maximum absorbance and minimum
background. Matrix modifiers were added 200 µg
NH4H2PO4 for Pb, 15 µg Pd + 10 µg Mg (NO3)2 for
Cd and 50 µg Mg(NO3)2 for Ni, Mn, and Cr. Most of
the matrix was removed before the atomization step
and less interference occurred during atomization.
Each graphite furnace atomic absorption
spectroscopic analysis called for 20 µL of solution
and 5-10 µL of the matrix modifier was added if
necessary. The signals were measured as peak height.
The absolute sensitivity was defined by the mass of
an element, which gave a peak absorbance of 0.0044.
It was 0.5 pg for Cd, 3.0 pg for Cr, 13 pg for Ni, 2.0
pg for Mn and 10 pg for Pb.
Statistical Analysis
The whole data were subjected to a statistical
analysis and correlation matrices were produced to
examine the inter-relationships between the
investigated heavy metal concentrations of the
samples. Student’s t-test was employed to estimate
the significance of values.
RESULTS
In the beginning of the work, the procedures
were checked by recovery studies. The recovery
values were nearly quantitative for all digestion
methods. The relative standard deviations were less
than 10% for all investigated elements. T-test was
used in this study (P<0.05). The performances of the
three digestion procedure were compared. For this
TRACE METAL POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN DENIZLI
257
purpose, a sample (A2) was digested by all three
methods. The results are given in Table 2.
In order to compare the results found by dry, wet,
and microwave digestion procedures, IAEA-336
Lichen-reference standard was digested with three
procedures. The results of this study are given in
Table 3. The recovery values of the investigated metal
ions after the dry, wet, and microwave digestions for
IAEA-336 Lichen were quantitative (>95%).
The comparison of dry, wet, and microwave
digestion methods showed no statistically significant
differences in results (Tables 2 and 3). Therefore, the
microwave digestion procedure was chosen for the
samples because of more accurate with respect to
both time and recovery than dry and wet digestion.
The standard deviations of the dry and wet digestion
methods were considerably higher than those of the
microwave digestion method.
Lead, cadmium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc,
chromium and nickel were chosen as representative
trace metals whose levels in the environment
represent a reliable index of environmental pollution.
Heavy metal levels in the analysed date palm samples
are given in Tables 4-6. The mean level of the
investigated metal ions in control, low traffic,
moderate, and high traffic is depicted in Fig. 2. All
heavy metals had the highest levels at the high traffic
level. Also the investigated metals had the lowest
levels at low traffic level except for chromium,
manganese and cadmium. Also the mean levels of the
investigated ions in the two control samples collected
from two parks which have no traffic are depicted in
Fig. 2. The concentrations of the analytes in all
analyzed samples were generally higher than those in
the control samples.
DISCUSSION
The main source of lead from traffic is probably
automobile emissions. The lead contents of the
environmental samples from heavy traffic and car
parks may be due to the exhaust of the old motor
vehicles because of the usage of unleaded petrol on
the automobiles in Turkey. But these low
concentration values of lead in regard to urban cities
show that lead accumulation is not strongly
influenced by traffic. The lead concentration in the
date palm samples was increased with increasing
traffic volume. The highest lead concentration was
found in samples collected from high traffic volume
(Halk Street) as 1.98 µg/g. The lowest lead
concentration was found in samples collected from
low traffic volume (Lozan Street) as 0.22 µg/g. The
mean lead concentrations in samples collected from
low, moderate, and high traffic volumes were 0.54,
FIG. 2. The levels of investigated metal ions as a
function of the traffic level (C: Control
samples, A: Low level traffic, O: Moderate
traffic, Y: High level traffic).
0.83, and 1.17 µg/g, respectively. The mean lead
concentration range in date palm (Pheonix dactylifera)
samples has been reported as 1.99-5.06 µg/g[23]. Aksoy
and Ozturk[19] reported that the lead range of date
palm (Pheonix dactylifera) from Antalya-Turkey is
2.18-24.37 µg/g.
Cadmium is released as combustion products in
the accumulators of motor vehicles or in carburetors.
Cadmium concentration was found in the range of
43.2-188.1 µg/kg in the samples. The mean cadmium
concentration in low and high traffic volumes was
77.2 and 136.3 µg/kg, respectively. Mean level of
cadmium in date palm samples has been reported as
603 µg/kg by Aksoy and Ozturk[19]. The average
cadmium concentration in date palm (Pheonix
dactylifera) samples has been reported as 50-125
µg/kg[24].
The mean copper levels in date palm samples
from low and high traffic volumes were 3.3 µg/g
(number of vehicle/h=158) and 6.5 µg/g (Number of
vehicle/h=575). Copper from traffic comes from
DIVRIKLI ET AL.
