Trace Element Contents In Plants Growing At Mt. Akdag, Denizli

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Download by: [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UL] Date: 28 March 2017, At: 20:49
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment
ISSN: 1310-2818 (Print) 1314-3530 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tbeq20
Trace Element Contents in Plants Growing at Mt.
Akdag, Denizli
I. Kula, D. Yildiz, Y. Dogan, G. Ay & S. Baslar
To cite this article: I. Kula, D. Yildiz, Y. Dogan, G. Ay & S. Baslar (2010) Trace Element Contents
in Plants Growing at Mt. Akdag, Denizli, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 24:1,
1587-1591, DOI: 10.2478/V10133-010-0010-X
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/V10133-010-0010-X
© 2010 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
Published online: 15 Apr 2014.
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Citing articles: 1 View citing articles
1587Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/1
Article DOi: 10.2478/v10133-010-0010-x A&eB
Keywords: Akdag, biomonitoring, plant, trace element
Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 2010, 24(1), 1587-1591
Introduction
environmental pollution is esthetically offensive and can be a
genuine health hazard to human beings as well as to vegetation
and many horticultural plants (37). heavy metals are a major
source of environmental pollution. the main sources of these
pollutants in the atmosphere are stack and exhaust emissions
in the form of particulate matter from industry, power
stations, domestic heating systems, and motor vehicles (23,
26, 35). Although heavy metals are natural components of the
environment, they are emitted into the environment in different
ways; through natural sources such as continental dust, volcanic
dust and gas, sea spray and biogenic particles or through
anthropogenic inputs i.e. transportation, industry, fossil fuels,
agriculture, and other anthropogenic activities (1). For most of
the toxic trace metals, anthropogenic inputs are more important
than natural sources. Man–induced mobilization of trace metals
into the biosphere has become an important process in the
global geochemical cycling of these elements. this effect is
most evident in urban areas where several stationary and mobile
sources (industrial activities, energy production, construction,
urban waste treatment, vehicle exhausts) release large quantities
of trace metals into the atmosphere, soil and aquatic ecosystems,
very often exceeding the natural emission rates (32).
Biomonitoring provides valuable information about the
quantity and quality of pollutants in the atmosphere. With
biomonitoring, the levels of atmospheric trace metallic
concentrations have been successfully monitored by using
different types of vegetation (6, 16, 17, 28). Various botanical
materials have been used to detect the deposition, accumulation
and distribution of trace metals in the ecosystems (16). it is also an
easy, inexpensive, and practical method of determining air quality
when compared with conventional monitoring methods (11).
Several studies have been carried out in urban and rural
habitats in turkey (6, 8, 12, 16, 19, 21, 30, 32, 36, 37).
the samples collected in some of these studies have used
mountainous areas as control group with the assumption
that these are unpolluted (6, 8, 16, 37). Present investigation
is important in terms of determining heavy metal levels in
mountainous areas which are considered to be free of heavy
metals and therefore taken as reference.
the aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations
of Pb, cd, ni, Zn, Fe and Mn by using plant species from
Akdag Mountain.
Materials and Methods
Sampling area
the study area, Mt. Akdag, is situated in the province of Denizli
(Fig. 1). the peak of the mountain is 2446 m. the province is
developing fast as an industrial province, producing mainly
textile, marble and few other goods. it is on the most important
highways and railways of the country. Rapid urbanization,
increasing number of vehicles on the roads and industrialization
are leading towards an increase in the pollution in this region.
TRACE ELEMENT CONTENTS IN PLANTS GROWING
AT MT. AKDAG, DENIZLI
i. Kula1, D. Yildiz1, Y. Dogan2, G. Ay3, S. Baslar2
1Mugla University, Faculty of Art–Science, Department of chemistry, Mugla, turkey
2Dokuz eylul University, Buca Faculty of education, Department of Biology, izmir, turkey
3celal Bayar University, Faculty of Art–Science, Department of Biology, Manisa, turkey
correspondence to: Yunus Dogan
e-mail: yunus.dogan@deu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted to determine the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in the Akdag Mountain of
Denizli Province. The increase in industrial activities and human population and the high urbanization in Denizli and its environs
have made it one of the rapid developing cities in the Western Anatolian part of Turkey. For this reason, Akdag Mountain of
Denizli was chosen as the study area. Twenty nine different plants were selected to study their potential as biomonitors of trace
elements such as Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn (µg g–1, dry weight). The samples were collected from two different altitudes of
Akdag, a mountain overlooking at Denizli province. The concentrations of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption
spectrometry. The mean concentrations determined at 1000 m altitude ranged from 0.329 to 0.487, 0.011 to 0.882, 0.241 to
0.714, 0.532 to 9.396, and 0.155 to 3.439 (µg g–1, dry weight), for Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn, respectively. At 1600 m altitude, the
values ranged from 0.263 to 0.889, 0.092 to 0.600, 0.272 to 0.834, 1.130 to 8.021 and 0.076 to 0.508 (µg g–1, dry weight) for Pb,
Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn, respectively. No Cd was detected at both altitudes. Statistical significance was determined by the independent
sample t–test. In the independent sample t–test, comparisons were made in order to determine whether there were any differences
between the averages of the herbaceous plants and woody plants.