258
corrosion of metallic parts of cars. The range of
copper concentration in date palm samples from
Antalya-Turkey is 3.04-5.64 µg/kg [19].
As can be seen in Tables 4-6, the zinc
concentration was in the range of 0.6-3.5 µg/g in low
traffic volume (Bursa Street II) and high traffic
volume (Halk Street), respectively. The level of zinc
in Pheonix dactylifera from Antalya-Turkey was
7.07-14.18 µg/g[19].
The main source of manganese from the traffic
has been reported as tyre wear. Manganese contents
of the samples were in the range of 0.35 µg/g
(Number of vehicle/h=252) and 0.96 µg/g (Number
of vehicle/h=516). The minimum and maximum iron
concentrations in low and high traffic volumes were
1.6 and 9.4 µg/g, respectively (Tables 4-6).
Chromium is an essential nutrient for plant and
animal metabolism. Chromium is a major water
pollutant, usually as a result of some industrial
pollutions including tanning factories, steel works,
industrial electroplating, wood preservation etc. and
artificial fertilizers. At high levels it can cause several
disorders, including lung cancer. Chromium levels in
the samples varied from 0.18 and 0.99 µg/g. Our
values are in agreement with those reported in the
literature[25].
Nickel is also an important pollutant from traffic
and industry. The minimum and maximum nickel
levels are 22.4 µg/kg (Number of vehicle/h=138) and
83.2 µg/kg (Number of vehicle/h=480). The mean
nickel concentrations in date palm samples from low,
moderate and high traffic volumes were 39.4 µg/kg,
45.5 µg/kg, and 62.4 µg/kg.
A linear regression correlation test was
performed to investigate the correlations between
vehicle number and metal concentrations in leaves of
date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples from
Denizli-Turkey. The values of correlation coefficients
are given in Table 7. The correlation between metals
and traffic levels is highly significant according to the
data given (correlation coefficient > ± 0.50) by
Poissant et al [26]. Significant correlations found in the
present study were also noted among all the metals
studied, and may be due to the same source i.e.,
traffic especially automobiles.
TABLE 1
FAAS and GFAAS Analytical Conditions and Heating Program Temperature of Investigated Elements Conditions for FAAS
Element Acetylene (L/min) Air (L/min) Wavelength (nm) Slit Width (nm) Lamp Current (mA)
Fe 2.0 17.0 248.3 0.2 30
Cu 2.0 17.0 324.8 0.7 15
Zn 2.0 17.0 213.9 0.7 15
Conditions for GFAAS
Instrumental Conditions Pb Cd Ni Cr Mn
Argon Flow (mL/min) 250 250 250 250 250
Sample Volume (µL) 20 20 20 20 20
Modifier (µL) 5 10 5 5 5
Heating Program Temperature ℃ (RAMP TIME (S), HOLD TIME (S))
Drying 1 100 (5, 20) 100 (5, 20) 100 (5, 20) 100 (5, 20) 100 (5, 20)
Drying 2 140 (15, 15) 140 (15, 15) 140 (15, 15) 140 (15, 15) 140 (15, 15)
Ashing 700 (10, 20) 850 (10, 20) 1300 (10, 20) 1600 (10, 20) 1200 (10, 20)
Atomization 1800 (0, 5) 1650 (0, 5) 2500 (0, 5) 2500 (0, 5) 2300 (0, 5)
Cleaning 2600 (1, 3) 2600 (1, 3) 2600 (1, 3) 2600 (1, 3) 2600 (1, 3)
TABLE 2
Comparison of Trace Metal Contents in Palm Samples Using Three Different Methods [Cd and Ni (µg/Kg), Others (µg/g) ( )x s± ]
Method Cd Ni Cu Pb Zn Mn Fe Cr
Microwave Digestion 188.1±8.2 66.2±6.1 4.9±0.4 1.62±0.1 1.6±0.1 0.81±0.1 7.2±0.7 0.88±0.1
Wet Digestion 180.4±7.1 60.4±6.2 4.6±0.5 1.55±0.1 1.7±0.1 0.73±0.1 7.9±0.8 0.78±0.1
Dry Ashing 177.5±6.2 63.3±6.1 4.1±0.4 1.49±0.1 1.8±0.2 0.77±0.1 7.5±0.6 0.75±0.1
TRACE METAL POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN DENIZLI
259
TABLE 3
Observed and Certified Values (µg/g) of Elemental Concentrations in SRM (IAEA-336 Lichen) ( )x s±
Observed Values
Certified Value
Dry Ashing Recovery, % Wet Digestion Recovery, % Microwave Digestion Recovery, %
Cd 0.117 0.11±0.01 94 0.11±0.01 96 0.11±0.01 98
Cu 3.55 3.37±0.22 95 3.40±0.28 96 3.50±0.15 99
Mn 64 60±5 94 62±4 97 65±3 102
Pb 5 4.6±0.4 92 4.8±0.3 96 4.9±0.3 98
Zn 31.6 29.7±2.3 94 30.5±2.6 97 30.9±2.8 98
Fe 426a 410±26 96 418±37 98 422±15 99
Cr 1.03a 0.98±0.10 95 0.99±0.10 96 1.04±0.10 101
Note. aNot certified. Each value is the average of three separate digestions.
TABLE 4
Trace Metal Contents in Samples (Cd and Ni (µg/Kg), Others (µg/g)) From the Regions of Low Traffic Volume ( )x s±
Station Vehicle/h Cd Ni Cu Pb Zn Mn Fe Cr
A1 174 56.4±5.4 46.6±3.4 2.1±0.2 0.22±0.02 0.9±0.1 0.43±0.03 3.9±0.3 0.28±0.02
A2 180 79.5±7.6 42.3±3.6 2.1±0.1 0.54±0.05 1.5±0.2 0.47±0.03 1.6±0.1 0.28±0.02
A3 192 87.1±7.8 40.1±3.5 3.8±0.3 0.50±0.05 0.8±0.1 0.63±0.05 2.5±0.4 0.40±0.02
A4 162 66.1±5.6 54.5±4.5 3.7±0.3 0.63±0.05 0.6±0.1 0.58±0.04 2.3±8.4 0.38±0.02
A5 162 90.7±7.8 41.5±3.6 3.6±0.3 0.57±0.05 1.7±0.2 0.50±0.04 3.1±0.5 0.34±0.02
A6 150 73.5±5.6 49.4±4.1 3.1±0.2 0.63±0.05 1.5±0.2 0.62±0.05 3.3±0.3 0.39±0.03
A7 156 95.4±7.5 24.4±2.1 3.3±0.2 0.74±0.06 0.9±0.1 0.69±0.06 3.2±0.2 0.48±0.04
A8 138 67.3±5.6 22.4±1.8 4.0±0.3 0.48±0.04 0.9±0.1 0.53±0.05 2.8±0.1 0.33±0.03
A9 120 85.6±7.2 34.2±3.1 3.0±0.2 0.53±0.04 0.7±0.1 0.48±0.04 3.0±0.2 0.58±0.05
A10 168 85.4±7.8 41.3±3.4 4.0±0.3 0.52±0.04 0.9±0.1 0.52±0.03 3.6±0.5 0.42±0.03
A11 132 62.2±5.4 36.5±2.8 3.6±0.3 0.56±0.04 0.8±0.1 0.56±0.05 2.9±0.2 0.48±0.04
Mean 158 77.2±12.8 39.4±9.7 3.3±0.7 0.54±0.13 1.0±0.4 0.55±0.08 2.9±0.6 0.39±0.09
TABLE 5
Trace Metal Contents in Samples (Cd and Ni (µg/Kg), Others (µg/g)) From The Regions of Moderate Traffic Volume ( )x s±
Station Vehicle/h Cd Ni Cu Pb Zn Mn Fe Cr
O1 300 73.6±5.6 38.5±2.9 4.3±0.1 0.96±0.02 1.6±0.2 0.52±0.04 4.2±0.3 0.19±0.01
O2 330 43.2±4.0 47.3±3.7 2.3±0.2 0.77±0.01 0.9±0.1 0.43±0.03 6.4±0.1 0.24±0.02
O3 312 66.2±6.0 42.3±3.5 4.6±0.1 0.88±0.01 0.9±0.1 0.49±0.04 4.5±0.4 0.20±0.01
O4 240 78.3±5.6 44.4±3.6 3.1±0.3 0.62±0.05 2.5±0.3 0.44±0.04 4.0±0.3 0.38±0.03
O5 270 65.3±5.5 42.3±4.1 4.5±0.2 0.92±0.01 0.9±0.1 0.50±0.04 6.3±9.2 0.28±0.02
O6 288 76.2±6.0 50.3±4.2 3.0±0.2 0.73±0.06 0.9±0.1 0.63±0.05 3.6±0.3 0.62±0.05
O7 360 53.6±5.0 40.2±3.4 2.0±0.1 0.86±0.03 0.7±0.1 0.36±0.03 4.2±0.3 0.20±0.01
O8 288 80.1±7.2 63.5±5.8 4.5±0.4 0.82±0.07 1.8±0.2 0.47±0.04 4.0±0.3 0.60±0.05
O9 252 57.8±5.0 43.1±3.9 3.8±0.3 0.78±0.02 1.6±0.2 0.35±0.03 6.7±0.3 0.18±0.01
O10 270 83.1±7.5 45.4±4.1 5.6±0.1 0.96±0.01 0.8±0.1 0.42±0.03 8.1±0.2 0.36±0.03
O11 264 77.1±6.5 43.6±3.5 2.6±0.2 0.84±0.03 0.8±0.1 0.46±0.04 7.3±0.1 0.18±0.01
Mean 289 68.6±12.6 45.5±6.8 3.7±1.1 0.83±0.10 1.2±0.6 0.46±0.08 5.4±1.6 0.31±0.16
DIVRIKLI ET AL.