1588 Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/1
currently, it is second in industrialization and population
density, and first in farming activities in the West Anatolian
part of turkey.
Fig. 1. Geographical location of the study area
the location of the sampling points on steep slopes provides
results that depend on altitude rather than on horizontal
distance (38). the samples were collected from 1000 m and
1600 m above the sea level at a distance of 35-40 km away
from the city center with a negligible traffic and pollution load.
Sample collection and preparation
the plants were collected from 1000 and 1600 m altitudes
during July-August 2006. A total of 29 plant species were
collected: 15 species from 1000 m and 14 species from 1600
m. the taxonomic determination of the plant samples was
carried out according to Davis (13), Davis et al. (14) and Guner
et al. (20).
About 200 g of aboveground parts of bushy species and
well developed leaves of other plants were collected for
analyses. the samples were dried in oven at 80oc for 24 h,
milled in a micro-hammer cutter and fed through a 0.2 mm
sieve. the samples were stored in clean self-sealing plastic
bags under silica gel desiccant. contamination from the microhammer cutter was negligible during the grinding because it
was washed after every grinding, first with absolute alcohol
then with distilled water.
Wet digestion procedure
the method used for plant digestion is described by Perkin
elmer corporation (3). the digested samples were aspirated
into an air-acetylene flame and the metals were determined
by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The
reproducibility of the used method in decomposing the leaf
samples was checked by carrying out a triplicate analysis. All
samples were analyzed immediately after digestion.
Reagents
All chemicals used were of analytical reagent grade unless
otherwise specified. Triple distilled water was used throughout
the experiments. Working metal standard solutions were
prepared just before use, by diluting the stock standard solution
with water.
Instrumentation
Determination of the metals was performed with Perkin elmer
Analyst 700 model flame atomic absorption spectrometer
equipped with deuterium background correction, hollow
cathode lamps (hcl) and acetylene burner. the absorption
measurements of the metals were performed under the
conditions recommended by the manufacturer. A cole-Parmer
microfiltration apparatus with membrane filter (0.45 µm
pore size manufactured by Micro Filtration Systems, MFS)
was used for the filtration of the aqueous phase before metal
determination.
Data analysis
Statistical significance was determined by the independent
sample t–test. in the independent sample t–test, comparisons
were made in order to determine whether there were any
differences between the averages of the herbaceous plants and
woody plants. Differences at P<0.05 were considered to be
significant. A Statistical Package was used in the analysis of
t–test for the data collected.
Results and Discussion
the West Anatolian region is one of the most important
areas for industrialization, population density and traffic in
turkey. therefore, the plants, which are used as biomonitor to
investigate the levels of the trace elements Pb, cd, ni, Zn, Fe
and Mn (µg g–1, dry weight), were sampled with 29 different
species at two different levels of height in the Mt. Akdag.
the concentrations of elements were determined by atomic
absorption spectrometry. the analysis of the samples of 29
different plant species from two altitudes at Mt. Akdag showed
that mean concentrations of Pb, ni, Zn, Fe and Mn determined
at 1000 m altitude ranged from 0.329 to 0.487, 0.011 to 0.882,
0.241 to 0.714, 0.532 to 9.396 and 0.155 to 3.439 (µg g–1, dry
weight), respectively (Table 1). on the other hand, at 1600
m altitude, the values of Pb, ni, Zn, Fe and Mn ranged from
0.263 to 0.889, 0.092 to 0.600, 0.272 to 0.834, 1.130 to 8.021
and 0.076 to 0.508 (µg g–1, dry weight), respectively (Table 2).
no cd value was detected in the samples collected from both
altitudes. According to the osteras et al. (29), cd enters forest
soils via atmospheric deposition, originating from burning of
fossil fuels and mining activities and via spreading of lime and
fertilizers. this could explain the lack pf cd in our study area
because very little fossil fuels are used in the area, and traffic
is negligible.
As it can be seen from Table 1, in the plants collected from
1000 m, ni was highest in Z. mays (0.882 µg g–1), and lowest
in P. brutia (0.011 µg g–1), Zn was highest in P. aurea (0.714 µg
g–1), lowest in P. brutia (0.241 µg g–1), Fe was highest in Z. mays
(9.396 µg g–1), lowest in F. angustifolia subsp. angustifolia
(0.532 µg g–1), Pb highest in F. angustifolia subsp. angustifolia
(0.487 µg g–1), and lowest in Q. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis
1589Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/1
TABLE 1
Trace element contents in plants growing in the Mt. Akdag (µg g–1 dry weight) (1000 m)
Plant Ni Zn Fe Pb Mn
Woody Plants
Quercus infectoria oliver. 0.067 0.615 1.225 0.467 0.204
Pinus brutia ten. 0.011 0.241 0.905 0.384 0.251
Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy) hedge
et Yalt. 0.087 0.602 1.752 0.329 0.155
Quercus cerris l. subsp. cerris 0.041 0.307 1.216 0.340 0.409
Fraxinus angustifolia l. subsp. angustifolia 0.082 0.249 0.532 0.487 0.185
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. azarella (Griseb.) Franco 0.087 0.456 1.244 0.390 0.233
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. azarella (Griseb.) Franco 0.029 0.456 2.085 0.392 0.273
Herbaceous Plants
Pimpinella aurea l. 0.212 0.714 7.590 0.353 0.770
Echium ithalicum l. 0.169 0.293 8.249 0.374 0.432
Silene otites l. 0.638 0.362 8.663 0.396 1.451
Triticum durum l. 0.355 0.408 4.703 0.332 0.376
Centaurea virgata l. 0.450 0.286 8.047 0.447 0.557
Onopordum illyricum l. 0.111 0.578 2.932 0.415 0.217
Picnomon acarna (l.) cass. 0.135 0.519 2.633 0.417 0.171
Zea mays l. 0.882 0.384 9.396 0.385 3.439
Minimal 0.011 0.241 0.532 0.329 0.155
Maximal 0.882 0.714 9.396 0.487 3.439
Mean 0.22±0.06 0.43±0.03 4.07±0.85 0.39±0.01 0.60±0.21
TABLE 2
Trace element contents in plants growing in the Mt. Akdag (µg g–1 dry weight) (1600 m)
Plant Ni Zn Fe Pb Mn
Woody Plants
Quercus cerris l. subsp. cerris 0.105 0,418 1,876 0.320 0.267
Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy) hedge
et Yalt. 0.150 0.587 1.180 0.417 0.210
Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (lamb) holmboe 0.171 0.537 2.022 0.487 0.150
Juniperus foetidissima Willd. 0.406 0.834 7.597 0.426 0.384
Pyrus amigdaliformis l. 0.139 0.278 1.651 0.281 0.184
Herbaceous Plants
Vicia ervilia (l.) Willd. 0.600 0.394 6.872 0.268 0.405
Cistus laurifolius l. 0.107 0.498 2.515 0.372 0.076
Viscum album l. 0.092 0.665 1.130 0.371 0.065
Rosa pulverulenta Bieb. 0.119 0.295 2.496 0.889 0.373
Berberis crataegina Dc. 0.158 0.597 4.196 0.387 0.325
Salvia fruticosa l. 0.501 0.422 6.341 0.276 0.508
Verbascum sp. 0.502 0.272 8.021 0.263 0.261
Hypericum lydium l. 0.144 0.535 1.627 0.373 0.501
Euphorbia stricta l. 0.214 0.413 2.168 0.263 0.282
Minimal 0.092 0.272 1.130 0.263 0.076
Maximal 0.600 0.834 8.021 0.889 0.508
Mean 0.27±0.04 0.48±0.04 3.54±0.67 0.38±0.04 0.28±0.03
1590 Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/1
(0.329 µg g–1) and Mn highest in Z. mays (3.439 µg g–1), lowest
in Q. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis (0,155 µg g–1).
the results from the analysis of trace element values in
plants collected from 1600 m are presented in Table 2. the
table shows that ni is highest in V. ervilia (0.600 µg g–1), lowest
in V. album (0.092 µg g–1), Zn highest in J. foetidissima (0.834
µg g–1), lowest in Verbascum sp. (0.272 µg g–1), Fe highest in
Verbascum sp. (8.021 µg g–1), lowest in V. album (1.130 µg
g–1), Pb highest in R. pulverulenta (0.889 µg g–1), lowest in
Verbascum sp. (0.263 µg g–1), and Mn highest in S. fruticosa
(0.508 µg g–1), lowest in C. laurifolius (0.076 µg g–1).
the accumulation of trace elements in plant parts was
investigated by various researchers in different parts of the
world, as well as in turkey. Some of them are given below for
comparison with our fi ndings: Djingova et al. (15) (Cd: 0.1031.20 µg g–1, Ni: 0.50-4.9 µg g–1, Zn: 7-302 µg g–1, Fe: 100-283
µg g–1, Pb: 0.80-21.30 µg g–1, Mn: 44-405 µg g–1); Baslar et al.