260
TABLE 6
Trace Metal Contents in Samples (Cd and Ni (µg/Kg), Others (µg/g)), From the Regions of High Traffic Volume ( )x s±
Station Vehicle/h Cd Ni Cu Pb Zn Mn Fe Cr
Y1 516 96.3±8.6 53.3±4.8 7.4±0.3 0.82±0.08 1.8±0.1 0.96±0.08 6.9±0.6 0.79±0.07
Y2 438 94.3±8.8 72.4±6.6 4.5±0.4 0.64±0.05 1.9±0.1 0.75±0.07 8.8±0.5 0.48±0.04
Y3 510 95.4±9.2 54.1±5.0 5.8±0.5 0.92±0.08 1.9±0.2 0.73±0.06 4.4±0.4 0.89±0.04
Y4 540 175.3±6.4 63.6±5.7 8.5±0.4 0.83±0.07 0.9±0.1 0.81±0.07 8.9±0.3 0.99±0.04
Y5 480 173.1±7.5 83.2±7.6 7.4±0.4 1.68±0.05 1.6±0.3 0.90±0.09 5.6±0.5 0.59±0.05
Y6 480 188.1±8.2 66.2±6.1 4.9±0.4 1.62±0.06 1.6±0.1 0.81±0.07 7.2±0.7 0.88±0.08
Y7 450 182.5±7.6 62.1±5.4 8.4±0.3 0.73±0.06 1.8±0.2 0.94±0.07 4.4±0.4 0.69±0.06
Y8 492 171.4±6.5 54.5±4.5 7.8±0.3 0.86±0.07 2.6±0.3 0.74±0.06 5.3±0.4 0.58±0.05
Y9 522 105.6±9.6 69.2±5.9 4.1±0.4 1.98±0.09 3.5±0.4 0.95±0.08 4.6±0.3 0.86±0.07
Y10 474 125.4±7.4 73.1±6.3 4.5±0.4 1.87±0.07 1.6±0.2 0.90±0.08 8.2±0.4 0.69±0.06
Y11 528 100.1±8.6 66.2±5.4 9.6±0.3 0.93±0.08 0.8±0.04 0.64±0.05 9.4±0.5 0.78±0.07
Y12 480 174.3±5.9 51.8±4.7 4.6±0.3 1.56±0.05 0.8±0.06 0.80±0.06 4.0±0.2 0.79±0.07
Y13 420 90.2±8.1 41.7±3.8 7.0±0.3 0.76±0.06 1.4±0.1 0.82±0.07 4.7±0.4 0.79±0.03
Mean 487 136.1±41.2 62.4±11.1 6.5±1.9 1.17±0.49 1.7±0.7 0.83±0.09 6.3±1.9 0.75±0.14
TABLE 7
Correlation Coefficients Between Investigated Metal Concentrations (r=95%)
Cd Ni Cu Pb Zn Mn Fe Cr
Ni 0.939
Cu 0.973 0.990
Pb 0.838 0.976 0.935
Zn 0.922 1.000 0.986 0.981
Mn 0.500 0.958 0.939 0.756 0.870
Fe 0.617 0.863 -0.776 0.616 0.874 0.520
Cr 0.999 0.909 0.959 0.847 0.899 0.998 0.573
Number of Vehicle 0.866 0.989 0.958 0.997 0.992 0.801 0.928 0.838
In conclusion, as pointed in the literature[17,19,25,27]
and also in the light of our findings, the date palm
(Phoenix dactylifera) leaves are suitable as a
biomonitor for atmospheric heavy metal pollution
from traffic. Significant correlations can be obtained
between traffic levels and heavy metal
concentrations.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful for the financial support
of the Units of the Scientific Research Projects of
Gaziosmanpasa University, Pamukkale University
and Erciyes University.
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(Received April 18, 2005 Accepted October 14, 2005)

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