(6) (Ni: 0.88 µg g–1, Fe: 57.28 µg g–1, Pb: 1.4 µg g–1); Dogan
et al. (16) (Ni: 3.56 µg g–1, Fe: 486.35 µg g–1, Pb: 4.59 µg g–1);
Baslar et al. (8) (Cd: 1.7 µg g–1, Zn: 63.4 µg g–1, Fe: 182.6 µg
g–1, Pb: 2.3 µg g–1); and Kapusta et al. (22) (Cd: 6.44 µg g–1, Pb:
5.64 µg g–1, Zn: 304 µg g–1).
Bowen (10) has reported the normal natural concentration
intervals for land plants as Cd: 0.2-2.4 µg g–1, Ni: 1-5 µg g–1,
Zn: 20-400 µg g–1, Fe: 70-700 µg g–1, Pb: 1-13 µg g–1, Mn:
20-700 µg g–1. Comparison of our results with these fi ndings
(Table 1 and 2) clearly show that our results are well below
the accepted range. therefore, the area is clean from the
contamination of heavy metal pollution as regards the trace
elements investigated by us. the level of accumulation that we
obtained from the plant sample is soil oriented.
Different researchers have explained the sources for
accumulation of some other trace elements. For example, Pb
and Zn originate mainly from anthropogenic activities (2, 9,
27). Major anthropogenic sources of ni are burning of coal and
oil, production of cu, ni and Pb, mining operations, steel works
and cement industry (25). loppi et al. (24) have reported that
plants were highly affected from contamination of soil by Fe
and Mn in the Mediterranean climatic zone, although airborne
Mn originates mainly from soil (4, 7, 27), Fe originates both
from anthropogenic and natural sources (27).
it is important to take into consideration that in plants, the
elements Fe, Zn, Mn and ni are considered to be micronutrients
essential for plant growth (31, 34). enrichments of mostly
lithogenic ni and Zn in the top soil and corresponding
depletions in the subsoil were often observed and explained
as a result of nutrient cycling (25). Mn occurs in soils mainly
in the form of compounds of Mn2+ and as oxide-Mn (33).
Guevera et al. (18) reported that there is a strong correlation
between elements abundant in the soil and elements that exist
in plants and those elements in plants may stem from soil.
When the normal trace elements concentration intervals
for land plants and our fi ndings are compared (Table 1 and
Table 2), it is clearly seen that our results are well below the
normal range. therefore, it is thought that the area is clean
from the contamination of heavy metal pollution in respect to
the investigated heavy metals. the level of accumulation that
is obtained from the samples is thought to be soil oriented.
TABLE 3
Statistical analysis values of herbaceous and woody plants
1591Biotechnol. & Biotechnol. eq. 24/2010/1
Baslar et al. (5) obtained the following results in the study
they conducted on honaz, another important mountain of the
area: the mean concentrations that were determined at 1000
m altitude ranged between 0.273 to 0.488, 0.099 to 0.488,
0.306 to 0.682, 1.017 to 3.744, and 0.148 to 0.674 (µg g–1, dry
weight), of Pb, ni, Zn, Fe and Mn, respectively. At 1600 m
altitude, the values ranged between 0.225 to 0.534, 0.150 to
0.842, 0.234 to 0.905, 1.082 to 3.864 and 0.023 to 0.982 (µg
g–1, dry weight) of Pb, ni, Zn, Fe, Pb and Mn, respectively.
no cd was detected at both altitudes. the similarities of the
results obtained from Mt. honaz and Akdag show the validity
and credibility of both studies.
in the statistical analysis, comparison of heavy metal
pollution values of herbaceous and woody plants for ni, Fe
and Mn was meaningful (P<0.05), while it was not for Zn
and Pb (Table 3). When the mean values of heavy metal
pollution in herbaceous and woody plants were compared, the
accumulation was higher in herbaceous plants for ni, Fe and
Mn, where there was a statically meaningful difference.
Conclusions
in this study, the plants, which are used as biomonitor to
investigate the levels of the trace elements cd, ni, Zn, Fe, Pb
and Mn (µg g–1, dry weight), were sampled with 30 different
species at two different levels of height (1000 m and 1600
m) in the Mt. Akdag. the obtained values for trace element
were determined to be below the values obtained from
control samples of other studies carried out in clean areas.
consequently, low element values are thought to be soil
oriented. We are convinced that this study will contribute to
future studies on pollution that will be carried out in the same
locality or similar localities.
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